Milan
1471

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1912

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145-162

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'Milan: 1471', Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 145-162. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92257 Date accessed: 19 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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1471

Jan. 5.
Registro
Missivi
Ducale.
Vol. 94.
Milan
Archives.
200. Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan to Richard, Earl of Warwick.
Cum nuper facti essemus certiores de liberatione atque in regnum restitutione Serenissimi illius Regis Henrici officii nostri esse duximus Majestati sue pro hujusmodi victoria et felicitate gratulari: cujus quoniam illustrissimam D. vestram potissimam extitisse causam non ignoramus: cum illius auspiciis et singulari virtute res gesta sit haud etiam immerito gratulandum ei fore putavimus sic mutua inter nos et singulari necessitudine ac benevolentia postulante. Quo circa istuc mittimus nobilem civem Mediolani et aulicum nostrum dilectum Francescum Salvaticum, harum latorem: qui et Serenissimo Regi vestro et Illustrissimi fraternitati vestre conceptam pro inde a nobis gaudium atque letitiam: simul et propensissimus in utrumque animum voluntatemque nostrum apertius declarabit. Superest igitur Ill. d. Vestram hortari vehementer et orare ut aulico ipsi nostro fidem prestet ad omnia. Hec secus posthac rebus quibus quam nostris suo pro arbitratu utatur: quam suis Quod cum fecerit Dominatio vestra putabimus proculdubio nostro in eam amori optime responderi: nec unquam committemus ut a nobis quicquam quod prestari possit frustra petiisse videamini: Ceterum mandavimus eidem aulico nostro ut absoluto gratulationis munere nonnullos perquirat ac comparet Electos et pulchros Equos Anglicos canesve quibus in venationibus nostris et uti et delectari plurimum consuevimus eosque ad nos adducendos curet. Oramus et in hoc D. vestram ut taliter illi assistant favore et opera quam ad nos bene et ex sententia nostra expeditus quamprimum revertatur. Erit id nobis etiam atque etiam gratum.
Datum Mediolani die v. Januarii, 1471.
Duplicatum in Franciscum die xx. Jan.; item in Christoforum Bollatum die dicto.
Jan. 5.
Registro
Missivi
Ducale.
Vol. 94.
Milan
Archives.
201. Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan to Henry VI, King of England.
Magnam esse amicitie et benevolentie vestre serenissime et precellentissime Rex cum alias sepe tum vel maxime hoc tempore experti sumus quo de recuperato per Majestatem vestram preclarissimo isto opulentissimo Regno suo nuncius nobis allatus est, ex quo tantum letitie jucunditatisque cepimus ut et comunem eam felicitatem existimemus: et addi ad cumulum nihil possit omnino operepretium fuit audire quo favore tum procerum tum populorum ad solitum restituta sit solium Vestra Majestas quibusve studiis et mirabili omnium consensu prestantissima Regina uxor vestra cum inclito primogenito vocati in regnum efflagititique sint que omnia eo pluries estimanda sunt: quo et divino munere eximia quadam Serenitatis vestre virtute ac bonitate processisse videntur pio tot igitur tantisque ac tam felicibus successibus vestris Majestati vestre plurimum gratulamur agimus una cum tam ingentissimas bonorum omnium largitori deo grates cujus etiam dementiam obsecramus: ut quibus oculis serenitatem vestram erigere ac sublevare jacentem dignata est iisdem quoque restitutum illi regnum eidem posterisque suis stabilire ac conservare dignetur. Hoc ipsum gratulacionis munus quo apertius optimum nostrum in Majestatem vestram animum et propensam voluntatem testaremur nuper commissimus Nobili aulico nostro dilectissimo Francesco Salvatico, harum latori quem ad eam missimus cujus relationibus dignabitur illa fidem prestare et post hac rebus nostris omnibus quas eidem Majestati dedicatas esse voluimus pro arbitrio uti hoc si fecerit Serenitas vestra ut optamus putabimus nos non dare sed accipere ab ea beneficium cui nos etiam atque etiam commendamus.
Ex Mediolano, die v. Januarii, 1471.
Duplicatum in Franciscum et Christoforum Bollatum die xx. Jan.
Jan. 5.
Registro
Missivi
Ducale.
Vol. 94
Milan
Archives.
202. Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan to Francisco Salvatico, his Envoy to England.
You are informed about the petition presented by the merchants of our famous city of Milan upon the subject of the prohibition and letters of marque or rather reprisals which seem to have been carried out for a long while by the realm of England against the Lombard nation, and the Milanese in particular, by reason of the dowry said to have been promised once by Madonna Lucia, daughter of Messer Bernabo, to the Earl of Kent, which they say has never been paid. We enclose a copy of the petition for your complete enlightenment. This is a very important matter, not only for our honour, but for the common advantage of merchants and others who have to go there from here. By God's grace the time seems favourable to obtain the removal of this prohibition by means of the interposition of the Most Christian King of France. We wish you to lay the matter before him in the way that seems best to you, begging him on our behalf to use his influence with King Henry of England and the Earl of Warwick to obtain the free admission and annulling of this prohibition, since that will be most highly acceptable. We are certain to obtain this by the intercession of the Most Christian King and you will therefore use all care and diligence to obtain success, not failing in anything. If after every effort it proves impossible to obtain a complete remission, you will get a safe conduct for twenty-five years with a term of four years de commando, as the petition states.
