Venice
May 1667

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1935

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151-163

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'Venice: May 1667', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 35: 1666-1668 (1935), pp. 151-163. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90213 Date accessed: 19 September 2014.


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May 1667

May 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Ceffalonia.
Venetian
Archives.
177. Andrea Lippomanno, Proveditore of Cephalonia, to the Doge and Senate.
Shortage of money in the caisse. Hoping in a short while to to receive some assistance from the ships of England, which are beginning to put in an appearance. One of them has arrived in the port here, but so far it has not deposited enough to make good the remittance of money taken from this place for the benefit of the fortress of Corfu.
Cephalonia, the 22nd April, 1667, old style.
[Italian.]
May 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
178. Marc Antonio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Upon the news that two English frigates have set sail from Cadiz with a large sum in ready money, consigned to them by the Spaniards to be taken to England, or, as others say, to Flanders, orders have been sent to Admiral Boffort to select a squadron of his best ships and to send them to sea to try and capture these frigates. It is believed that such a booty, if it should fall into the hands of the French, would cause no slight confusion to the affairs of the Spaniards. This move will hasten the gathering and despatch of the congress of Breda, since they will see from it that the congress will not serve to save Brabant.
Lord Germen has had several conferences this last week with the ministers and has sent several despatches to England. There are some who think that on this side they are designing if not to draw England over to their side, at least to secure her neutrality. After this they will discredit the liberal offer of the Spaniards, pointing out their powerlessness. There is talk of a project with the same end in view, to wit that his Britannic Majesty shall observe neutrality for a year, deal with one side and the other for his own advantage, and afterwards take sides with the one who will give him the greatest and most certain advantage. That king may quite conceivably not be unwilling to gratify his Majesty here, but the policy of the government is not so easily to be deflected in favour of this side.
Baron Isola was about to return to England, possibly in order to destroy what is being concocted here. The most serious damage is clearly impending for the Dutch. Being either committed to the war or hampered by the Swedes, they will have to stand aside and watch the enterprise of Brabant, in which they possess so many strong places. The Swedes are always standing ready at a sign from this crown either to throw themselves upon the empire, if it should offer opposition to France, or wherever else the king here may wish.
Paris, the 3rd May, 1667.
[Italian.]
May 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
179. Marc Antonio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The letter written by his Britannic Majesty to the Lords States, which I forward has caused some division of opinion in the minds of that body. On the one hand they are greatly consoled at seeing him friendly and civil and at the good beginning for the peace, since that crown accepts without cavil the point of the alternative to wit that each party shall remain in possession of what he has taken from the other side. On the other hand they do not like the charge to his ambassadors, which he intimates, whereby they are to be guided in their negotiations on the footing of what was agreed upon in the adjustment of 1662 between those powers. This point may introduce obstacles and difficulties into the negotiations. They gather from this that the English in this affair wish to have it in their power to conclude the business speedily or to hold it up.
The province of Holland has already nominated its deputy for the congress. This is M. Beverninghen, who will accept the commission provided they do not send more than three deputies. Zeeland has nominated the councillor who is Pensionary of the province and Friesland Signor Jongostal, who was ambassador in England in the time of Cromwell. (fn. 1) Gelderland and Groningen have again taken it into their heads to nominate persons, so that the deputation on that side is not yet formed.
A project has been started for guaranteeing the execution of the peace after it has been arranged, between France, Denmark and Holland, whereby the allies will be bound practically to a perpetual alliance, with obligations which will be very extensive and whereby the parties will be each in turn subject to defend the others against attack by any one soever, both for navigation inside and outside Europe, for commerce, lowering the flag and for other particulars. France is believed to be the author of this, both for leading her allies always for her own satisfaction and to keep England in awe. It is not known whether the project has yet been communicated to the ministers of the confederates, or what their opinions are likely to be with regard to it.
Paris, the 3rd May, 1667.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.180. Letter of King Charles II to the States General of the United Provinces accepting the alternative proposed, and intimating that his ministers will be instructed to proceed on the basis of the treaty of 1662.
Whitehall, the 12/22 April, 1667. (fn. 2)
[French.]
