Venice
August 1668, 1-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1935

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236-248

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'Venice: August 1668, 1-20', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 35: 1666-1668 (1935), pp. 236-248. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90228 Date accessed: 27 November 2014.


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August 1668, 1–20

Aug. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Haia.
Venetian
Archives.
319. Giovanni Francesco Marchesini, Venetian Secretary in England to the Doge and Senate.
In order to keep up the friendly disposition shown by the earl of Harviz, ambassador designate to the Porte, I was determined to show him every mark of respect. Accordingly I went again to his house to call, taking the opportunity to wish him a prosperous voyage and every possible felicity in the course of his embassy, hoping that from his prudence and ability all affairs would be conducted with no ordinary glory for his Majesty and with special applause for him personally.
In reply he expressed his thanks for my good wishes. Not because of himself personally but from the esteem which the Turks had for the king it was possible to augur a favourable issue to his negotiations. He would have the interests of the most serene republic at heart as much as those of his Majesty. He had not yet received the necessary instructions about mediating peace between the most serene republic and the Ottoman from the Secretary of State Harlinton, but they had promised to send them on to him from the baths whither the secretary had gone. He was expecting these together with the orders on joining captains of ships not to serve the Turks against your Excellencies. With this end in view he had been forbidden to go beyond Smyrna with the ship of war of 60 guns which was taking him to those parts (fn. 1) for fear that that very ship might be detained by force and violence. Two other ships which are to go thither on behalf of private individuals have been directed by the Council of State to go there on the general account of the Levant Company, since it seems that when they go under the auspices of that Company the Turks are more careful about making use of them.
I told him that not only by such excellent orders but by his own wise dexterity means would have to be found to make it impossible for English ships to serve the Turks. There need never be any lack of pretexts and excuses, either by saying that the ships were laded, or unfit for the service because they were in need of repair or in other ways that his skill, the occasion and the time might suggest to him. If the Turks employ violence to get them it is permissible to use art on the other side.
He assured me that on his side he would do everything possible. It was the firm intention of the king that they should not serve; but if they were constrained to it by force he would leave nothing undone to prevent it in every possible way. To this and to everything that might serve for the advantage of your Excellencies in the peace he would devote all his energies, when the necessary instructions for the purpose had reached him and he hoped to find these at Leghorn.
I told him that I had sent a minute account of everything to your Serenity; but I could not promise him so much at the moment since your Excellencies might have thought it necessary to know beforehand if the Turks would accept the mediation of his Majesty. In any case, however, some reply would be given on his passage through Leghorn and Florence by the resident of your Serenity.
He said he did not know whether he should actually enter the port of Leghorn because the governor was unwilling to practise what was observed with the ships of France. If they did not salute him first he would not stop there, as the king claimed no less honour for his own ships than was accorded to the French. If this was not done it was unlikely that the English would stay there any longer. I told him I thought the Grand Duke would not make any difficulty about the matter, as he would hardly make less case of the power of this king at sea than of that of France. If so much had been accorded to France there was every reason to believe that it would not be refused to England. I asked him if he would be leaving soon and how much time he expected to take on the voyage to Constantinople. He told me he was waiting for the commissions mentioned. With a favourable wind he did not expect he would make the journey in less than three or four months and he would be satisfied if he got to Constantinople by Christmas, since, as he had already told me, he was to travel thither from Smyrna by land. All this, however, depended more or less upon the weather and the prosperous or contrary winds that he encountered. I repeated my good wishes and with abundence of compliments took my leave.
The king has this week made a decree that no foreign minister shall henceforth perform any office or speak with his Majesty on business unless he asks audience through the Master of the Ceremonies, (fn. 2) since it was previously the custom at this Court, apart from the first audiences, not to observe this ceremony but the ministers went to the apartments of the king and of the queen, and there each one seized an opportunity for preferring his own requests. According to what they say the origin of this decree is that the king is not free at any time and that he has frequently been importuned by French ministers. Accordingly he has decided to issue this ordinance before the arrival of the Ambassador Colbert, who is expected shortly.
London, the 3rd August, 1668.