Milan, the 5th January, 1471.
Duplicated on the 20th inst.; the like to Christofforo Bollato.
[Italian.]
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
203. Petition of the Milanese Merchants to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 1)
The community of your Milanese merchants relate how Lucia, daughter of Bernabo Visconti, married the Earl of Kent, to whom a large sum was promised as her dowry, as shown by a deed by which M. Bernabo and the community of Milan bound themselves to the earl; and as M. Bernabo did not pay the dowry, after the death of the earl and Lucia, their heirs made reprisals against the Lombard nation, and the Milanese merchants in particular have suffered great losses in England. For this reason they and other merchants your subjects have altogether given up trading in that island, which does great hurt to your lordship's revenues and to all your merchants. Seeing that this has not arisen through the fault of your merchants and these reprisals, or rather marque (marche) as the English call it, not only damage your revenues and your merchants, but also hurt the English themselves, as when we trade with them, as we should do but for such reprisals, the English reap great advantages, because the principal export from England is wool, which in large part is consumed at Milan, and their principal import is woad (guadi), which grows in your lordship's territory.
The said community of your merchants therefore begs your Highness to ask the King of England to annul and revoke these reprisals for the aforesaid or any other cause, so that your subjects may trade freely with their goods. This will bring great honour to your Excellency and advantage to your subjects. If this revocation cannot be obtained we beg your Excellency both to ask the king for a safe conduct for your said subjects for twenty-five years or more if possible with a term of four years de commando, or what your Highness may think best.
[Italian; copy.]
Jan. 5.
Registro
Missivi
Ducale.
Vol. 94
Milan
Archives.
204. Instructions and orders given to Francisco Salvatico,
Aulic Councillor of the Duke of Milan, about to go to England.
We desire you to obtain some fine English hackneys of those called “obi” (fn. 2) for the use of ourself and the duchess our consort, as well as some greyhounds for our hunting, a laudable exercise in which we take great delight, and so we have decided to send you to England where we understand that each of these things is very plentiful and of rare excellence. We are giving you a thousand gold ducats for the purpose to buy the best and finest horses you can find and the dogs also. In order that you may find and buy them more easily, we are sending with you el Rosseto, our master of horse (cavalcatore) and two of our dog keepers, who know our tastes and the quality of horses and dogs that we require. You will also fetch some English stirrups (slassi) and horn.
As King Henry has recently been restored in that kingdom by the efforts of the Earl of Warwick as well as with the favour of the Most Christian King of France, a restoration which has afforded us singular satisfaction out of respect to the sovereign in question, we think it proper to offer congratulations to King Henry and the Earl of Warwick on these happy events. We have decided to send to them and to present three pieces of brocade to the king and queen and another to the earl, which we have entrusted to you as a token of our affection and of our joy at their glorious victory.
You will set out on your journey, and in particular you will stop at the Court of the King of France, with Sforza of Florence, our representative with his Majesty, presenting our letter to him, in which we charge him to inform that king of your mission. You will be guided by what Sforza tells you, and will then continue your journey to England. When you arrive at the King's Court there, you will try, through the Earl of Warwick, to obtain access to his Majesty, and will present our letters of congratulation and credence, with all proper commendations and salutations on our behalf. You will present the brocade and add such kind and friendly expressions to the congratulations of the letters as befit the occasion, and make every offer on our behalf.
You will then present the other two pieces to the earl as well as our letters, offering him our warmest congratulations on his victory, and making him thoroughly understand how much we rejoice at every honour, advantage, and advancement that comes to him, owing to the long standing connection (affinita), friendship and goodwill that have existed between his predecessors and ours, and we intend not only to confirm this, but hope to increase and establish it, offering to serve him whenever we can. After this is done you will try to fulfil our wishes in obtaining the horses and dogs, in the way we have indicated, and you will then return to us, taking particular care for your safety, so that we may be pleased with you and commend your diligence.
Finally, you will employ all your care, diligence and sagacity to inform yourself thoroughly about the condition of this King Henry, the queen and his son, how he comports himself, if he is acceptable to the lords and people of the country, and if he is likely to maintain his position, in the general opinion, or no; also whether his opponent is making any plans or is about to do so, for the recovery of the kingdom, and what party favours him, taking careful and authentic information from all the lords and magnates of the realm, and with whom they hold, so that on your return you may inform us thoroughly of everything.
Milan, the 5th January, 1471.
