Venice
May 1673

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1947

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41-52

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'Venice: May 1673', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 38: 1673-1675 (1947), pp. 41-52. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90358 Date accessed: 22 July 2014.


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Contents

May 1673

May 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
64. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Records a visit from the ambassador of Sweden. (fn. 1) Among other things he said that the crown of England could not find a better way of keeping up the pretext of conserving the fleet in order to extract from the Chambers all the money it wanted than by seizing the opportunity to come to an agreement with the other powers to seek greater advantages than those which she has at present for the Levant trade and also, perhaps, for new dominions (stati).
Paris, the 3rd May, 1673.
[Italian.]
May 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
65. Tomaso Rudio, Venetian Resident in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
I am able to reiterate the great apprehension of this government that this crown may not be included in the peace which is under consideration. They are trying to persuade the ambassador of Holland (fn. 2) of the continuation of the greatest assistance, in order not to provoke against them with the total rupture of peace, the crowns of England and Sweden, which have not given the guarantee. Nevertheless the ambassador is not satisfied and announces that the States, in their dire extremity, will take what course is fitting.
Madrid, the 3rd May, 1673.
[Italian.]
May 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
66. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
The Senate notes what he reports on the important subject of the inclination disclosed by the duke of Hiorch in the matter of religion as well as what concerns the liberty of the ministers of the powers to keep English priests in their chapels. This jealous and serious matter requires the greatest caution with all due regard to piety towards the Catholics and at the same time to avoid all possibility of disturbances. The Senate feels certain that his steps will be guided with prudence and in accordance with the practice of the other ministers, as it is not conceivable that the permission of the Court will be unequal in this respect.
Ayes, 135. Noes, 3. Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
May 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
67. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The fleet is now practically ready to put to sea, the greater part of the vessels being opposite Sirnes, off the buoy at the Nort. So the king and the duke of York decided to go and inspect them, being received by Prince Rupert, to whom they wished farewell. His Highness has done his utmost to avoid the crowd of volunteers and thus prevent the confusion which they cause on board without rendering any service, while their relations on shore are left in anxiety with good reason, as they know them to be exposed to endless dangers, with scant merit, experience or valour being no protection.
The Ambassador Colbert has written to hasten the coming of the French squadron and the moment it may be supposed to have arrived at Portsmouth, the king and Court will go to see it. After this arrangements will be made for the first junction of the two fleets. From the number of the soldiers on board the ships, who are more than enough even for boarding, it is supposed that some landing is intended.
These preparations serve as a reply to the projects formed for a suspension of hostilities. I think I can confirm the assertion made to me that they will make no progress except at a slow pace. The allied kings are aiming at additional conquests by force of arms, in order to consolidate them subsequently by negotiation. The objects and hopes of the Most Christian will be known to your Serenity from that Court and I can only say that his Britannic Majesty aims at humbling and bridling Holland. Some of the ministers maintained at the council board that this crown could secure itself by taking possession of fortresses and positions in the United Provinces and that neither faith nor promises would bind the Dutch. But the result of the hostilities will shape the course of the negotiations and in hope of this England and France averted the perilous union of the powers to the detriment of their designs.
Reports were circulating that the Spaniards had sent hither considerable sums of money for distribution among the ministers, but nothing has come to light and no one believes that the Spaniards would throw away their cash so unseasonably. Great pains are taken here to find out the real intentions of the Spaniards, who are possibly persuaded by ready money to embark on undertakings whereby they will show that they kept aloof from inability and not from prudent caution. On the other hand no one can ascertain what the Most Christian is meditating against Spain herself, for here they do not flatter themselves that the Most Christian will keep his sword in the scabbard for the sake of not breaking his promise to this crown, now that he has a fair opportunity ami the Spaniards have given cause.

London, the 5th May, 1673.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
68. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Although the king's partisans expatiate much upon the prerogatives of the crown and, maintaining that parliament cannot abrogate them, fancy that at the next meeting in October his Majesty will decide to retract all the steps taken by him to his own prejudice in the last session, yet the most discerning attribute this to the natural character of the English who bark a great deal when it is not the time to bite. So I dare not assert either that the king will assemble parliament in October or that he will be disposed to arm himself with men and courage to crush his restless subjects.