[Italian.]
Aug. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
320. To the Secretary Marchesini, in London.
Approval of his office with his Majesty. The Senate feels confident of getting some prompt and generous demonstration. He did well to visit the princes and to see the ministers of the Council of State in his own house. The Senate will wait to hear the king's reply. They are sure he has informed his Majesty of the near arrival of the Ambassador Mocenigo. He will do well to make representations to the Secretary of State to prevent ships of the nation from serving the Turks. He should try to get instructions upon this given to the new ambassador for Constantinople.
Ayes, 130. Noes, 1. Neutral, 24.
[Italian.]
Aug. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
321. To the Ambassador Mocenigo in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters from Antwerp. Expect that these will find him in London, that he will have been admitted to audience and will take advantage of the preparation of the way by the Secretary Marchesini, pressing earnestly for succour. He is to foster the good will of the Prince Palatine, the duke of Buckingham, and the Secretary Moris and to try in particular to win those who have not been altogether well disposed, especially the Secretary Arlinte. He is to attend to this at once because of the great perils overhanging Candia, which admit of no delay. He will be able to cite the example of the pope, the king of France, the Catholic crown, Lorraine, Brunswick and other princes of the empire, the duke of Tuscany and others as well in order to move the king, whose example will be followed by the Dutch. He is to see that the new ambassador to Constantinople is well affected towards the republic.
Information was sent to the Secretary Marchesini about a suggestion made in France by Boninghen that it would be very desirable for the Butch and English to compel the Turks to make peace with us, as they had reduced the two crowns to do. As, however, Marchesini has recently chanced to speak of this with the ministers over there in a form not altogether adjusted to the intention, we are acquainting you with the matter so that in the event of anything being said about referring to that crown the adjustment of the war with the Turks you will utterly eschew it and carefully avoid any sort of commitment.
We are directing Marchesini to return to the Hague, to receive help from thence, if England supplies any.
Ayes, 146. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Aug. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
322. To the Secretary Marchesini in London.
Commendation of his offices. The Ambassador Mocenigo will soon be arriving and he is to supply him with the needful information of all his operations. The Senate wishes him to proceed to Holland to obtain the help which was promised if any was given by England.
Ayes, 146. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Aug. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
323. Pietro Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Urged on by my most ardent desire to serve your Serenity, I only delayed my departure from Antwerp so far as necessity compelled me to provide various things required for the embassy, which forced me to put up with the delay. At the beginning of last week I set out for Ostend, while I sent forward my gentleman and hired the ship most ready to sail, without regard to the cost, dispensing with the (fn. 3) in order to transport myself speedily to this country. At the slightest hint from me the king would graciously have sent one of his own ships for the purpose of the passage, but the ministers are not always so prompt in execution or the weather does not allow the sea passage, so that I might have lost several days idle at the port of Ostend. There was also another important reason for not availing myself of his Majesty's ships, in that I had not been able to provide myself with a dwelling beforehand, my agents having busied themselves without result these last months, so that it was not possible for me to announce my appearance at Court when I had no place arranged at which to inaugurate the embassy in a suitable manner.
I am sparing no pains to hasten the preparations, though I am hindered by manifold requirements of a new and long interrupted embassy, in a distant country. The difficulties have been enormously increased by the grasping habits (interessate costume) of the people here, particularly against one found to be in the necessity of making provision, and who is bound to keep up the style of a stately mission. The most difficult thing of all is to find a house, owing to the scarcity, with severe and exorbitant rents due to the immense numbers of people who have come unexpectedly to this metropolis, but greatly intensified by the fire, of which your Excellencies already know, which for a most extensive stretch has left many convenient houses mere heaps of ruins and rubble.