Duplicated on the 20th January, by Jo. Ant. Fer.
[Italian.]
Jan. 11.
Registro
Missivi
Ducale.
Vol. 94.
Milan
Archives.
205. Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan to Margaret, Queen of England.
Mittentes in presentia in Regnum vestrum nobilem aulicum et oratorem nostrum dilectum Franciscum Salvaticum, civem Mediolanensem, in mandatis ei dedimus ut Serenissimam Majestatem vestram nostro nomine visitet gratulareturque ei de felicibus successibus suis ac nostrum et Serenissimum dominum Regem Consortem vestrum vestramque Serenitatemque optimum animum studia ac propensissimam voluntatem declaret; itaque eandem Serenitatem vestram magnopere rogamus atque oramus ut eidem Francisco in referendis nostro nomine plenam adhibitur fidem dignetur atque nobis ipsis sumus ad vota queque Majestatis vestre paratissimi quam felicissimam semper optamus.
Ex Modoena, die xj. Januarii, 1471.
Feb. 15.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
206. Sforza de Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambassador in France to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The day before yesterday Francesco Salvatico arrived here with a letter from your Highness of the 5th ult. with instructions to inform the king of the reasons for sending Messer Francesco to England. I immediately informed his Majesty,who expressed singular pleasure at this step of sending to congratulate King Henry and the Earl of Warwick on their success, saying more than once that your Excellency had done very well and he thanked you warmly. He forthwith had letters drawn up to the Earl of Warwick, according to my wishes, and with these Messer Francesco started this morning.
Noyon, the 15th February, 1471.
[Italian.]
March 21.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
207. Copy of letter of Gio. Filippi de Terrate to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Your Excellency will hear of the king's victory over the Burgundians. (fn. 3) The duke is near Amiens and the king not far off awaiting M. de Guienne his brother, who should have joined him by now with 300 lances and other troops amounting in all to 8,000 combattants. They also expect the Earl of Warwick with 15,000 English. But though they say the English have landed in Normandy they must be few, as vigorous fighting is going on that side of the Channel. The Lorrainers are also fighting against the duke, in fact everything seems to be against him at present.
Grenoble, the 21st March, 1471.
[Italian.]
March 28.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
208. Sforza de Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambassador at the French Court to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
His Majesty's ambassadors have returned from England, They ran the very greatest dangers, from what befell them at sea, as they fell into the hands of the Bretons, who are waging a very bitter war at sea against the English, and they take and plunder whoever falls into their hands, without caring whether they are French or any one else. These same Bretons took quite 30 hackneys (achinee), which the said ambassadors were bringing from England, and they would have taken the ambassadors' themselves if they had found them.
These same ambassadors say that about 8,000 English combatants are all in order to cross hither in aid of his said Majesty always provided however that the Queen of England has passed thither. She has delayed crossing up to the present, but now she is going over in God's name, and it is reckoned that at this moment she has either crossed, or is on the sea in the act of doing so. She would have gone earlier still if the escort to take her had come sooner, for she took leave of the king at Amboise more than three months ago.
It is thought that the said English will not be required, and that matters will arrange themselves without them. If they are not necessary, his Majesty would not wish to be under any obligation to them.
Beauvais (Belvoir), the 28th March, 1471.
[Italian.]
March 30.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
209. Sforza de Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambassador in France to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
There is no news of England except through the Burgundians, whom it is hard to believe because they only report things in their favour. They do not deny however that the Prince of Wales has had a great following, and many say that even if the prince should prove successful it would be more for them than for the king (dicono che quando ben el principe ottenesse chel saria più per loro che per el Rey).
Four days ago an English fellow arrived here, having recently come from England. He relates many miracles, but they are not credited. Among other things he says that King Edward was killed in a recent battle, and the Earl of Warwick is alive. His Majesty the King and every one else considers this an idle story. If this be true, and God grant it, it cannot remain long concealed. But all he says is discredited, because the Duke of Burgundy becomes more aggressive every moment.
Ham (Ahani), the 30th March, 1471.
[Italian.]
April 9.
Potenzo
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
210. Sforza de Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambassador at the French Court to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
King Edward having again collected from five to six thousand men from Holland and Zeeland, territory of the Duke of Burgundy, landed in England in the Northern parts, with the assistance of some petty lords of the district. There he was once more routed by the troops of the Earl of Warwick, the greater part of those who were with him being slain, and the rest put to flight. That king took refuge in a certain church, in a fortress in what they call a franchise there, in which, from what the said earl writes, he is besieged, and the earl hopes to take him prisoner. It is a difficult matter to go out by the door and then want to enter by the windows. They think he will leave his skin there (el Re Adouardo havendo novamente radunato da cinque in sei mille persone de Olanda et Zelanda paese del Duca de Borgogna e disceso in Inghilterra nel paese de Anort con lo adiuto de alcuni signorotti de dicto paese; dove e stato di nuovo spilliciato dalle genti del Conte di Veruich et morti la magior parte di quelli erano con si ct el resto fugiti. Esso Re se e riducto et salvato in una certa chiesia in forteza in Franchisa, come dicono di qua, ne la quale, per quanto scrive prefato conte lo e assediato ei spera haverlo prisoniero. E dificile cosa uscire per l'uscio et volere entrare per le finestre: stimasi che egli li lassera la pelle!)
