Milan
1490

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1912

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253-276

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'Milan: 1490', Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 253-276. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92272 Date accessed: 20 October 2014.


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1490

[1490.]
Sommarii.
Milan
Archives.
395. Report of a Courier recently arrived from Flanders. (fn. 1)
Has heard that the English want their king to make war on the French and invade Normandy. For this they have made great instances to his Majesty. The ambassador of France has left ill pleased, so they say. The French are unpopular in that province.
[Italian.]
1490.
Feb. 12.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
396. Ja. Botta, Bishop of Tortona, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Gian Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
His Holiness has decided to send the sword and cap to the son of King Maximilian, unless he changes his mind under pressure from the Cardinals. He is also about to send an envoy to England to exact the remainder of the crusade imposed these last months.
Rome, the 12th February, 1490.
[Italian.]
Feb. 12.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
397. Francisco Pagano, Milanese Envoy in England, to Bartholommeo Chalcio, Chief Secretary of the Duke of Milan.
If I could have written sooner I should not have delayed to send this courier. But there has been a parliament and they have been awaiting the dispatch of three ambassadors of the King of France and two of the King of Spain, who were here before my arrival.
However, I have written more at length to our master, though I expect to explain better verbally. I have not been able to use the ciphers, because when we were taken, on our arrival, as you will hear from the cavalier, I burned some papers and the ciphers so that I might not suffer bodily harm if they were found, through suspicion, and to prevent the reason for my coming here being discovered. Here by ducal letters or by M. Ludovico directed to the king or by the mouth of M. Beneditto Spinola, it was reported that our master was sending an ambassador so that his Majesty gave orders that he should be informed when Master Jo. Antonio and I reached Calais, and in this city, without possibility of refusal he made a demonstration for me as for a public personage.
I enclose the epitaph of Madona Lucia, which his Majesty directed should be sent, and some information so that you may have her pedigree more completely.
London, the 12th February, 1490.
[Italian.]
Feb. 18.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
398. Henry VII, King of England, to Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 2)
Declaravit nobis Vestra Celsitudo immensam quandam ac prope inestimabilem amoris sui vim et conceptam erga nos benevolentiam nec eam quidem literis tantum ad nos suis iterum atque iterum datis habunde expressit sed pro egregius virum Dominum Francescum Paganum oratorem suum ac familiarem ita nobis explicare nuper curavit ut majori declarationi nullus sit amplius relictus locus. Gratissimus sane fuit nobis orator ipse tumque ex eo viva voce que plurimum solet afficere plane intelleximus vestrum erga nos amorem ita nostre erga vos benevolentie mutuo et vicissim respondere ut non nisi voluptas maxima et fructus ingens ex hujusmodi animorum conjunctione utrinque sit spectandus tum etiamque hominis sapientia gravitas modestia comitas atque ingenii dexteritas usque adeo nos delectavit, ut non potuerimus presentia sua et colloquio non vehementer letari Sane princeps Illustrissirne pro illo eximio atque excellenti cordis affectu quo in nos fertur Vestra Celsitudo et est propensa proque humanissimis titulis et pientissimis honoribus nobis ascriptis cum non secus quarum ad patrem quendam suum ad nos scribat Vestra Sublimitas Immortales habemus gratias perpetuoque sumus habituri Rogamusque eandem Vestram Celsitudinem ut in earn quam inter nos jam hincinde jactam stabilitamque ad plurima secula arbitramur benevolentiam firmiter atque inconcusse perstare velit Certoque sibi persuaderat nos non esse modo sed posthac quoque sibi perpetuo fore conjunctissimos et amantissimos. Quod autem attinet ad ea que tarn super mutua nostra amicitia quaque super affinitate contrahenda necnon et causa mercatorum Januensium Vestre Celsitudinis nomine nobiscum acta sunt mentem plane nostram ipsi Oratori nostro declaravimus de cujus fide atque integritate tantopere confidimus ut non dubitemus eum Vestre Celsitudini veram et indubitatam relationem facturam. Superest ut diu et felix valeat ad vota Vestra Sublimitas et si qua in re sibi gratificare valeamus nostra opera uti confidanter velit.
Ex Regia nostra juxta Westmonasterium, die xviii Februarii, MCCCCLXXXVIIII.
[On parchment.]
Feb. 26.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
399. Letters patent of Henry, King of England, granting protection and safe conduct for seven years to all merchants and subjects of the Duke of Milan in England and other places of his dominions, with their ships, carracks and galleys and all their goods and merchandise, notwithstanding any letters of marque or reprisals issued against them, which letters of marque shall be of none effect against these presents, provided always that all customs and dues are faithfully paid.
Dated at Westminster, the 24th February in the 5th year of the reign. (fn. 3) Per ipsum Regem. Cloc. B.
[Latin; copy.]
April 4.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
400. Giacomo Botta, Bishop of Tortona, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Gian Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I happened recently to meet the Cardinal of St. Mark, (fn. 4) and asked him how his pupil the Bishop of Concordia was faring in England. He said the bishop had written that he hoped for good results in inducing the King of England to withdraw the troops sent to Britanny. His Eminence thought this would be easy, since the King of England was not yet firmly established in his realm, and also to please the King of France who has deserved well of the King of England. He also hopes that three of the leading prelates of that realm, who are very friendly with him, will give their assistance to the bishop.
I spoke subsequently on this subject to the Bishop of Tournai. He said he was of just the opposite opinion, namely that the bishop's mission would do no good, because the English were as eager as possible for that war in Britanny, especially as they well know that if the Most Christian should vindicate his authority in Britanny it would prove most detrimental to the English, who, moreover, have taken heart because they hope and expect that the King and Queen of Spain will help them to be revenged for Perpignan.
Rome, the 4th April, 1490.
[Italian.]
April 18.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
401. Gian. Galeazzo Sforza, duke of Milan, to Bartholommeo Chalco, his Principal Secretary.
Francesco Pagano has returned from England and presented letters from the king, telling us of his Majesty's great goodwill. As regards the league and the marriage alliance he has told us verbally the same as his letters related, and that his Majesty readily granted a safe conduct for seven years to all our subjects in his dominions. And as regards the fact that the wool exported from that island must be taken to no other place in Italy except Porto Pisano, his Majesty through some of his ministers gave him to understand that although this demonstration was made to gratify some Florentine merchants residing in London and some Londoners who have an understanding with them, the condition and respect of whom induced his Majesty to show them consideration, yet he declared that the matter shall stand in its original terms, and he admits that this cannot but offend the rest of Italy. We think, after this reply, that we must send again to his Majesty in response to the league which he proposed, and we have selected Benedetto Spinula who lives in London without sending any one from here except a courier with the necessary letters.
We wish you to have the following letters written: one to the king announcing the return of Francesco Pagano, expressing our esteem and thanking him for his friendship and recommending Benedetto Spinula. Another to Benedetto telling him of the good report brought of him and that he must go and thank the king and be ready for further instructions, as we have decided to employ him with his Majesty, and tell him to ask from the king the confirmation of his stipulation. He will also thank the king for his friendly reply. As M. Francesco reports that his Majesty proposes to give the first of his sisters in law (fn. 5) to the King of Portugal, he will discover the king's intentions but not to give up the plan, as we shall follow his Majesty's intent, and we may send a fresh councillor to show our esteem for his alliance. With regard to what we are informed that his Majesty does not intend to provide a dowry owing to the custom of the country, he will beg him to consider the custom here. He will thank the king for the safe conduct. The question of the wool requires circumspection, but he can point out the advantages to that kingdom that there be not too great a mart in Italy.
