Venice
October 1668, 16-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1935

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295-306

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'Venice: October 1668, 16-30', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 35: 1666-1668 (1935), pp. 295-306. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90232 Date accessed: 17 September 2014.


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October 1668, 16–30

Oct. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
361. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The fluctuations between good and bad news about Candia do equal harm to my operations. The report of the withdrawal of the Turks from the siege and that of the fall of the place alike hinder succour which would be inopportune in either case. To discredit these two extremes, published by various sheets and heard by the people with extreme joy or with regret from their sympathy with the republic, I show more veracious ones and let the ministers see them, to gain some profit for my country. But visits involve meetings, and for these one is obliged at present to have regard to mysterious considerations, which I will submit to the attention of your Excellencies, in connection with the incident with the Spanish ambassador.
Returned from the delights of the country General Monch agreed to an appointment for a visit. Arrived at his house I found several gentlemen at the door and Albemarle, Monch's ducal title, met me in the hall at the foot of the stairs, with excessive courtesy. He conversed in the most kind manner through several interpreters, and when I took leave after a long interview, he came back with me to the foot of the stairs to see my coach off. This marked courtesy is the more unusual in the duke, as he is very reserved about visits and rarely returns them. The Dutch ambassador also showed me special consideration, coming almost to the coach, and paid me the greatest attentions that are ever exchanged between royal ministers. The Secretary Trevers also showed his respect, so that in a few days and at several visits I have received unusual and distinguished treatment.
This confusion which leaves everything to personal caprice and causes excessive civility, has had no effect on the French ambassador's proposal to bring things back to a proper order. When I went to his house he only met me on the stairs. In conversation he said to me that there could be no doubt about the true ceremonial, as practised by him with me. At Aix la Chapelle the nuncio and other ministers had acted so. The Spanish ambassador could not claim more than was done for the French, and it was better, if not necessary, to accept the situation, to prevent disputes and public declarations. The Count of Molina could not pretend that the custom was different here because Buchingan, Ormond and Arlinton had met him, Colbert, only on the stairs, and so the ambassadors were obliged not to follow the example of any one who abused the ceremonial. He had on one occasion met the Spanish ambassador at the foot of the stairs but that was on an extraordinary visit.
I told him that I was sure his prudence would afford every facility for composing this trifling difference. The Court was watching, ready to applaud his skill. I was here to show respect to all the ambassadors of crowns and to increase good will. I repeated my confidence that he would get rid of all unpleasantness. Colbert repeated that the count of Molina would not have advanced his pretensions against him, but I would not go into the matter further, except to speak of the credit he would gain by ending such differences, trying to persuade him on the ground of glory since he would not allow that of convenience to be touched upon.
The difficulty consists in two points: to get the French ambassador to give up the claim that Spain shall receive the same treatment as I gave him, and for the count to make a concession for at least once, and be content to be received by me on the stairs, like Colbert, leaving the question of restoring the old ceremonial for settlement later. But Spain will not give way and France will always be reluctant to oblige him, refusing to be a mean for the satisfaction of Spain. It seems to me that it will be very difficult to put straight this confused ceremonial. It would require decrees and would upset the whole Court which is very averse from such precision about compliments or subjection to formulas.
The Spanish ambassador will have written to his Court and even if he should decide to give way about his pretensions it is easy to see that fresh difficulties will arise, from the claim that the entering of my house was meant for a visit and he may not come to see me again. I could wish that the knot of these pretensions of the two ambassadors were resolved, when I should try to get the count of Molina back to this house and do my best to satisfy him. I trust that your Excellencies will approve of my going to visit his wife, because she is coming publicly to receive the same treatment which he refused. In the mean time I shall avoid making appointments for the return visits of the duke of Albemarle and the Dutch ambassador, because I cannot meet them downstairs without offending France and gratifying Spain.
I report this in order that I may have instructions. In the mean time I endeavour to cultivate the Spanish ambassador through the Secretary Alberti, with the opportunity of the advices of Candia and of the succour which the Viceroy of Naples facilitates. I am infinitely distressed to trouble the Senate with matter of such slight consequence intrinsically, when Candia is in such peril, and am only eager to obtain succour, although the Christian powers do not interest themselves as they should in a holy and glorious defence, necessary for the preservation of all.