The Queen of England embarked these last days, but a contrary wind drove her back again. She is only waiting for a wind to start.
There is no other news worth sending. Your Excellency shall be advised of whatever else may happen. I commend myself to you, humbly begging you to furnish me with provision for five months as I asked, so as to provide me with money which is as necessary in peace as in war, it being necessary to keep up an appearance for the honour of your Excellency.
Beauvais, the 9th April, 1471.
[Italian.]
April 14.
Potenze
Estere.
Borgogna.
Milan
Archives.
211. Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan to Charles, Duke of Burgundy.
Request to release Francesco Salvatico, his merchant with his followers, who was going to the King of England to buy horses and dogs in that realm, and who was arrested at Sluys and consigned to the castle there, being stripped of all his letters and things, as he feels sure this cannot have been done by the duke's order.
Viglevano, the 14th April, 1471.
[Latin; draft.]
April 16.
Potenze
Estere.
Borgogna.
Milan
Archives.
212. Instructions to Christophoro de Bollate, about to set out to the Duke of Burgundy and to England.
Owing to the capture of Francesco Salvatico, whom we sent to England to buy some horses called “obi” and dogs of that island, we have decided to send you for two objects, firstly to request the duke to release Francesco, who should be free on your arrival, and secondly, if he cannot or will not go to England, to go there yourself and execute his commissions.
You will be careful on your journey and try not to come to grief as Francesco did. If you find he has not been released you will make every effort to obtain his liberation from the duke, with all those in his company, and also procure the restitution of the gold brocades we were sending to present to King Henry and the queen his wife and to the Earl of Warwick, with the other things of Francesco and the company, using all your diligence for this.
If you find him at liberty on your arrival and willing to go on to England, you will let him go and return home. If he is not in a condition to go and the brocades cannot be recovered, you will go, making efforts to have a safe passage.
When you are at King Henry's Court you will try through the Earl of Warwick to have access to his Majesty. You will explain to him the accident to Francesco and offer excuses for not presenting the congratulatory letters which we wrote, expressing verbally the proper sentiments and congratulating him on his successes, making him aware how much all his happiness and quiet rejoices us owing to the ancient friendship and affinity between his predecessors and ours, which we intend to continue and increase. You will also congratulate the earl and offer the same excuse, taking pains to make him understand our great affection for him.
After this you will try to obtain the horses and dogs. We have provided for you letters of exchange for 1,000 ducats for the cost. You will spend this with discretion and then return home, after first taking leave of the king and of the earl, of whose favour you will avail yourself on every occasion. You will try to come safely with your company, horses and dogs, so that they may arrive in perfect condition, and you will also bring some English stirrups and horn.
You will use all diligence and sagacity in informing yourself well about the condition of King Henry, the queen and their son, and how he comports himself and is received by the lords and people of that realm, and if he will establish himself, according to the common opinion or not. Also about his adversary, if he has any plans or is doing anything for the recovery of that kingdom, and what part favours him, taking careful and accurate information from all the lords and potentates of that realm, so that on your return to us you may be thoroughly informed of everything.
Viglevano, the 16th April, 1471.
On the same day letters of credence were made for him to the King of the French and the Duke of Burgundy, and letters of congratulation to King Henry and the Earl of Warwick, repeated and dated the 20th January, 1471, as well as letters of credence to the queen.
[Italian.]
April 26.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
213. Copy of some passages from letters of Zannoto Spinula to Master Battista Spinula, his father.
We hope for peace, because some twenty days ago, by the mediation of the Count of Saint Paul, a truce was made between his Majesty the king and the prince here, for three months. The prince here raised the siege of Amiens, and dismissed many of his esquires. The king is in Amiens with his brother and all the lords. Within the period of the truce I hope a peace will be arranged, for otherwise, if war follows, it will destroy those parts. Such considerations will prove a strong inducement to the King of the French to make peace.
I will give you a brief account of the events which have happened in England. King Edward, when he was at Limort, came to London with his power, always saying that he wished to be Duke of York and to have King Henry as king; but that he wished to slay the traitors. So he entered London on Holy Thursday, and he had about 7,000 men with him. (fn. 4) The Earl of Warwick with the other lords was not far away from London with about 10,000 men. As he made no account of King Edward, he came towards London to learn about him in order to have a pitched battle (non faciendo conception de rege Edouardo venit versus Londanem ad eum inquirendum pro habendo prelium situm).