[Italian.]
June 7.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
402. Gian. Galeazzo Sforza, of Milan, to Bartholommeo Chalco, his Principal Secretary.
Encloses his dispatch for Hungary and England so that he may send them together with those he has sent in the name of our most illustrious lord to his hearth.
Pavia, the 7th June, 1490.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.
403. The despatch for England to be sent by special courier by way of Germany to avoid dangerous places and the risk of getting into French hands. He will send a discreet person who will create no scandal by imprudence or carelessness. Francesco Pagano also told us that Neapoleano Spinula wanted permission to meet this kinsman Benedetto by this courier, to advise him to devote care to the matters entrusted to him by us; we consent to this and so you will tell him when the courier is leaving; and we thank him.
Pavia, the 2nd June, 1490.
[Italian.]
June 9.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
404. Gian. Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Henry VII, King of England. (fn. 6)
Francesco Pagano has returned, whom we sent to your Majesty, bringing your most friendly letters, and in a long discourse has related your great kindness in all the matters he had to treat with you, especially your willingness to conclude a league and marriage alliance with us. We are greatly rejoiced and cannot adequately express our esteem for you. Our envoy, M. Joannes, informed us of your goodwill and now this is more than confirmed. We thank you with all our heart for the safe conduct granted to our subjects, as it also concerns our dignity. We have instructed Benedetto Spinula, citizen of Genoa trading in England, to express to your Majesty what we have written to him and he will also speak about the grievance of your subjects at Genoa, which we understand to be without reason.
Pavia, the 9th June, 1490.
[Latin; draft.]
June 9.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
405. Gian. Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Benedicto Spinula, his Agent in England.
Since the exposition of what we informed you by our other letters our ambassador, Francesco Pagnano, who has returned from that most illustrious king, has reported, he has given us to understand that certain Englishmen had complained bitterly to him that the merchants of that country were weighed down with very excessive gabelles and in addition to these they are forced to make other payments beyond what is usual. He has shown a note containing the particulars of their grievance, and said that his royal Majesty had charged him to speak to us about it so that provision might be made.
As we do not wish to fail in our office and are very desirous that no one shall be able to complain with reason of unfair treatment at Genoa, especially in the case of the subjects of princes united with us by such ties of singular friendship as the said king, we have written on the subject to Genoa, so that a careful enquiry may be made into the matter, and if the representation is true that good and proper provision may be made
Accordingly an enquiry has been made by those who received our commission, and after carefully considering all the particulars of the complaint made by the English, the office of Saint George, to whom this pertains in particular, after pointing out that they have no reasonable cause for complaint, has made the reply which we enclose, with a copy of their letter and a note of the complaints made against them, so that you may possess all the facts and may inform the king of what we have done and the arguments which the Genoese adduce on their side. As a matter of fact, we do not consider these at all unreasonable, and we believe that they will be accepted by his Majesty. You will make every effort to persuade him with the strongest arguments you know, assuring him that he may be perfectly sure that his subjects and interests at Genoa and in all parts of our state will always have the attention demanded by the exalted dignity of his Majesty and the singular affection and esteem which we bear towards him.
Pavia, the 9th June, 1490.
[Italian; draft.]
June 9.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
406. Gian. Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Benedicto Spinula, his agent in England.
By the enclosed we are writing fully to you what you will have to do with the king about the understanding which we are content to contract with his Majesty. But, as we have said in other letters, since we have added certain clauses and altered some few words from the form which Francesco Pagnano has brought us, we have thought it advisable to send you a copy of the same form together with our own version, so that before you go before his Majesty you may thoroughly understand and examine the changes which we have made. We have acted thus of necessity, as the Italian use and custom in similar contracts demands this, and we could hardly depart therefrom. For this cause we believe that his Majesty will accept the changes without taking exception, and will proceed to the ratification of the instrument, as this slight alteration is not of a nature to affect the substance and effect of what his Majesty has caused to be drawn up.
Pavia, the 9th June, 1490.
[Italian; draft.]
June 10.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
407. Gian. Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Bartholommeo Chalco, his Principal Secretary.
We have chosen an experienced and able cavalier for the dispatch to England in the name of his Holiness and ourselves.
He will go by way of Germany. You must commend Neapoliono Spinula for his offer to write to Benedetto, and upon the matter which you mention we desire you to write to Benedetto about the counting of the money, although he replied that he did not wish to do it; yet if he has such provision he will agree. Thus, you can dispatch the cavalier when you please. And because our expedition to England is directed to the king, we think it best that you should untie the bundle of the letters and send them all to Benedetto Spinula, who will have to deliver them.
I have nothing to advise you about the security detained by M. Philippino dal Fiesco, except to acknowledge the receipt, and to commend you for having carried out our instructions well.
Pavia, the 10th June, 1490.
[Italian.]
June 10.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
408. Giovanni Angleria, to Bartholommeo Chalco, Secretary to the Duke of Milan.
Has removed clause in the instructions of Benedetto Spinula, about which he wrote.
Pavia, the 10th June, 1490.
[Italian.]
[1490.
June.]
Registro
Missivi.
Ducale.
Vol. 128.
Milan
Archives.
409. In nomine Domini Nostri Jesu Christi ejus natalis anno …
Eorum principum qui locorum intervallo remotissimi mutuam inter se amicitiam perpetuo coluerunt, precipue commemorantur Serenissimi Anglie regis atque Illustrissimi Mediolani duces, qui et si longo maris, terre, insularum montiumque discrimine ab ipsa natura fuerunt segregati, tamen benevolentie et charitatis vinculo convincti extiterunt: ex quo ipsis principibus magnum laudis et glorie decus accessit eorum vero populi commoda maxima perceperunt, quod libera hinc inde comercia plurimas utilitatis peperunt hoc exploratissimum habentes serenissimus dom. Henricus Anglorum Rex et Illust. ac Excelentissimus Jo. Galeazzo Maria Sfortia vicecomes, Mediolani Dux, etc. opere pretium esse putaverunt vetustissimum majorum benevolentiam non modo custodire sed etiam validioribus fundamentis stabilire et firmare perpetuamque reddere perpetuis ac mutuis federum pacis lige unionis et intelligentie obligationibus. Ob eas res predictus serenissimus dom. Rex nomine suo ex parte una ac spectabilis vir Dom. Benedictus Spinola, civis et mercator Genuensis, mandatariusque procurator et nuncius predicti Illustrissimi Dom. Ducis ejus procurio nomine ex altera mutuis ac solemnibus stipulationibus intervenientibus innierunt, contraxerunt, percusserunt et concluserunt ac ineunt, contrahunt, percutient et concludunt inviolabilem firmam et perpetuam pacem, ligam, unionem et inte ligentiam inter predictos Seren. Dom. Regem Illust. que Ducem eorumque heredes, successores Regna patrias, Dominia, vasallos et subditos quoscunque utriusque partis presentes et futuros tam ecclesiasticos quam seculares cujuscunque status, gradus seu condicionis existant, ita quod inter supradictos omnes sit bona, sincera, vera integra perfecta, perpetua et finalis pax, amicitia, liga, confederatio et unio ab hac die in perpetuum duratura hoc modo: videlicet quod principis predicti quam eorum heredes, successores, vassalli et subditi in predictorum principum statu sese mutuas officiis prosequantur id est honesta affectione pertractent, ita quod tam principes quam subdidi possint tute et libere hinc inde ad eorundem principum portus dominia et districtus quouscunque citra et ultra mare accedere et in eis morari, mercari ac commercium exercere ab eisque recedere quotiens et quando eis libuerit cum suis aut conductis aut accomodatis navigiis, plaustris, vehiculis, equis, armaturis, mercibus, mercimoniis, sarcinulis, bonis et rebus quibuscunque tam per terram quam per mare et aquas dulces absque contradictione aliqua vel impedimento quocunque quemadmodum propriis in patriis liceret ita quod nullo alio salvo conductu generali aut speciali indigeant, salvis tamen semper regnorum, patriarum, dominiorum, urbium et locorum suorum legibus, statutis, juribus et consuetudinibus quibus nihil per premissa censetur esse derogatum, salvis etiam aliis utriusque partis ligis intelligentiis ac confederationibus quibus per presentem instrumentum quovismodo non intelligatur esse derogatum qui quidem omnia et singula predicte partes nominibus quibus supra mutuis stipulationibus intervenientibus ac in presentia nostrorum infrascriptorum notarum stipulantium et recipiendum nomine eorum omnium quorum interest aut interesse poterit quomodolibet in futurum promiserunt ac promittunt ac juraverunt et jurant attendere et inviolabiliter observare nec autem contravenire directe vel indirecte per se vel summissam personam sub obligatione bonorum suorum omnium videlcet predictus serenissimus dominus Rex sub obligatione bonorum suorum et nominatus Dominus benedictus procurator et mandatarius ut supra sub obligatione bonorum principalis sui, que propterea yppotechata et obligata esse decernunt pro damnis, impensis et sumptibus quos altera pars pateretur ob in observatione et contraventione alterius partis et ad ipsorum damnum impensarum et sumptuum solutionem ac refectionem, Renunciando et renunciaverunt predicte partes nominibus quibus supra exceptioni non facti hujusmodi instrumenti ac omnium et singulorum in eo contentorum vel non ita actorum et gestorum exceptioni doli mali metus in factum condicioni sine causa vel ex injusta causa et omni oppositioni ac exceptioni que allegari posset in contrarium. De quibus etc. (fn. 7)
1490.
