Venice
October 1675

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1947

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457-468

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'Venice: October 1675', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 38: 1673-1675 (1947), pp. 457-468. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90390 Date accessed: 25 October 2014.


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October 1675

Oct. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
558. Ascanio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Interest of the Court of Rome in the question of mediation. They think that the Cardinal Norfolk may be the true means because he comes of a nation with which France finds herself under some obligation and because he may be able, through his friends in London, to facilitate that royal interposition. Various expedients have been suggested by Cardinal Altieri to this individual to get him to put them forward and to stick to the one that is considered most likely to succeed and to be most acceptable to the Most Christian. Altieri wished that Cardinal to obtain by means of his Britannic Majesty that the Most Christian should commit himself to answer a letter which he would write to him, informing him about the promotion, so as to enable him to suggest some negotiation in the reply. (fn. 1) But this plan was not approved by those to whom the Englishman communicated it. Accordingly seeing that this would not be a suitable way for making the first demarches, I am assured that through the mediation of a person attached to the service of the queen there he caused it to be made known that at Rome there will always be the utmost eagerness for a reconciliation with France whenever a hand is held out here to embrace the proposals that will be made. That the pope would charge the Cardinal of Norfolk to speak with the king on his way through, always provided that his Majesty will consent to receive him. That this form might have the appearance of a mission expected on this side, without there being all the fuss of a public and state embassy; and it would be incumbent upon him to grant all the satisfaction that might be considered proper. An individual has already arrived from London for these proposals, with instructions to make them known at the Court, so that if they are found to be good the negotiation may be taken in hand at once.
The Count of Etre here is aware of this move and has a suspicion that if it gains weight from some impulse stronger than a convenient satisfaction, his brother may not succeed in obtaining at Rome the satisfaction that he would like.
Paris, the 2nd October, 1675.
[Italian.]
Oct. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
559. Paolo Sarotti, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The letters of Italy with the ducali of the 7th, 13th and 14th ult. only arrived late to-day with instructions which I will do my best to obey. I have already reported from time to time various matters touching the negotiations for peace which have come to my notice. When I have illumination similar to that which I now receive it will be easier for me to lead up to discussions with the foreign ministers, with whom, as your Excellencies know it is necessary to have something to exchange to win access to meetings and to conciliate esteem and confidence.
I will tell the Secretary Alberti of the state's desire for information about the constitution of those companies of the Indies and with his assistance I will try to send them to your Serenity as soon as possible.
The envoy of the Palatine, when paying his visits, says that he has come to recommend the interests of his master to the king as mediator or arbiter for the general settlement. He said as much to me when I called upon him. Count Horn, sent since by the king of Sweden, continues his operations for the provisions which I reported, but meets with strong opposition. The ambassador of the same crown is labouring to obtain the benevolent connivance of the king here.
Lord Barclay has been given his despatch for his embassy to France, but he has been overtaken by a serious illness which has prevented him from undertaking the journey.
London, the 4th October, 1675.
[Italian.]
Oct. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
560. Ascanio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
On the efforts of the English for a settlement and a reported mission of Lord Barcle to Vamboninghen to induce the States to move the emperor, Ruvigni, son to the ambassador, was sent the day before yesterday to London with royal commissions which, it is insisted, are intimately connected with current matters and with the opening of parliament. (fn. 2) No particulars have transpired but it is a step which suggests a desire to facilitate matters and to leave no means untried to make known their good intentions on this side for the peace.
Paris, the 9th October, 1675.
[Italian.]
Oct. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
561. Paolo Sarotti, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
With regard to the reports which have reached your Serenity from other Courts about the negotiations for the peace I have to record that the revelation of the articles said to have been propounded by the king here are pure inventions of the Spaniards. It is possible that his Majesty had some talk with Ronciglio in the same or similar terms, in order to discover his views, but he has not made a formal proposal here to any of the foreign ministers and it is not even known whether he has done so through his own ministers in any paper. It is quite true that he proposed the truce reported to France and that the latter accepted it on condition that it should not be for less than four years and as much longer as might be wished.