When King Edward heard this he came out to meet him, on Holy Saturday, and after a night had intervened, they joined battle, which lasted until the morning of Easter day. King Edward came off victorious, my lord of Warwick and his brother, my lord of Montague, being slain in the battle.
The king afterwards returned to London with their bodies, which he caused to be placed in St. Paul's Church, so that all the people might see them. We have not heard this by letters, however, but by word of mouth from three who say that they saw them, and so we believe it.
The queen was at Southampton (antona) with many ships. You shall hear afterwards what ensues.
Bruges, the 26th April.
[Latin.]
May 5.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
214. Sforza de' Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambassador at the French Court to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Meeting at Peronne between the representatives of the Most Christian King and the Duke of Burgundy.
So far nothing has been decided and things seem very different since the last news from England. The duke is very haughty (fiero), and they now fear that there will be great difficulty in obtaining Picardy from him, though most people think that an agreement will be reached, an opinion which I share, seeing the eagerness which his Majesty shows to have one, and this is possibly a reason which helps the duke to remain hard, though he would bring too much discredit upon himself as they would afterwards come to worse wars than ever. Accordingly, as has been said, men hope for peace rather than otherwise. God grant that which will be best.
To-day a herald has come from the King of England, and from what I gather, things remain as they have been of late. Since the last battle between King Edward and the Earl of Warwick, nothing fresh has happened, except that each of them gathers as many troops as he can, and according to what the herald says, they are in the field about three or four leagues from each other. The herald does not speak about it with confidence by any means (non ne parla esso araldo punto gagliardemente).
The King of France receives him in a friendly way, and for this reason it is thought … or rather in great disfavour … of the Earl of Warwick, than otherwise (il Re di Francia li fa buono viso et per questo si stima … o piu tosto in grande disfavore … del conte di Veruic che altramente). (fn. 5)
These are variable things upon which it is impossible to form an opinion.
The Burgundians here spread a report that the Earl of Warwick was dead. The herald says that he is well and strong. He also says that it is not true that the Duke of Clarence is dead. He was slightly wounded but has quite recovered and is with his brother Edward.
I wish the country and the people were plunged deep in the sea, because of their lack of stability, for I feel like one going to the torture when I write about them, and no one ever hears twice alike about English affairs.
Ham, the 5th May, 1471.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 7.
Potenze,
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
215. Zannotus Spinula to Messer Battista Spinula, his father.
Your worship will have heard of the fighting which has taken place in England and how the Earl of Warwick and his brother have been slain by King Edward. A Spaniard, who left London on the 24th of April, relates that King Edward has set out with his power to look for the queen and the prince, who had landed and had gone to the parts of Wales. We have heard nothing since, although we are greedy for news. There are many who consider the queen's prospects favourable, chiefly because of the death of Warwick, because it is reckoned she ought to have many lords in her favour, who intended to resist her because they were enemies of Warwick; Northumberland among others (sunt multi qui credunt statum regine essere in bono gradu et maxime pro morte de domino de Varovch quia existimatur habere debeat multos dominos in favore, qui impedir se volebant pro essere inimici Varovch et inter alios nortamborlan).
May God, of his pity, bring peace to that blessed island, and we hope that this time it will ensue there. Here also there is a truce between the king and this most illustrious prince, to last for three months. In the mean time it is hoped that peace will ensue. I am doubtful about this, because I do not see how it can, unless this prince marries his daughter to the king's brother. We shall know soon. May God, of His mercy, provide us with a perpetual peace.
Bruges, the 7th May, 1471.
[Latin; copy.]
May 18.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
216. Christofforo de Bollate, Milanese Ambassador in France to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
As soon as I arrived here I went to Sforza and told him your Highness had sent me to ask for the release of Francisco Salvatico with his goods and cloth, and if he could not or would not go to England, to go there myself, in order to let his Majesty here know how your lordship has all his affairs at heart and also because of your desire to have some hackneys (obini) and dogs of that island. He told me that he had been to the Duke of Burgundy and obtained the release of Francesco and the goods. He said that Francesco would have to go to Britanny about the goods and he did not think he could go safely to England, owing to certain recent events there, which he said he could not explain to me; and he thought it would not serve his Majesty's affairs for the present for any one from your lordship to go to England … (fn. 6) he was not moved to send to England for any reason except principally for the respect of his Majesty to congratulate King Henry and the Earl of Warwick, etc. Sforza assured me that if there was any means of getting there, Sforza would go. He seemed to adhere to his opinion that I should return to your lordship and that it would be difficult to satisfy your wishes without the favour and protection of some lord of that island. In the common opinion it will not remain long in its present condition but will decide one way or the other.
Yesterday evening his Majesty had a letter from the Queen of England saying that the Earl of Warwick was not dead, as reported, but he had been wounded in the fight with King Edward and had withdrawn to a secret and solitary place to get well of his wounds and sickness. But that the Prince of Wales, King Henry's son, was in London with a very large following of men and with the favour and assistance of the greater part of the common people and citizens.
