Venice
November 1665

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1933

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218-230

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'Venice: November 1665', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 34: 1664-1666 (1933), pp. 218-230. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90171 Date accessed: 29 November 2014.


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November 1665

Nov. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
287. Alvise Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Enclosing sheet with particulars.
Paris, the 2nd November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.288. From the Hague, the 29th October, 1665.
According to the news from London they are very busy in getting the sailors to re-embark for the purpose of putting to sea again with 117 ships of war and eight fireships. The fleet of the States is in a place to afford escort to the ships of Smyrna and the Indies, having sent twelve ships of war to bring them back. The fleet is at present at the mouth of the Thames, to try and draw the English to some engagement. If there was not some sign of a battle Mons. de With would have been back many days ago. It is true that we are feeling anxious here about the Smyrna fleet, but we are beginning to feel relieved as the ships are beginning to arrive and orders have been sent to various ports of Norway and elsewhere to cause the India ships to come. They are not at this moment very far from our waters.
There is no hope whatever from the negotiations of the French ambassadors in England. People are amazed here that it is not yet recognised that the English do not want the mediation of France; and they offer every day to treat directly with these states and without outside mediation, and show eagerness with the Dutch ambassador Vandgok.
It is doubted here if the Marquis of Castel Rodrigo has great powers over the Bishop of Munster; but even if he had sufficient to make him withdraw, the war will not end on that account, for as the bishop began the war he will not end it when he wants to. Here they will not rest content with driving him out of this country, but they will want to enter his and reduce him to a state in which he will be unable to insult this republic, which is not so cowardly as to pardon him this bravado.
Astonishment is felt here that there are still those who are incredulous about the French troops crossing the frontiers; but they deceive themselves because the Spanish and Luxemburg troops are not in a condition to oppose the passage of the French, as there are not 1500 men in that province, so the French will pass in safety.
What is said about the ruin of the country, of the losses made with the English, the cessation of trade, after a year, is only too true; but this is not sufficient to bring about peace at any cost, but we wish it made with honour, upon which much might be said.
It may be added that the King of England has pressed the ambassador of the States to have precise orders given him to treat for peace, and he has asked if they will do so. Upon this they are deliberating here about sending some person who under the pretext of treating for the exchange of prisoners will enter more deeply into the business. They are also on the point of concluding with the Elector of Brandenburg. The Smyrna fleet is beginning to arrive in our ports.
[Italian.]
Nov. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
289. Alvise Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
King Charles, not content with having had a talk with the Ambassador Courtin about the offices performed surreptitiously or at least reported, by which he tried to impress on some members of parliament the reasons why they ought not to consent to new grants to continue the present war so destructive to the general interests of the community and the quiet of the kingdom, if not to stir up the unquiet spirits in other ways to disturb the present tranquillity, has again told him plainly that such action is not expected of the minister of an allied prince so joined with this crown, and is even less befitting one who claims noble birth, to which it is utterly repugnant. I have no doubt but that Sig. di Courtin has fully justified himself, but the report is current, as I have said before.
In the mean time at the opening of the session of parliament the Chancellor Hyde first gave an account of all the events of the present or past campaigns. He pointed out that the greatness of the crown had been upheld and consequently the honour and advantage of the nation had benefited. He went on to say that whereas at first they thought they would have to do with the Dutch alone and believed that they would be able to bring the enemy to reason with the ordinary forces of the British realms, they now saw that their foes were vigorously assisted and protected by great princes and by those powers with whom his Britannic Majesty had no just cause of quarrel. He set all this before the two Chambers, telling them that it was necessary to take immediately those resolutions that were proper to the case, the king referring everything to their maturity and prudence. He went on to say that there were present in England foreign ministers with so little regard for the preservation of the royal state and quiet that they boasted of their ability to induce some of the members of parliament not to suffer by their vote and offices the defence of the liberty and reputation of the country, by opposing the subsidies and attacking the other side. The king was quite sure that if this was the desire and will of others it would make no impression on the generous hearts of his own subjects, but in the discharge of his own honour and conscience he was bound to make known what was passing to his most faithful subjects. (fn. 1)
It seems a remarkable thing that the chancellor should speak in this fashion, but your Serenity will find it even more so when you know that on that occasion the royal ambassadors themselves were present, though in a private capacity. The same thing is done here as for instance what happened to the nuncio with the Advocate General Talon at the last meeting of the parlement here. Immediately the two Chambers, with unmatched and unanimous enthusiasm, offered his Majesty their sons and their substance and voted a prompt subsidy of 1,250,000l. sterling to be raised from the kingdom. (fn. 2) The remaining events of the North are fully set forth in the enclosed sheet.