In the mean time the priests and friars have for the most part withdrawn into the houses of the foreign ministers and of the leading Catholic gentlemen and live quietly. But the duke of York proceeds to throw off the mask, his maxim being that it is better to be hated from fear than from contempt. So if he does not appear at the communion before the expiration of the next term he will be suspected of being a Catholic and a convicted non conformist. The parliamentarians are hinting at barring him from the crown, but there is no law, either old or new that can deprive him of his right. The majority are of this opinion as they are afraid of a civil war which would ruin the kingdom.
The news from Vienna disconcerts the duke of York by destroying his hopes of obtaining the archduchess of Innsbruck who seems to be definitely destined to become the emperor's second wife. I learn that some negotiation may now be furthered in France.

I have received the ducali of the 8th April. I have already reported what I elicited from Arlington about the consulage. I suspect that without speaking openly, the innovation concerning the consulage will not be repealed as it is supported by personages in authority, for reasons unknown to me.
London, the 5th May, 1673.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 6.
senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
69. To the Resident in Milan.
We take this opportunity to inform you of your selection for the residence of England. We have been moved to take this step in the interests of our service which you have performed for so long a period of time in many weighty employments, (fn. 3) in which your singular qualities and experience have given us satisfaction in every particular. We are certain moreover that in this new ministry you will show yourself as self-sacrificing and as forward as you have always done without a thought for personal convenience and with peculiar desert. We shall deliberate as soon as possible on the choice of your successor there and in the mean time you will be able to prepare yourself to carry out the instructions which will be given you in due course.
That election be made by our Collegio with the customary forms of a resident for Milan in the place of Paolo Sarotti, who has been chosen to be resident in England.
Ayes, 142. Noes, 2. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
May 9.
Cinque Savii
alla
Mercanzia
Risposte
venetian
Archives.
70. With regard to the commissions given to our magistracy at the instance of the Consul Hayles, who petitions your Serenity for power to exact benefit from goods brought to this city by ships under the English flag, in accordance with the tariff approved by his Britannic Majesty, we have asked the merchants who trade for those realms to set forth their opinions. They have produced the attached paper from which the Signory will gather that the demands of Hayles are of the gravest consequence and serious for anyone who has correspondents in England, but especially to subjects of your Serenity and to others, not naturally subject to the laws of that consulate. The trade, because of its present diminution calls rather for relief than for heavy burdens which, while yielding advantage to a private individual, cause no slight disturbance to the generality. However, we leave all to the high prudence of your Serenity.
From our magistracy, the 9th May, 1673.
Vettor Contarini,
Francesco Moresini,
Piero Foscarini, Savii.
[Italian.]
Attached.71. To the Most Illustrious Savii alia Mercanzia.
In reply to the gracious communication from your Excellencies to us merchants trading for England, we have tried, though far away and in a limited time, to obtain the fullest information and to submit it to the public authority in respect of the charge which the Consul Hayles pretends to lay upon the trade of this mart. The consul of England, since he was instituted, had for his sole appointment ten ducats per ship of the English flag that put in at these ports. This continued until the last years in which Giles Jones seized the opportunity of lodging given to some captains, and with their consent caused the establishment of a corresponsion of thirty ducats. On the death of Jones, George Hayles succeeded to the office and proceeded in the following months to London. There, without making any communication to the Levant Company, which gives the rule in such matters, and which, from the attached letter, shows itself to be of the contrary opinion, he obtained from his Britannic Majesty, under date 23 December, 1672 an order to impose on all effects and merchandise brought to this mart in English ships a charge of half a ducat per ton, in conformity with an intolerable tariff which at present is published by him. This imposition, which according to a statement made in some replies of the Council of Trade, favourable to him, will bring him a yearly revenue of 2000 ducats, would be such a blow to trade that it would be difficult to maintain correspondence with England any longer. For if it seemed an excessive burden to pay thirty ducats upon each English ship which at times will have for hire 5 to 6000 ducats, it will be far more intolerable for a merchant, whether Venetian or any other not a subject of that country, upon his private effects subject also to other charges, to have to pay to the consul the sum provided in his exorbitant tariff.
