Milan
1496

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1912

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293-310

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'Milan: 1496', Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 293-310. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92278 Date accessed: 21 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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1496

1496.
Jan. 3.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
474. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Henry VII, King of England.
Rejoiced at affection shown by his Majesty and the treaty about to be arranged; but his wife has been taken from him and also his son who is dead. Has lost what was dearer than his own life; informs his Majesty, whom he tells also what is hard and bitter, confiding in his kindness.
Milan, the 3rd January, 1496.
[Latin; draft.]
Feb. 26.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
475. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Baptista and Giovanni Galarato, Milanese Ambassadors in Spain. (fn. 1)
As we have written to you before, we send you the mandate required for the admission of the King of England into the league. We desire that this may be effected speedily as a thing we consider as necessary for the good of the league as anything else that could be desired. You will pray the Most Serene King and Queen to hasten this on so that it may take place soon.
We have heard from Genoa what you will see by the enclosed copy, about the occurrence of Sarzana, which we believe will at this moment be in judgment before the office of St. George. This comes very conveniently for the league. We also learn that they did all that was necessary for the satisfaction of the king and queen about the two ships asked for on their behalf, and we gave instructions that if they wanted two others, as the ambassador said, everything should be done to let them have them, and you will inform the king and queen that they may dispose of all that is in our power as if it belonged to them. Milan, the 26th February, 1496.
[Italian; draft.]
March 24.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
476. The Doge and Senate of Venice to Sir Petro Contarini and Sir Luca Valaresso, staying at London. (fn. 2)
Whereas these last days we wrote and directed you to treat with the mandataries of the other powers allied with us for the admission of the King of England into our most holy confederation and sent you powers for this together with the articles of the league whereby the said admission should be made, we are advised by way of the Court of Rome and by the Spanish ambassador that the Majesty of England desires our most holy confederation to be founded by him in England, in honour of his Majesty and for his inclusion, so that he may appear as one of the members, but among the leading ones, like the others. Accordingly, out of respect for his Majesty, whom we desire to satisfy in everything that pertains to his honour, we are content with what is written above, and accordingly we enclose another full commission in our name whereby we agree to the inclusion of his Majesty with the other confederates. We have no doubt but that their mandataries will have received similar orders. We desire this league to consist of the same articles as the present league without any addition or diminution except that you will try hard to see that his Majesty binds himself to break with the King of France, both to divert him from thinking of Italy, upon which he seems very intent, and also that the sovereigns of Spain may have less opposition at that frontier, where they also have begun war on the King of France; and as the King of England may raise objections to that irruption, saying that it was not provoked by the King of France, we desire that monarch should bind himself to the said irruption against France, it may be declared in the articles that in such case it is understood he has been harassed and provoked, as right and equity require.
The 24th March, 1496.
[Italian; copy.]
April 1.477. Henry VII, King of England, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 3)
Requests that Robert Sherbourn, his secretary, Councillor and Ambassador to the Roman Court, may travel through the Milanese territories freely and without molestation or impediment, offering to render the like and greater offices to Milanese subjects.
Castle of Sheen, the 1st April, 1496.
[Signed:] Henricus, manu propria.
[Latin.]
April 7.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
478. Stefano Taberna, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Your Excellency will see from the letters of his Eminence the decision taken about England. The pope is pressing the matter on so that the duplicate mandate may be sent at once in full and proper form, and so I think it will be sent to-morrow. They will send at the same time a good brief addressed to the King of England. The Spanish ambassador told me he had heard from his colleague resident in England that it would be advisable for the pope to send a nuncio to the King of England. They have spoken about it to his Holiness, who is undecided. Possibly your lordship and his Eminence should urge that upon him. I hear from other sources that it would be most advantageous, especially if the pope sent some one capable of moving the King of England and his people against the King of France.
Rome, the 7th April, 1496.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 11.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
479. Antonio Merchio Palavicino to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
We learn here that the King of France has a good understanding with the King of England and with the King of Scotland.
Lyons, the 11th April, 1496.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 1.
Potenze
Estere.
Spagna.
Milan
Archives.
480. Francisco Litta, Milanese Ambassador at the Court of Spain, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The ambassadors of these sovereigns and the one of the King of Scotland, (fn. 4) who left Terrazona last September to go to Scotland have returned and are now here with a fine company. Scotland has brought from that country two fine hackneys and five large and very swift dogs for wild boars and stags, together with a goshawk which takes, so they say, cranes and buzzards, to be presented in his king's name to their Majesties. The reason for his return is to induce their Highessses to give their last legitimate daughter as wife to the King of Scotland, saying that he refuses the natural daughter who was offered to him. I will try to learn the decision.