May 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
181. Caterin Belegno, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The report that Sciandovich has completed his negotiations by compromising upon a truce for forty-five years, or else Braganza will be abandoned by his king, seems to be in diametrical opposition to the argument of Braganza that he cannot break with France. And if the fruit of the negotiation will only be to produce an alliance with England it will be costly and very insecure, leaving on one side the principal object of gaining a breathing space at home, for which all these negotiations were introduced and discussed for so long a time. The peril of the situation in Flanders might induce them to take this course, but the secrecy of the business is so religiously observed that it is difficult to investigate into the exact particulars of what is being negotiated or resolved. At Bilbao they are keeping a ship all ready to transport to London the person who has been sent off from Madrid under another pretext. All I can say positively is that the Count of Pegnoranda has expressed himself to the effect that the business is on foot and that if the Portuguese are not fools they will embrace the offers of the British king.
Madrid, the 4th May, 1667.
[Italian.]
May 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
182. Caterin Belegno, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The resumption of conferences with the ambassador of England gives rise to the belief that he is prosecuting his negotiations with somewhat greater felicity; yet when I happened to see him recently I was unable to gather any more than the usual despair of finishing them, with complaints about the loss from delay and the reserved procedure of the government here. Up to this present day my information coincides with that of the other ministers, who are probably keeping an eye on what is going forward, and I learn that the Court, in concert with the ambassador, is about to despatch a special person by sea to London, but it does not appear whether this move is to obtain more ample powers or to confirm the treaties. Some, when informed of this decision, argue that the agreements published and suspected between the Most Christian and Braganza will have disposed his Britannic Majesty to separate his interests from those of his brother-in-law, and consequently facilitate the agreement with this crown. Unless something else comes to light I am unable to accept these conclusions, the more so as there are a great many arguments against it.
It is known that the place of Breda has been finally accepted by common consent for the peace negotiations. It is difficult to foresee the issue, since the perfection of the work requires a very great uniformity. Sciandovich told me definitely that as regards the Dutch the deputies of his king will contribute every facility for an accommodation but they will not be able to agree to any sort of advantage for France to the prejudice of the two nations, the ambition of that monarch having rendered him equally suspect to his friends and to his enemies.
The negotiations of Lisola are directed without hesitation either to hinder the adjustment or to see that the House of Austria is comprised in the peace. From what has been said by the Dutch ambassador I have been able to learn that the Provinces themselves would not be sorry to see the interests of the Austrians rendered safe, and French power kept back within its limits rather than pushed forward into the heart of Flanders and right on to their own frontiers. This discloses the universal dread that peace in the north will be followed by the rupture with Spain.
Madrid, the 4th May, 1667.
[Italian.]
May 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
183. Antonio Maria Vincenti, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Last Sunday three French galleys put into Leghorn. They brought the Cardinals Retz, Vendome, and Grimaldi from Provence.
On this same Sunday three most powerful English ships of war passed in sight of Leghorn. They had left Messina in company of others, having escorted thither a convoy of some twenty ships of traders. An ill-timed storm brought about their separation from their companions a few days before, when they were returning towards the Ocean. When these English ships sighted the three galleys aforesaid, with the flag of France, they immediately drew near in order to capture them. In this they would have succeeded easily if the wind had favoured them or if the galleys, having seen the manifest peril they were in, had not done all in their power to escape it, taking refuge under the defences of the fortress. Having succeeded in avoiding this fate and having left for Civita Vecchia, they fell in with the fourth English ship, which had been separated from the three others by the storm already mentioned. After a chase of many hours, as the captain was late in recognising them, the galleys were compelled to take refuge in Porto Longone. (fn. 3)
These four ships of war carry up to seventy guns each, and it is said that they will shortly be proceeding to England. On their arrival they did not salute the fortress and they claim that they are not obliged to. The Grand Duke complains about it and it seems to him that he suffers great disparagement thereby.
The French ship St. Louis, already laden with grain for Spain, dare not leave the port. If it sets sail it will be attacked. I know for a certainty that the commanders of the English ships have given their minds to this, and accordingly, even if they sheer off from Leghorn, they will not abandon those waters before attempting the stroke.