We have called the charge exorbitant because the half ducat per ton, will be a burden upon the merchants of 2000 ducats a year instead of some 5000 ducats which might be exacted from the ships; and then because from every ship that reaches Venice laden with sugar and Brazil wood they will have to contribute to him five per cent. upon the amount of the hire. Thus the consul may extract some 300 ducats from a single ship so we poor traders shall suffer, between Hayles and the captain, a charge of ten per cent. But we do not believe that the public wisdom will ever permit anything so harmful to happen, which has never been tried before and which is impracticable in any place and especially in this mart whose situation is more remote than any other in Italy. Let Hayles examine Leghorn, Genoa and the other marts of this province which are nearer to England and he will see a light imposition upon the ships and never any upon the effects of the individual merchants such as he unrighteously claims to impose.
[Italian; copy.]
Attached.72. Letter written from England upon the tariff of the Consul Hayles in reply to the merchants of this mart.
We have received your letter of the 24th February and note the active steps taken by the Consul Hayles to introduce a charge upon the goods transported thither on English ships. This proposal was made by him first to our company at the meeting of the general court and was rejected. Subsequently he appealed to his Majesty and the Council by whom, as we are informed, it was referred to the Council of Trade. We do not know what he has obtained. So far as we are concerned we have never approved and what he has obtained was not at our instance, indeed directly opposite. In our opinion it is a charge that will injure trade and navigation and as we have never supported a corazzo here so we should wish, for our part, that it will not be granted over there.
London, the 6th March, 1673.
Your friends: Berkley, governor. (fn. 4)
John Buckwith, deputy governor.
John Morden, treasurer.
Samuel Moyer.
Henry Hauter.
Walter Coventry.
Thomas Vernon.
Charles Thuroz.
John Prestard.
Gabriel Roberts.
Pilchinton.
Richard Verdale.
Henry Mordaunt.
John Joliffe.
[Italian from the English; copy.]
May 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
73. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
The Senate acknowledge his despatch of the 21st ult. They commend his efforts about glass and mirrors as well as his conversation with the duke of Buckingham. Whenever you meet him again you will enlarge upon your insinuations in order to make sure that you will not find him opposing the instances which we may think fit to direct you to make in this matter and you must keep on the alert for what may happen in the same particular to keep us informed.
The affair of the consulage has been examined with due consideration. The merchants interested have presented the attached paper to the magistracy of the Five Savii alla Mercanzia, whom we directed to take the necessary information thereupon. We also send you copies of the report made by that magistracy and of a letter which the same merchants have received from their correspondents in England. You will be able to realise from these papers the prejudice that would result to trade if the pretensions of Hayles took effect: the sum of 10 ducats per ship only, which the consul originally received, subsequently altered to 30; the manner in which Hayles has obtained the order for the new tariff, which is so outrageous and without the necessary information of the Levant Company; the different practice which is observed by the consuls at Leghorn, Genoa and other marts of this province and all the rest which shows clearly the injury set forth.
We wish therefore that on the strength of these papers, which you should use solely for your own information, after you have verified with these same merchants the things aforesaid, you will proceed by suitable insinuation to point out to Arlington or to other ministers as you may see fit, the nature of this affair, and endeavour with tact and mildness to prevent this innovation, to the end that burdens may not be increased, when here, at the instance of that Court, facilities have been granted to trade, as is well known. We are confident that your skill will know how to direct matters so that there can be no question of any reluctance to give satisfaction to the king but make quite clear a due regard for the interest of the traders and for a reciprocal and abundant trade. We shall await at an early opportunity an account of what you have done.
Ayes, 130. Noes, 1. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
May 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
74.Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king returned a second time to the fleet together with the duke of York in order to hold a council of war and give the finishing touches to the instructions for Prince Rupert. But owing to the experience of the disadvantage occasioned by the limitations to which the duke of York was subjected last year, the prince is authorised to act on his own responsibility in case of need.
The reports which I have not hitherto ventured to communicate to your Serenity are now repeated on rather better foundation, namely that the duke of York may possibly command the landing in Holland in person attended by the duke of Buckingham and other general officers.