July 19.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
410. Benedicto Spinola, to Galeazzo Maria Sforza Visconti, Duke of Milan. (fn. 8)
Your courier came here on the 13th inst. and brought letters from your Excellency directed to the king and to me. I rejoice that my faithful service has proved acceptable, and that you have judged me worthy to impart important matters to the king here. I could not be more eager to serve, and only wish that my abilities equalled my goodwill.
After I had received and studied the letters directed to me, I made efforts to go before the king to present your Excellency's letter. Having obtained leave to enter, I came before his Majesty, with whom were many lords of this realm, with all due reverence, and presented the letter. It gave great satisfaction to his Majesty, and after it was read and hearing that I had instructions to impart certain commissions, they gave me a time to go to audience and impart everything in detail, and this was done. His Majesty listened attentively to my exposition, and took counsel upon it, and, as he was about to send his ambassadors to Rome, (fn. 9) he thought fit to communicate to them all his intent upon the said things charging them to go before your Excellency and report everything, as you will see by the enclosed letters of his Majesty.
But as there remains that part to report which your Serenity entrusted to me, I will touch upon it briefly. Firstly, his Majesty told me that there was no prince from whom he received letters more gladly than your Highness. Secondly, when I thanked him for the safe conduct granted to the Milanese and other subjects of your Excellency and the withdrawal of the reprisals, he answered that he was always ready to gratify you not only in this but in everything else. He has sent the instrument of the understanding between himself and your Highness with these ambassadors, drawn up exactly as you instructed me. I had no need to use the powers supplied to me.
As regards an alliance between your Excellency and his Serenity, which Messer Francesco Pagano has discussed with me these past days, I set forth what you commanded me. So far as I can gather the king's will he seems much disposed to such an alliance. It is true that the affair of the Lady Anne, contracted with the King of Portugal for his cousin, is not yet carried into effect, but they are expecting ambassadors daily upon this. His Majesty's ambassadors will give further particulars. Failing the Lady Anne there would remain the Lady Katherine. As regards the dowry I have made his Majesty understand in a discreet manner that the custom of Italy among princes is not what your Excellency says is the use here, and it will be convenient for his Majesty to have regard to everything. To this he replied that as these ladies had been asked for by great lords, some of this country and some from abroad without a dowry, but merely for the sake of the alliance and friendship, he did not see why it should be demanded.
If the matter was carried into effect it would certainly be his duty to send here honourably as becomes the daughter of so great a king and the sister of a queen, as his ambassadors will report with more detail.
As regards the new regulation about wool, I set forth what your Excellency commanded, but his Majesty made no reply to this.
I think this is because he has undertaken and promised something in this respect which he thinks he cannot recall; perhaps the ambassadors will have some instructions about it. The English have raised objections upon what the Genoese have done against them in your city of Genoa. His Majesty has heard that you have ordered the Genoese to supply a remedy, and they have written in their defence. I fancy that his Majesty has accepted this. However, he told me that after the completion of his present preoccupation over the French war, he will get his Council to look into the matter and send his reply. This is all about the reply to the commission given to me by your Highness.
There is not much to write about this kingdom as it is in very good order. Yesterday the king left here and rode through the country to review his troops. A powerful force does as much by sea as by land. It is doubtful if they will pursue the war between his Majesty and France. Although the ambassadors of both are on the frontier negotiating for a truce through the pope's legate, the general opinion is that peace will not follow nor a truce unless the French give up the enterprise of Britanny. If anything else happens I will take pains to inform your Excellency.
London, the 19th July, 1490.
[Italian.]
July 26.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
411. Henry VII, King of England, to Gian Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Reddite sunt nobis littere Vestre Celsitudinis quibus primum intelleximus quam gratam quamque jucundam illi fuerit eximii nostri erga se amoris per Dom. Francescum Paganum sibi facta relatio. Deinde tam circa fedus percutiendum quam affinitatem ineundam plane perspeximus quam leto animo propensam nostram in se voluntatem acceperit. Letamur certe plurimum quod interim nostri et cordialis erga se affectus magnitudinem Vestra Celsitudo non modo intelligat verum etiam tantopere sibi gratam suscipiat et jucundam. Salvum ante conductum Vestre Claritatis subditis a nobis concessum Vestre Sublimitati gratum advenisse vehementer gaudemus utpote quod sicuti ad sibi gratificando animus noster est sibi propensissimus ita etiam officium illud nostrum qualcunque fuerit ab optimo nostro et benevolentissimo animo Vestra Celsitudo duxerit esse profectum. Ceterum quoniam Benedictus Spinola civis Genuensis Vestre Celsitudinis subditus et fidelis servitor nonnulla sibi in scriptis mandata Vestre Celsitudinis nomine nobis exposuit his nobiscum diligenter examinatis mentem nostram venerabilibus viris juris utri doctibus Dominis David Gulielmo Rotulorum nostrorum custodi ac Johanni de Giglis nuper hoc in nostro regno sedis apostolice Coll. Consulariis oratoribusque nostris ad Ser. Dom. missis plene aperuimus in scriptis que dedimus mandavimusque ut ex itinere ad Vestram Celsitudinem diverterent atque illi animum nostrum diligenter exponerent et declararent. Quo circa Vestram Sublimitatem intime precamur ut prefatos nostros oratores nostro intuitu cum istuc accesserint benigne velit suscipere atque eisdem quicquid super omnibus his de quibus supra mentionem fecimus nomine nostro Vestre Celsitudini rettulerint atque indubiam dignetur habere fidem. Superest ut Vestra Celsitudo felicissime valeat ad vota.