Although with little or no hope of success I have had an approach made to the Resident of England about the ship referred to above. I am awaiting the answer, but I fear that it is certain to be contrary to what I desire, for I misdoubt me that they are the king's own ships and not the property of merchants.
Florence, the 7th May, 1667.
[Italian.]
May 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
184. Marc Antonio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The good understanding secretly conducted and universally believed to be definitely established between England and this crown, the war decided upon by the king here against the Spaniards, although not yet declared, causes Holland to change her policy, and gives another turn to their deliberations. They would have liked the meeting of the congress to have been delayed, and the establishment of the peace postponed until some expedients had been found whereby the Most Christian should not proceed armed into Flanders, or that peace should at least be assured to Brabant from a naval war, without attacks and from enemies who were believed to be of one mind in not consenting to fresh conquests for this crown. But now that England is found to be won over, at the very least to neutrality, the war is a chain about the feet of Holland, and every effort is made and all diligence employed in order to bring about peace. The Dutch are devoting themselves to this point alone, and think of nothing but to get their deputies started for Breda at the earliest possible moment.
They already suspect that the French naval force is not going to put to sea, and that even if it does come out it will not be in order to unite with that of the Dutch, since France knows full well that such a junction would cause Holland to raise her pretensions and that the Spaniards would have openings to profit with England. Accordingly on the one hand they have altered in some parts the commissions to the deputies, introducing other articles better adapted to an easy adjustment, while, on the other hand, showing resolution and hardihood, they have caused Mons. Guent, Lieutenant Admiral of Amsterdam, to go out with sixteen ships and four fireships, in order to seek out twenty-five English frigates which are understood to be cruising in the Channel in the direction of Plimut. Orders have been sent to the Admiralties of the Provinces not to delay the equipment any longer, and to put out from the ports at the earliest possible moment.
The French Ambassador Estrades has gone to take leave of the Assembly as he has to go as a deputy to Breda. He exhorted the Lords States to peace. He shows how greatly it is desired by the king here, as before any one else he sent his deputy, M. Courtin, to the congress. Possibly the first to make a show are the last to wish it to be brought about.
There was a report that the Swedish mediators had left London on the 2nd inst., and that the deputies of England were waiting for a wind to embark. The ministers of Denmark will follow them, but it is understood that at the conference they are to bring forward a claim of theirs, to wit that the king of England shall satisfy that monarch by the withdrawal of the paper in which Denmark is accused of having been the author of the attack on the Dutch ships at the port of Norway. (fn. 4) The pretension is considered ridiculous and men feel sure that the English will turn it down, while it will give scant satisfaction to the Dutch if it is likely to impede the peace.
Paris, the 10th May, 1667.
[Italian.]
May 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
185. Antonio Maria Vincenti, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The four English ships which were off the coast of Leghorn, have weighed anchor and left these waters. But we hear all the same that they are hanging about and have only gone a short distance away. The circumstances of that action are viewed with great displeasure at the Court and bitter feeling against the Resident of England is on the increase, since it is certain that the stay of these ships in that neighbourhood causes great prejudice to commerce and navigation.
Florence, the 14th May, 1667.
[Italian.]
May 14.
Inquisitori,
di Stato.
Busta 474.
Venetian
Archives.
186. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Inquisitors of State.
Encloses the Gazette of Ancona.
Rome, the 14th May, 1667.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.187. Extracts from the Gazette of Ancona.
Paris, 12 April.
The King of England has nominated Lord Holles and Lord Coventry his plenipotentiaries to treat for peace at Breda, and the Most Christian has had the passports sent to London. They are expected to start at the earliest opportunity, as will the plenipotentiaries of France, Denmark and Holland.
Liege, 15 April.
The States of Holland are about to send to meet the deputies of England at their landing and conduct them to Breda. We hear that the English deputies are taking with them not only deputies of the India Company but all the merchants who consider themselves interested in the reprisals made by the Dutch.
London, 8 April.
