Venice
February 1672

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1939

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159-171

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'Venice: February 1672', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 37: 1671-1672 (1939), pp. 159-171. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90319 Date accessed: 03 September 2014.


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February 1672

Feb. 4.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
157. The Resident of his Britannic Majesty came into the Collegio and presented the following memorial, which was read. Sig. Girolamo Foscarini, the senior councillor in the absence of the doge said they were glad to have fresh testimony of their wish to gratify his Majesty. They would gladly avail themselves of the fresh information he supplied and send it to the magistrate concerned. The other particulars should have consideration and where an answer was required they would let him know what happened. With this, after the usual reverences, the resident departed.
The Memorial. (fn. 1)
The Senate's replies to my requests about the merchant Pendarvis and the insolence of the advocate Manenti will serve to show to my king's Court the good will of your Serenity towards our nation. The Avogadori are charged with the trial of the case; but as I am assured that this Constantino Scagno has taken refuge on one of your Serenity's galleys, I ask that orders may be issued for his immediate arrest. I feel sure that such orders will not be delayed as they were previously, permitting him to escape, when the case would fall to the ground, the just wishes of my king would not be seconded and the merchant's life left in jeopardy.
I note the ready action of the Senate about the Advocate Manente. But my king tempers justice with mercy and I am sure he does not desire the ruin of one who regrets his fault; so I ask you to restore this advocate to his former condition.
I learn that the Senate will admit any one chosen by me to act as consul. I return therefore to the nomination of the two already named in my letters patent to be vice consuls, and I ask for their confirmation. I appoint two, one at Malamocco and the other here, as I think it necessary for the convenience of the English traders, captains and sailors, and it cannot do them any injury. Your Serenity may be sure that my only object is the advantage of the subjects of my king, the establishment of trade between them and those of your Serenity and the confirmation of the friendly relations between my king and this republic.
I note the Senate's intention to clear up the confusions left by the late war and the intention to satisfy creditors, and I again press for the payment of what is owed to my king's subjects. As these are not considerable I hope that orders will be issued as soon as possible.
Letters Patent of John Doddington, English resident, and George Hailes consul appointing as vice consul at Venice John Veller son of Peter, recommended as trustworthy and honest, acquainted with the city, speaking both English and Italian, and well acquainted with marine affairs; also as vice consul at Poveglia, Malamocco and everywhere where English ships anchor in this port, Giacomo Paulato, a man of good character and competent for the service of ships. All masters of ships sailing under his Majesty's flag are to avail themselves of their services for the provision of water and whatever else they require, at reasonable prices, and it is forbidden to any one else of any nation to interfere to supply them with barques called “bombottes” who deceive the poor sailors and make them pay double. We ask that this may be confirmed by the authority of the Collegio.
Dated at our residence in Venice, the 4th January, 1672, new style.
[Italian.]
Feb. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
158. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
Commend the diligence he has shown in getting merchants to lade wheat for the Levant Islands. He may be able, upon occasion, as if from himself and without committing himself to more, to suggest to them again the advantages they may secure under the circumstances of the scarcity if they receive similar request from the islands themselves, and leave it to them to take such steps as they may think advisable in their own interest.
He is aware of the desire of the republic to cultivate the most perfect correspondence with that crown. Thus steps have been taken against the person who attacked the merchant Pendarvis and to suspend the advocate Mainenti from the exercise of his profession. While the Senate is doing so much as a testimony of the sincere desire of the republic for the advantage of the nation, they observe with no little astonishment that the resident persists in his habitual extravagancies and proceedings. (fn. 2) The Senate readily consented to allow him to appoint a substitute in the absence of the consul. He pretended that he did not understand and appeared for the patent of the licence itself which has been expressly refused on a previous occasion because of most essential considerations. The Senate allowed the office to pass without an answer. Alberti is to inform Arlington so that if any sinister account arrives he may be able in his prudence to show how carefully the Senate has acted and the lack of good direction on the part of the minister.
Ayes, 138. Noes, 1. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Feb. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
159. In the Pregadi on the 5th February.
That it be an instruction to the councillors of the laws, in accordance with a fresh instance of the resident of England, not to permit the Advocate Mainenti to continue in the exercise of his function or to proceed further in such a matter.