Ex regia nostra Grenvici die xxvi Julii, MCCCCLXXXX.
Sept. 9.412. Henry VII, King of England, to Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 10)
Giuliano Bucino, ambassador to us from the King of Naples, delivered letters of credence to us from you, and visited us on your behalf. Saw and heard this individual willingly; are of opinion he will make you a true report.
Palace of Oking, the 9th September, 1490.
[Latin].
Sept. 16.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
413. Letters Patent [of the Emperor] in favour of the Claims of the Heirs of Richard Heron to the dowry of Lucia Visconti, authorising reprisals against the subjects of the Duke of Milan.
Dated on Thursday after the feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, 1490.
[Latin; copy; 4 pages.]
Oct. 4.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
414. Letters Patent of Giovanni Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 11)
Cum Serenissimi domini Anglie et Illustrissimi progenitores nostri qui pro tempore fuerunt mutuam inter se benevolentiam atque amicitiam coluerint, ita ut quamvis longo spacio atque intervallo terrarum corpore separati fuerint perpetuis tamen animorum nexibus et caritatis vinculo fuerunt conjuncti, ex quo ipsis principibus non modicum laudis et glorie decus accessit verum etiam subditis et populis eorum maxima inde commoda provenerunt: hoc exploratissimum habentes Serenissimus princeps dom. Henricus dei gratia Rex Anglie et Francie et dominus Hibernie ex una et nos prefatus Joannes Galeaz. Dux Med. etc. parte ex altera dignum esse duximus vetussissimam majorum nostrorum benevolentiam non modo custodire sed etiam validioribus fundamentis stabilire firmare atque eternam reddere perpetuisque federum pacis lige unionis et intelligentie vinculis firmare. Ob eamque causam inter nos Regem et nos Ducem prefatos conventum, contractum ac animo deliberato est conclusum fedusque in hac forma percussum: inviolabilem firmam et perpetuam pacem ligam unionem et intelligentiam inter Regem prefatum et nos Ducem nostros heredes, successores, Regna patrias, dominia, vassallos et subditos quoscumque utriusque partis presentes et futuros tam ecclesiasticos quam seculares cujuscumque status, gradus seu condicionis existant perpetuo fore futuram, ita quod inter nos principes et omnes et singulos super expressos sit bona, sincera, vera, integra, perfecta, perpetua et finalis pax, amicitia et liga, confederatio et comunio in perpetuum duratura hoc modo videlicet: quod tam nos principes predicti quam nostrum heredes successores, vassalli et subditi in terris et locis utriusque principis sese mutuis officiis prosequantur et honesta affectione pertractent, ita quod tarn nos principes quam subditi utriusque nostrum possint tute libere, hinc inde ad utriusque nostrum portus dominia et districtus quoscumque citra et ultra mare accedere et in eis morari et mercari et commercium exercere ab eis que recede re quotiens, quamdiu et quando eis libuerit cum suis aut conductis aut accomodatis navigiis, plaustris, vehiculis, equis, armaturis, mercibus, mercimoniis, sarcinulis, bonis et rebus quibuscunque tam per terram quam per mare, et aquas dulces absque contradictione aliqua vel impedimento quocunque quemadmodum propriis in partibus eis liceret itaque nullo alio salvo Conducta generali aut speciali indigeant: salvis tamen semper Regnorum patriarum, dominorum, urbium et locorum suorum legibus, statutis, juribus, consuetudinibus quibus nil per premissa censeatur esse derogatum. Salvis etiam aliis utriusque partis ligis, intelligentiis ac confederationibus. Que quidem omnia et singula nos Joannes Galeaz. prefatus in verbo et fide legalis principis promittimus pro nobis successoribus nostris et subditis ac vassallis nostris ita ut suprascripta sunt bona fide et sine fraude et dolo Nos observaturos: nec ullo quesito colore quovismodo contraventuros, in quorum etc.
Dat. Somme die quarto Octobris, 1490.
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415. Bartolommeo Chalco, Principal Secretary of the Duke of Milan, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Bari.
The companion of the English ambassador, (fn. 12) who remained behind sick, as your lordship knows, has come this evening very quietly. I shall go and visit him to-morrow in the name of your lordship and his Excellency. I shall inform him of what is proper and of the dispatch of the companion about the matters received in instructions. I will advise your lordship of what I gather from him, and must again beg you to advise me what to do about the costs.
Milan, the 4th October, 1490.
[Italian.]
Oct. 22.
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416. Gian Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Bartolommeo Chalcio, his Chief Secretary.
Paulo da Casate and Gabriel Moresino have been to us, sent by the Milanese merchants, whose goods are sequestrated in Flanders by the Count Palatine, informing us of the same that you wrote of their wish for us to provide them a remedy. We consider the demand right and proper, and have told them that we will send a messenger to the Count Palatine and the King of the Romans with requisite instructions to try and procure the restitution of the goods and have the reprisals removed. But we desire to consult with you and some of the councillors and merchants as the manner in which the said instructions shall be drawn up, and in this you will avoid delay, so that the said envoy may send what pertains to the matter within eight days, as the matter requires despatch.
For the rest, because Paulo gives us to understand that there is considerable doubt whether the Count Palatine may not pronounce sentence before the messenger can arrive about this sequestration against the merchants, which would create still further difficulties, it is the more necessary for us to do all in our power to obviate this. We are, therefore, content that the merchants may send another messenger to the Count Palatine at once, if they wish, and you will give him suitable letters to the Count.
Viglevano, the 22nd October, 1490.
[Italian.]
Oct. 25.
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417. Gian Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Henry VII, King of England and France, and Lord of Ireland.
Although we have given our letters to your Majesty's ambassador, the most reverend David Gulielmo, (fn. 13) which not only show what we have transacted with him, but also renew our ancient friendship with your Majesty, yet it has seemed good to us to pay our dues by a man of our own, and we have therefore ordered Benedetto Spinula, citizen of Genoa, to go to your Majesty and inform you of the things done in our name. We beg you to receive and hear him.
Viglevano, the 25th October, 1490.
[Latin.]
Oct. 31.
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418. Giacomo Botta, Bishop of Tortona, to Gian Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Yesterday a prelate of this Court, who had Messer. Hieronymo Balbano, secretary of his Holiness, to dine with him, reported to me that, after the meal he had entered into a conversation with Messer. Hieronymo about various things, and at length they came to particulars about France. The secretary told him that his Holiness had news that the King of England, and the King of Spain, with the Bretons, were about to make a league together, and it was thought that the King Maximilian would join them and enter this confederation, and it was also considered likely that the supreme pontiff might join also, since the other side gave him nothing but words.
Owing to this information, I made every effort to obtain better confirmation from a Cardinal, who has constant advices of what is going on in that quarter. He told me that even if it might be true that a league had been made between the Kings of England and Spain, it was not credible that King Maximilian would have anything to do with it, and thus desert the Most Christian, because in the peace entered upon between them of late years (fn. 14) they had taken so many oaths not only to remain at peace with each other, but also that each should succour the other in all turns of fortune and should protect each other against any one who might display hostility. The Cardinal added that he hoped the peace between the Most Christian King and the Bretons would come to pass, upon the terms which have already been reported to your Excellency, because the ambassadors of Britanny have left the royal Court with orders that the peace shall be concluded according to the decision come to in the peace made at Frankfort.