Paris, the 3rd November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.290. From the Hague, the 22nd October, 1665.
The English do not become better from being afflicted by the hand of God. Nothing but self interest can oblige them to make peace, which meets with the greater difficulty because here they will not suffer the Bishop of Munster to be included in it. The ambassadors of France will do nothing at Oxford, and if the succour marches it looks as if England would break with the Most Christian, at least the Spaniards feel sure of it and boast about it. France has made some proposals a while back, but they say nothing about the bishop nor of the interests of the Prince of Orange, and yet they were not able to get them accepted.
[Italian.]
Nov. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
291. Marin Zorzi, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Castel Rodrigo reports his measures to secure the frontier. Reliance is placed on his military competence. It is said that the Dutch have asked him besides for permission to enter the ports, for the provision of the necessary supplies of food and of war. They pressed the request very warmly; but he refused to give his consent until he had heard the intentions of the Court. Here they praise his prudence and postpone a decision, waiting for the ambassador to raise the subject. Now that the Dutch are uniting themselves with France the desire is increased here to draw closer to England to open the means of confidence and not the causes of serious or slight quarrels.
In this connection I may relate how the difference with the English ambassador has been settled. Both parties are appeased. He no longer talks about leaving or the government about exercising severity. His household not only enjoys quiet and safety but liberty. It is understood that Baron Batteville who knew the ambassador in London interposed as a friend. In the present state they are ambitious not only for the friendship of that crown but perhaps they may embrace union with it.
Madrid, the 4th November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Nov. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
292. Francesco Bianchi, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
In rejoicing over their successes over the Dutch the English living at Leghorn have followed the example of their resident, celebrating them with illuminations and by distributing a quantity of wine without which that nation does not know how to render its actions perfectly joyful.
Florence, the 7th November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Nov. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
293. Giovanni Cornaro, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The envoy of England has not arrived at Court and it is understood that he is going to various princes of the empire, principally in order to justify the movements and resolutions of the Bishop of Munster with the Dutch.
Vienna, the 8th November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Nov. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
294. Alvise Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
With the plague diminishing, or the material for it, the deaths last week being reduced to 2630, King Charles has devoted himself to arming extraordinarily and parliament to encouraging him with vigorous assistance contra quoscunque for the coming campaign. But they do not intermit either to proceed with friendly advances towards negotiation with the Ambassador Vangoch, as the two fleets can no longer hazard an engagement at sea the Admiral Ruiter having withdrawn to the ports of Texel and Zeeland before the storms arrive, about which the Ambassadors Borel and Van Beuninghen were very anxious.
In the United Provinces on the other hand some whispers not to say proposals have been heard from the partisans of the Prince of Orange that if the prince were declared captain general and sent with four commissioners to London to negotiate the peace, it would be better than any other way, as they were persuaded that in this manner they could establish their cause with honour and advantage. By giving this apparent satisfaction to England, said the majority of the Provinces, they would not prejudice the reputation of their own arms having displayed in this last expedition the spirit of their fleet and its power, going right into the Thames. But as Holland which is the richest and most powerful among them does not mean to give way by the reestablishment of the prince in the post indicated, which was held by his father and is the chief article desired by the English, it is not clear what good results any other negotiation can produce.
This will be the more so if the news is confirmed which was given by the queen mother of England to the ambassador of Savoy, namely that in the Indies the English have taken the island of St. Eustacchio, situated near the island of St. Christoforo, (fn. 3) which the knights of Malta sold to the Most Christian, taking 2000 Dutch prisoners.
It is certain that without the freedom of the sea the Dutch cannot hold out any longer, with regard to their defence against so many aggressors, by land also, with regard to their wealth and their forces which are failing for the maintenance of the naval attacks. But that which suits England, namely the absolute exclusion of the mediation of the Most Christian is an obstacle to Holland, because that wise republic does not wish in a matter of this kind to separate its own interests from those of this crown; and so as the two kings are disposed to increase the best understanding between them, and the States, for their own ends are ready to avoid an exclusive peace, or rather they wish to involve France in the rupture, it would seem probable that this will not happen without a fatal conjunction of many other accidents. To prove the truth of this King Charles publicly in his parliament spoke in fulsome terms in favour and praise of the Most Christian king. He has always declared that he has no sympathy with those among his subjects who would desire to make profit out of such imbroglios, and finally he is sending a gentleman (fn. 4) to this Court to express disapproval and to make good some injury, although slight, committed by his own subjects by a landing made in Brittany, under the pretence of seeking water, forgetting for the moment the offence of the condemnation of Baglieul and other pretexts taken to heart by his ambassador.