Noyon by Ham (Noyon apud Ahanum), the 18th May, 1471.
[Italian.]
May 26.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
217. Sforza di Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambassador in France to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
There is no news of English affairs except by way of Burgundy. They are masters of the sea together with the Bretons and Easterlings (insieme con Bertoni et Sterlini), not a bird can pass without being taken by them. However, two friars arrived here some days ago. They say that the affairs of the Prince of Wales are very prosperous and he has a countless number of men. The Burgundians here do not deny it and fear that the prince may give King Edward a great deal of trouble. The friars also say that the death of the Earl of Warwick is not true, but in this people do not believe them.
Ham, the 26th May, 1471.
[Italian.]
June 2.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
218. Sforza di Bettini Of Florence, Milanese Ambassador in France to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Yesterday his Majesty here heard with extreme sorrow, by clear and manifest news from England, so it appears, that king Edward has recently fought a battle with the Prince of Wales, towards Wales, whither he had gone to meet him. He has not only routed the prince but taken and slain him, together with all the leading men with him. He has also taken the queen and sent her to London to keep King Henry company, he also being a prisoner there; and so at length King Edward remains the peaceful lord and dominator of that Kingdom of England without having any further obstacle whatever.
Your Excellency may imagine the great joy and satisfaction of the Duke of Burgundy at these affairs. He has shown it by public demonstrations, constant processions, ringing of bells and bonfires so that one would imagine the whole country to be on fire. It is expected to make him so haughty (fiero) that he will no more consent to a year's truce.
Ham, the 2nd June, 1471.
[Italian.]
June 11.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
219. Sforza Di Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambassador in France to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The ruin of England, with the death of the Prince of Wales, and of all his party, continues to grow worse every day and in short the matter is considered settled. They fear that the Duke of Burgundy may readily consent to this truce in order to give King Edward time to make himself thoroughly strong in that kingdom, and give rest for a while to his forces so as to be able the better and the more safely, with the help of the English, to bring trouble upon this kingdom. It may happen that things will adapt themselves without question. God grant what is best.
Ham, the 11th June, 1471.
[Italian.]
June 17.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
220. Sforza di Bettini Of Florence, Milanese Ambassador at the French Court to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan (fn. 7)
We hear that King Edward is devoting all his attention to gathering a large force to send it to war against this kingdom. However, although they are not without uneasiness, it is not credited that the English will make a descent in this season, and in the mean while a complete agreement may ensue with the Duke of Burgundy. If this takes place, there will be little to fear from the English afterwards, but if it does not, they will have more to fear than they may want. However, there will be at least one advantage in a war with the English, for in such case there will be no fear of secret intelligence between the French lords here with them or with the Duke of Burgundy, and they would follow the King, as well as all his people, with better spirit and more courage than was the case in this war against the Duke of Burgundy alone. If this happen it must not be supposed all the same that the English and the duke united would not make many conquests from his Majesty, although he has a strong force when the lords follow him with willing feet and when he need not fear treason or secret understandings. Should this war begin, it will be one between equals, long, terrible and bloody. Nevertheless the general lean strongly to the opinion that the Duke of Burgundy will prefer to make peace one way or another, rather than not, and so the war will cease. These things are difficult to judge from so far away, and therefore we shall wait to see what happens day by day, for otherwise one may easily make mistakes.
It is thought that if an accommodation is made, a marriage alliance will follow between the daughter of the Duke of Burgundy and the Duke of Guienne, the one with Spain being abandoned, and so your lordship may see in what state the affairs of Catalonia remain.
King Edward has not chosen to have the custody of King Henry any longer, although he was in some sense innocent, and there was no great fear about his proceedings, the prince his son and the Earl of Warwick being dead as well as all those who were for him and had any vigour, as he has caused King Henry to be secretly assassinated in the Tower, where he was a prisoner. They say he has done the same to the queen, King Henry's wife (el Re Adoardo non ha voluto havere piu a guardare el Re Aurigo, quantunque fusse quodammodo innocente et da non havere uno grane sospecto, essendo morti el principe suo figlio o et el conte de Veruich et tutti quelli erano per lui che havessino qualche polso como sono, che in la torre di Londres dove lo era prigioniero, covertamente lo ha facto amazare et el simile si dice ha facto della reina, donna d'esso Re Aurigo).
He has, in short, chosen to crush the seed.
It seems that on account of this cruelty the people of England made some demonstrations of a rising against King Edward, but as they found neither head nor tail the thing was soon suppressed, and so King Edward remains the pacific king and dominator of that realm of England without having any longer the slightest obstacle (pare ch' el popo o de Inghilterra per tale crudelta fessi alcune dimostrationi di volere levarsi contra predicto Re Adoardo, ma non se li trovando ne capo ne coda, tosto fu aquietata la cosa et cosi resta esso Re Adoardo pacifico Re et dominatore di quello regno de Inghilterra, sanxa havere piu uno minimo obstaculo).