Almanzar, the 1st May, 1496.
[Italian.]
May 5.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
481. Erasmo Brascha, Milanese Ambassador to the Emperor, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
An ambassador of the King of England (fn. 5) has arrived, a man of rank and with an honourable company. He had a general audience of his Imperial Majesty the day before yesterday. I have been to visit him and pay the proper respects in the name of your Excellency. I afterwards brought home to him with the strongest arguments I knew the dangerous situation in which his king would find himself if the French should subdue Italy, and with what ease his Majesty could aggrandise himself in the kingdom of France. With the whole force of the Christians turned in other directions, he would be able to ride through the whole realm of France without any resistance, and would win as many places as he rode through; because the King of France would either proceed to Italy in person and take the whole force of the kingdom with him, or else if his Majesty and the sovereigns of Spain do all in their power to invade France, the powers of Italy will also do their utmost to put it outside the power of the French to satiate their inordinate and dishonest appetite to subjugate all Christendom. I said a great deal more to him which it would take too long to write. I then informed him of the provision made by all the powers of the league to have ample powers sent to England for the renewal of the league.
The ambassador made a most courteous reply upon the first part, assuring me of the cordial affection of his king for your Excellency. With respect to the second part, he said he could not say anything very definite before he had communicated the particulars to the emperor. Cæsar would speak to me and the other ambassadors of the league, and will make it clear to us that the king will not be found wanting in anything requisite for the advantage of the league, if an effective response is made to his actions. He added that in England they know too well the depraved and perfidious methods of the French. In conclusion, he expressed great pleasure at the provision sent to England for the renewal of the league, and he asked me earnestly if his Holiness had sent as well as the other powers. I told him that I did not know, but that I thought he had.
I shall now urge the emperor to have this ambassador despatched quickly and well, and I will advise your Excellency of what takes place.
Augsburg, the 5th May, 1496.
[Italian.]
May 20.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
482. Erasmo Brascha, Milanese Ambassador in Germany, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
It has not been possible as yet to come to any definite arrangement with the English ambassador, because he does not state his intentions, but we ambassadors of the league have decided to make every effort to keep the business on foot and obtain better results therefrom.
Augsburg, the 20th May, 1496.
[Italian.]
May 24.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
483. Stefano Taberna, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The pope is to send off the nuncio to Savoy to-day. Ill fortune has decided that the one chosen to go to England, Messer Adriano, has fallen sick, and the Bishop of Conversano, whom the pope selected in his place, (fn. 6) has been sent to Urbino, because his Holiness has not an abundance of men. However, he says he intends to chose another in any event and to send him soon. I urge this with all my might.
Rome, the 24th May, 1496.
[Italian.]
June 4.
Potenze
Estere.
Germania.
Milan
Archives.
484. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Guidantonio Archimboldo, Archbishop of Milan, his ambassador.
We sent you a digest of the letters of Messer Erasmo. You will observe that his Imperial Majesty has come for the affair (facto) of the King of England. Owing to the advantages which may be expected we have written to Messer Herasmo directing him to advise his Majesty to agree to a good understanding with the King of England, seeing the good disposition expressed here by his ambassador, as we wrote yesterday.
[Signed:] B. Chalcum.
Milan, the 4th June, 1496.
[Italian.]
June 8.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
485. Henry VII, King of England, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 7)
We have read your Highness's letters of credence dated the 5th April, and have heard your commissioners, Pietro Contarini and Luca Valaresso, in the presence of the ambassador of the sovereigns of Castile. We have also understood the statement made to us on behalf of your Highness, and had a lengthy and extended conference with your commissioners upon that matter, as we feel sure they will inform your Sublimity. We will most readily take part in anything we can do which is not repugnant to reason or to our dignity.
From our chapel of Sheen, the 8th June, 1496.
[Latin; copy.]
June 16.
Potenze
Estere.
Germania.
Milan
Archives.
486. Summary of Letters of Herasmo Brascha.
The courier returned from England brought letters for the Spanish and Neapolitan ambassadors resident with the King of the Romans, from their colleagues residing in England. They say what steps they have taken with that king, but we have not heard with what result, because they have been at Augsburg.
Kaufpeur, the 16th June, 1496.
[Italian.]
June 21.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
487. Battista Sfondrato, Milanese Ambassador at Venice, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Doge sent for me and the Spanish ambassador to communicate certain particulars. He also said that the Signory was resolved that the King of England ought to be taken into the league in any way possible, and in this sense they have written to your Excellency these last days, suggesting that you should give him help if he will break with the King of France, and this notwithstanding the superseding of this business which they said they had decided these last days, because they have since learned that the Sovereigns of Spain, to whom the King of Scotland has sent his ambassador, are going to accommodate the differences between the Duke of York and the King of England.