Accordingly I have not been deterred by the demand for 400l. sterling equivalent to 2400 of our ducats, having always before my eyes the obedience due to your Serenity, in the hope, after so many powerful examples, that I shall not be abandoned by the state's clemency, which is disposed to relieve rather than depress the limited fortunes of its citizens. With this assurance I shall find myself at the earliest moment in a position to make myself known at the Court. The whole of the House of Arundel and the chief almoner of the queen have passed over the restraints of ceremonial towards this house, with testimony of confidence and regard, showing the most pronounced attentions and a passionate desire for the glory of your Serenity. To these demonstrations I have responded with expressions of gratitude which I considered proper to the dignity of your Serenity and likely to confirm them in their disposition, as I like to think that I shall be assisted by the influence of these personages in case of need, the duke being conspicuous for his favour with the king, while Lord Philip, the queen's grand almoner and the two other brothers are popular and esteemed by all.
In the matter of esteem shown towards one who has the honour to represent your Serenity, I may refer to the treatment received from the governor of Ostend, who visited me on my ship and with his other courtesies showed his goodwill to favour me. In return for the state's regard which I expressed he agreed that the ministers of the customs should respect my passports and not compel me to find security for 10,000 florins before permitting the unloading of my baggage, so that I should not have the trouble of writing to Brussels for definite orders for the release of the security itself, promptly received from the merchants there, from whom it has been necessary for me to seek assistance everywhere, owing to the excessive expense of this long journey.
At Ostend itself a great number of bonfires were prepared for the reception of Don John, who had not yet appeared but was most eagerly expected, especially by the troops, for the pay they were longing for. For lack of this desertions have been so frequent in Flanders, the English soldiers being more tired of waiting than the others, that few have remained with the colours, almost the entire number of 2000 having returned to England after having been raised in this country at excessive cost by the Spanish ambassador, the Count of Molina.
In respect of the intelligence already communicated to your Serenity about the plague having spread to Brussels and being discovered at Antwerp, and although uneasiness is growing with the manifest increase of the mischief, the magistrates there are taking no precautions, in the confidence that the climate will not permit this plant of infection to take deeper root. I pray God that it may not produce fruit of disastrous misery.
London, the 10th August, 1668.
[Italian.]
Aug. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
324. Pietro Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On my appearance at this Court I find, in accordance with the usual custom of the country, at this season, that most of the gentry and leading ministers are away from the city at their country diversions. However, the Secretary Marchesin, always active in your Serenity's service, pursues his fruitful service, cultivating good will and sowing seed of the greatest importance, which should render fruitful even the soil most hard to cultivate and slow to produce, that the fruits should be enjoyed in the coming year. Already from the series of his letters your Excellencies will have learned the state of his transactions, the disposition to hasten to the defence of Candia having been restrained by questions of precedence in the declarations of the powers. This pretext which colours the obstacles which stand in the way of effective action constitute the chief reason which will make me hasten my first audience so as not to lose time, which is precious here, with the delay of negotiations.
On the return of the Secretary Harlinton to this city Sig. Marchesini will make it his special business to obtain a reply to the ducale presented by him. After this, taking leave of the king, he will return to Holland to attend to the commissions which will be communicated to him by your Serenity. In the mean time his sojourn here is not without fruit as he favours me with full particulars about the Court where his talent has made him an expert in a few weeks, so that this will be an added merit to the services which for so long a time and on so many occasions he has rendered to your Serenity.
I can as yet form no judgment about the hopes which may be entertained of succour from this crown, nor can I venture to assure your Serenity of anything except of the promptness of the offices which I will perform with his Majesty on the earliest opportunity, availing myself of the example of the other princes, as he will not wish to be behind them, but to show an equal zeal in opposing the violence of the Turks, and not inferior in regard for the republic, with which he enjoys such perfect relations. I shall not fail to point out that if Candia is abandoned, after twenty-four years of resistance, it will be bound to fall, particularly under the repeated assaults of the present campaign (which God forfend). With that position the power of the Turks will be so much increased at sea that they will become intolerable and navigation will no longer be safe; doing my utmost to persuade his Majesty to assist so friendly a power with his forces and means, without the slightest remark.