La Fere (Feria), the 17th June, 1471.
[Italian; the words in italics deciphered.]
June 19.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
221. Sforza di Bettini, of Florence, Milanese Ambassador in France to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Rumours and advices continue to increase that the English are getting ready to come at present and land in Normandy and Guienne. They are very anxious about it here, and their suspicions are strengthened by this new attitude of the Duke of Burgundy in refusing to accept the truce as arranged by his ambassadors by his order. The king on his side does not relax any of his preparations for war. He does so with an easy mind because he has no fear of treason or of secret intelligence. The war will doubtless be sharp and terrible if the English come, as expected.
God rule all for the best.
Compiegne, the 19th June, 1471.
[Italian.]
June 19.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
222. Giovanni Filippo Presidens to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
It was reported here that King Edward was dead; then not he but the Earl of Warwick was dead, King Henry a prisoner, and his son dead. To-day they say that the Earl of Warwick is alive and victorious. We have such different reports that I cannot possibly find out the truth.
Grenoble (Grationopolo), Wednesday, the 19th June, 1471, at the fourth hour of the night.
[Italian.]
June 23.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
223. Francesco Salvatico to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I was staying here with the purpose of going to England to satisfy your lordship's desire for horses and dogs, but I found English affairs So upside down and as I had no definite orders or any reply to what I wrote I am much perplexed as to what to do. Sforza was of opinion that I should not go with English affairs in their present state without further orders, so I am passing my time between this city and Lyons until I hear from your lordship. I am all ready to go and also to proceed to Ireland whence all the hackney (obici) horses come. If your lordship wishes me to go, should not the king be informed so that he may not think there are other matters besides horses and dogs. I would remind your lordship that King Edward made great cheer and honour for Count Lodovicho when he passed that way, in the time of the duke your father, and King Edward and the Duke of Clarence his brother have the same relationship to your Excellency as King Henry through Madonna Lucia de Vesconte, (fn. 8) and if you wrote to them I am sure they would receive me gladly.
Paris, the 23rd June, 1471.
[Italian.]
June 24.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
224. Sforza de' Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambassador in France to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Francesco Selvatico is perplexed and does not know what course to pursue. He is most anxious to satisfy your Excellency's desire to have English dogs and horses, and I do not question that he would never consider mere personal risk if he saw a prospect of satisfying you. I have given him my opinion that in the present overthrow of English affairs he had better not ask the king's leave to go to England, as his Majesty is sure to suspect that he is going for something besides dogs and horses. As I have no instructions from your Excellency I shall say nothing to his Majesty on the subject. Francesco proposes to make up time between here and Lyons until he has definite orders from your Excellency.
There is no news from England except the constant report of the coming of the English. However it is not thought that they will come this year, especially now the truce has been definitely arranged between his Majesty and the Duke of Burgundy.
Paris, the 24th June, 1471.
[Italian.]
June 30.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
225. Sforza di Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambassador in France to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I have already written a great deal about English affairs of late. Now all is undone (tutto e fritto) and King Edward is in peaceful possession of the country.
The rumour persists that the English will cross to here this year. It is not believed or feared, at least until a year has passed, since the Duke of Burgundy has accepted the truce.
Orleans, the last day of June, 1471.
[Italian.]
July 4.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
226. Sforza di Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambssador in France to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I think it necessary to say more of English affairs. King Edward is in peaceful possession and there seems to be practically no doubt the English will not descend upon this kingdom this year, and it is hoped that matters between the king here and the Duke of Burgundy will take a good turn.
Amboise, the 4th July, 1471.
[Italian.]
July 6.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
227. Sforza de' Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambassador in France to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I spoke quietly to his Majesty about English affairs, expressing the great sorrow of your Highness at what had happened. He remarked with a sigh that it is impossible to fight against Fortune.
Tours, the 6th July, 1471.
[Italian.]
July 15.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
228. Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan to Francisco de Salvaticis.
We hear that you have abstained from going to England as it might not please the King of France since the turn of affairs favour of King Edward. We did not answer your former letters because we believed that you had already gone to England, as Christoforo da Bolla reported that you were going. But as you have stayed and Sforza reports that his Majesty will not like your going, after you have made every effort to recover your goods and to find out whether your going to England is acceptable, you will return home.
On the Po at Piacenza, the 15th July, 1471.
[Italian; draft.]
July 16.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
229. Sforza de' Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambassador at the French Court to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 9)
His Majesty thoroughly approves of the suggestion of your Highness, about it being desirable to try and keep up some disturbances in England. He says he is doing so with all his might. He still has there the Earl of Pembroke, brother of the late King Henry on his mother's side, who has a good number of places in Wales, a strong country and near to Scotland, which is in constant opposition to King Edward, with the help of the Scots. He has arranged to give assistance to this earl and to the Scots also, and to do what he can for them, so that they may keep up the war and disturbance. However, his Majesty does not appear to place any great reliance on this.