The commissioners Holles and Coventry will start within ten days for Breda with full powers to conclude peace. As the Lord Chancellor intimated to the India Company that they should make note of their losses during the war and send some one over with the commissioners to Breda, they have chosen two persons. (fn. 5)
The mayor and aldermen of London have published the declaration for the rebuilding of this city in the form indicated. Here they continue to beat the drum to enlist sailors and soldiers and at this moment they are only equipping two regiments. A fleet of 150 colliers having arrived here with 3000 sailors, it is said that his Majesty proposes to take advantage of this to furnish some of his largest ships because if he is powerful at sea he expects to make an advantageous settlement; but it is not expected to happen since these sailors are necessary for bringing coal here, where it is needed, more particularly for smelting material for the rebuilding of the city. The judges here have made great progress in deciding the differences between the owners and tenants of the houses burned down, and generally they seem to favour those who undertake to rebuild. In the mean time they are beginning to build Fleet Street and other places in London, and if peace is made it will soon be restored in greater beauty and splendour. Prince Rupert makes daily progress towards the recovery of his health.
Amsterdam, 14 April.
Letters from London which arrived yesterday morning relate that four ships of war and four privateers which left Zeeland had disembarked all their troops and directed their march towards New Amsterdam in New Holland. Having surrounded it they compelled the English inhabitants to submit to surrender within 42 hours. The time having expired and the bargain unfulfilled, our men gave the assault, cutting in pieces all the inhabitants and making themselves masters of the place. Subsequently they proceeded to the surprise of the other places which had not been able to resist their attack after the fall of New Amsterdam. There was also a report that the Spaniards left in Jamaica after its capture by Cromwell, having united, effected a surprise upon the English, cutting them in pieces and rendering themselves masters of the island.
[Italian.]
May 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
188. Marc Antonio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch find themselves surrounded by many difficulties, but they do not neglect the best methods to put themselves straight. They have written to van Boninghen that when he has made sure of the designs of the king and whether he means to throw himself upon Brabant, he must try to dissuade him and urge him to permit the friends of the crown to exert themselves for the adjustment of the difficulties between his Majesty and Spain. Amid the movements of the Court and in these days when every one, including the ministers, is on the alert to prepare himself for the journey, I do not hear whether he has said anything. I find, from the letters come from the Hague, that three of their deputies have set out for Breda, for the congress, with orders to give a start to the proceedings; that the English had not arrived, and, what will distress the Lords States, that the ambassadors of Sweden are not likely to be there very soon, so that the duplicity of the mediators becomes daily more clear, and that every one is seeking his own profit in the turmoil.
The elector of Brandenburg by his minister in London has offered to that king his mediation for peace between England and Holland, which has been promptly accepted by that monarch. (fn. 6) The Swedish ambassadors make no objection to this, indeed they themselves advised the British king to urge this point upon the parties and get it accepted. Accordingly the ministers of the elector at the Hague (fn. 7) have presented a memorial to the Assembly with the offer and a request to let them know if it will be accepted. The government refers itself to what will be arranged by the deputies of the princes concerned, who are at Breda. The objects of Brandenburg do not appear, but possibly, in conjunction with France and England, he will promote the interests of the prince of Orange, with whom he is closely connected in blood. It is already whispered that France, to make the British party friendly or at least to prevent it being opposed to the Flanders enterprise, has given that king some hint on the subject.
Don Francesco di Melo, who was staying in England as ambassador extraordinary of Portugal, has proceeded to Holland, where he bears the same character. The reason for this move is still obscure.
The largest ships of Amsterdam, which from the lowness of the water were staying at the Pampus, (fn. 8) have proceeded to the Texel, taking advantage of a high tide.
Paris, the 17th May, 1667.
[Italian.]
May 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
189. To the Resident at Florence.
Commend his diligence over the provision of ships, especially the St. Louis, that of Celibi and the four English ones, for which the goodwill shown towards him by the English Resident is acceptable.
Ayes, 107. Noes, 6. Neutral, 20.
[Italian.]
May 21.
Inquisitori di
Stato.
Busta 474.
Venetian
Archives.
190. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Inquisitors of State.