Venice, the 21st June, 1496.
[Italian.]
[June.]
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
488. Cardinal Ascanio Maria Sforza to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
His Holiness informed the ambassadors of the league that he had sent the Archbishop of Cosenza, his secretary, to visit the ambassador of the King of England and discover what this brought. The archbishop reported that the ambassabor spoke excellently and very straightforwardly about the good will of the king to enter the league, and he said that he had brought an ample mandate with him for the purpose. The pope said he thought your lordship and he should forthwith send the proper mandates for receiving the king into the league, and he would get the ambassador of the King of the Romans to write the same to his master, while the Spanish ambassador had the most ample mandate.
The pope added he heard that the King of England had sent his ambassador to the King of France, telling him that he must give back the kingdom of Naples, because it was the patrimony of the church, otherwise he would treat them as his enemy.
Rome, the
[Italian; the date torn off.]
July 2.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
489. Cardinal Ascanio Maria Sforza to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I have communicated to his Holiness your Excellency's views about receiving the King of England into the league upon the best terms that can be obtained. He commended the idea as a wise one and lamented that difficulties had arisen; and nothing further will be done until we hear the intentions of his Highness. The pope remarked that the English ambassador here has no mandate, but instructions signed by his king. The pope says this will suffice, especially as the ambassador says that his king will ratify the league with all the necessary solemnities.
Rome, the 2nd July, 1496.
[Italian.]
July 3.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
490. Giovanni de Bebulcho to Messer Bartolomeo Chalco, Secretary to the Duke of Milan.
This morning I received a note from your Magnificence. Before it reached me I had a visit from the Florentine, Aldo Brandini, whom I questioned carefully. I fell sick that very day and have not been able to leave the house since, or I should have performed my usual duties with Iris lordship. Below I give all that I gathered from him.
The said Aldo Brandini left London this last Easter, returning to Bruges, where he stayed for a fortnight.
When I asked what news there was of the Duke of York, he replied that the duke was in Scotland, making a marriage with a cousin of the king there. I asked him if he had heard anything about the Scots invading England. He said he had not, and that the King of Scotland was very poor as regards money, but he had an abundance of men, and that the Scots were the enemies of the English and the friends of the French. I asked him about English affairs. He said that the king is rather feared than loved, and this was due to his avarice (questo re e piû temuto che amatto, e questo procede per essere avaro). I asked who ruled him and had control over him. He said there was only one who can do anything, and he is named Master Bray, who controls the king's treasure. The king is very powerful in money, but if fortune allowed some lord of the blood royal to rise and he had to take the field, he would fare badly owing to his avarice; his people would abandon him. They would treat him as they did King Richard, whom they abandoned, taking the other side because he put to death his nephews, to whom the kingdom belonged (domandatoli chi lo governa e chi po de luy, dice che solo e uno die po tutto, che se domanda maistro Bray, lo quale governa lo texoro suo e che lo ditto Re e molto potente de denari, ma che se la fortuna premetesse che se levasse qualche signore de sangue reale e che convenisse a essere sopra li campi che per la avaricia sua chapitarebe male, che saria abandonato da li soi e che farebeno lo medexmo che ueceno al Re Rizardo, che per havere fato morire li nepoti a chui spetavo lo regno, lo abandonorono e li furono contrarii).
I asked if the King of England had received regularly every year the sum promised by the King of France. He said that the two last payments were in arrear, amounting to 40,000 crowns each. I asked if any Italian had influence with Master Bray: he said that Benedetto Bonvixi of Lucca has a good deal. I asked about the feeling of the English towards the French; he said it could not be worse, and whenever the king wished to cross he would find no lack of as many men and as much money as he wanted. That is all I learned from him.
From my house, the 3rd July, 1496.
[Italian.]
July 11.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
491. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Battista Sfondrato, his Ambassador at Venice.
This evening the Ambassador Marco Dandolo presented to us letters from the King of England and from the Venetian ambassadors in England, formulating the demands. We send you a copy of these letters so that you may impart them to the Signory, although you may have received them from the ambassadors. We have imparted them to the ambassadors of the league. At the same time Messer Marco gave us a summary of the news received by the Signory from Naples and Rome.