The king here has disposed the Most Christian not to insist upon the pretension to have complete satisfaction about the prince of Furstembergh before preliminaries have been started. He has also got his consent and willingness to grant and send here the passports for those plenipotentiaries of princes who desire them, even admitting those of Lorraine, hitherto refused, so that all those who wish may betake themselves to the congress to treat about these same preliminaries. But he has not yet consented to send his own there, insisting that Furstembergh must be handed over first.
The king here has also persuaded him to agree to the Austrians and allies selecting another place instead of Nimegna, provided it is within the jurisdiction of the States General; and if that town is agreed upon, it is proposed that the nuncio may stay in Guelders.
Through the Ambassador Temple this king has also intimated facilities to the States and the prince of Orange, urging the latter, in his own interest, to have a better understanding and greater confidence, promising to procure him every possible advantage in the negotiations.
A few days ago his Majesty had circular letters issued to all the crowns and princes interested in the present war, inviting them to send their plenipotentiaries to the congress. But Ronquillo has tried to suspend their despatch, asking for time to receive their opinion about this from Spain. Although the king would not promise to wait, the letters have not yet been sent.
The ministers, not only of France and Sweden, but those of the allies themselves, have spoken strongly to me about the procedure of the Spaniards, maintaining that they are constantly introducing caprices into the prosecution and conclusion of every project for the peace because now they do not want it. They fortify themselves with the hope that the allies will constantly be committing themselves more deeply, and by scoring successes against the enemy they hope in time for a peace more advantageous for the Catholic crown at the expense of the allies. I have sent full particulars to your Serenity's ambassadors in France.
We are waiting with great curiosity to hear the results of the agreements recently concluded between Denmark and Brandenburg and the other adherents, through the aggressions of Sweden. Also whether Montecucoli will recross the Rhine and where he will go. The minister of the Palatine here says that his master greatly resents the constant disturbance which he suffers from the garrison of Philipsburg and that his Highness is not without suspicion of the duke of Bavaria. So it may be desirable for Montecucoli to help and defend him.
They have heard with great satifaction of a successful encounter between the ships of war of the king here and three galleys and another vessel of Tripoli; so that those barbarians are pressing more than ever for the adjustment with this crown. (fn. 3) This is matched by the universal grief over the almost total destruction of the town of Northampton by fire, a place only fifty miles from here. (fn. 4)
I thank your Excellencies for again giving me hope about receiving satisfaction to some extent for the large sums due to me for provisions. I ask you to consider my need for prompt and generous assistance. To serve you less imperfectly, instead of avoiding extraordinary expenses as I could do by living in retirement, I have to appear at Court every day and at gatherings of the foreign ministers, who all entertain each other most splendidly. To keep up with them I am obliged to incur various unavoidable expenses, for if I did not I should get no confidence and enjoy no esteem. Accordingly I beg the Signory to listen kindly to my possibly tedious prayers.
London, the 11th October, 1675.
[Italian.]
Oct. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
562. Paolo Sarotti, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
From information supplied by the ability and long experience of the Secretary Alberti and from what I have gathered from traders I am able to inform your Excellencies that the Levant Company was formed with the assent and patent of the king here. It is governed by a president, a treasurer and some officials chosen by the merchants of the company itself. By these their expeditions are made and commissions issued to correspondents, without communicating them to the president or to any of the officials mentioned. The members of the company contribute five per cent of gabelle or duty, which they call the company's. Other merchants who trade in the Levant pay up to 20 per cent. The money which is ordinarily raised by such contributions is controlled by the president and officials and with it they pay the ambassador at Constantinople and the consuls at Aleppo, Smyrna, Cairo and Cyprus. They make presents to the Pashas and to the Porte. If there is not enough they raise taxes upon the goods. With these they meet all expenses and also provide for any losses that occur. They send to the Levant lead, tin, iron, pepper, and 50,000 cloths are distributed between Smyrna, Constantinople, Alexandria and Aleppo, but all of common quality. The imports are silk, wool, goats' hair, cotton and cotton thread, cinnamon, rhubarb, tragacanth, turpentine and other drugs. Owing to the goodness and generosity of the king the merchant ships are convoyed by ships of war all at the king's expense, without the company or other Levant merchants bearing any charge.