Encloses copy of a letter from the French ambassador at Constantinople to the Duke of Sciona.
Rome, the 21st May, 1667.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.191. Denis Delahaye, French Ambassador at the Porte, to the Duke of Sciona.
The Resident of Germany at Adrianople has had no communication with the Genoese minister, refusing to treat on an equality. (fn. 9) The English ambassador has not dealt thus, rendering to the minister of this small republic as much honour as to the emperor's ambassador. I do not think that this has his master's approval. I have abstained from saying anything.
Pera of Constantinople, 23 February, 1667.
[Italian.]
May 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
192. Marc Antonio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
A courier has been sent from this Court to the Ambassador Estrades, who is at Breda, with orders to proceed immediately to the Hague, in order to set forth to the assembly of the Lords States the reasons which induce the king here to carry his arms into Brabant. The ambassador confined himself to the letter written on the 8th to the regent of Spain. Ho handed this to the assembly together with the book entitled “The Treaty.” (fn. 10) After this he offered to declare in the name of his Majesty that no claim is made from this side to anything which the Lords States possess which they conquered by their arms, and which is confirmed in the treaties with Spain. The value of this promise may be readily appreciated, since the king has no powers over a state, which is claimed to belong to the queen and to the dauphin.
From the beginning of the war with the English until the present day France has shown on several occasions that she is making sport of the Dutch. She makes them play for her own amusement and drags them along for the sole benefit of the king.
The Ambassador Estrades returned to Breda on the 18th after he had had a long conference with Mons. de Wit, who is the one in highest repute in the Provinces, and the most fit, when he is persuaded, to draw over the others to his opinion. Estrades laboured to convince him of the sincere intentions of the king towards the Provinces and to dismiss from his mind any doubts that the attack on Brabant might cause him. It would seem to be difficult to dispute the evidence, but it would be equally dangerous for the Lords States to manifest distrust. They will be very careful about the steps they take, the Swedes being eager and ready to steer their course at a sign from the king here, while the good faith of the bishop of Munster is suspect, for he would never object to begin to trouble the Provinces again if he were encouraged from this quarter. Munster is increasing his forces, is making advances to this Court and negotiating at the same time with the Spaniards, it being his intention to draw advantage from both, and finally to seize the best opportunity.
Denmark has advised the dukes of Brunswick that in the council of Sweden they have deliberated about the enterprise of Brem, or the attack on the Provinces. Brem will always be of greater advantage for that crown because it separates the Provinces from the other princes of that Circle and renders each of the parties more feeble.
The ambassadors of England have arrived at Breda. It is not yet possible to learn what their sentiments may be about the peace. The ambassadors of Sweden have made strong representations to his Britannic Majesty not to sign the treaty of peace with Holland before Count Dona, who is at the Hague, has concluded his negotiations. The British king confined himself to generalities and avoided committing himself.
The ambassadors of his Majesty here have advised the deputies of the Provinces that they do not wish the adjustment to be dragged out at length under the pretext of some correction in the treaty made with England in 1662. It is desired that the English shall renounce all the old claims upon the island of Poleron, as well as for the two ships, Bonaventura and Buonasperanza, but that all the other articles shall be prereserved, whether it be about lowering the flag or about protecting the rebels of England. The speedy despatch of this affair is certainly desired by the Provinces; whether the others are speaking with sincerity will become apparent ere long.
Paris, the 24th May, 1667.
[Italian.]
May 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
193. Caterin Belegno, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Among an infinite number of remedies that are being discussed about the present mischief, that which has been finally arranged with the Ambassador Sciandovich will produce good results in a certain measure. The matter having been discussed at several juntas and the inclusion of Portugal being found to be impossible, they have renewed the peace between this crown and the British, granting to the nation trade in these realms and the same prerogatives as are enjoyed by the Dutch.
The English are left in free possession of Jamaica but excluded absolutely from the trade of the Indies, with the condition that they may take refuge in the ports for twenty-four hours only in case of a storm at sea. Braganza is allowed an interval of six months for accepting the truce, and in the event of his refusing to do so, the intention is expressed, but not a positive promise, that he will be abandoned by the British king. All this has been concluded but not published, although the ambassador went recently to the queen to thank her for the facilities accorded for the transaction. The confirmation is to come from England and with it the opinion whether they should set a time limit for the Spaniards to recover Jamaica in return for a payment of 500,000 pieces.