* * * * * * *
The other matter which we desire to mention to you concerns the affair of England. Seeing the discrepancy between the letters of the King of England mentioned above and what we have heard from Rome, as you will see by our others, and according to the communication made to us by the Signory, referred to above, we have thought it advisable to remind his Holiness that as he has committed this affair to those cardinals, doubtless persons of great prudence, he should also call in the ambassadors of the league, as they might have made greater progress in the conduct of the affair and have asked for a secret view of the instructions or mandates, so that they might have somewhat more certitude about the extent of their powers than they have at present with these discrepancies, since there is no word from Rome except the mandate of the English ambassador, although in the exordium communicated, they mention that he has been seen. Accordingly we did not think it impertinent to write something about it to the Vice-Chancellor, our brother, and we think the Signory would do well to write and urge that the affair be restrained and not kept on foot, seeing how important it is (crederiamo fosse facto bene cie anche quella Illustrissima signoria, parendoli, ne scrivesse cum sollicitare a restrenzere la cosa et non tenerla in pratica, essendo del momento che si vede).
You will therefore go and set forth to them what we have written to you.
Sondrio, the 11th July, 1496.
[Italian.]
July 12.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
492. Report of a Spy arrived this day at Milan from France.
Had been at Lyons, and on the whole journey saw no soldiers, except 25,000 English on Sunday week, who were leaving Lyons to go, so they said, towards Asti. They were accompanied by the Duke of Orleans as far as the bridge of Lyons, and he had a long conference with the captain of this infantry.
[Italian.]
July 14.493. Henry VII, King of England, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 8)
Complimentary letter in answer to one of the same nature brought by the duke's subject, Cristofforo Carbonaro.
[Signed:] Henricus R. manu propria.
[Latin.]
July 17.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
494. From Letters of Stefano Taberna of the 17th. (fn. 9)
The pope said that the King of England has sent the ratification of the league to his ambassador in good form, and letters have come from England stating that the king there having learned that the French have stirred up the King of Scotland against him, is very incensed against the King of France, and they speak there about it, inducing him to declare war, and to settle the affairs of the Scots, to which he attaches no importance.
[Italian.]
July 28.
Potenze
Estere.
Spagna.
Milan
Archives.
495. Giovanni Gieronimo Visconti, Milanese Ambassador at the Court of Spain, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
They have not arranged any marriage alliance with the Scots. The reason, from what I gather, is that the king here wants to give a natural daughter, whereas they want one of the legitimate ones, and for this reason it is not thought likely to happen.
Tartaghe, the 25th July, 1496.
[Italian.]
July.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
496. Bartolommeo Chalco, Secretary, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The courier sent these last months to England has returned to-day with the enclosed letters, which I send to your lordship. Milan, July, 1496.
[Endorsed:] Haste (cito).
[Italian.]
Aug. 2.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
497. Copy of a Letter of the 2nd August from the Court.
This morning we went to the king and advised him to act immediately if he wished to recover his kingdom and warning him of the danger of losing his honour and his house. When we came to the part about the league of the King of England with the others of Italy, he mocked. I understand that the King of England has sent two ambassadors. I have not succeeded in hearing the reply.
[Italian.]
Aug. 8.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
498. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Henry VII, King of England. (fn. 10)
We have heard from Rome that you have entered the league in which your Majesty makes common fortune with his Holiness the Pope, the sovereigns of Spain, the Venetian Signory and ourselves. This has given the greatest satisfaction to all who have entered the league, and is the more grateful to us because we have long loved and reverenced your Majesty. We therefore rejoice greatly at this league, which not only fulfils all our desire but augurs well for the common reputation and glory, and this moves us to express our joy to your Majesty. We expect that your Majesty will make public to all in our realm this league, which we welcome with all our heart and which has been promulgated throughout Italy by our allies amid great rejoicings.
Tirani, the 3rd August, 1496.
[Latin; draft.]
Aug. 4.499. Peter Carmeliano, of Brescia, Latin Secretary to Henry VII, King of England, to Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 11)
Avails himself of the return to Milan of the duke's servant, Cristofforo Carbonaro, on whose taciturnity, prudence and address he relies, to make certain communications to his Highness.
Being an Italian by birth, he is bound to do his utmost for the benefit of his country, and to acquaint the duke with such things as may be to his advantage. Requests him therefore to give credence to the statements made in his name by Carbonaro. Desires above all things that the duke should be aware of his allegiance and silent devotedness, which bind him to offer all possible service to his Highness, to whom he commends himself Corfe Castle, the 4th August, 1496.
[Latin.]
Aug. 12.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
500. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Henry VII, King of England.
When we heard at Rome of the conclusion of the league under the auspices of your Majesty, we wrote at once to offer your Majesty our congratulations, as our duty was, and our courier was sent to England with the letter. However, we have thought fit to repeat this, so that your Majesty may know the great pleasure of all the confederates that you have entered the league, a thing we all desired, on account of the greatness of your Majesty and still more because we all felt that you are always just and desirous of the general good. We therefore congratulate you on the formation of the league and feel sure that you will have unending pleasure therefrom.