The fleet this year will number upwards of 110 large ships, admirably manned by the press gangs from a number of merchantmen now come into the ports, and the arrival of the French at Portsmouth is expected at any moment. (fn. 5) The coaches are ready to take the king thither in haste, he having only returned from Sirnes this morning.
If what I am now going to inform your Serenity is not verified, the best informed English are mistaken, for they believe that peace will be purchased by Holland, either by voluntary concessions before the commencement of hostilities, or by great losses at the end of the war. It is said, in the first place, that the allied crowns, far from allowing themselves to be cajoled by negotiations, will only listen to positive acts of submission, confirming their conquests; and secondly, if the Provinces think of defending themselves, arms in hand, they cannot look for any better fortune than they experienced last year, with an open country known to the enemy, who will invade it without fear. The surmise is plausible, unless Spain alters the case by committing herself not only by drawing off the forces of the allied crowns, but shattering their projects. Every one admits that England is opposed to a rupture with the Catholic king and is seeking the humiliation of Holland not her total destruction, which would aggrandise the Most Christian too much. This is the point on which all speculation hinges, but as yet no one can speak positively on the subject, as it is the greatest possible secret. I know on good authority that the Spanish ambassador is seeking in vain to discover it.
As I hinted last week it is untrue that his Excellency has received money from Spain, firstly because, from Brussels, they contradict the news of the despatch of the letters of credit, and in the next place he is not observed to be in parley with any one here who could be of use to him. He persists in the usual style of talking loudly and of insinuating himself hardly at all into the confidence of the ministers here.
The plenipotentiaries for the peace do not get started although they are ready. This points to deliberation over the negotiations, as I have already intimated. I have received the ducali of the 15th April.
London, the 12th May, 1673.
[Italian; deciphered.]
May 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
75.To the Resident at Milan.
The Senate appreciates the devotion with which he expresses himself in accepting the service of England. They were fully persuaded of this by the extreme punctuality which he has always displayed conspicuously in his actual ministry and in the many others which preceded it. He was quite right to communicate this distinction to the lord governor and they can well imagine the worthy expressions used by his Excellency (fn. 6) about him personally. He will have no occasion to desire the despatch which is due to him for the new post, but he will find it ready for him, as is proper, so that he may be able to make his preparations with less inconvenience.
Ayes, 104. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
May 18. Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
76.To the Secretary Alberti in England.
The Senate acknowledges receipt of his despatch of the 28th ult. With respect to the matter of the consulage they confirm their orders to conduct the affair with suavity and good temper. They were suggested for the purpose of eliciting the true facts and he may have the means to insinuate there what is due to reason and convenience.
They inform him that the choice of his successor has fallen upon Paolo Sarotti, at present resident at Milan who, with his usual exactness, will arrive at the proper time to relieve him of his burden.
Resolved that the paper presented by the consul of England be sent in copy to the magistracy of the Five Savii alla Mercanzia so that after they have heard him on the subject, as he asks, they may make a fresh report in writing of what they consider proper in the matter.
Ayes, 98. Noes, 4. Neutral, 42.
[Italian.]
May 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
77.Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Prince Rupert was going down the river when he received news that Ruiter had put to sea to surprise the 400 Scotch colliers. Arriving late he stationed himself at some little distance from the mouth of the Thames. On Saturday last his Highness sent notice of this to the Court and set sail to follow the Dutch. Not being favoured by the breeze, which was very light and practically contrary, he was constrained to drift with the tides, while Ruiter, sheering off towards the Dutch sandbanks, avoided an engagement.
Ruiter was not only foiled in his attempt upon the colliers. They write from the Hague that he had with him twenty old ships of large size, freighted with stones, intending to sink them at the mouth of the river here so as to render the passage of the fleet difficult, if not to prevent it. At the very moment of the failure of these projects of the States the fleets from the Canaries, from Bordeaux and from Scotland all enter the ports here and supply the kingdom with seamen and the royal purse with money by contributing abundantly to the customs.