London, the 11th October, 1675.
[Italian.]
Oct. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
563. Ascanio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
They are undoubtedly working in London for the congress and the sending of the son of the minister at that Court express is certainly closely bound up with this. I believe that they would like the congress to come before the parliament there is able to take any steps contrary to the interests of this side, and all their attention is directed pressingly to encourage his Britannic Majesty to bring this about. They seem to wish it to be understood that the arbitration is taken with the tacit consent of this crown, rather than make an express declaration that they are willing to yield ground about the pretensions which have been sustained so steadfastly all this time; because although France seems to be unwilling to send her ministers without satisfaction at the very outset, she will, after a short interval, allow herself to be persuaded by the British king to send them if the others also consent to do the same.
Paris, the 16th October, 1675.
[Italian.]
Oct. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
564. Ascanio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Many sittings have been held about the controversial matter of Rome. Some of the ministers urge that the projects of the English Cardinal on the part of that Court might be of such a nature that they could be accepted as reparation for the affront which is claimed, considering the mere move of the Cardinal as a mission sent expressly to give satisfaction to France. In the end those of the contrary party prevailed. Accordingly they have decided to write to England to reply to the person who started the business that the Cardinal in Rome would find the two brothers, the ambassador and Cardinal, disposed to listen to proposals for an adjustment that it is suggested to effect by means of the Cardinal of Norfolk. In the mean time he might pass through Paris when they would not fail to afford him every facility, in regard of his own merits and those of the nation. They would let him have a passport in the same style as was adopted with Cardinal Spada and the other nuncio in Madrid. He is expected to arrive incognito and they say it will not be long before he comes. Already some Scots and English of his countrymen have been staying to form his Court and to make the journey to Rome, where he proposes to stay for some time. They say that he will be accompanied by a number of English Catholic gentlemen and that he wished to make an appearance proper for upholding the glory of his nation and the importance of the circumstances.
Paris, the 16th October, 1675.
[Italian.]
Oct. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
565. Paolo Sarotti, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king persists in his efforts for the benefit of the peace and he would co-operate with much greater energy if he were not combated by the opposing offices of those foreign ministers who are now hoping for advantage from the continuation of the war; and if the allies were not also seen to be ill united in their views and mistrustful of each other.
To the offices performed by Ronquillo to delay the sending to the crowns and princes of letters from the king here, urging them to peace and inviting them to send their plenipotentiaries to the congress, are added those of the envoys of Denmark and Brandenburg. They are fearful of seeing the progress which they hope for with the arms of their masters arrested and the effectuation of all their plans prevented by some speedy adjustment of the other confederates. Then Ronquillo and the ambassador of Holland are at odds and live in suspicion of each other owing to the divergence of their powers, their interests and their negotiations, their aims being utterly opposed. As there is no minister of the emperor here the Spaniard denies that he has powers or commissions from his imperial Majesty. When any proposals are made to him he avoids committing himself and says that they must wait for the emperor's views.
The Dutch ambassador, on the other hand, is urgent and presses for the advancement of the negotiations. He does not deny that all delay is prejudicial to the interests of his masters. Although he declares that they will never make terms for themselves alone, no matter how advantageous a settlement they may obtain, the allies do not believe this and the Spaniards in particular.
In the mean time he, the ambassador of Sweden and the envoys of France and the Palatine, by applauding the sending of the letters above mentioned, have supplied an incentive to the king to send them though their despatch only took place the day before yesterday. The moment his Majesty finds that any of the princes are disposed to send their plenipotentiaries, he says he will cause his own to go for the mediation. It is believed that the Dutch will be the most prompt.
The ambassadors of Sweden and the States General and Ronquillo have expressed to me their astonishment at not hearing of the appointment of any representative of the most serene republic. The last told me in addition that the mediators of England would have been there four months ago if he had not turned the king away from it, as his Majesty's ministers designed to secure all the merit and glory of concluding the peace for this crown alone without the mediation of any other potentate.
The proposed truce for a short or a long period has been openly refused by the Spaniards. Of all the other projects that are announced in Italy as proceeding from the king here I do not find that any one has been made by his Majesty. The new ambassador destined for France, who is also one of the plenipotentiaries, has thrown off his serious indisposition and has gone out of doors this week. It is believed that he will start on his journey next week, having already embarked his baggage and a part of his household.