Milan, the 12th August, 1496.
[Latin; draft.]
Aug. 27.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
501. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Henry VII, King of England. (fn. 12)
As your Majesty's entry into our most holy league was most grateful to us, so we caused our joy to be made public to all, with public arguments for rejoicing. Among the agreements made on your entering we perceive that there are to be carried out by ourselves, the ratification of that entry with the articles and agreements contained in the instrument, and a detailed list of our adherents, allies and well-wishers (commendatorum), who are going to enjoy the advantage with us. We have therefore ordered public letters in solemn and authentic form to be drawn up with this ratification and list, and are sending them with this to your Majesty, asking you to inform us by your letters of their presentation, so that we may know that we have performed the part touching us.
Milan, the 27th August, 1496.
[Latin; draft.]
Aug. 27.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
502. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Pietro Contarini and Luca Valareso, Venetian Patricians and Merchants, staying at London.
We believe you will have heard of the publication of the league recently contracted at Rome between the most holy Confederation and the King of England. One article therein provides that each of the allies shall ratify it and at the same time give a list of all his adherents, friends and colleagues. For the fulfilment of this article and as a sign of the close friendship and good will existing between the Signory and ourselves, we ask you to take this slight charge for us, in informing his Majesty of our ratification and nomination, which we send herewith enclosed in two separate letters. We shall be gratified if you will present these to his Majesty, receive his acknowledgment and send it to us in the way you think best.
Milan, the 15th August, 1496.
[Italian; draft.]
Aug. 27.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
503. Pietro Marco Stampa to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
To-day there have arrived here Messer Troyano Papacoda, ambassador of the King of France, with twelve horses, and Messer Roberto, ambassador of the King of England, also with twelve horses. From what I understand they will reach your Excellency to-day.
Lodi, the 27th August, 1496.
[Italian.]
Aug. 27–31.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
504. Extractum litterarum fratris Bartholomew de l'Aquila ad Trajanum Savellanùm.
The force of England and that of Britanny will soon be at Marseilles and will do things to terrify every one.
[Italian.]
Aug. 28.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
505. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Battista Sfondrato, his Ambassador at Venice.
We have to inform you that an ambassador of the King of England has arrived here. He is a Genoese. When he came to-day to pay his respects he said that he had been sent by his king to Rome to take some horses. He said nothing more beyond the general phrases of a visit.
Milan, the 28th August, 1496.
[Italian.]
Aug. 29.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
506. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Henry VII, King of England.
Request to give credence to his ambassador, Dom. Thoma Ruthalum, (fn. 13) whom he hears his Majesty has diverted from his journey back to Milan, and who is charged to repeat the great pleasure the duke takes in the new league between them, and to tell his Majesty certain things concerning the articles.
Milan, the 29th August, 1496.
[Latin; draft.]
August.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
507. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Carlo Visconti.
We have received the copy of the articles of the league recently signed by the King of England. There is nothing to add except that we will perform our part.
[Italian.]
Sept. 16.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
508. Carlo Orsino to Monsignor Julio and Madonna Bartholommea.
The King of England has assured his Majesty here that notwithstanding he has entered the league he will never come against him.
Lyons, the 16th September, 1496.
[Italian.]
Sept. 22.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
509. Giovanni Gieronimo Visconti, Milanese Ambassador in Spain, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The King of Spain greatly regretted not having had the brief for the admission of the King of England into the league, because he could have had it published here.
Gerona, the 22nd September, 1496.
[Italian.]
Sept. 24.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
510. Extract from a Letter written by one of the Council of the King of England, dated at Hoymisor, where the King was at the time with his Council. (fn. 14)
By way of informing you of our news here, the French are much astonished and disgusted at the league which the king our master has made with our Holy Father, and for this reason they are doing all they can to move his enemies against him to trouble him and prevent him from assisting our Holy Father against them. Accordingly they thought their best course was to send the Lord Crugresalt to Scotland. Since his arrival the Scots have not adhered to the arrangement made with my Lord of Durham. It is much as I reported, and they have armed as many of their men as they were able. Against these my Lord of Durham and my Lord of Surrey have gathered together 30,000 men of the counties of Richmond, York, Northumberland in the districts of Scotland. When the Scots heard this they offered that every man would go to his home if the king would pay their expenses which they had incurred in assembling and maintaining their force for the King of France, but the king my master refused to do anything, as one who has no fear whatever of that king (quando hano intesi questo se sono contentati de andarsene ciaschuno a casa sua, se il Re li voleva pagare le spese, quale hano facto et mettere insiema et intertenere loro armata del Re de Franza, donde el Re mon Maestro no ne ha voluto fare niente, come quello che ponto non lo estima).