The Most Christian on his side, disapproving the last actions of the Ambassador Courtin, besides the declarations made, intends, and the Court believes it, to recall that ambassador, who is ill-liked in London, at a very early opportunity and to substitute a qualified gentleman in his place since his birth has stood in his way. (fn. 5) So for the ships taken by Beaufort there is an idea that the two, which are in being, may be offered in restitution and they can easily say that the third, which was sunk, was not a warship and considering the compassion shown in picking up the persons and recovering the goods on them. Thus by the laws of the sea a squadron of merchant ships is always obliged to give way to the body of the fleet which carries the royal standard, so they say that the British king has no reason to complain of what happened.
Finally and this is the essence of the matter, with all the nests of fortresses and refuges taken from the Huguenots, mindful of ancient and atrocious misfortunes when they were called into France, and conscious of the mistake made in consenting to the sale of Dunkirk, certain moreover of a painful war without any fruit to be gathered at sea, it is not clear how the English can profit in any dispute by landing in this country since it is certain that the Most Christian has secured all his ports and fortresses on the Ocean and the Mediterranean, has taken away the control of the royal troops from the governors in all the provinces, has reduced the Huguenots and other malcontents in such a way that it does not appear how they can join forces, find leaders or, in consequence welcome the enemies of this crown; so that if King Charles complains that the Most Christian assists the Dutch against the Bishop of Munster he should consider that the Dutch themselves, although ill satisfied with France, will never abandon the contract of alliance with him, while from England alone, which claims to be the arbiter of navigation, they have every evil to fear. But if in the end we see glory coming to the fore between the two crowns and that the obstinacy of so pernicious a war from now forward against the Provinces cannot be removed except by discharging the blow of a greater evil upon the back of others, we shall soon see the Provinces free and France embarrassed.
Paris, the 10th November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
295. Marin Zorzi, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The French have repeated their request for a passage for their troops. It is proposed to ask conditions for granting this which will be difficult to accept. The Dutch ambassador has been much in evidence of late, having pressing business with the councillors of state. He is trying to dissipate the suspicion caused by the connection with France and as a consequence to divert that union which is being negotiated with England. They express satisfaction here at the support afforded against dangers but they recognise the difficulty that when they are closely tied up and united with that crown they will not all proceed along a level path of intentions. It is believed that the object of the Dutch may not be making much progress at the moment. The march of events no less than their necessity which is steadily becoming greater will force them to put themselves in subjection to the plans which France is preparing with great diligence. Such is the conversation that goes on between the leading ministers.
The frequent conversations between the English ambassador and Medina which were suspended by the accidents reported, have been resumed. At the Retiro he is always to be found and the place is fixed; not for short discussions but most prolonged sittings have taken place on several occasions. Common opinion concludes that the treaty of alliance and the adjustment for Portugal are the two serious and important matters of business.
Madrid, the 11th November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
296. Marin Zorzi, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Towards the Strait an encounter has taken place between a number of English merchantmen and some Dutch ships of war. The latter attacked with great determination, the others were assisted by only two frigates, and were only defended, not saved. Some of them being sunk and others taken the battle ended with advantage to the Dutch.
Madrid, the 11th November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Nov. 14
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
297. Francesco Bianchi, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
It is reported that the Sultan has issued an order for the seizure of all ships, native and foreign, in order to send great reinforcements to Candia. Four English ships which were in the port of Smyrna were sequestrated for this purpose, but were left free through the representations made at the Porte by the English ambassador, who has sent the news to their resident here by way of Smyrna itself.
Florence, the 14th November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
298. Alvise Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Since the sum of affairs seems to me to reduce itself at the present moment to England I will tell your Serenity first of all that a courier has been stopped a short distance from London whom the Ambassador Vernuil has despatched to the Court here and the packets which he had for the Most Christian were deliberately taken from him. To match this it is fitting that on this side the letters of the ordinary should be intercepted as the Ambassador Holles, who is accustomed to favour me with news, has just sent me a note by which I see that he has missed the royal despatches for two weeks. All this augurs very unfavourably for the future relations between the two crowns.