Some peers of the Upper House and many members of the Lower are beginning to arrive in this city for the new session of parliament, which is to open next Wednesday.
After a few days of sickness the youngest daughter of the duke of Jorc has passed away, to the extreme grief of all the royal House and the Court. (fn. 5) But every one has this consolation that the duchess is again enceinte, and they are taking especial care of her so that she may not miscarry another time.
All the foreign ministers went yesterday, dressed in mourning, to perform the proper ceremonial office with the duke. To me he spoke very graciously.
Turkish corsairs guided by renegades have made many prizes in these seas; they have even searched English ships and taken out of the subjects of other nations whom they found on board. (fn. 6)
London, the 18th October, 1675.
[Italian.]
Oct. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
566. Paolo Sarotti, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Besides the letters mentioned in my preceding despatch the king has also offered his mediation to the kings of Sweden and Denmark, pointing out the necessity of such an office in the case of princes who have only recently entered into the present differences. They have also renewed their representations to the Most Christian to induce him to desist from the satisfaction he claims with respect to the prince of Furstembergh so that this may not hinder the prompt meeting of the congress at Nimega. The minister of Spain has been induced by his Majesty to use his influence with the emperor to get him to hand over his prisoner in deposit if not to consent to his release. But as Ronquillo insists in the name of Cæsar and of his king in changing the place for the conference, he has expressed the intention to agree to the deposit if the Most Christian will bring himself to accept any other place.
Here they are expecting at any moment, to recommend the interest of the gentleman in question, some one sent by the archbishop of Strasburg from Paris. It is generally believed that with these mutual concessions the congress will be arranged.
In the mean time entirely satisfactory replies have come from Holland; the States there showing themselves ready not only to grant passports for all the foreign ministers but to send their own plenipotentiaries when his Britannic Majesty sends his mediators, and they show a good disposition over the other preliminaries.
The Ambassador Vanbeuninghen has confirmed to me the satisfaction and confidence that his masters will have in the mediation of the most serene republic. He added that as this is most acceptable to every one he thought that the sending of a representative would serve to make things much easier.
Ronquillo, who retains his sinister impressions over the treatment of the Germans in the Gulf, has let fall some remarks to foreign ministers and even to me of the reasons the Austrians would have to place no confidence in the republic, adding that there was a rumour of a secret understanding with France, quoting to me something in a Pregadi of the 10th August. I have made it clear that I attach no importance to this gossip and such empty suspicions, speaking in the manner I considered likely to discredit such disseminations and to remove every shadow. Although I speak to him with so much freedom he treats me very courteously. He was at this house for two hours yesterday and took me with him afterwards to a banquet given to the ministers of the allies, and he gives me his confidence.
The news which has reached here of the choice by the pope of four nuncios extraordinary has made the whole Court laugh. (fn. 7) The general opinion is either that the peace will not be made or that it will come about without the pope making any contribution thereto. All the ministers of the powers are alike in believing that the pope at the congress is more likely to contribute impediments and longueurs than to contribute facility and brevity to the conclusion of the negotiations. Some suspect that the armed powers mean to make use of him to prolong the conclusion of what is under negotiation, if things do not go in accordance with their intention, and they quote as an instance what happened at Munster. (fn. 8) The ambassador of Sweden and Rovigni remarked to me that the Austrians would like to have the place of the congress changed because they foresee clearly that at Nimegen it might happen that the peace would be concluded in quick time without the intervention of the pope's mediation; and although this would not be partial to them in respect of religion, it would be in other respects.
From a royal minister who generally speaking is no friend to France I have been told that Ronquillo with him and another courtier, a common friend, have been expressing themselves very strongly, saying that the king takes too much upon himself; that this business of the peace is ill managed; that it cannot turn out well. They are resentful that his Majesty's letters for his king have not been given to him nor have they communicated the decision to send the others. So he pretends that he does not know if they have been sent and adds that if they have been conveyed by any other means, three months will be required for the answers. Scarcely less time will be necessary for those of the emperor even supposing that they have been sent to him. He says similarly that it has not come to his knowledge. From what I have heard personally from most of the foreign ministers I may add that it is not known for certain by any one of them to whom they have written although the king told Rovigni, who told me, that he had done this with all those who are interested in the present war. But so far I have no definite confirmation except of the letters sent to the kings of Sweden and Denmark of which I have had copies and enclose them herewith.