The king will leave to-morrow, at lauds, to go to Clingoure and will proceed thence to Scotland well accompanied. I and others who are taking this journey with him believe that the King of Scotland will never be able to do him any harm, and it will be very easy for him to vanquish the Scots, who have chosen the King of France to be the arbiter between the king and them, and have done what they have at the request and solicitation of the French. We are better informed of this by another way by the new king.
Hoymisor, the 24th September.
[Italian.]
Oct. 1.
Potenze
Estere,
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
511. Giuliano Buch to Francesco de' Montibus, Councillor of the Duke of Milan.
These last days by other letters I informed your lordship of the arrival here of Messer Cristofalo, his relation to his Majesty and the reply made to him, which was but little to our purpose and against all that we want and calculated to disturb what we have toiled at.
With all possible adroitness and art I have used my wits to put matters right, and in the meantime the letters of your lordship received from this Cristofalo have helped me a great deal, and also those of the king here. In his presence I have read and shown …, making use of the proper instances, … should continue in what we desire, and without doubt this has helped us not a little, because this king has great confidence in what you write, and is very pleased with your lordship, to whom he recognises his indebtedness for your good works and behaviour. His ambassador aforesaid has given him such an account of it, who returned very well impressed and satisfied with your lordship, about which there was no doubt, and by my letters I have pointed it out to the king very effectively. God grant that the ambassador in question has given such an account … if not altogether to the contrary. He seems to do them and to be more hopeless than ever, as things infinite and without ground or substance. Thus, at the beginning he made … remain in suspense, and had I not remedied matters, as I have stated, things would even have been worse; so much the more … has been content that the said ambassador should be sent back with commissions in the opposite sense, and notwithstanding the causes alleged … had imposed and ordained should report to the king here that they have not satisfied him. However, I am persuaded that all will be well, and I shall soon be able to give you better and more particular news, as up to the present his Majesty here has not answered about anything, but is waiting for the reply of his ambassador sent to Rome. As your lordship must have heard, that ambassador on the 18th July solemnly announced the entry of the king here into the league, which he renewed, and the other day they received the news here. This is an excellent thing and not a little to our purpose for our own ends (per le nostre particolarità), especially as it happened in Rome, and has thereby given the more reputation to your lordship's affairs in the kingdom, and in this way will hasten the reply to the king here and your lordship. You will understand everything clearly and see that by the said letter it has not been possible to act up to the present. I assure you that the disposition and good will of the king here could not be better, or more agreeable to what we desire. The beginning is not bad, especially as your lordship knows, as one thing leads to another. May God pardon the malicious informations, especially those of persons of credit and deputed for this. Everything will be countermined, with the best results, and so much the greater will be our honour.
These last days I have received letters from your lordship about a conference between his Majesty here and the Duke of Milan and with those two others of the king. He thanks your lordship for the news given by me, which I beg you to continue us well as your perfect work with his Majesty in causing letters to be written to me, as I am sure they have been a most powerful cause. These past days I may have received about twenty letters of his Majesty by way of Messer Giovanni Battista Spinello, with excuses, and he has written four to his Majesty doing the same, which is not so bad. As regards Peter, he has provided a remedy; I wish he had equally provided for the more necessary requirements of my maintenance, and so I beg your lordship to write and press the matter. I have done the same, making him understand that if he does not provide for me, it will not be possible to remain here any longer and I should not be able to find any remedy, as I know what I suffer and have suffered, as your lordship may consider. In order not to follow the example of the cow, who when the pail was full kicked it over with her foot, so, following your advice, I am content to wait for your answer, and till that comes I will put up with everything, so that your lordship may work with all this, as is customary and as I hope.
Matters are tending to settle down … are carrying on many affairs, and the sovereigns of Spain also have a hand in them, and although an ambassador is resident there they have sent Don Pedro de Ayala, who should have arrived several days ago, and thereby depend the laws and the prophets, that the king may act as we desire. You will hear things to please you for the king's service.
In like manner an ambassador of France arrived with the king these last days, who is trying to upset what is mentioned above, so as to be able to secure … and this is all the hope … had it not been for this it is certain matters would have been in another state. God pardon the one who is the cause. I hope that the operations of this Frenchman will have little success, the king does not trust him, so I am advised. On the other hand, the King of Denmark, who has great influence with the said king, has sent two ambassadors hither, worthy men, one is his chancellor, for the purpose of making some arrangement between the two kings and to take part together in the operations of Spain and consequently do mischief to France. These ambassadors are here now and engaged upon their business, so that I hope that everything will fall out according to our wishes.