The envoy Van Beuninghen, who at first was sighing to obtain assistance and declarations from France, now that he is certain to obtain them, but without profit, against the Bishop of Munster, appears quite unlike his usual style, that is to say in extreme and noticeable perplexity not to say melancholy. It is uncertain if this proceeds from imminent mischief or from the worse remedy. So those who are eager for war here are making great calculations. What is most probable is that the Dutch, rather than ruin themselves with all, will take the necessary course of making an adjustment with one alone, namely with the principal, in order to take their own time afterwards for recouping themselves. On the other hand, in the existing state of affairs in this kingdom it is undoubted that everything will be done to avoid ruptures. To this end Lord St. Alban, high steward of the queen mother of England, has left for London with some proposals, which as yet remain very secret.
I now hear that the Ambassador Courtin is recalled from England, and some add that it is to put him on trial in accordance with the steps taken by King Charles against those members of parliament who were bribed by him. But if Lord St. Alban does not arrive at that Court one must suspend belief in this.
In the mean time the Abbé d' Obigny has died here on Tuesday night, aged forty years. (fn. 6) He was English by race but claimed to be of the royal house of Stuart of Scotland, and he was almoner of the queen regnant of England. As a nobleman of great reputation and ability he had his crosses, which were even greater than those of any one else. Thus at Rome he was considered to be English and in consequence was deprived of his fondly cherished ambition for the red hat, which was indeed promised as his people believed. As owner of the land of Obigny, which is situate in this country towards the Ocean, he declared that he had been treated worse than a Turk, if I may use the expression; and by the Spaniards, who supposed his inclinations and interests to be with the Most Christian, all his fortune was thwarted. So to accommodate himself to living more like a private person in London he recently tried to sell this property to the Prince of Condé. After the price and everything had been settled one of the ministers intimated to the prince that he should be very careful about arranging to purchase what by right of legitimate succession pertains to the crown. So the Abbé coming to die made a will in legal form leaving King Charles free and absolute heir of this property, calling him his natural lord and sovereign and respecting him as a kinsman. Nevertheless this may give occasion for trouble.
The English ambassador disgusted at never having received any reparation for the incident with the Princess of Carignano, ill pleased at the ill treatment of his cook by a soldier of the guards who took the part of a porter, what they call “croster” here, especially as he was aware that the Marshal di Grammont, as colonel of the guards, instead of ordering an inquiry and seeing justice done, found it a subject for jesting with the king, and irritated by so many other things which I have related to your Serenity before at length, would not go to audience of the king to offer the ancient office of condolence on the death of the Catholic. However, this morning he thought he would pass it all over and satisfy appearances. If I told your Serenity that I exerted myself by my good offices to bring about this result, it would be no more than the plain truth. But two French ships with salt having been taken recently by English privateers ruins everything. God knows if the two nations have been well advised in their willingness for a rupture between the two crowns, which is dreaded by the wisest though threatened as imminent by the more ardent and less contented; although the wisdom of King Charles bridles the ardour of the people not to speak of parliament, and the Most Christian adheres to all the convenances to avoid it, although, I repeat, his Majesty does not neglect in the mean time to put himself in a position to be ready for everything.
Paris, the 17th November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.299. From the Hague, the 5th November, 1665.
On the first of this month it was resolved in the council of war held in the fleet that it should return to port, as it did on the 3rd inst. before the great storm which arose on the 4th. For this cause the English also have disarmed and remain for the most part in the Thames. The day before yesterday much firing was heard as a sign that the ships have been withdrawn to the ports of Holland and Zeeland. At present they are deliberating whether Banquert shall continue to keep at sea with twenty-four ships, to secure the rest of the ships which are to come from the Indies and Smyrna. With this return of the fleet the land army will be reinforced by 5000 or 6000 men.
One ship of the Indies and six of Smyrna have entered the ports, and there are still four of the Indies and eighteen of Smyrna which have left Norway and are expected at any moment.
5000 men of the Bishop of Minister, who has at present only 16,000 in all, are besieged by the waters in the province of Groninghen, where the mills have been destroyed, so that if they do not force some passage, and these have been fortified, they will perish or be compelled to surrender.
Major Gorgas is going to their relief with 4000 men, but it is not known whether he can reach them because of the waters, and in any case he will not be able to take food there.