Ronquillo wanted to despatch a secretary of his through France to Spain. He asked Rovigni for a passport who told him he would apply to his king, as he did. The reply that came back was: that his Most Christian Majesty had, up to the present, given passports to grandees of Spain, governors of provinces and to private gentlemen, subjects of the Catholic king and he would have continued to do so while it seemed to him a convenience as well as a mutual service; but the Spaniards had begun to deprive him of the means for doing this since the prince of Ligne, governor of the troops, had recently refused to allow Monsignor Goumont to pass through that state; so Ronquillo has not made his despatch.
The ambassador of Sweden is preparing to set off for Paris and to go on from there to the peace congress.
The distress felt by the duchess of Jorch at the loss of her daughter has caused her to fall into another miscarriage, to the great grief of the whole city.
As it was not considered desirable to leave unpunished some of the weavers who were arrested during their recent disturbances, proceedings were taken against them in the usual way by the ordinary justices of London and ten of them were sentenced to stand in the pillory. Although it is usual not only for boys but for many to commit many outrages on those who are thus punished, not a single action of that kind was seen against them but there was rather a sentiment of universal sympathy.
London, the 25th October, 1675.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.567. Letter of the king's Majesty to the king of Sweden, offering his mediation.
Dated the 5th October, 1675.
[Latin.]
Enclosure.568. Letter of the king of Great Britain to the king of Denmark, offering his mediation.
Dated the 5th October, 1675.
[Latin.]
Oct. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
569. Paolo Sarotti, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Houses of parliament opened the day before yesterday and the peers of the realm gathered in the Upper House with the other ministers, arrayed in purple and ermine. His Majesty went there by water, in the royal robes and wearing the crown, looking slightly upset (con ciera un poco turbata). When the peers were seated they admitted the members of the Lower House who appeared to the number of 330, come up from the country. Only the president was given a seat, all the others standing behind him in a mass. The king's speech to them turned upon three points. The first not to return again to past disputes; the second to be vigilant for the maintenance of the Protestant religion; the third touching assistance for his Majesty in money to pay his debts and for the building of ships. The lord keeper spoke more diffusely upon the same points. As both speeches are being printed and I hope to have them this evening to be translated and forwarded to your Serenity I will not weary you with a more detailed account.
When the king had gone the Lower House withdrew. Both there and in the Upper House they immediately proposed the usual vote of thanks to his Majesty, but as unquiet spirits abound in both who forthwith offered various objections, though feeble and trumped up, it was considered wiser to allow time for riper counsels. Accordingly both Houses decided to adjourn their session for four days.
The House of Lords alone held another sitting yesterday to devise a way so that henceforward the judicature of each of them should proceed in a more cautious form and that lords suspected of enmity or of other interests may be excepted. An important question was raised by some one in the Lower House. He said he had seen letters in the country from the king's secretaries with which they had caused many of their body to come who had not put in an appearance in past sessions. Now they have all come while, on the other hand, some had not yet arrived who are well informed of the past events and who took part in them. So it behoved them to wait before taking any decision. It is feared that these letters may cause rather a bad impression and that they may operate to the detriment of the king's service and of those who have received them.
In the same commission they did not forget to have what they call “the bill” read, namely a memorial for the proposal that those who do not take the test, or oath, may not take part in the parliament. By this they propose to exclude the Catholics from the House of Lords. Some of the Lower House have been to Ronquillo offering to co-operate with his insinuations but he prudently told them that he did not wish to suggest anything to them or even to listen. Nevertheless in his conversation with others he frequently lets fall expressions of his astonishment that the king is so partial to France and that this government does not realise how much better it would suit them to have her for an enemy and to stand united with Spain. But he hopes that parliament will recognise this unaided and without any persuasion from him.
London, the 25th October, 1675.
[Italian.]