With regard to the mediation of peace the ambassador Earl Harvis, has already repeatedly expressed himself to Sig. Marchesini, and the duke of Arundel has confirmed it to me again that they are ready to contribute their own offices in the negotiations at the Porte, whither the commissions have been sent by the Secretary Arlinton. Although the earl is on the very eve of departing I believe that he will wish to see me first, in the hope of having instructions to guide him in the negotiations at Adrianople. But as I have no knowledge of the intentions of your Excellencies I shall confine myself to generalities, stimulating him to forward and assist the interests of the most serene republic as against those barbarians, insisting in particular on preventing the Turks from using the ships of his country against your Excellencies, whereby this crown will render itself ever more conspicuous and glorious. I like to think, however, that the prudence of your Excellencies will recognise the necessity of enlightening me about the intentions of your Serenity for those acts of confidence which will prove opportune at this Court, if they should decide to support the employment of this same minister.
As the baggage of the sieur de Colbert, the French ambassador has already entered London, it is believed that he himself will not be long in appearing, preceded by the decree concerning the appointment of the audiences, reported to your Serenity by Sig. Marchesini. His negotiations, which excite great curiosity at the Court, will call for the closest attention, and I hope that I shall not leave your Excellencies in the dark, since it is believed that here will be made the theatre of the most weighty transactions and of the secret mysteries of that crown, which in its ambition to overflow its own limits, does not look with a friendly eye on the great power of the Dutch, who are free from commitments and which is ready to thwart all advancement.
London, the 10th August, 1668.
[Italian.]
Aug. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
325. Marc Antonio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The arrival of the Sig. Colbert in London and further the announcement that he has in hand the conduct of the most important affair that has been negotiated in this century gives the Lords States matter for consideration and compels them to be most attentively on their guard. They feel confident that if France makes liberal proposals to England for disturbing the commerce of Holland, she will not find them ready to listen to her there. If by offers of cash she attempts to detach that kingdom from the States, the latter hope that the knot of the alliance will stand in the way. They protest that the jealousies which are being disseminated among the allies will serve to turn their thoughts to Holland to derive the benefit of new friendships and to unite closely with them. If the designs of France upon the Low Countries alone had the power to facilitate the alliance between England, Sweden, and Holland, other attempts would induce them to join themselves in alliance with other princes with redoubtable forces. The Ambassador Meermen, who has returned from London, asserts however that he left things in the best state of security and that no change was to be feared.
Paris, the 11th August, 1668.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
326. Pietro Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The limits of ceremonial are too slight to restrain the zeal of the duke of Arundel from those conspicuous demonstrations which are calculated to cause the minister of your Serenity to shine at this Court.
On the eve of his departure for Constantinople the Ambassador Count of Harvis has elected to come to me first to express his high regard for the most serene republic. Without any preceding ceremony or compliments on my side he came to the house and was received without the treatment due to a person bearing the character of ambassador but which I had to omit, so as to make no distinction from the reserve practised with the rest of the Court. The ambassador congratulated me warmly on my safe arrival in London and was very kind to me personally. His conversation comprised the points well known to your Excellencies from the letters of Sig. Marchesini, but I will repeat them so that you may know all that is done in the course of my embassy and forgive me if I do not entirely fulfil the wishes of the state which have not yet been communicated to me in the usual ducali.
The ambassador said that he had wished to see me again before he went, to express his earnest desire to devote himself to the interests of the most serene republic at the Porte. This was made easy for him by an order he had from his prince to prevent ships of the nation from taking up service under the Turks. He would do his very best to carry this out, if the violence of those barbarians did not compel the captains to make a reluctant submission. Thus for the purpose of not committing the ship of sixty guns, appointed for his voyage, he had express instructions not to go beyond Smyrna, and to proceed thence to Constantinople by land.
With respect to mediation with the Turks for peace with your Serenity he had instructions to be guided in all things in accordance with the instructions which your Excellencies should cause to be communicated to him, saving always the honour of the crown, and here he enlarged on the readiness shown by his Majesty in giving this charge. He had been forbidden to touch first at the port of Leghorn, for fear that the governor of the fortress there should prove unwilling to give his ship the salute first, in the style introduced with the French. The order had subsequently been withdrawn and he had been directed to keep the ship away, but to go himself to the port incognito under the pretext of seeing the Resident Finz, but for the purpose of receiving such information as your Excellencies should indicate to me as most fitting, so that he might reach Adrianople well informed for the greater advantage of the said negotiation.