London, the 19th October, 1668.
[Italian.]
Oct. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
362. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In my impatience to know what success the Dutch ambassador had had obtaining audience of the king, I went immediately to his house. Without waiting to be asked he said that he had requested an audience about commissions from the Lords States. He had stayed with his Majesty for some time, but the king did not bring up the matter of the succours and he had no means of introducing it. He greatly regretted that he had been unable to do anything for a cause so just and pressing. I then said that I had presented a memorial to the king, and from the good disposition of the ministers to whom it was entrusted I hoped for a favourable reply. From the Hague I had heard of the conferences between the Pensionary Vit and the Ambassador Temple, and it seemed to me that they might justly consider the importance of the cause and discuss concerted action and union. At this I ventured to say that I should like to think that the States had furnished him with authority to speak at this Court.
Borel replied that he was fully informed of the conversations at the Hague, but he had no commissions. On my pressing him he said that the king desired to know the intentions of the States. They could give effect to everything. By a simple declaration they were in a position to oblige the republic as if they were actually aiding it. If they declared by the mouth of leading ministers that they proposed to give succour, with the reservation that they were acting in concert with the English, they would be free from the obligation if the English should withdraw, and as such a declaration uttered orally, done in conjunction with the English, would have no substance to injure trade in the Levant, suspicion would die away.
Borel admitted this, but putting aside his own character to avoid opposing the wishes of his masters, he would not commit himself further, although I urged him to take up the matter at this Court for his own glory.
I subsequently called upon the Secretary Trevers at the very moment when he returned from the country, pressing him strongly to uphold the importance of the affair, entrusted by the king to him and the lord keeper. He came to tell me two days ago of his disposition to encourage generous resolutions, after having seen the lord keeper in the country near here. After exchanging compliments he said that after having fully considered the memorial I had presented, they made up their minds, following the example of all the princes, to advise his Majesty to succour Candia. Therefore assisting the good will and the measures taken by the States they had written their opinion to Arlinton, so that if his Majesty approved the effect might not be delayed. This was to write to the Ambassador Temple in Holland, to get him to speak to the States on the matter and gather their positive intentions, so as to act jointly. This was the sole way to change words into fruitful deeds. He left me with the hope that the king might possibly agree to give the orders without submitting the matter to the Council, undertaking to acquaint me with everything.
He asked later for precise information about the succours to be contributed by the Most Christian, and seemed amazed to learn of the presence of the minister of your Serenity at the Porte; but he was advised by earl Anglise of the fear that those barbarians might avenge themselves on the person of the Ambassador Harvis in defiance of public law. I am watching for any orders that may be given to the Ambassador Temple, and the moment the lord keeper or Trevers comes back to London I will tackle them, in the mean time informing the Secretary Marchesini of everything. Although he is at Amsterdam, extremely busy over the difficult matter of embarking the troops of Luneburg, which has met with so many obstacles, he will be able to give the question his attention at the Hague to secure every possible advantage.
On my visit to General Monch I spoke of the importance of that siege, and as he is a man of the sword rather than of speech, I praised his valour and said that he alone at the head of an army would strike terror into the Ottoman empire. His advice, so greatly valued, would show the necessity for all to hasten to the defence of Candia. Speaking of the great consumption of powder and materials, which had become scarce, I showed how easily the king could supply these means, without which the end could not be achieved, this country having abundance of them, especially in the present peace. I hoped thus to stir the ambitious spirit of the duke, laying stress on speedy assistance in munitions and materials. I rejoice that in this I have carried out the instructions in the ducali of the 22nd and 28th September, but regret that this is not enough to help Candia.
Even with the Court far away and while all are amusing themselves in the country, I do not forget to cultivate the Secretary Arlinton, so that where his own private interests clash with our plans he may not be induced to prevent suitable resolutions of the king. I try every possible way to facilitate the obtaining of something, but your Excellencies know that while the right or wrong direction of affairs is the act of the minister, the issue does not depend upon him.
London, the 19th October, 1668.
[Italian.]