With regard to the truce with Portugal, the condition falls through of itself owing to the circumstances which crop up, and it will be no slight matter to induce Braganza to make an effective peace, as he considers himself so closely bound to France.
Another and more important transaction for an offensive and defensive alliance is being brought forward with the English ambassador, and I fancy that he has the most ample authority to negotiate and conclude. Here they will not lose the opportunity, being warned by past errors.
Steps will be taken with Portugal also, and it will have the advantage of being requested and prayed. They will cause the business to be arranged secretly and according to current opinion, the question of titles and the royal pre-eminence will be settled in a few weeks. Thus a single favourable moment will carry the day after the passage of so many lustrums of obstinate resistance. The fifteen to twenty thousand men and eight millions which are expended fruitlessly every year in that war, will serve, with the removal of the cause, not only for defence but also to facilitate progress in other provinces. Other foundations are being laid for an alliance of guarantee between the emperor, England, Holland, Sweden, and Denmark. The common danger encourages hope and holds out flattering prospects.
The English admiral of the Blue has captured a French ship off Cape St. Vincent with a rich cargo. They write from Cadiz that twenty-four ships of war, of French nationality, are cruising off the coasts of Biscay and Brittany.
Madrid, the 28th May, 1667.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The Pensionary of Zeeland was Pieter de Huybert. Allart Pieter Jongestal, the deputy of Friesland, had come to England in June, 1653, to negotiate peace; and returned again in November. See Vol. xxix of this Calendar, pp. 93, 144.
2 The text is printed in Aitzema: Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, Vol. vi, p. 27,
3 The squadron was that of Capt. Hubbard, consisting of the Leopard (his flag), the Centurion (Capt. Wild), and the Portsmouth (Capt. Guy). They arrived at Leghorn on Saturday night, April 30, n.s. The French galleys came into port on the following day. According to Capt. Hubbard they discovered the galleys so late that it was not possible to “make” them without running aground. Capt. Goodlad in the Foresight had been left at Messina. It was he who chased the galleys into Porto Longone. Finch to Arlington 2nd and 9th May, 1667. P.R.O. S.P. Tuscany, Vol. viii.
4 The pamphlet issued upon the declaration of war against Denmark on 19th Sept., 1666. It is entitled “A true declaration of all transactions between His Majesty of Great Britain and the King of Denmark, with a declaration of war against the said King and the motives that obliged His Majesty thereunto,” S.P. Dom. Chas. II, Vol. clxxii, 45 (1). An elaborate reply to this on the part of Denmark is printed in Aitzema: Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, Vol. vi, pp. 175–83.
5 Robert Thomson and Thomas Papillon were originally chosen on the 22nd March. George Joliffe was added a few days later. Their commissions are dated 27th April. Sainsbury: Court Minutes of the East India Company, 1664–7, pp. 305, 311, 319.
6 The minister was Friedrich Brandt. It was the wish of Charles that he should go to Breda. Urkunden und Actenstucke zur Geschichte des Kurfursten F. W. von Brandenburg, Vol. xiv, part i, p. 303.
7 Werner Wilhelm Blaspeil and Matthias Romswinckel. See London Gazette, May 30 to June 3, 1667.
8 S.W. of the Zuyder Zee, opposite the channel from Amsterdam.
9 The Genoese ambassador was the Marquis Giovanni Augusto Durazzo. He was received in state by the Sultan in December. London Gazette, Jan. 10–14, 1667: Hist. MSS. Comm. Finch Papers, Vol. i, p. 452. The imperial resident at the time was Casanova.
10 Estrades performed this office on Monday the 16th May, when he handed to the States the letter addressed to themselves, a copy of the king's letter to the Queen Regent and three printed books, all speaking of the “droit de la reine.” Aitzema: Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, Vol. vi, p. 246. The letters are printed on the following pages.


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