From Spain we hear that the king has gone in person with a very great army to Perpignan. He was arming several days ago, when I left on the 10th of July. The queen, his wife, with the prince and the infant, will go to La Redo for the embarcation of the archduchess. She arrived yesterday at Southampton, and at this moment she should be in Flanders, as the weather has been good. She brought with her 130 ships and three carracks, two Genoese and one Spanish, all in good order and admirably armed. The Admiral of Castile was in command and had his wife with him and many other lords and gentlemen. This is by no means agreeable to the King of France and cannot fail to help and do good in many ways.
The French ambassador who was coming here, as I wrote to your lordship, has not yet appeared. They say that he will come, but I am sure that he will do little good.
I am pressed, as the messenger is mounted. I can say no more except to commend myself to your lordship and offer my services on every occasion.
London, the 1st October, 1496.
[Italian; the blank parts in cipher.]
Oct. 10.
Carteggio
Generate.
Milan
Archives.
512. Dux Mediolani Etc.
In contractu Rome celebrato die xviii. mensis Julii prox. passati quo Serenissimus et Excellentissimus Dom. Henricus Rex Anglie ejus nominis Septimus intravit seu de novo inivit ligam celebratam Venetiis ad ultimam mensis Martis 1495, inter Ser. et Excell. Dom. Maximilianum, Romanorum Regem, semper Augustum etc. Dom. Ferdinandum et Dom. Elisabetham, Reges Castille etc. et Ill principem Dom. Aug. Barbadien, Ducem et Excell. Dom. Venetiarum ac nos, inter ceteras hec est qua partibus predictis eo foederis vinculo conjunctis ipsius contractis ratificandi termini trium mensium statuebatur, quam ob ad implerem idem princeps et Dom. Venetiarum ejusdem foederis contrastem ac omnia et singula in eo contenta ratificavit et approbavit per publicas litteras suas datas in suo palatio die mensis Septembris prox. elapsi, indictione xv, plumbeaque bulla sua munitas, quas per litteras publice testamur nobis redditas fuisse ac non solum predictas ratificationis litteras in termini tempore accepisse verum etiam ab Illus. Principe Senatuque Veneto per eas cumulatissime satisfactum fuisse, quod ad humusmodi ratificationem pertinebat.
Cropello die xo Octobris, 1496.
[Draft.]
Oct. 16.513. Ratification by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain of the League stipulated at Venice on the last day of March, 1495. (fn. 15)
To this league the King of England has become a party, through his secretary, ambassador and proctor Robert Sherbourn, Archdeacon of Buckingham; as the pope in his own name, Philibert Naturelli, Provost of Salm, ambassador of the King of the Romans, Garcilasso della Vega, Spanish ambassador and procurator, Nicolo Michiel, procurator and ambassador of the Doge and Signory of Venice, and Ascanio Maria Sforza, Cardinal Deacon, Vice-chancellor, brother and commissioner of the Duke of Milan, accepted and admitted the said Robert Sherbourn on behalf of the King of England as a party to the league, and renewed it with him.
The sovereigns of Spain ratify the foregoing admission according to the articles of the new league, stipulating that such was to be done by the contracting parties within three months from the day of its date.
Logrono, the 16th October, 1496.
Signed: Yo el RE, manu propria.
Yo la Regina, manu propria.
[Latin.]
Oct. 21.
Carteggio
Generate.
Milan
Archives.
514. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Hieronymo [Visconti,] his Ambassador in Spain.
His Imperial Majesty advises us that the King of Scotland and the Duke of York has taken the field with 30,000 men against the King of England. This troubles him because he greatly desired to see the realisation of what he arranged with that king for attacking France if the King of France should make any attempt against Italy. We therefore desire his Majesty to see if he can bring about an arrangement between the said king and duke and the King of England, and we instruct you to this effect.
Milan, the 21st October, 1496.
[Italian.]
Oct. 29.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
515. Henry VII, King of England, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 16)
We have read both the letters patent of your Highness of the 27th August last and another date about the confirmation and ratification of the league and alliance between the Pope, the King of the Romans, the Sovereigns of Spain, ourselves, the Doge of the Venetians and your Sublimity, entered upon at Rome of late, and giving a list of your clients and adherents, reserving the right to nominate others within the time appointed. We have looked over these carefully, noting your clients and adherents, whom we have readily admitted.
We have also heard that both your Highness and the rest of the confederates of Italy have been much gladdened by this our entry into the league and have made public rejoicings. In the same way we ourselves intend to celebrate this league publicly within three days, on the feast of All Saints, in the church of St. Paul's, the metropolitan of the realm, with a state procession, making public declaration of our joy; and there we shall receive the Sword and Cap of Maintenance, sent to us by his Holiness with all due respect.