Oct. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
363. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In discussing with the Dutch ambassador the events of Candia and the policy and aims which the pope should have, no less than the king of Spain for preserving that bulwark, he said that the popes, the princes of a day should not serve as an example to the Spaniards, who with such carelessness neglected to defend their own dominions of Naples and Sicily in Candia. His masters followed the example of the prudent Venetian government, in the policy of keeping every one in possession of his own, opposing immoderate aggrandisement and the upsetting of the balance. To this end they had procured the peace between the crowns, which cost them more than three millions, being obliged by looking ahead to prevent not only the present evil but the greater one which would grow in the future. In this they had aimed solely at tranquillity, being always concerned for peace, not to prescribe conditions for it. At all times they would have at heart the preservation of Flanders and the most cordial relations with the friendly princes, as they favoured universal union and concord. He has instructions to remain here as ordinary ambassador although he still keeps the title of extraordinary, and before everything else he had studied to cultivate and increase the most perfect intelligence. The Spaniards also were applying themselves to settle the few differences in the last treaty of peace with France, and Pimentelli was already at Paris well furnished with authority. Here he began to speak frankly about the Spanish government, showing that the Lords States are not pleased at seeing that minister with the Most Christian, being suspicious about secret negotiations which he might conduct there. The Lords States proclaim themselves ill pleased with the policy of the confessor of his Catholic Majesty. (fn. 1) Borel referred to the deep secrets of Don John, ambitious for the crown, based upon the king's tender years and delicate health. He said that the division of those realms would be easy, but it would cause most deep-seated injury to all. It was important therefore to know in what sense [Sandvich] will speak, who has recently returned from his embassy to that Court, whither Mr. Godolphin, formerly secretary to that earl, will soon be returning in the capacity of resident to continue the correspondence with this crown.
From the affairs of Spain Borel passed to those of France. He spoke in divers ways about the election of the king of Poland. Concerning the individuals he said that the Lords States were indifferent about Lorraine or Neoburgo, but the forces of the Muscovite, excessively augmented, should oblige every one to reserve with regard to his assumption of the crown. United the two powers could have put 5 or 600,000 men into the field, and this was a force sufficient to enlarge his boundaries greatly and to flood the dominions of other princes. On other grounds he deserved admiration, in the conduct of his government which daily rendered him more eminent in the world and which in itself combined whatever was fine and good that had been produced by the soil and the beaux esprits of the other countries.
No good augury can be made about the proposal of the Ambassador Colbert for a commercial union between these two countries. The question has been referred to deputies adept in such matters, who without political principles measure it only by considerations of interest. With the opposition encountered a reply will be subject to delay if it is not frankly in the negative. Thus during these last days certain Frenchmen have been arrested who were trying to entice away a number of English workmen, excelling in the art of weaving silk hose, to carry away to that country the proper way to make them. (fn. 2) They have been severely punished because they aim here at preventing the most conspicuous arts from being taken out of the country; as Flanders, a short while ago let itself be robbed of the true way to manufacture tapestries (panni razzi), which has been mastered by the Parisians. (fn. 3)
No apprehension is felt here about the four ships sent by the Most Christian to America under the command of M. d'Estrees to force the English to give up their claims, in accordance with the treaty of Breda … the latter being supported by the fifteen ships sent to the island of San Christoforo, which will uphold their rights.
About the purchase of Tanger and the recall of the lord chancellor to this country nothing is said, the affair being buried in the multiplicity of the opposition and the opponents.
On the other hand they are listening to a proposal of Durazzo, a Genoese, who has been ambassador at Constantinople, who suggests to a friend here … to keep a squadron of galleys in the port of Tanger, (fn. 4) which is not yet safe for ships, because these might be supplied and maintained by an arrangement with the Genoese, as they do with the king of Spain. The suggestion is a very novel one and as it comes by indirect ways I do not think it will give me occasion to report any further steps to your Serenity.
The precise instructions of your Excellencies to observe and report whatever comes to my notice in such matters will sometimes render my letters excessively tedious; but as I have thought it right to let you know the opinions of the Dutch minister about the Spaniards and Poland and the turn of the French ambassador's affairs, it is permissible to inform you about a mischance of the ambassadress, his wife, over an audience she asked of the queen before she left for the country. Her Excellency entered the ante chamber and after she had waited a long time a lady came out of the queen's apartments to tell her that her Majesty had been overtaken at that moment by a violent perspiration (un estraordinario sudore) and could not receive her. So the ambassadress left and by ill fortune when on a visit to the ambassadress of Spain, the incident coming up in conversation the latter told the Frenchwoman that she had been with the queen at the time and had had the honour to wait upon her in that attack. Surprised at this Colbert's wife told her husband about it and subsequently declared that this distinction was hurtful to her position. She would write to France as the ambassadress of Spain ought not to be preferred on any account. It is certain that she would not have gone to Court again, without an apology being offered by a gentleman, but as the queen has left London, the question remains in its original state.