Our army is being reinforced and will very soon be in a condition to attack the bishop in his own country. He has asked for succour at Ratisbon. The princes of the league of the Rhine have put him aside, but the Duke of Lunebourg will make a diversion and carry out his treaty Here they are restoring a good understanding with the crown of Sweden, and it only remains for Brandenburg to conclude his treaty. He does not ask for the fortress of Emerich, but for Gheney and Horsoit. For four days an envoy of Denmark has been here who has received commissions to negotiate. (fn. 7) Cologne and Neobourg are taking good care not to mix themselves up in this affair of Munster both because the princes of the league of the Rhine do not approve of this diversion of his, and to avoid offending France. Moreover Cologne is no friend of Munster and Neobourg says that priests risk nothing, having neither wife, children nor hereditary lands.
[Italian.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
300. Marin Zorzi, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The ministers are greatly agitated this week. The French are demanding a passage through Luxemburg, and threaten violence. I understand from friends of the Dutch ambassador that the succour is good but it would be better on sea than on land; that they should interest themselves in the defence against the English rather than enter in part against Munster. If they are dubious about their enemies it seems to me that they do not feel much confidence in their allies.
This government desires quiet and proposes mediation. The chief difficulty is the practical certainty that Medina is not his own master, but is dependent on his colleagues. Here they are trying to consolidate their interests in the emergencies which cause the conjuncture to be dreaded. They propose an alliance for common defence to the United Provinces. No reply has yet been received. The Spaniards are obliged to look in every direction. They are treating with England and the States simultaneously.
Madrid; the 18th November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Nov. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
301. Alvise Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The news of this week is in brief: in London the deaths of the week before did not exceed 963. Parliament has made a present to the Duke of York of 120,000l. sterling, as a testimony and in gratitude for his generous exertions in this campaign. (fn. 8) The royal ambassadors extraordinary make no progress in their negotiations for peace, as is shown by the enclosed sheet, received in confidence. The people of England are becoming increasingly eager for a rupture with the crown of France. Two more ships of French subjects have been stopped by the English in the Channel. Thirty-six ships have been commanded by King Charles to go out, twelve towards Guinea and twenty-four to meet the fleets and convoys of the Dutch which cannot go round Scotland because of the long nights. The Bishop of Munster has not only succoured and delivered his men besieged by the water through the cutting of the dyke, but has beaten a corps of 3000 men whom the Sieur di Bredrode pushed forward to prevent them from constructing a bridge, made upon carts and other of their baggage. (fn. 9) This is denied by Van Beuninghen. Finally King Charles, drawing ever closer in friendship with Sweden, wishes either to separate the Dutch in the settlement of the peace, or to maintain himself as lord over all in the dominion of the sea. This is the most serious point of all to be noted by our people. On the other hand the Most Christian is pressing on his auxiliary troops so that they may make a junction with the allies in Gheldria. It is announced that the bishop means to withdraw his forces immediately from East Friesland and will lose doubly by the vain enterprise.
His Majesty is beginning to issue patents for a hundred cornets of horse, but with the despatch of M. di St. Romain (a very clever person who at the time of the peace of Munster negotiated for the crown of France at Hosnabourg with the Protestants) towards La Rochelle and from there to Lisbon, perhaps to keep Braganza's attention diverted and employed elsewhere, and from the favours shown to Lord St. Alban, who left last week for London, as reported, it is thought that they are applying themselves to obviate and resist everything that may upset the present fortunate state of affairs in these parts.
Paris, the 24th November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.302. Reply to the proposal of the ambassadors extraordinary of France made to the King of Great Britain on the 25th October, new style, 1665. (fn. 10)
His Majesty by his replies to the ambassadors on several occasions on the subject of their proposals has shown how ill suited they seem to him to be for the establishment of a firm peace between him and the United Provinces after a bloody war, and has never believed, up to the present, that the ambassadors themselves considered them as the basis for a peace, but rather as an approach to a treaty.
With respect to the ships Bonaventure and Bonne Esperance, justice is evidently on his Majesty's side, since it is notorious that there is a considerable sum of money on deposit at Amsterdam destined for the compensation of those interested and the treaty having left it, by these words litem incoeptam prosequi to the decision of the extraordinary commissioners who had to decide some other points of like nature as well.
The high esteem of his Majesty for the friendship of the Most Christian king is well known to all the world. But although his Majesty, in following his inclinations might have accepted the king's mediation, he cannot refrain from remarking that the king will pass for being too interested in the decision of these affairs, having always declared that he is engaged by a secret treaty to assist the Dutch. Nevertheless, if the king can persuade the Dutch to enter into the same sentiments as he himself evinces for the establishment of a good peace, the King of Great Britain will nominate commissioners for his part and will urge the crown of Sweden, the Bishop of Munster and his other allies to do the same, without whose participation it is not just that his Majesty should enter into any treaty of this nature, the more so because the States General do not show the least disposition towards it and his Majesty's good inclinations towards an adjustment have only served up to the present to arouse the jealousy of his confederates, as if he had no consideration for their interests, whereas the method now proposed will, according to all appearance and with God's help, bring this great affair to a happy issue, if the dispositions of all these are equally sincere.