In my reply I began by applauding his zeal for advancing the public cause. With regard to the king's order to prevent English ships serving the Turks against your Serenity, I assured him that the republic would be duly grateful to him personally for the offer. At my first audience I would express to his Majesty the obligation conferred, for it must not be remembered that the ships of a king, so zealous and pious should have assisted in the loss of Candia, the sole bulwark which for so long has stood against the flood of the infidels. To the violence of the Turks they could oppose the respect they bear for the Levant Company, the manifold pretexts which the captains could advance and above all the reputation and address of his Excellency, which could subdue the power of those infidels by art. I also referred to the pious zeal of his Majesty in deciding not to expose to their violence the ship which was to take his Excellency. I told him that I would inform your Excellencies of the commissions he had received from his Majesty about mediation, and his desire to serve the interests of your Serenity, urging him to persist in this as due to an old standing friend of the crown. I passed over the question of going to Leghorn, but enlarged upon the glory of his Majesty, and of the British name, known to the world of yore and in especial at present as the arbiter of war and peace. I intimated that the true way to reduce the common enemy to peace would be vigorous succour from this country which is so greatly esteemed and feared.
These ideas were enlarged upon by the duke of Arundel, who acted as interpreter, and the count will have mentioned them in the Council, with such results as may be expected from a mere intimation. I thought it best not to commit myself further, but to leave projects already made in their present state. I like to think that I made an adequate response to the Count's advances. I also sent to wish him a prosperous voyage, which he has begun this morning with a favourable wind. In the mean time I do not insist on commissions from your Excellencies on this matter, because I imagine you have already sent them on the first intimation made by the Secretary Marchesini.
London, the 17th August, 1668.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
327. Pietro Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Impatient of his sojourn in this city, from not being so useful to his country as he would wish, and encouraged by the most kind ducali of your Serenity, full of appreciation, the Secretary Marchesini set out to see the Secretary Arlinton almost as soon Venetian as he heard of his return to Court from the baths, determined to do his very utmost to incite him to procure some generous resolution. But the justice of the cause and the vigour of his speech had no better effect than upon other occasions. Arlinton laid stress upon the needs of the crown which still kept open the wounds of the late war, and to the great consideration which they must have to correspondence with the Turks and to trade in the Levant, and he merely promised a reply from the king to the ducale of your Serenity. With this scant encouragement Sig. Marchesini will ask to be introduced to audience next week when he is resolved to repeat to his Majesty the very strong reasons which have on two occasions brought him to the point of promising, though they have not induced him to perform. After this the secretary will return to the Hague to attend to the instructions of your Serenity.
In the mean time the secretary is cultivating the Dutch ambassador, more with a wise prevention that this may prove profitable in the future than with the hope of present benefit. This same ambassador has confided to him that this [week] the ratification has arrived from Sweden of the alliance proposed by the ambassador of that crown, but which was left imperfect through his death (fn. 4) ; that in Holland they had approved it, so that these three powers were under a definite obligation to cause the last treaty of peace between France and Spain to be carried out.
Of the differences involved in the well known pretensions of France, nothing is expressed, and with the Spanish ambassador waiting to see what is done by Castel Rodrigo, he still feels confident that the fortresses and posts must be recognised as not annexed to the conquests of France but dependent on what has remained in the hands of his Catholic Majesty. The appearance of the French Ambassador Colbert at this Court will not leave these matters obscure, and it is possible that the intentions of that crown will be disclosed; but your Excellencies will have been already enlightened on the matter in advance by the Ambassador Giustinian.
With a favouring wind and a calm sea this same Colbert crossed from Cales to Dover and arrived yesterday incognito at the place which was taken many days ago and furnished by his household, which forestalled his arrival. He will have facilities for making his public entry because he has his liveries, coaches and horses ready, which were used for the congress at Aix la Chapelle, but for overcoming the delays of the country he will be much better served by the great sums of money, the splendid employment of which for the glory of the embassy already shows the generosity of that crown. For my own part, though dependent on a feeble private fortune, I am determined not to let myself be surpassed in maintaining worthily the representation of the state. Although my own rent does not amount to the 700l. sterling which the Ambassador Colbert pays for his palace, (fn. 5) mine will be no less conspicuous for its position, for its aristocratic character and for the accompanying circumstances, so that the difference in the price will not render it inferior in pomp and style.