London, the 19th October, 1668.
[Italian.]
Oct. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
364. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The squadrons of papal and Maltese galleys are detaching themselves from your Serenity's fleet, and on the walls of Candia, which are ruined in some parts, the Grand Vizier daily builds his hopes of taking the place; this news tortures me because of its evil augury and because it will chill the disposition to send succour; but I do not lose heart and enlarge upon the daily assistance with which your Excellencies supply the state representatives to enable them to maintain a glorious defence. To remove every other impression the papal and Maltese generals colour their decision by the necessity of withdrawing to port before the winter, and especially in the case of Rospigliosi, who at a later season could not coast along the Roman shore without danger. I end my remarks with the confidence that if Candia is assisted it will prove the tomb of as many Turks as enter the kingdom.
… the true means for obtaining assistance is the union of this king with the States, so that their mutual jealousies may cease, I have turned my attention to get the advice of the lord keeper and Secretary Trevers carried out, as once his Majesty has gone so far as to cause the Ambassador Temple at the Hague to speak and if he finds the Lords States disposed to act, he cannot draw back from joining with them in succour for the most serene republic.
Hardly had the Secretary Trevers returned from the country than I went to see him eager to hear what he had done. He told me that the absence of the king and his diversions led to delay in the answers which had not yet reached him. When he heard lie would let me know. Speaking with all respect for the republic he said that it was his duty to await the decisions. He had not failed on his side to urge the most generous resolutions. … I was infinitely glad of the opportunity to go to audience of his Majesty with less observation, through the opening afforded by the ceremonial arranged for next week by the other ambassadors. Without this I had decided to go into the country, and although my poor fortunes will suffer, all will be well if I can persuade his Majesty to such a declaration and to give the orders to the Ambassador Temple to come as soon as possible… to some resolution, representing the urgent need of the place. With the other advices I will make use of that about the appearance of the Grand Turk at Larissa and the construction of the Seraglio.
I will use the strongest arguments with the Secretary Arlinton and will try, step by step, to bring this crown to the glorious task of defending Christendom, and also of bringing about union through the Ambassador Temple. As a civility to Temple, in attention to the attentions of the Secretary Marchesini, I have called upon his wife, who is sailing for Holland, that she may use her influence with her husband, being impressed with the importance of the minister being employed upon great transactions.
On the other hand, even if the desired commissions are given to Temple from this side I am not sure how much may be promised from the disposition of the States, as I have noticed a cooling off and a new and great reticence in the Ambassador Borel to my pressing insistence that he shall ask for authority to explain and propose to his Majesty the wish of his masters. I know I have written before that a declaration from the king here about succour would put to the test the boasted disposition of the States and I earnestly hope that the unbosoming of the Pensionary Vit with the Secretary Marchesini may be sufficient pledges to bind the States not to draw back from the proposal of 2000 men paid, and that, at a push, they will be more ready to give than to receive example from the crown here, and that the intentions expressed to Sig. Marchesini may not turn into mere words.
In my memorial to the king it may have been noticed how much I made of the permission by the Dutch for embarking the troops of Luneburgh at their ports and the despatch of munitions to the Levant, but I did not commit myself about the confidence of obtaining from them a large force of paid troops because Sig. Marchesini had never written to me that the States had decided to grant the 2000 men, but only that the Pensionary Vit had offered him very strong hopes of them if England should take some step. I could not promise this as settled or rely upon the intentions of Vit, because what he says has no force unless approved by the States. Would to God that we were at this point, as then the conversations of the Ambassador Temple would not be necessary, and if the Dutch had already definitely declared for succours I could … (fn. 5) to do the same. But we are at an earlier stage since it is necessary to reduce the suggestions of Vit to positive proposals, and once the declaration to act jointly is taken then both sides can announce the nature of the assistance. According to Vit then the Dutch are disposed to grant the 2000 men if England gives succours … (fn. 5) that the Ambassador Temple may be directed to speak to the States to act jointly, in which case they can declare their readiness to give the troops and here they should no longer have any scruples about the Levant trade, because with both united and both interested they will respect each other in their own interest.