[Italian.]
Feb. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
160. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After giving the finishing stroke to his affairs, the marquis of Segnelay left London with the intention of going first to inspect the king's ships at Chatham, Rochester and Portsmouth, and then going on straight to France. It is impossible as yet to ascertain the particulars of the treaty but I know for certain that the English government is at last pledged to join its forces to those of France and they are expecting a considerable supply of money. It is already said that Sir Thomas Band (fn. 3) is coming from Paris with three millions of French livres, though these are not sufficient. There will certainly be other particulars which those most inquisitive have not yet been able to discover; but everything is being done to keep France to her word and confident of conquests in the United Provinces, while England is waiting for the decision of Spain.
No reply has yet been given to the Ambassador Borel concerning his demands, although he has frequent conferences with Lord Arlington. He, having committed himself in writing that England land would remain neutral, is at a loss how to account for the change. In the mean time he has sent word to Holland that it was impossible for him to foresee the irritation caused here by the news of the Dutch alliance with Spain, though the outcry of the Provinces will be even louder when they hear of the rest of the fresh engagements contracted by England with Trance.
The Ambassador Deuninghen, having been constrained to make a written statement of his demands, is of opinion that commissioners will be appointed to examine them. He persists in his suspicion that Holland is doing her utmost to propitiate France by submission, though here they consider this a panic of the ambassador and pay no further attention to it.
The United Provinces are not yet agreed about the nomination of the prince of Orange to the generalship. Holland and Friesland insist that the other Provinces shall conform to their project, or else that no change be made with regard to former decrees, providing that the general shall not be chosen without the consent of all the Provinces, some persons having had an idea of appointing commissioners and that each Province should attend of itself to its own defence, a division which would be the ruin of all of them, and therefore the scheme does not seem to be near its execution.
Another report from Holland is no less ill founded, namely that the Dutch fleet will cruise off the coast of England and declare war on account of religion, in order to tamper with the king's subjects, giving them to understand that the king of France, at the instigation of the pope, means to destroy Holland so that he may then assist the king of England to enforce the Roman Catholic religion in Great Britain. All these are suppositions and falsehoods and even if they were to make any impression they could not shake the solid foundation of this government, which has already taken root and exercises supreme authority, whereby it has dissipated all apprehensions.
The three Dutch deputies have at last arrived at Brussels, to wit the Rhinegrave, governor of Mastricht, the Pensionary's brother and another; (fn. 4) but they have not yet conferred either with the governor or the Spanish ambassador who, it seems, is not disposed to come to London until acquainted with the decision of Spain, in order not to undertake the mission if the alliance with Holland involves distrust of England.
Monterey has no doubt about the adhesion of the emperor, if the queen mother of Spain sets the example. He also promises himself that of other princes of the empire; but the French, having entered the territory of Cologne, under pretence of the dispute between the elector and the city, have now established themselves there and declare that they will attack any reinforcements sent there by the Dutch.
London, the 5th February, 1671. [M.V.]
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Feb. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Prov. all'
Artigliaria.
Venetian
Archives.
161. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Proveditori all' Artigliaria.
In obedience to the commands of your Excellencies of 18th December last I wrote to Holland and made careful inquiry here for information about the use of fusees (spollette) (fn. 5) for cannon, to prevent the spoiling of the touch holes, and can obtain no confirmation of the fact. My correspondents at Amsterdam write that they have never seen anything of the sort, and that they will accordingly demand good account from the engineers of the Admiralty.
In the mean time I have made inquiries about the matter from Prince Rupert, who is here and is skilled and unique in such matters. He owned to me that the idea was new to him, though he did not consider the device impossible. For his own part he should only make use of it for guns whose touch holes were already fouled. He supposed that the fusee might be adjusted and removed at will, after the completion of the gun.
At this point I consider it for the public service to inform your Excellencies that this same Prince Rupert has discovered a way of casting iron cannon of the calibre of 50 pounds and upwards, giving them the colour of brass, so that his new pieces will not only be as handsome and convenient as brass ones, while lighter and more serviceable, but the cost will be very much lower than that of cast cannon and the loss less, beyond all comparison. As yet the Prince keeps his secret, but I fancy that it must come out through some of the persons in his confidence; all of which will serve as a guide.