We have thought fit to inform your Highness of all these things because of our mutual friendship and alliance.
From our palace by Westminster, the 29th October, 1496.
[Latin; draft.]
[1496.]
Dec. 3.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
516. Antonio Spinola, Milanese Agent at Genoa, to Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 17)
The day before yesterday arrived at Genoa, and received letters from England dated the 8th October. The king, his lord, and the whole Court were in good plight at Windsor Castle. Encloses a copy of the news, word for word, as written by a trustworthy gentleman, a member of the King's Council. Hope within a week to receive a messenger from England. They will thus know all the news; God grant it may be good. Should the duke choose to have it transmitted, he shall be obeyed willingly. Would have gone to the duke on returning from Rome, but business letters from the king awaited him at Genoa, and he had to execute the commissions contained in them. Hopes to return to the king on the arrival of the messenger; in the meanwhile awaits the duke's commands for England. In his letters to the king he gave account of the favour shown him by the duke for love of his Majesty.
Genoa, the 3rd December.
[Italian.]
1496.
Dec. 6.
Carteggio
Generate.
Milan
Archives.
517. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Battista Sfondrato, his Ambassador at Venice.
We are pleased to hear that the Signory has chosen an ambassador for England. (fn. 18) as suggested by his imperial Majesty; but as we are recently advised from Rome that the pope also intends to make a good choice for the same purpose, and will probably do so soon, you will ask the Signory when they propose to send their ambassador and if they would like to send jointly or severally, and whether they intend their ambassador to reside with the King of England or merely to offer congratulations and then return, so that we may know what course to follow.
Pavia, the 6th December, 1496.
[Signed:] J. An. Chalcum.
[Italian.]
Dec. 10.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
518. Battista Sfondrato, Milanese Ambassador at Venice, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
In reply to what your lordship asked about the ambassador to England, the doge told me that they had not yet decided what they would do, but they would debate the matter, and when they had drawn up his instructions they would inform your lordship. He hinted, however, that the ambassadors are not to go jointly, because the countries are difficult to travel through together, owing to the question of quarters.
Venice, the 10th December, 1496.
[Italian.]
Dec. 15.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
519. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Henry VII, King of England. (fn. 19)
We have received your Majesty's letters dated from your palace near Westminster, on the 29th October last, informing us that you had received our two letters, with our confirmation and ratification of the league made at Rome and the list of our allies and adherents, as well as our well-wishers, and you have taken note of their names. Glad as we are of this, we are even more delighted when your Majesty informs us that you have caused that league to be celebrated in state and by processions. When we find ourselves joined in this league with a king, whose greatness and outstanding reputation for authority and wisdom will fill every enemy with fear, we may feel confident of our safety, and we shall be unable on our side to refuse anything for your Majesty's dignity and convenience. For the more complete declaration of our joy we are about to send ambassadors to your Majesty, to whom we would pay our respects.
Milan, the 15th December, 1496.
[Latin; draft.]

Footnotes

1 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 682.
2 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 688.
3 Ibid., no. 691.
4 The Spanish ambassadors to Scotland were the Archdeacon Don Martin de Torre and Garcia de Herera. The Scottish ambassadors appear to have been the Bishop and Dean of Glasgow. Spanish Calendar, vol. i, pages 68, 71, 91.
5 Christopher Urswick, the king's almoner, afterwards Dean of Windsor. See Venetian Calendar, vol. i, page 239.
6 Adrian di Castello of Corneto, who acted at various times as nuncio in Scotland and England, collector in England and English ambassador at Rome, and subsequently became Bishop of Bath and Wells. Vincenzo Pistachio, Bishop of Conversano.
7 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 705.
8 Venetian Calendar vol. i, no. 711.
9 The league was ratified on the 18th July.
10 Venetian Calendar vol. i, no. 715.
11 Ibid., vol. ii, no. 1331.
12 Venetian Calendar vol. i, no. 716. where it is dated Aug. 17.
13 Dr. Thomas Ruthall or Rowthall, Secretary of Henry VII, afterwards Bishop of Durham.
14 This is an enclosure in a letter of Antonio Spinola to the Duke of Milan, dated at Genoa, no. 516 below. As such it is printed in the Venetian Calendar, vol. iii, pages, 634, 635.
15 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 722.
16 A letter to the Doge Agostino Barbarigo of Venice, in the same form, mutatis mutandis, is printed in the Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 725.
17 Venetian Calendar, vol. iii, no. 1478.
18 Andrea Trivisano, chosen on the 29th November. He did not start, however, until the following June. Venetian Calendar, vol. i, pages 251, 254, 256.
19 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 723.


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