The Ambassador Borel has cooled about the question of the succour and is become even more reserved about the suggestion of joint representations at the Porte about peace with your Serenity. I have asked him several times if he has yet received authority to propose the matter at this Court, and he has evaded a direct reply by speaking of something else. I am left in doubt whether this is due to the unwillingness of his masters to commit themselves to the succours and the peace, or if their object is to deal with the more important affairs at their own Court, in conformity with the desire they have always shown to render it conspicuous by the presence there of the most competent ministers of every prince.
The merchant I wrote of has at last been persuaded to send the salt meat to Candia. As an experiment he has caused a ship to be convoyed as far as Zante and thence the meat will be transported to Candia; and if this succeeds the process will be repeated.
I will deal here also with the agents of the merchant Druenstein, who for the safety of the munitions which he is obtaining from Holland for your Serenity desires an English ship, as being less subject to reprisals by the corsairs with whom this crown has a truce.
The disbanding of the troops of Luneburg, essential in itself, is worse for the consequences. It will serve as a bad example in the future. God grant that it may not afford an excuse to other princes to evade providing troops because of the dislike of the sea. If this is an excuse for avoiding the service, the way by land is also disagreeable and will meet with objections, for whichever way is chosen they will always reach Candia in the end, where the service is more dreaded than ever for its dangerous nature and the perpetual exercise of arms.
London, the 26th October, 1668.
[Italian.]
Oct. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
365. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
With the general relaxation of the Court and the absence of the leading personages, all business sleeps, the transactions of ministers are suspended and the consideration of more important matters is deferred to another time, which at present call for the main attention of this crown, for its share in the general tranquillity.
Nevertheless the leading merchants are discussing the commercial proposal of the Ambassador Colbert … (fn. 6) will meet with manifold opposition. Without entering into political considerations they saw that the king could not bind the hands of his subjects with so much disadvantage and with whispers of considerable confusions I think that the proposal will not take effect. To avoid fatiguing your Serenity with mere gossip I will only report when the treaty is rejected or when there is some fresh sign of its being embraced. The two things do not go well together, namely, a trade agreement in England and the need to appeal to arms in America, to decide by the sword what they claim here to be already clearly established in the treaty of Breda, so that ill feeling added to disinclination will upset everything.
Another fire of war nearer at hand is tending to spread, induced by the Prince Palatine … (fn. 6) state of Lorraine and thrust back again on to the Palatine; but as the propinquity of combustible material causes great alarm to the bordering and friendly powers, this Court will not remain indifferent, from its connections with the Palatine, and as it is not considered to have a propensity for committing itself it is reasonable to believe that rather than encourage an appeal to arms there it will join with … (fn. 6) to stop and compose those differences, unless the others make them more embittered. Your Excellencies will already have heard from the Ambassador Giustinian at Paris the objects of that crown and from your ministers at Vienna and the Hague the sentiments of the emperor and the policy of the States.
I did not expect to refer again to the proposal of the Genoese Durazzo about keeping galleys at Tanger, but having recently learned that the Ambassador Winchelsea who was at Constantinople, has had a proposal on the same subject, I report it until such time as Winchelsea has returned to this Court, when I can more definitely inform your Excellencies of all the schemes that may be attempted at the Strait of Gibraltar.
A more pressing matter for your Serenity is that of the currants, which are bought by English merchants at the Levant Islands. Four ships were despatched from here to lade these, and now news has come that owing to the high price one of them has decided to proceed to Naples to take in oil. The loss does not stop here and it would be much greater if they decide to do what they are meditating, which is to get their supplies of currants from the Morea. I consider every way to prevent such a step being taken, but the best will be provided when I have the instructions of your Excellencies for frustrating this action, which although discussed for a long time will not be settled so suddenly as not to allow time for remedies.