Of the two English ambassadors who were sent here by their king, one has fallen sick by the way, and the other arrived on the 6th ult. He offered excuses for his king for not having been able to send more quickly to give his answer about the diet which is proposed against the Turk, because he has been occupied about the affairs of Britanny.
Rome, the last day of October, 1490.
[Italian.]
Nov. 1.
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419. Giovanni Angleria, to Bartolommeo Chalco, Principal Secretary to the Duke of Milan.
Zoane Christofforo Cagnola has brought me letters from your Magnificence, and I have done as you commanded, introducing him to his most illustrious lordship and informing him of what the letters contain. When his Excellency had heard, he told me he was quite content that Christofforo should go to England. I asked if he wished to give any commands. He said he knew of nothing except that he should make a good journey. Having thus discharged my task I thought it best to send him back to your Magnificence, to whom I also send the accompanying letters of Barber, about the dispatch of the cavalcade.
Viglevano, the 1st November, 1490.
[Italian.]
Nov. 4.
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420. Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Henry VII, King of England.
Percognita Majestati Vestrae esse atque adhuc ejus memorie haerere arbitramur eaque superiori anno per Francescum Paganum, secretarium nostrum significamus de vanitate atque impudentia haeredum cujusdam Ricardi Heron jactantium deberi sibi a nobis non exiguam pecuniam causa dotis Domine Lucie Vicecomitis, que quorum e Mediolano istuc nupta sit et que admirandum foret quod cum non erubuissent iniquissime petitionis sue adjutricem implorare Caesaream Serenissimi Imperatoris Majestatem tam facile et inaudita causa nostra de re oblitterate memorie, et quam jam tot seculis obscuratam vetustas ipsa inanitas argueret, concesse adversus mercatores nostros represalias fuissent. Tum quod jam quarto anno revocata non essent cum nihilominus ipsum Caesarem diligentissime docuerimus quod injustaque impudens querela circumferretur de nobis, quorum causam Majestas Vestra cujus subditi petitiores essent, ita probasset ut, edith nuncio nostro minime tardaverit quoniam et quanto primum represalias ipsas universa ex ditione sua sustulerit, et commodo insuper salvoconductu publicam fieri fecerit tuto posse negotiatores nostros in Regnis suis versari ac mercaturam ut solebant exercere. Verum enim vero ex multis ad quos Imperatorium preceptum committendarum represaliarum delatum est, inventi tandem sunt, qui id efficacissime exequeretur. Advehebant nuper ex inferiori Germanie nostri ingentem mercium vini ac per Rhenum ex more navigatam: delati in fines Comitis Palatini et Marchionis Badensis comprehensi cum sunt ac in vinculis et carcere conjecti, obstupuimus primo statim nuncio cum hec audivimus nec satis credere factum poteramus tum que oblitteratam jam esse rem arbitramur quam Majestas Vestra in subditi sui negotio tam aperte damnasset. Tumque iniquitatem inauditam vix ulli principum probabilem facturi posse ac de eandem veterem navigationis Rheni consuetudinem violatam esse vix suspicandum arbitrabamur. Que omnibus alioquin exterius salva semper atque innoxia omni tempore conservata fuisset sed ut repetitis litteris nunciisque confirmati paratam violentiam vidimus scripsimusque efficaciter ad eos principes hec que ad persuadenda valere judicabamus, ut res hominesque dimitterentur, contentos nos fore pollicentes rem atque jure cognoscere. Sed nihil profuere vel rationes vel preces apud occupatos preda animos et quibus sui juris suo modo agenda Dives in manibus rario videatur: Gravis certe et molestie plena est res hec nobis qui non minus miseria nobilium ac de universo patrimonia ista factura periclitantium mercatorum angimur et torquemur quod injuria nostra civis vindicanda et si par ratio efutura non sit ac vim vi quando alia non proficiamus via repulsuri simus omnia tamen prius alia temptanda ac per minora et tranquilliora agere potius Ducimus. Quocirca cum minime ignoremus quanta apud omnes Christiani nominis veneratione et cultu sit Majestas Vestra, ejus nomen auctoritatemque plurimum ponderis habituram arbitramur si quod libenter grata nostra facturam existimamus aliquid litterarum ac parumper vehementium ipsa quoque in hanc rem scriberet. Atque etiam id cum apud Caesarem ipsum et Ser. Ro Regem turn Comitem Palatinum et Marchionem Badensem faciat quod enixe rogamus, doceatque quod vana et injusta et nemini audienda sit harum rerum petitio que nullo stat jure tot seculorum prescriptorum abolita, et que a Majesta potius vestra cum suorum subditorum negotium videatur quam ab ullo alio respicienda curandaque sit. Ac propterea captivos gravi nimis injuria affectos cum rebus suis libertatem reddant, in hunc sensum ut Majestas Vestra quam vehementer officiosas ac diligent ie plenas litteras et quam celeriter det, hortamur, rogamus ac pro federe, amicitia et necessitudine nostra obtestamur, nam nee nobis quicquid hoc tempore gratus prestari potest Majestas Vestra vetus beneficium nova insuper grana cumulabit, et ingenti etiam communium subditorum in commodo ac vectigalium vestrorum detrimento consuletur quod inde caperetur si intercisa hoc modo Rheni navigatio maneret sed et nos si complicatio menti devinctos obstrictosque etiam efficeret que bene valeat.
[Signed:] B. Chalcio.
[Draft.]
Nov. 18.
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421. Instructions of Dom. Betinus De Claris, about to go to the Count Palatine.
About nine years ago some individuals, claiming to be the heirs of Richard Heron, merchant and subject of the King of England, claimed a debt from the community of Milan by reason of the dowry of Madona Lucia Visconti, daughter of Bernabo, who married an English lord about a hundred years ago, declaring it was given to them by a certain cession of which we have never previously heard a word; about four years ago some orders appeared from these heirs demanding satisfaction for the debt, and showing a copy of letters of reprisals made by the emperor. This caused us great astonishment, nevertheless we submitted the matter to our councillors, and in accordance with their finding we answered that there were no grounds for the petition or for the reprisals either. With this the merchants abandoned the enterprise, and we heard no more about it until we learned recently that at their instance a quantity of goods of our merchants had been detained when going by the Rhine, in the jurisdiction of the Count Palatine and the Margrave of Baden. Accordingly we have decided to send to the Count and Margrave for the recovery of the goods and men so unjustly detained, owing to the unjust demands of their heirs and the consequent nullity of the reprisals. We hope to obtain this release from both of them, as in the interests of private persons, especially such as these, they should not deprive themselves of the advantages of the dues they receive from the trade of our merchants. We have chosen you for this, feeling sure that you will obtain the results desired. You will have everything ready in case there is any dispute about the justice of the cause, but not judicially, as we have had other very full instructions drawn up for judicial justification, so that you may use these to refute the objections advanced to the contrary. You will hasten your journey and use every effort to induce the Count and Margrave to release these persons and goods. If they will not do this you will tell them that we shall recoup ourselves by such ways as present themselves in our state, and if that produces no effect you will appeal to the emperor to repeal the grant of the reprisals, giving him our arguments why the reprisals cannot lawfully be conceded. If he raises difficulties you will appeal to the King of the Romans, expressing the confidence that we have in him. You will call to mind the close relationship between our mother and the Count Palatine, whose mother was her sister, (fn. 15) and who has written to him asking for the said release.