For the rest there is no longer a remembrance of past things, and the standard is raised again. The household is increased, provisions grow dearer, money in this country is losing its usual value, and extraordinary expenses go on increasing at the prompting of ambition that everywhere urges men no longer to measure themselves by their own substance, but in accordance with the vanity of the age. I have submitted to all this with a good heart because if I owe my life to the public service it is even more my duty to devote to it my substance; but I cannot help saying that without generous assistance from your Serenity my own resources will fail and the public dignity will suffer. I do not ask your Excellencies to join together the emoluments of this embassy with the others of crowned heads, seeing that you consider it a lesser burden or rather that you have not had occasion to listen to the requests of any ordinary ambassador, but that you will deign to consider the weakness of my resources and afford me some relief. Everywhere your Excellencies give generous support to all the ambassadors who do not receive a house from the princes with whom they reside, so I beseech the Senate not to make a distinction against me, considering the importance of the embassy, the extraordinary charge of a pledge of 2000l. sterling which I had to give for any accident which might occur in the house, and with a humane regard to the compassion which I in particular deserve, subject for so many years to the burden of the charge, (fn. 6) with uncertainty of the issue, the charges for the transport of the furniture and the essential losses owing to the insecurity of the navigation. I do not say that such an act of public benevolence would encourage me to serve your Serenity with more devotion, as I could not be more zealous, but with my fortune less weighed down I shall bless those who will make it more easy for me to serve and maintain the dignity of the State at this Court, where, after being obscured up to now it has become most conspicuous with its renewed splendours.
London, the 17th August, 1668.
[Italian.]
Aug. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
venetian
Archives.
328. To the Ambassador in England.
Send him a copy of the suggestion of van Bouninghen about mediation, upon which Marchesini went astray, as there seems to have been a misunderstanding. He is to speak with the duke of Arundel and others with whom Marchesini spoke, in order to remove the impression. He is to do his best to obtain the good will of his Majesty's ambassador to the Porte and to do everything possible to encourage his disposition to help the republic.
He is not to put aside altogether the suggestion of van Bouninghen; though it is plausible rather than holding out any real hope, as it may provide a suitable opportunity for pointing out how meritorious and glorious it would be to co-operate by a union in a work that would aim, not only at the relief of the republic and of a just cause, but to prevent the further aggrandisement of the Ottoman power.
Enclose news of the army, contained in letters up to the 6th ult.
Ayes, 90. Noes, 3. Neutral, 19.
[Italian.]
Aug. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
329. Catterin Belegno, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The earl of Sciandovich has received orders from his king to proceed to Tanger, under the pretext of designing the building of an arsenal. But it is believed that on arriving at that place he will be put under arrest by the king's order, since he has many enemies in England and the Court there professes to be ill pleased with the negotiations which he conducted at Lisbon. (fn. 7)
Madrid, the 18th August, 1668.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Sir Daniel Harvey sailed in the Leopard, Capt. Charles O'Brien. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1667–8, pp. 498, 532.
2 Order in Council of the 13th July, o.s. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1667–8, p. 484.
3 Obliterated.
4 Dohna, who died in London on the 21st May. See p. 220, above.
5 The first place taken by Colbert for his residence in London was Leicester House. It was situate at the north-east corner of Leicester Square. Recueil des Instructions des Ambassadeurs. Angleterre, Vol. ii, p. 94 ed. Jusserand, Wheatley and Cunningham: London Past and Present, Vol. ii, p. 380.
6 He had been chosen as ambassador to England in December 1660. See Vol. xxxii of this Calendar, p. 227.
7 He was blamed for signing the treaty below the Marquis of Carpio; but he defended his action successfully and was restored to favour. Harris: Life of Edward Montagu, First Earl of Sandwich, Vol. ii, pp. 147–8.