London, the 5th February, 1671. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Feb. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
162. Carlo Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
While the universal attention is most naturally turned to see what will be the direction and behaviour of this government in the imminent war of the Most Christian against the United Provinces owing to the very great consequences that are involved in it, a decision is rendered correspondingly ticklish and arduous because of the troublesome complications which are equally apprehended. Whereas before the coming of the British ambassador the opinions of the ministers seemed disposed to vigorous decisions and not to separate themselves from Holland as having a common interest in the ditch and rampart which those Provinces form for Catholic Flanders and from the treaty arranged between the Provinces and the count of Monterey, which proves to be authentic, now in the midst of the negotiations and dealings between England and Holland I can definitely assure your Serenity that they are hesitating and puzzled about ratifying this same treaty and about throwing off the mask. It is considered that if Holland is attacked by the powerful naval forces of England, which alone and unaided are capable of overthrowing them and striking them down, what ruin may not be feared when these are conspiring with the land forces of France so formidable both in numbers and in quality, as is well known. Their first and most fervent wishes therefore are to see those troubles cut short by Holland consenting to grant to England those conditions which, according to report, could not be more honourably accompanied, since they have as a basis a legitimate title of compacts. Accordingly the government has sent to Don Emanuel di Lira, the envoy of the crown resident with the United Provinces, in order that he may make known to them the declarations of the British ministers here and to suggest to them the propriety of such a decision as well as the disapproval of the world which they would provoke by refusing those conditions which they might justly grant to England, as announced to them by Sig. di Doving, sent to them for the purpose, without any loss of reputation, which is the first consideration in political resolutions.
No positive reply has as yet been made to the ministers of England. They would be glad to see the end of those differences without having occasion to declare themselves or to lay down their own line of conduct. If they accord neutrality to England they cannot subsequently decline to render it to France; and if they do it so, it will be with less credit to this crown, while if they do not the offence will become the more sensible and weighty.
To the proposals of marriage between the archduchess of Innsbruck and the duke of York, which it is known that these ministers brought, they have replied here with the most lavish terms of respect and regard. They have written to the Catholic ambassador at the Imperial Court (fn. 6) to instruct him to find out the sentiments of the emperor and at the same time to express the satisfaction that this crown would have to prove the instrument of bringing such an affair to a conclusion because of the advantage that would accrue to their common House but more for the profit that might result therefrom for the Catholic religion from the saintly fervour and zeal of the princess, who has an inheritance of Christian piety and who will revive the propagation of the faith with intense fervour.
Madrid, the 10th February, 1672.
[Italian.]
Feb. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Archives.
163. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I have made every effort and employed each of my Friends at the Court to discover the articles of the treaty with France, but the particulars remain a close secret, nor can I ascertain what mutual securities France and England have given not to abandon each other, or what offers the Most Christian has made to encourage his Britannic Majesty to wage war. Something has transpired about fortresses to be consigned to the English as security and it is known for certain that money has arrived to the amount, it is supposed, of five million French livres. But they do not suffice for the first plan of the fleet and a further sum is expected. Colbert has told me that his king will not be sparing of money, so according to all appearances, war is inevitable.
After some slight negotiations at the Hague concerning the first point about the flag, the conference was broken up and Douninghen is preparing to depart, the States having sent their replies direct through their Ambassador Borel, to the effect that, out of civility, they saluted the yacht, and from the same motive they would also acknowledge the English flag, always provided the two countries were on good terms with each other. For the sake of adding another objectionable proviso they mention that this recognition will be made only in the Channel, the true British sea, the other being the German Ocean, as if the geographical maps printed by the Dutch were to regulate the jurisdiction of sovereigns. Your Serenity may imagine how much irritation is caused in England by seeing that the United Provinces dispute a right which they have possessed for so long, having won it in battle, and confirmed by several treaties, nor could the Dutch find any sharper goad with which to arouse the anger of the whole country.
Borel at present is not making any preparations for departure, and is more than ever confounded by seeing that the regiment of 2,400 foot (nothing more being said about the horse), under the duke of Monmouth, is getting ready for its passage across to France, while the fleet, which is fitting out in earnest, will not fail to put to sea. It has indeed been inspected by M. de Segnelay, who much regrets the death of a French officer, its chief commander, who was a very experienced sailor.