On your road you will pass through High Germany, and you will thank the confederate masters there for the efforts we understand they have made for the release of those goods.
Viglevano, the 18th November, 1490.
[Signed:] B. Chalcum.
[Italian.]
Nov. 21.
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422. Instructions of Dom. Betinus De Claris, about to go to the Count Palatine.
In respect of the claim of John Reinald, Eucharius Albich and John Skiby, for 70,000 ducats from the community of Milan, as the heirs of Richard Heron in respect of the dowry of Lucia Visconti, married in 1406, we gave the reasons why this claim could not be allowed: firstly, we do not see that from the alleged will of Lucia, which is the foundation of the whole matter, the alleged executors have any right of acting; it is presumed she died intestate, and so we are her next heirs. We declare the alleged cession to them to be null, as it does not contain the customary clauses and formulae, and we therefore consider it a forgery; moreover, after such a long time the law of prescription would operate. In such matters the longest term is 40 years. It is unlikely that Lucia left her goods to outside persons, and the original of the will ought to be produced. The executors appeal to the law of their country, but we say that the matter should be decided by the common law of the Romans. The alleged concession is vague and uncertain.
We have signified all this by our letters to the said executors, and offered to give them every satisfaction according to law, giving them a safe conduct if they will come to Milan or send the original documents.
Viglevano, the 21st November, 1490.
[Signed:] B. Chalcum.
[Latin.]
Dec. 21.
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423. Henry VII, King of England, to the Emperor Frederick III. (fn. 16)
Serenissimo atque excellentissimo principi etc. Romanorum Imperatori etc. consanguineo nostro carissimo Henricus D. G. Rex Anglie etc salutem et prospera notorum incrementa.
Nunciari fecit nobis Illustrissimus princeps dom. Johannes Galeazzus Maria Sfortia, dux Mediolani consanguineus et confederatus noster carissimus, quosdam suos mercatores nonnullis antea mensibus cum mercibus preciosis ad hoc nostrum regnum profiscentis una cum bonis et mercibus omnibus a dominis Comit. Palatino et Marchione Badensi super flumini Rheni fuisse arestatos vigore cujusdam commissionis vestre Cesaree Majestatis, eisdem Com. Palatino et Marchioni facte ratione quarumdam repressalliarum ut afferitur a progenitoribus nostris heredibus quondam cujusdam Ricardi Heron subditi nostri contra mercatores mediolanenses commissarum. Quoniam autem nos superiore anno mercatores omnes mediolanenses sub conductum nostrum legittimis causis nos moventibus recepimus et eisdem liberam ad regnum nostrum eundi, negociandi, immorandi et redeundi potestatem fecimus, repressaliis ipsis predictis a predecessoribus nostris sic quondam concessis nominatim et expresse, non obstantibus quibus hac in parte derogavimus et silentium imposuimus donec et quousque aliud consilium super ea re ceperimus. Vestram Cesaream Majestatem quo majori possumus studio rogamus et optestamur ut prefatis dominis Comiti Palatino et Marchioni Badensi mandare velit quo prefatos mercatores mediolanenses una cum bonis et mercibus omnibus relaxare quamprimum velint et in libertatem restituere nec quovismodo dictis heredibus in dicta causa repressaliarum quas jam supra annum suspendimus de cetero velit assistere. Insuper non solum ipsos mediolanenses mercatores sic arrestatos velit integrum restituere sed etiam alios quoscunque mercatores seu nostros subditos seu florentinos aut alios quosvis ad instantiam dictorum heredum Ricardi Heron ibidem arestatos vigore quarumcunque repressalliorum a progenitoribus nostris concessarum, neque enim juri consonum est ut hi heredes Ricardi Heron, subditi nostri, plus favoris aut juris a vestra Celsitudine recipiant quam a nobis ipsis, nec satis convenit ut quod nos antiqua progenitorum nostrorum concessa veluti suspecta quia minus legittima sit interdiximus et suspendimus, Vestra Majestas velit pro confirmatis haberi. Equidem, Serenissime princeps, quisquam sit qui jus aliquid aut titulum in ipsis represaliis pretendere possit, nos ipsi sumus, non autem heredes Ricardi Heron, attenta occasione et primeva causa concessionis earundem, sed cum, ut antea diximus, eas interdici et suspendi fecimus, nemo est autem esse debet qui in dicta causa plus aut tantum audere debeat quam nos ipsi; quod si heredes predicti legittimum aliquod jus pretendant nostri jurisdictionis est eos audiri et justiciam illis ministrari non alterius cuivis principis. Non dubitamus enim quin vestra Cesarea Sublimitas pro sua solita justitia et equitate atque etiam pro necessitudine et amicitia que inter nos intercedit, mandabit quamprimum prefatis dominis Comiti Palatino et Marchioni Badensi ut mercatores ipsos mediolanenses et alios quoscunque vigore repressaliarum quarumcumque a predecessoribus nostris concessarum arrestatos una cum singulis bonis et mercibus suis in integrum restituant atque imposterum dictis heredibus pro dicta causa nullo modo assistant. Faciet autem Vestra Majestas rem non modo juri consonam ac sibi honorificam verum etiam mutue nostre amicitie debitamque et nobis singulariter grata quod ut agat iterum atque iterum rogamus et ex toto corde requirimus et obsecramus.
Ex regia nostra Windesore, die xxi Decembris MCCCCLXXXX.
[Signed:] Henricus R.
Dec. 21.
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424. Letters in similar form were written to Maximilian, King of the Romans.
[Latin; copy.] (fn. 17)
Dec. 21.
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425. Letter of Henry VII, King of England, to the Count Palatine.
We have heard of arrest of some Milanese merchants on the way to England by the Count and the Margrave of Baden, by virtue of letters of the emperor and the King of the Romans for reprisals on behalf of the heirs of Richard Heron, granted by our progenitors, for which reason we granted a safe conduct last year to all Milanese merchants to trade in our realm as others do, and we suspended the said reprisals. We especially regret this event because no one should or could do more for the cause of our subjects than ourselves, especially as we are more interested in reprisals than any one. We have expressed to the emperor and to the King of the Romans our regret at this event, and have requested them to order the release of the said merchants and their goods, as it pertains to us to show justice to the heirs of Richard Heron if they have a legitimate case, and not to any other prince, wherefore we doubt not but that you and the said Margrave will release the merchants and their goods as well as all other merchants, our own, Florentine or other, detained for reprisals at the instance of the said heirs, and will offer those heirs no assistance in the future for reprisals.
Dated at Windsor, the 21st December, 1490.
[Latin; copy.]
Dec. 21.
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426. The like to the Margrave of Baden, of the same date. (fn. 18)
[Latin; copy.]
Dec. 21.