Oct. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
570. Ascanio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Concerning the progress of the peace negotiations.
Although it is to the interest of England not to bring it about, because of the great profit which she derives in the upheaval, having amassed treasure in these two years, making herself mistress of the trade of all the nations, yet their king is not of this opinion. He looks into things with very different principles, being anxious to render this service to the king of France and to secure for himself the solid glory of overcoming such difficult and important obstacles. There is no apprehension about commotions which might be stirred in the Houses to oblige that king to take contrary resolutions, because the party which favours this side is strong and other expedients will be ready to prevent any contrary deliberation which might be contemplated and to provide those Houses with something to use up the heat which they would like to discharge against this crown. According to assurances from Ruvigni the parliamentarians there will not be fomented by foreign ministers, because the Dutch are desirous of the peace and do not want to bring fuel to the fire, while Ronchiglio despairs of being able to derive any profit therefrom because he is not on good terms with the Dutchman.
Paris, the 30th October, 1675.
[Italian.]
Oct. 31.
Collegio
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
571. The envoy of England came into the Collegio and spoke to the following effect: I have come to thank your Serenity and Excellencies for granting the release of the Scottish gentleman. I wrote yesterday to inform the Court of the readiness with which the favour was conceded and of the condonation of the debt the Scot owed.
With regard to the gracious expressions about myself I will try to merit the honour by cultivating sincere confidence between his Majesty and the most serene republic for which I profess the utmost devotion after that due to my king. The doge said they were glad the release of the Scot had given pleasure. The republic wished to gratify his Majesty in every way. They assured the envoy of their regard and appreciation of his courtesy in writing to the Court.
The envoy replied: I must ask your Serenity to excuse me for not having come before to perform this office as I was hindered by a slight indisposition. Having made the customary reverences he departed.
Iseppo Cavanis, secretary.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 “They write from Rome that the king of France hath written to the Cardinals of his faction to demand reparation for the affront done to him in excluding France in the late promotion and that he declares if they will not give him satisfaction he will take it.” Higgons to Williamson on 25 October, 1675. S.P. Venice, Vol. LIII, fol. 113. According to a report from Rome the duke of Estrees, the French ambassador there, had orders not to visit any of the late promoted Cardinals. London Gazette, Sept. 16–22, 1675.
2 Henri de Massue de Ruvigny, afterwards naturalised in England and created earl of Galway. His connection with the meeting of parliament is disclosed by a letter of his father written at the time of his departure from England. “Mon fils, ne m'étant plus tant necessaire qu'il était pendant la tenue du parlement, il partira d'ici dans dix jours a dessein de remettre son regiment en bon état.” Ruvigny to the king, 9 December, 1675. P.R.O. Paris Transcripts.
3 Action on 31 August, o.s. Narborough reported that the Tripolitans had no more galleys left, and no vessels of any use, except four brigantines. The dey was sueing for peace. London Gazette, Sept. 23–7, 1675.
4 On Monday 20 September, o.s. It began between 1 and 2 p.m. and in two hours all but the outskirts of the town were destroyed. Of 840 houses not 140 were left standing. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1675–6, pp. 305, 310, 318.
5 Caterina Laura born in January. She died on 11 October, n.s., according to Salvetti “poco deplorata fuori della madre.” Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962 V, fol. 430d.
6 Si sono novamente scoperti in questo Canale 4 vasseli di guerra Turchesi di 30 34 36 e 38 pezzi d'artigleria; si dice che incontrandosi legni Inglesi non l'habbino dannificato altramente che di valersene di parte dei loro provisioni. Salvetti on 28 October. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962 V, fol. 431.
7 On Thursday, 26 September, the pope nominated three nuncios extraordinary: Monsignor Bevilaqua to go to the emperor; Monsignor Alberini to go to the king of Spain, and Monsignor Varese, nuncio at Venice, to go to the king of France. He also nominated Monsignor Guinigi as nuncio extraordinary and plenipotentiary for the peace congress. Relations Veritables, Brussels, 19 October, 1675.
8 During the negotiations Pope Innocent X had opposed any concessions to the Protestants, and directly after the peace of Westphalia was published, in 1648, he issued a bill declaring it null and void.