The disputes about the prince of Orange are not yet settled. He does not accept the mutilated office; but although the Provinces are divided among themselves, they have provided a fund of 15 millions of florins and are now continuing their levies, to complete the number of 100,000 men.
The last letters from Spain announce the arrival there of the earl of Sunderland, who had expressed himself in conformity with what I wrote; but he will find matters essentially changed since the Spanish league, and it remains to be seen what resolves the queen will take during the minority of her son, and with regard to some home affairs relating to Don John and the Council of State, whose members are not quite of one mind.
The marquis del Fresno who is conferring with the Dutch deputies at Brussels, said that he did not expect the confirmation of the original league, but in the absence of letters, it is not known what treaties may be concluded by him while waiting for fresh orders from Spain.
I enclose the articles of the peace lately stipulated by Admiral Spragh with the Algerines.
London, the 12th February, 1671. [M.V.]
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure.164. Articles of Peace signed between the King of England and the Governor of Algiers. (fn. 7)
[English.]
Feb. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Zante.
Venetian
Archives.
165. Ottavian Pisani, Venetian Proveditore of Zante, to the Doge and Senate.
I understand that a proposal has been made in London to suspend for two years the exportation of currants from the islands as they have done in the present year in the case of the Morea. The object is to bring down their value so that they may afterwards be able to get the fruit at low prices, and this has been proclaimed by more than one of them. This would mean the final ruin of this place which at the present time has nothing else to depend upon than the sale of this commodity. By the disposal of this crop they are able to make provision of food from the mainland and other countries. This is necessary for the island, which by itself can only produce 100,000 bushels of wheat a year. If the present delays are causing the greatest distress among the people here, the country, if it were called upon to submit to such resolutions for two years, would not only experience unspeakable misery but would run grave danger of being reduced to a desert in great part. I can only hope that these reports are not altogether true or that the resolutions are not carried into effect. In any case it would become the supreme wisdom of the Signory to ascertain the exact truth and at all costs to try to prevent the mischief, as besides the serious injury to subjects the state also would suffer serious loss in the customs duties.
Zante, the 13th February, 1672, new style.
[Italian.]
Feb. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
166. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
Acknowledgement of the receipt of his despatches and approval of his proceedings. The Senate is delighted beyond expression to learn that Arlington is entirely disposed to preserve unalterable the most perfect correspondence between that crown and the republic. From preceding despatches he will have gathered how much the Senate counted upon the well known prudence of that wise minister. He will make use of this accordingly to cultivate Arlington's friendly disposition and to maintain confidential relations with him, which will not be without profit for the Signory.
Ayes, 110. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Feb. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
167. Francisco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The marquis of Segnale, son of the secretary of state Colbert, arrived at Court two days ago on his return from London where he has been staying, not only out of curiosity but because it was his father's wish to keep him at a distance in order to distract him from some inclination contrary to the advantage of his family. In spite of this the popular voice insists that it is to his ability that are due the final touches to the alliance between this crown and England which is at present known to the whole world. But the age of the marquis, who has not reached his fourth lustrum, (fn. 8) and his lack of experience in matters of state of such consequence, give the lie to this popular rumour. It transpires indeed that this nation had established negotiations with England a long time ago. Some persons of the government assure me that the voyage to Dover of the late duchess of Orleans was arranged for this purpose and that it was by her means that the work was perfected which up to that time had received no more than the first tints or rough sketch at the hands of ministers. I can further assure your Excellencies on good authority that the designs of this power were to attack the Dutch last year, but at that time the British king did not find himself ready to undertake such an enterprise because of the constitution of his kingdom.
He did not know what he could promise himself from parliament and without calling that body together it was impossible to get together the money which would be the all important foundation for arranging for the gathering of an army and to get together the timber for a powerful fleet. So the decision was postponed until a better opportunity and this crown promised enough ready money to enable that king to undertake bold and vigorous measures without the suffrages of parliament. Such is the actual truth of the matter, that the arrangements between these two powers were made a long time ago. In spite of this it is believed that England will justify the action against the Dutch on the incident that occurred these last months, on the ground that the Dutch fleet did not dip its flags to a yacht.