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427. Henry VII, King of England, to Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 19)
Audimus non sine gravi et molesto animo que nobis scripsit Celsitudo Vestra de interceptis mercatoribus nonnullis ejusdem et eorum mercibus in flumine Rheni per Dom. Comitem Palatinum et Marchionem Badensem vigore commissionis cujusdam Majestatis Imperiale dictis Comiti et Marchioni facte ratione represaliarum quarundarum per progenitores nostros heredibus quondam Ricardi Heron, subditi nostri concessarum. Non immemores enim sumus superiori anno cum orator vester Dom Francescus Paganus hic nobiscum esset nos legittimis causis nos moventibus easdem represalias interdixisse et suspendisse ac mercatores omnes Mediolanenses sub salvum nostrum conductum recipisse ut tute et libere sicuti reliqui alii exteri mercatores hoc in nostro regno negotiare et ire ac redire stare et commorari possent. Quare miramur plurimum Majestatem Imperatoriam tantam de ipsis represaliis curam suscipere que neque a se neque a progenitoribus suis fuerunt unquam concesse aut concedi potuerunt, sed a progenitoribus nostris quibusdam manarunt, putamus quod suam Majestatem nolle plus de jurisdictione regni nostri aut nostro jure presumere quod nos ipsi: equidem si quisquam mortalium sit qui interesse aliquod seu titulum aliquem in dictis represaliis pretendat nos esse debemus, non autem heredes Ricardi Heron aut alii quicunque utpote attenta primeva causa debite illius quondam dotis. Cum itaque nos ipsi mercatoribus vestris sub salvum nostrum conductum receptis predictas represalias suspenderemus atque interdixerimus neque serenissimo Imperatori neque alteri cujus principi jus aliquod aut ordinaria potestas compettere potest hujusmodi arrestationis mercatorum aut mercium fiende. Neque etiam hujusmodi littere represaliarum ab aliquo principe seu principibus de jure admitti possunt aut debent nisi facta nobis prius premonicione et nostro interveniente consensu. Scripsimus igitur diligentur ad Caesaream Majestatem imperialem super inde necnon ad Illustrissimum Dom. Regem Romanorum fratrem nostrum, simul et ad Dominos Comitem Palatinum ac Marchionem Baden, pro liberacione dictorum mercatorum et mercium putamusque litteras nostras tale pondus habituras ut ulteriori intercessione amplius non sit opus futurum, earum autem litterarum exempla singulatim ad vestram Sublimitatem mittenda esse decrevimus, primum ut intelligat quantopere custom suorum mercatorum doleamus, deinde ut cognoscat nostrum in se studium et promptam gratificandi voluntatem neque enim ut nuper nobis est relatum vestri tantum mercatores ab ipsis Comite Palatino et Marchione sunt detenti ad predictorum heredum Ricardi Heron instantiam et requisitionem sed non nulli etiam ex subditis nostris aliqui etiam Florentini ad hoc nostrum regnum proficientes una cum mercibus omnibus sunt in captivitatem redacti quo sit ut molestissimo animo factum hoc feramus, sed persuademus nobis littere nostre fuerint reddite illico mercatores ipsos cum bonis et mercibus in libertatem esse restituendos. Ceterum si quicquid aliud in nostra sit potestate sive hac in causa sive alia quavis, quo Vestre Celsitudini gratificare valeamus, eadem nobis uti velit confidenter quoniam nos ad sua beneplacita pro viribus semper inveniet paratissimos.
Ex regia nostra Vindesore, die xxi Decembris, MCCCCLXXXX.
Dec. 21.
428. Henry VII, King of England, to Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 20)
Returns thanks for the honourable reception given to Sir David Williams, English Ambassador to Rome, on his passage through Milan.
Windsor, the 21st December, 1490.
[Signed:] Henricus manu propria.
[Latin.]
Dec. 27.
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429. Benedicto Spinula, Milanese Agent in England, to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 21)
On the 5th inst. your Excellency's courier, Zoan Cristoforo Cagnolla came here and brought your lordship's letters directed to the king here and to me. This has caused me such joy as is meet when a good and faithful subject and servant has letters and news of his lord and of his well being. Long may God preserve and prosper you, as your devoted servants desire. I thank God. who has vouchsafed me the favour of your Excellency remembering so humble a subject, in employing me in these matters in which your Excellency is concerned in these parts. Although my abilities are not so great as would be required to satisfy the spirit of so great a lord, yet my good will and my poor faculties will always be ready to do whatever your Excellency may command me so long as I live, as is the duty of your lordship's devoted servants.
On the arrival of this same courier, the king here happened to be in the country hunting, in a place fifty miles away from this city. I rode thither immediately, and the courier accompanied me. When we found his sacred Majesty, we presented the letters of your Excellency with humble reverence. After he had read them, he commanded that we should remain with him that day, so that he might discuss further with us (a do se potesse alergarsi con noi) (fn. 22) your letters aforesaid, and what I had set forth to him by virtue of your Sublimity's letter of credence. He remarked that he certainly was as much pleased to have letters and news of your Excellency as of any other prince or lord soever, and he thanked you warmly for the great honour you have shown to his last ambassadors, declaring that it is his wish to preserve and increase the confederation and friendship formed between your Excellency and his Majesty for all time. He asserted that in case of need, and if you desired, he would devote his state to the service of your Excellency with many other fair and friendly words, so that you may count upon the goodwill of his Majesty towards you, just as he confides in your Highness, should he have need.
For the rest I cannot express how much his Majesty regrets the reprisals made against the subjects of your lordship and the detention of their goods on the Rhine, by the Count Palatine and the Margrave of Baden, because of those granted anciently to the late Richard Heron. He said it was not the concern of any other lord to administer justice to his subjects, as by the grace of God he sufficed to do that himself, and as those reprisals were without any why or wherefore, he had revoked and abrogated them (dicendo non essere parte de alchuno Signore vollere administrare justicia a suoi subditti essendo lui sufficiente per la gratia di dio a farlo, et perche le dette represalie sono state concesse sine ratione e fundamento, le ha revocate e abeize).
For this cause he is writing to his Imperial Majesty and to the King of the Romans, as well as to the Count Palatine and the Margrave of Baden, the enclosed letters for the release of your Excellency's subjects and of their goods. They seem sufficient, as your Highness may judge from the copies, and I hope they will serve the purpose.
With regard to the business of the marriage, his Majesty did not refer to the matter, and so we did not sound him any further.
There are ambassadors from the King of Portugal with the king. According to what is said, they will conclude the marriage between the cousin of the said King of Portugal and the elder sister of the queen here. (fn. 23) Your Excellency shall be advised of the conclusion.
Upon the question of the wool, it seems that the English have recognised their mistake, and therefore the king says he will not take any further steps in the matter.
It has not been possible to despatch the present courier from this Court any quicker, despite all the diligence shown. He has borne himself well, and was very graciously received by the king, but owing to his Majesty being so far away, as I reported, matters have suffered a slight delay.
For the said letters 28 ducats have been expended. Will your lordship be pleased to cause that sum to be paid to Messer Napoleone Spinolla?
There is little fresh news in these parts. The ambassadors of this king have been long abroad on the confines of France, and on several occasions have met the French ambassadors; but, up to the present they have not found any form of peace, and for the moment war is more likely to ensue than not. I will advise your Excellency of what occurs. May God long preserve you.
London, the 27th December, 1490.
[Italian.]
[1490.]
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
430. List Of Deeds consigned to Philippo Del Conte, for the Dowry of Madame Lucia, by Francesco Bullato.
A document of 19 pages signed by Roberto Cambiel.
Original of a letter to the Duke of Milan from John Raynold, Euchario Albich and John Skiby, alleged executors, dated at Lyons, the 12th March, 1489.
Copy of another letter from the same to the same, of the 29th Sept., 1486.
Two minutes in the duke's name to the alleged executors dated 4 April, 1489, and 12 June, 1489.
Three other minutes in the duke's name of the 16th April, 1489, to the King of France, the Council of Grenoble and the councillors of the city of Turin.
Copy of a letter in the duke's name to the executors signed, B. Chalcus, dated 13 November, 1486.
Two others to M. Christoforo Bullato from M. Bartho. Chalco, dated 15th April, 1489.