In the mean time, in order to cultivate the royal House, with the other foreign ministers, I went on Wednesday, the birthday of the duke of Hiorch, to the palace of his Highness to compliment him. In the evening we were all informally at the apartments of the duchess where I had a long talk with the duke about the affairs of Candia. He showed me a plan which he had … (fn. 7) and of the fortress, and seemed very anxious to be informed about the position and all the particulars of the siege, and he read attentively the advices which I brought him of proceedings there.
At the same apartments I had occasion to meet the Spanish ambassador. After the stiffest formalities he dwelt a long time upon the events of Candia and never said a word about the difference over meeting, so this affair is buried in silence until the return of the Court and I fervently hope that the French ambassador will not be too difficult on the question of punctilio. But as the absence of the Court is a stimulus to all the ambassadors to be with his Majesty next week, Count Molina has decided to go into the country in the coming week, and with France inclined to follow his example, I also have made an effort to provide myself with quarters in the place where his Majesty is to make a brief stay. The expense will be very considerable, owing to the numerous suite and equippage, as I must, by dint of pounds sterling maintain my dignity in a restricted place, where the presence of the Court will cause even the air to be for sale, in a manner of speaking, (fn. 8)
At a more convenient season I will carry out the suggestions made in the ducali of the 5th October, in cultivating the goodwill of a person of eminence, and I will always keep in mind that your Serenity shall receive the marks of respect and gratitude from this crown.
London, the 26th October, 1668.
Postscript: at the moment of closing this despatch a gentleman of the Secretary Travers has come to inform me that this evening they are writing to the Ambassador Temple to speak about help for the republic, and if he finds them well disposed, to make arrangements for joint operations; so I reopen this to forward such good news. If the States have the intentions averred by the Pensionary Vit, the treaty will proceed to some conclusion.
[Italian.]
Oct. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
366. Marc Antonio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch have pointed out to the princes of Brunswick the importance of preserving the peace for a long time. They have also urged them strongly to enter the triple alliance, indeed, Holland would like to make it common with every prince. Upon such a point his Britannic Majesty should act with the princes friendly to him. Mons. di Colbert, ambassador of the king here in London, is on the alert and devoting all his powers to thwart their designs. He is making proposals for trade with articles of the most advantageous description, all for the purpose of keeping further unions at a distance. He has preferred a request that ministers may be appointed for him to draw up negotiations and to digest common questions profitable to the two crowns of France and England. They have not agreed to this but have told him, for an answer that they would first of all like to see the treaty of Breda carried into effect. France has failed to do her part in this with respect to the restitution of half of the island of San Cristofolo, which belonged to the English and is now entirely possessed by the people of this nation who, under various pretexts refuse to hand it over. In reply to this, on the point of restitution, Mons. di Colbert has replied that the Most Christian would have no objection to purchase it, if his Britannic Majesty is disposed to sell and they are able to agree about the price. Once again they have refused to negotiate and require that it shall be given up freely. By the purchase of that part of the island they aspire to buy the master of it as well.
Paris, the 30th October, 1668.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The Jesuit John Eberhard Neidhart.
2 “Il ya ici un Francois appellé Noiset, qui a esté accusé d'avoir voulu faire passer des ouvriers en France et mesme des metiers pour la manufacture des bas de soie … et comme cela est defendu par une ordonnance … de 1665 … ils l'ont fait mettre prisonnier dans la Tour … Je vois qu'ils en font une affaire d'importance et d'exemple.” Colbert to J. B. Colbert on 8th October, 1668. P.R.O. Paris Transcripts.
3 An allusion to the purchases by Colbert in 1667 of the Gobelins factory at Paris, where the painter Lebrun was installed as director and where under the instruction of one Jeans, a native of Bruges, French tapestry rivalled that of Flanders. Voltaire: Siècle de Louis XIV, ed. Gaffarel, p. 466.
4 In the year 1671–2 two galleys were built at Leghorn for use at Tangier. Routh: Tangier 1660–84, p. 140
5 The bottom lines of these despatches are much faded by damp and in places totally obliterated.
6 Obliterated.
7 Obliterated.
8 The Court was at Audley End in October, but on the 26th the duke of York came to London, followed by the queen on the 27th and the king on the 28th. After a few days the king went off to Newmarket, where he remained until the 14th November. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962 S., ff. 303d, 305d, 307d.