That the union of these two powers will be durable is not considered likely not only because the feelings of the English are out of accord with this nation, but a great deal more because of the heavy expenditure entailed upon this country, subject as it is to such heavy outlays and to the support, by dint of ready cash, of all the expenses and all the resolutions of the British king. This consideration affords consolation to the Dutch because they hope, after the first year of travail, the way will be open for dissensions between their allied enemies which will bring about peace for themselves. The Spanish minister considers it a certainty that these concerted arrangements cannot endure more than a year. In this conviction it might happen that the Spaniards would refrain from committing themselves were it not for the fear that the most considerable mischief might be done to the United Provinces in the first months of the operations.
Paris, the 17th February, 1671. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Feb. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
168. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I wrote last week that Deuninghen's negotiations having been broken off, he was about to return; I had not learned that the king, displeased with such conduct, wrote him an autograph letter, desiring him to wait and obey his instructions better. The king's letter did not reach the Hague until after Deuninghen's departure, and when he arrived in London on Wednesday he was sent last evening to the Tower where he is still under custody, that he may render account to the king of his transgressions.
The Ambassador Borel does not relax his exertions, though however much he blames Douninghen's conduct he can obtain no better replies. He imagines that the English ministry is inclined to adjust the disputes with the United Provinces. In this he deceives himself, as I know for certain that the government here, fearful lest France break the agreements and change sides if her schemes are marred by the alliance between Spain and Holland, does not care to commit itself rashly against Holland for fear of being left alone in the war. On the other hand, if the Most Christian continues steadfast they will not desert him, expecting by this opportunity to obtain advantage over Dutch trade and satisfaction for other matters.
Such is the agitation caused by the mere expectation of the replies from Spain; and it increases enormously, as they strongly suspect, from Sonderland's last letters, that there is a disposition there to commit themselves. Your ambassador at Madrid will have reported Sonderland's proposals concerning existing circumstances, but he has not yet made any overture with regard to the marriage with the princess of Innsbruck, which is one of the most important affairs of this crown, it being a question of securing the succession through the duke of York, should the king have no heirs.
The government is also anxious about the interests of the prince of Orange and rejoices exceedingly to hear that he is preparing to accept forthwith the post of commander in chief, temporarily and with restrictions, as there will be no lack of fresh opportunities hereafter to obtain it unshackled, together with the admiralship at sea, when his years and political connections render the appointment easier for him.
The Count Governor and the Ambassador Fresno confer constantly with the Dutch deputies at Brussels, but settle nothing, awaiting the oracle from Spain; but it is beginning to come out that some mistrust has sprung up between these two chief ministers. Similarly, while the nations at Brussels have refused the governor fresh supplies of money, the religious are complaining that of his own authority, without the pope's consent, he exacts a fresh contribution from them.
Acknowledges the ducali of the 9th and 16th January.
London, the 19th February, 1671. [M.V.]
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Feb. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
169. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Three days ago, on the arrival of the Dutch post, it was immediately reported that Spain had concluded the alliance with Holland, but the news made no impression at the Court. The king and Arlington still doubt it because it is at variance with the contents of recent letters from the Ambassador Sonderland at Madrid. The accounts received here by Ognate from the Hague state that the queen made haste in order not to exceed the fixed term which expired on the 17th February and her Majesty hopes to appease the Most Christian by quoting the article in the peace of the Pyrenées which authorises allies to succour each other. She adds indeed that if France attacks Flanders England is bound to resist it by virtue of the triple alliance. All these particulars were communicated to me by Ognate, who had them from the Ambassador Lira. So I begin to believe the report, especially as I find that the ministers are secretly rather apprehensive lest the alliance between Spain and Holland comes to pass, to the confusion of the plan devised here.
I may add that this union will generale discord, as the suspicion still prevails that France cannot at the same time make war on Spain and Holland and allow her purse to be drained by England, nor will she wish it. Here they suspect that the Most Christian will change sides, and they would not wish subsequently to find themselves on bad terms with Holland and compelled to seek single handed that satisfaction which they have hitherto sought under the favour of the French alliance.
This is the true cause of the imprisonment of Deuninghen, who broke off the negotiations inopportunely when they wished to keep them on foot and, if necessary to make an adjustment. It is a false suspicion that the king, at the suggestion of the French, desired him to depart, and that, as a mere feint and by agreement, he caused the blame and public punishment to fall upon Deuninghen.