Two letters, one to M. J. Andrea Cagnola and M. Branda da Castilione of the 16th April, 1489, and the other to M. Bartho.
Chalco of the 15th, in the name of M. Christoforo Bullato.
Two letters to the duke in the name of the Council of Turin, dated 19th and 25th April, respectively.
Another directed to the duke in the name of the executors, dated 25th May, 1489.
A deed produced on the 10th April by Antonio de Cambio, Syndic of the Chamber, in the name of himself and M. Joanne de Besutio, Advocate of the Chamber.
A letter to the duke in the name of the government of Lyons.
Three documents upon the same affairs.
First Instructions to D. Betini de Claris, going to the Count Palatine.
Second instructions to the same, going to the same.
Third instructions to the same, going to Lucerne.
A note given by Paulo da Casate.
Letters of safe conduct granted by Henry, King of England, to the merchants and subjects of the Duke of Milan, to last for seven years.
Letters of the King of England to the emperor and the King of the Romans, in the same form.
[Italian.]
1490.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
431. Deed of John Wodye, executor of the will of William Andreby, late executor of the will of Lucia de Visconti, Countess of Kent, testifying that whereas Gio. Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, wishing to provide for his aunt, the said Lucia, in her marriage to Edmund, Earl of Kent, by his deed dated at Milan, the 22nd May, 1406, directed the community of Milan to make provision for her, pledging all the property of the commune for her dowry, by virtue of which deed the said commune duly pledged itself by its deed on the same day to provide dowry for the said Lucia, certain citizens being appointed to carry this into effect, and they agreed to give to the said Edmund 70,000 florins as the dowry of Lucia, this being testified by an instrument under the seals of the duke and the community of Milan, the marriage treaty being approved and ratified by Henry, King of England, by his deed dated at Westminster on the 28th May, appointing Thomas de la Croys, his proctor, who also acted as proctor for Edmund, to arrange this marriage, as shown by his deed dated the 19th March, 1405, by the style of the English church, and by the marriage contract, it was provided that in the event of the marriage the duke should be bound to pay 70,000 florins for the dowry of Lucia to the said Edmund, to wit 12,000 florins at 36 sterlings of England the florin at the solemnisation of the marriage, and after a year, 12,000 florins, and the next year, 8,285 florins at 32 soldi the florin, and so yearly until the payment was complete; the duke also bound himself, after the consummation of the marriage, to convey the said Lucia to one of the three following ports, Dret, Medelburg or Calais, at his own expense; and whereas after the death of the earl, in whose life time no payment of the 70,000 florins was ever made, the said Lucia, who survived him, made her will on the 11th April, 1424, whereby she appointed William Anderby and Thomas Huyvet her executors; and the said William, the surviving executor, by his will dated the 25th February, 1461, directed that he should be buried in St. Augustine's Church, London, and after various bequests appointed his wife Joan and John Wodye his executors, by virtue of which will the said John Wodye claims payment of the 70,000 florins together with all damages and interests accrued, and appoints Richard Heron, merchant, to recover the payment by his deed dated the 21st November, 1473, Richard Grene, clerk of York diocese and public notary, testifies that he has seen all the deeds referred to and concerning the said case in the house of Richard Heron, and the whole has been collated by me Robert Campiel of the diocese of Tournay, public notary.
[Italian.]
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
432. Letter of the Emperor Frederick III to Charles, King of France, N., King of Spain, Richard, King of England, John, King of Portugal, Wladislaus, King of Bohemia, and John, King of Denmark, desiring them to see that the debt aforesaid is paid to Richard Heron as the legitimate heir of the said Lucia, who has petitioned the emperor for justice.
Dated at Gratz on the 9th September, 1484.
Collated by Robert Campiel, notary, with the original.
[Latin.]
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
433. Exemplification of the will of Richard Heron, dated the 14th August, 1485, who desires to be buried in the Dominican church at Spires, and after various bequests, appoints John Raynold, citizen and merchant of England, Albick, citizen of Spires, and John Skiby, son of his sister Joan, his executors.
Collated with the original by Robert Campiel, notary.
[Latin.]
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
434. Note given by Paulo Da Casate to Messer B. Chalco.
I do not believe any reprisals were ever made in England by this bond, and nothing was ever said about it before Richard Heron took it up about ten years ago. If it were true, those concerned would have made a claim, and the distance of Milan was no objection, as they could have obtained payment from the Milanese merchants living in England, Flanders and France, always numerous, especially in Flanders. I do not find that any such demand was ever made. If the claim were genuine it would have come into the hands of a reputable person and not of Richard Heron, a man of ill condition and worse report, who ran off with the money of good merchants, broke faith and was expelled from England and all the dominions of the Duke Charles for debt, while owing to several frauds he dared not live in France, and finally died miserably at the hospital leaving John Schibi, well versed in his manners, joined because of his youth with John Raynald of Metz, who for his life could not venture himself in England or Flanders owing to his mal practices. He is the one who obtained money from various simple men by saying that Duke Charles of Burgundy was alive and needed it, and by such practices he lived for ten years. Richard Heron and these disciples of his have been to the pope, the King of the Romans, and the King of France, to get leave to proceed against our merchants in this matter, but they would not give him audience.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 This probably belongs to the very beginning of the year 1490. French embassies crossed to England in August and December, 1489.
2 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 559.
3 See Rymer: Fœdera, vol. v, pt. iv, page 28, but dated on the 24th February in the 6th year, i.e. 1491.
4 Pietro Foscari, patriarch of St. Mark's, Venice, and Cardinal priest of St. Nicholas ad imagines. The Bishop of Concordia was named Lionello Clericato.
5 Cecily ia generally considered to be the next surviving daughter of Edward IV after Elizabeth, but she was already married to John, Viscount Wells. From Spinola's despatch below (no. 410, at page 261), it appears that Anne, the third daughter, is the one referred to. The Portuguese match never took place, and she married the heir of the Norfolk Howards in 1495. H. M. Lane: Royal Daughters of England, vol. i. pages 312, 315.
6 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 570.
7 There is a letter of the Duke of Milan of the 4th October, 1490, promising to observe this league. Rymer, Fœdera, vol v, pt. iv, page 24; no. 414 below.
8 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 572.
9 David Williams, Master of the Rolls, and John de Gigli. Venetian Calendar, vol. i, page 191.
10 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 594.
11 Rymer, Fœdera, vol. v, pt. v, page 25.
12 John di Giglis, afterwards Bishop of Worcester.
13 David Williams, Master of the Rolls.
14 The treaty signed at Frankfort on the 22nd July, 1489. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique, vol. iii, pt. ii, pages 237–9.
15 Gian Galeazzo's mother was Bona, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy. The mother of the reigning Count Palatine, Philip Ingenuus, was Bona's aunt, Margaret, daughter of Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy.
16 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 599, a translation from a copy. The above text is from an original signed copy supplied to the Duke of Milan by Henry.
17 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 600.
18 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 601.
19 Ibid, no. 598.
20 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 602.
21 Ibid, no. 603.
22 Mr. Rawdon Brown gives “to rejoice,” as if the reading were alegrarsi.
23 The cousin of John II, King of Portugal, must be Emanuel, who succeeded to the throne in 1495. The queen's sister referred to is Anne, see page 256 above.

Annotations

79 jacob.ellis - (Tuesday 31 Mar 2009 13:54:29)
Entry number 399 margin, "for Feb. 26 read Feb. 24".
Corrigenda to this volume.


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