His Majesty has a large fleet at sea, and he increases it every day with the intention of fighting the English before they land, should they attempt to come here as talked of. But it is not thought that they will come this year, and this is thought to be a rumour put about by the Duke of Burgundy in order to achieve his designs better, in improving the terms should an agreement take place, and it is thought that the same motive induces him to keep his force on foot and to increase it, rather than any intention of breaking the truce, and of waging war at the present moment. On his side the King's Majesty is making every necessary preparation, so as to be ready for war, and that he may not be taken unawares if it should break out.
St. Michael near Tours, the 16th July, 1471.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 6.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
230. Sforza de' Bettini, Milanese Ambassador in France to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
It seems that the Earl of Pembroke with some other lords and the help of the Scots is still keeping matters unsettled in England. His Majesty has sent an ambassador to the said earl and to the King of Scotland.
The abbey of Aigues Vives near Montrichard, the 6th August, 1471.
[Italian.]
Sept. 11.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
231. Sforza de' Bettini of Florence, Milanese Ambassador at the French Court to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
His Majesty still continues the negotiations for an understanding and marriage alliance with the King of England, which I reported in my previous letter had been begun; especially since the capture of the said earl took place, and I feel sure there will be no failure on his side to carry it into effect, though there is considerable doubt as to whether the King of England may not break off. It is thought that he may have started the proposals in order to lull his Majesty to sleep to prevent him from sending help to the said Earl of Pembroke, or to any other of his opponents, so as to secure himself thoroughly in that kingdom of England and then snap his fingers at his Majesty. It may also be that he is acting in good faith, since he is ill content with the savage treatment meted out to him by the Duke of Burgundy, when he was driven out of England by him. However, we shall wait to see the results (ne credo mancara per essa condurla a perfectione, dubitasse bene che manchi de predicto Re de Ingliterra et si stima habia mosse tale parole per adormentare la Maesta soa ad fine la non dasse adiuto al predicto Conte Panimbrocha ne ad niuno altro li fosse contra per assecurarsi del tutto in quello regno de Ingliterra et farse poi befe della Maesta soa, potria anche essere chel dice de bon seno che se intende pure lo e male contento del salvatico tractamento li fece el duca de Bergogna quando el fo da luy scaciato de Ingliterra, pur ce ne atteneremo alli effecti).
Tours, the 11th September, 1471.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 15.
Registro
Missivi
Ducale.
Vol. 108.
Milan
Archives.
232. Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan to Edward IV, King of England.
Cum decreverimus cappellam nostram aliquibus perfectis musicis et cantoribus ornare, qui nobis cantu et musica satisfaciant, jussimus venerabili dom. Raynerio, musico nostro, et Aloysio, nostro familiari dilectis, ut in loca transalpina et in Angliam proficiscantur, qui eos cantores et musicos necessarios nostris diligenter querant, atque ad nos cum spe optima premiorum deducant, qui tamen et arcte musicam et canendi suanitatem optime teneant. Itaque visum est etiam nobis non alienum a nostra in Majestatem vestram benevolentiam litteras nostras ad illa dare quam vehementer hortamur horamusque ut iis duobus nunciis nostris faveant opituleturque, si quid eis occurrat in quo Majestatis vestri opere favoribusque opus fuerit, ita ut mente nostram et desiderium in iis perquirendis pro capella nostra cantoribus diligenter adimplere possent. In quo sane Sublimitas vestra rem nobis faciet pergratissima, cui et nos ad alia hujusmodi longeque majora paratissimi erimus.
Datum in urbe nostra Mediolani, die xv. Octobris, 1471, per Fabrit.
Nov. 6.
Registro
Missivi
Ducale.
Vol. 108.
Milan
Archives.
233. Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan to the Governor of Genoa.
King Rene has recently written to us informing us that he is advised that some Genoese ships have put to sea with the intention of doing hurt to certain English ships, and he asks us to put a stop to this. We send you a copy of his letter and order you to prevent those ships from doing hurt to the English, sending some one to assure that king that we are making proper provision and that we do not wish to hurt his affairs.
Milan, the 6th November, 1471.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 This petition is undated, but it is almost certainly the one referred to in the instructions to Salvatico, and the paper preserved at the Milan Archives is probably the copy supplied to him.
2 Hobby, a small or middle sized horse. New Eng. Dict.
3 The king's army sent into Burgundy routed the duke's troops.—Comines: Memoires, lib. iii. cap. 3.
4 Limort is probably for li Nort, i.e. the north of England. Easter day fell on the 14th April, and so Holy Thursday was the 11th.
5 This part is torn.
6 Torn.
7 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 434, in part.
8 Lucia Visconti married Edmund Holland, Earl of Kent, who died in 1408, and was the great grandson of Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, youngest son of Edward I.
9 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 437.


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