On the other hand they are beating the drum for recruits all over London, raising the 2,400 men for the Monmouth's regiment by means of the money which the Ambassador Colbert has received through copious remittances from Paris, the fleet being also fitted out in haste, and orders issued concerning troops and sailors.
A gentleman arrived from Brussels from the Ambassador Fresno, asking for a yacht for his passage hit her from Ostend. This was sent immediately and his Excellency is expected any day at the house formerly occupied by Count Molina; but his arrival is preceded by a report that he will not prepare for departure or for his entry until he is more sure of his stay at this Court.
Fresh letters from the earl of Sonderland announce that he proposed the marriage of the duke of York with the archduchess of Innsbruck, and it had the approval of the queen and Council. In this connection they are sending to Vienna Colonel Guasconi, a Florentine gentleman, who having been in the confidence of their Majesties for many years, is considered the fittest person to discover the real intentions of the emperor and whether the queen of Spain has written to Vienna in the same style as that which she used at Madrid, to hasten the completion of the business. The colonel will also pass through Amsterdam to withdraw a quantity of effects and cash, the property of the Grand Duke's subjects, which are in peril there, sending them to a place of safety, remote from the risks of war.
A report is circulating, though not confirmed, that the generalship has at length been obtained by Orange, on f ar more advantageous terms, de Wet having ceased to oppose the measure.
I have received the ducali charging me to acquaint Lord Arlington with the nature of Dodington's repeated demands, to prevent impressions at variance with the constant wish of your Excellencies to maintain a thoroughly good understanding with this crown. I will take the earliest opportunity of doing so; but Arlington has already assured me that he will acquaint me betimes with anything troublesome that may arise, and he never will allow sinister reports to reach the king.
London, the 26th February, 1671. [M.V.]
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Feb. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
170. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
Approval of his office with the duke of York about Captain Ginnip. (fn. 9) He should take pains to cultivate the goodwill of the duke, making known to him, when an opportunity occurs, the very high appreciation which the Signory attaches to his friendly representations to which they will always respond. He should also press the duke to issue orders so that Venetian nationals may receive the best treatment.
Ayes, 107. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 There are copies of the full text of this memorial, in English and Italian in S.P. Venice, Vol. li, ff. 64–8.
2 Dodington's own view of the case is expressed in his despatch to Arlington of 5 Feb.: “Having now in good measure vindicated my courage and integrity with these lords and that your lp. having been pleased to do me right with the Resident there I find myself in some credit here so as whenever your lp. think fit I conceive all the circumstances are adapted for beginning the treaty of commerce.” S.P. Venice, Vol. li, f. 74.
3 It should be Bond. He had been controller of the Household of Queen Henrietta Maria, and was engaged in winding up her affairs for King Charles. Hist. MSS. Comm. Buccleugh MSS. Vol. i, pp. 448, 497–9. He had a warrant for 1,000l. for secret service on 12 Jan., 1672. He arrived at Rye with the money on 21 Jan., in the yacht Cleveland, and took it to the Tower on 1 Feb. with an escort. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1671–2, pp. 78, 97, 191. The dates are old style.
4 Frederick Magnus, prince of Salm, the Rheingraf, governor of Maastricht; Cornelis de Witt, ruwaard of Putten, elder brother of John; and Cornelis van Vryberghen. See London Gazette, Jan. 4–8, 1671–2. Fruin: Brieven van Johan de Witt, Vol. iv, p. 267, apud Historisch Genootschap van Utrecht, Vol. xxxiii.
5 From spola, a weaver's shuttle. The spoletta was the part to which the thread was attached.
6 Spinola Doria, marques de los Balbases.
7 20 articles printed, without date, in Dumont: Corps Diplomatique, Vol. VII, pt. i, p. 205. The date of the treaty is given as 29 Dec. in the London Gazette of Jan. 11–15. The articles are printed in the Gazette of Jan. 22–5.
8 Jean Baptiste Colbert, eldest son of the contrôleur general des finances, was born in 1651.
9 Sir William Jennings. See Alberti's despatch of 29 January at p. 158 above.