[French.]
Enclosure.303. Proposals of the Ambassadors Extraordinary of France to his Britannic Majesty. (fn. 11)
To terminate the differences between his Majesty and the States General of the United Provinces the Most Christian king will undertake to induce the States to cede New Belgium of which the King of Great Britain will remain in possession for the future; to restore to the king the island of Poleron, in conformity with the treaty concluded in 1662 between his Majesty and the States; to render the fort of Cormantin situate on the Guinea coast, on condition that that of Capo Corso shall be rased, or if the king prefers, he shall retain that fort on condition that the States also remain in possession of that of Cormantin. The States shall also cede to his Majesty the forts of St. André and Buona Vista situated on the River Gambia. With regard to the ships Buonadventure and Bonne Esperance, which the States refer to the arbitrament of the Most Christian king and the interpretation of the words litem incoeptam prosequi, if he finds the States in the wrong he will decide what it is reasonable to be paid in compensation to the English. With regard to the ships whose trading has been thwarted on the coasts of Malabar and Guinea, that the States shall refer this matter also to the arbitrament of the Most Christian king, to estimate what should be due to the interested parties, and that commissioners be appointed on either side to agree promptly upon a regulation of commerce for the future.
[French.]
Nov. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
304. Marin Zorzi, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The English affair is not settled. On both sides they keep silence. Nothing except the release of the lackeys has been conceded by the government, and nothing is demanded by the ambassador. His familiars however say that he is dissimulating, but that he is not content, and is waiting for instructions from London. He merely has not chosen to settle the quarrel or to break the confidence.
Madrid, the 25th November, 1665.
[Italian.]
Nov. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
305. Giovanni Cornaro, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The Swedes are treating with Holland and by keeping them in dread of their making an alliance with England they promise themselves all manner (qualsisia) of satisfaction from the United Provinces. They have already decided upon the appointment of deputies to find an agreement. Bitter feeling cannot be laid aside, however, since the Dutch have taken away the crown of Denmark from the head of Sweden.
Denmark has sent to England to justify himself for the defence which he made of the Dutch ships in the port of Berga in Norway, and to make sure of the goodwill of that king.
Vienna, the 29th November, 1665.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The speech is printed in Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. xi., pp. 685–9.
2 The Commons voted this sum on 11th October, old style, the day after the delivery of the king's speech. Journals of the House of Commons, Vol. viii., page 614.
3 Taken in August by an expedition which set out from Jamaica under Lt. Gen. Edward Morgan. Cal. S.P. Col., America and W. Indies, 1661–8, pages 319, 326, 332–3.
4 Possibly Robert Spence, Earl of Sunderland. There is a pass for two horses for him to France on 31st October. S.P. Dom. 1665–6, page 35.
5 He was descended from Pierre Courtin, merchant, a burgeois of Paris. Recucil des Instructions des Ambassadeurs. Angleterre (ed. Jusserand), Vol. i., page 342.
6 Ludovic Stuart, seigneur d'Aubigny, succeeded to the seigneurie as being a naturalized French subject, to the prejudice of his nephew, Charles Stuart. This nephew eventually became possessed of the seigneurie by virtue of a royal decree of 31st December, 1668. G.E.C. Complete Peerage revised ed., Vol. i., pp. 330–1. Tuesday was the 10th November, new style. Aubigny is in the department of Cher, due south of Paris, and a long way from the western seaboard.
7 Paul Klingenbergh. Aitzema: Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, Vol. v., page 567.
8 Proposed on 24th October and carried on the 30th. Journals of the House of Commons, Vol. viii., pp. 621, 623.
9 The troops under Osseri were saved by the construction of a dam across the Bourtange Moor. They were apparently extricated without fighting. Alpen: Leben und Thaten C.B. von Galen, page 148.
10 Printed in Negotiations du Comte d'Estrades, Vol. iii., pp. 472–4. There is a copy in S.P. France, Vol. cxxi.
11 The gist of these proposals is printed in Negotiations du Comte d'Estrades, Vol. iii., page 350.