The same wind, which is foul for Prince Rupert, prevented the French fleet from reaching the isle of Wight before yesterday. As it must necessarily take in stores at Portsmouth the king has decided to go and see it. He will be followed by the foreign ministers. I am ready, as always to sacrifice my substance for the good of the state and I shall be able to collect news more easily at this important and arduous crisis.
As soon as the junction of the fleets is effected Prince Rupert intends to attack the Dutch, even if they retire behind their sand banks or else compel them to give battle by calling them to prevent the injury with which he will threaten their whole line of coast. Much is also said about a considerable landing.
A person who has succeeded in various experiments has proposed to me a secret whereby to save part of the expense of galley slaves. He claims that by his invention, which is easy, clear and simple, three men can do more work than six and four more than eight. He also represents that three men will amply suffice for the oar of a galley and four for that of a galeasse. He has also another secret of a certain invention to be placed towards the rudder by means of which the same number of galley slaves as employed at present will propel the vessel at double the speed. As he can neither go to Venice nor send anyone in his name he offers, at my invitation, to give me the model of a galley with both these inventions. He does not expect any recompense unless the invention answers on a large scale, the construction to be carried out in the Arsenal at Venice. He adds that neither of the devices costs anything, but he asks for 2000l. as his reward. I told him that it would be too much for your Serenity to give for the first information, only to make the secret known to all and so disillusioned him. But if your Excellencies direct me to make him any offer under guarantee, provided the invention answers, I do not despair of bringing him to moderate terms and getting him to work at the model forthwith, in order to send it at the first opportunity.
London, the 19th May, 1673.
[Italian.]
May 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
78.Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Although it is confidently asserted, I am unable yet to believe that the duke of York will command the landing in this campaign as I see none of the signs that ought to precede his movements and I can discover no trace of any such idea although I watch closely. There is a vague rumour about his Highness's marriage. Although many whisper that his affections are engaged to a certain lady of the Court, since he lost all hope of Innsbruck, his friends trust that he will think better the second time as the offspring of this marriage will probably inherit the crown.
The plenipotentiaries have gone at last. Peace is being discussed, especially since the news of the articles signed by Brandenburg; but all is based on the supposition that the Dutch will of necessity humble themselves and, being deserted, implore peace. Others suspect that the States may throw themselves into the arms of France; but here they assert confidently that the Most Christian will not receive them and the Dutch will not sow sufficient jealousy to save themselves.
If ever peace has been necessary for London it is so at this moment; the king being in need of utter tranquillity and freedom in order to apply himself to internal affairs and put them in the right way in the approaching sessions before they grow worse (bisognando il Re di tutta la sua quiete e libertàa per applicare alle cose interne e raddricciarle nelle prossime sessioni prima che peggiorino).
London, the 19th May, 1673.
[Italian; deciphered.]
May 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
79.Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
It is conjectured that the king cannot make any attack upon the Provinces unless it be against Midelburg and Andenburg, places at no great distance and not well fortified. There are nevertheless others who believe that the king has taken it into his head to besiege L'Escluse, in order to gratify the king of England. But a consideration of the difficulties that would be encountered in bringing such an undertaking to a successful issue, makes one feel that such a forecast is most unlikely of fulfilment.
With respect to the English fleet, it is stated as a positive fact that it is united with that of France and they count upon it having sailed with their own in order to fight the Dutch resolutely.
It is said that the king of England has issued positive orders to engage the hostile forces in the hope of winning decisive victories. The Dutch, from what they say, do not seem to have been backward in preparing for the conflict, so it may be that ere long we may expect definite news of something having happened.
Paris, the 23rd May, 1673.
[Italian.]
May 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
80.Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Prince Rupert having with difficulty got out of the Middle Groin into the Channel, to meet the French, joined them on Wednesday last at Rye. (fn. 7) He found there twenty five men of war under the command of the count d'Estréees, who is expecting five more with Lieut. General Martel, now returned from Spain. This morning before day break the king with the duke of York and the whole court set out to go on board the fleet at Rye. The foreign ministers will follow him and I shall do the like tomorrow.
Ruiter retired to the sandbanks, as reported and has not come out again. According to the last advices from the Hague it is calculated that he may now be present with the main body of his fleet to guard the coasts of Zeeland where they are afraid of a descent by the English. It is suspected that the Most Christian will move towards the part of the Filippine to support the troops landed by Prince Rupert.
The fact is that orders and money have been issued here for the raising of five or six thousand men, who are to serve as recruits for the regiments already formed. To facilitate this the king has issued his commands that the oath required by the late act of parliament shall no longer be tendered to the privates, who refused it.
Many projects have been put forward for the hire of merchantmen for embarking all the troops, so the Dutch have reason to expect a landing whereby the English seek not only to clinch the advantages won during last year's war, but to make them public by some great success.
In spite of all this, there is a great talk of peace. The king himself said that the Most Christian had offered very good terms to the Dutch, who refused them, relying on their own forces and those of their friends.
The plenipotentiaries who left here are still in England, the contrary winds having twice driven them back into harbour. They will put to sea with the first opportunity.
I have this week received the ducali with the gracious promise of relief. I will endeavour during the remainder of my service to deserve the continuation of the state's approval.
London, the 26th May, 1673.
[Italian.]
May 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
81.Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
All the demonstrations of the allied crowns in favour of peace are not entirely sincere. They are not yet convinced that they have gained enough from Holland. Your Serenity will have heard what France requires from the States in exchange for the fortresses occupied. England is seeking to set foot in Zeeland in order by some notorious conquest to prove to the world the advantageous designs of this government, which has hitherto been blamed, especially by its own subjects, for having sacrificed itself to the glory of France. To destroy this false impression which produces the worst possible consequences in parliament, it is intended to make a landing. The Most Christian has agreed to aid this, and it seems that the duke of Buckingham is already destined to command the expedition. The duke of York canvassed this fresh opportunity for distinguishing himself, but the king has not granted his request, pretending that he did not wish to expose him to danger. I believe that at this moment they are really on better terms than ever, the duke being mollified by the king's promise to support him in the next session.
The truth is that while his Highness is strengthening his party, either to sustain himself or to support the Catholics, the malcontents multiply correspondingly. The ministers are horribly (horribilmente) divided, the king having declared himself dissatisfied with some of them. The lord treasurer is on the point of resigning, rather than take the oath. This will cause great commotion at the Court and many consequences in parliament.
With regard to the duke of York, besides the point of his religion, there is that of his marriage. Many suggest that he should treat at Vienna in case the empress mother should be willing to part with her daughter, whilst others turn their thoughts to the Neuburg, who is also a Catholic. (fn. 8) All exclaim against the French widow de Guise, who has a son, and consider the Duras (fn. 9) too inferior in rank. Both are dreaded on account of the natural turbulence of their nation, especially after the proofs witnessed in the present century. It is believed that the Most Christian would contribute liberal dowries for the sake of purchasing with ready money female ministers who would render him such good service in his neighbour's house.
London, the 26th May, 1673.
[Italian; deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 Otto William, count of Konigsmarck.
2 Adriaan Paets.
3 A letter to Williamson states that he had already held three Residentships, although not yet forty. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1673, page 265. The name is given incorrectly as Sanotti. To this information Hailes adds “Sig. Alberti sought to be recalled as I understand. The expenses are great respective to other places, so two years in England suffices.” Hailes to Arlington, 12 May, 1673. S.P. Venice, Vol. III, fol. 122.
4 George, lord Berkeley, governor of the Levant Company from 1672. Epstein: Early History of the Levant Company, page 211.
5 A French warship, arrived at Weymouth, reported that the squadron of forty ships was all ready at Brest and only waiting for a fair wind. Brit. Mus, Add. MSS, 27962V, fol, 93d.
6 i.e. Gaspar Tellez, duke of Ossuna, governor of Milan.
7 They did not actually join till Friday the 16/26 May. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1673, pp. 265, 266.
8 Eleanor Magdalen, eldest daughter of Philip William, duke of Neuburg, who eventually married the Emperor Leopold in December 1676. She was eighteen years of age at this date.
9 Presumably Marie de Durford, daughter of Guy de Durford, marquis of Duras, is intended. She was born in 1648. Soon after this she entered a convent, and eventually died unmarried.


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