Milan
1514

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1912

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422-440

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'Milan: 1514', Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 422-440. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92283 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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1514

1514.
Feb. 1.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
676. Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Christopher Bainbridge, Archbishop of York, Cardinal of England.
Intelleximus Reverendos Abates charevallensem et Sancti Ambrosii Mediolani cum ad nos venissent sedandarum contentionum causa, litteras a Reverendissimo Dom. Vestro accepisse, quibus monebantur ut hujus ipsius compositionis gratia Romam venirent. Erat autem utraque pars parata urbem petere, sed nos retinuimus ut experiremur si que de compositione agi cepta erant ad exitum per nos deduci possent et per hunc modum compositionis labor Reverendissimo Dom. Vestro minueretur. Huic rei dum operam damus et difficultates enodantur, scripsit ad nos abas charevallensis differre profectionem suam ad urbem nolle et negotium de compositione susceptum imperfectum reliquit. Quod ille egit non minus prompte abas Sancti Ambrosii fecisset, sed nos obstitimus ne vir jam etate fessa tam sceva hieme itineri se crederet, nisi prius vires aliquantis per confirmasset. Itaque ne charavallensis diligentia huic officiat quem nos preter causas que dicte sunt subsistere jussimus significare rem Dom. V. Rev. Voluimus cui compositionis negotium commendamus ut quod nos optabamus dum optime congregationi consulere cupimus et ex ea contentionis auferre studemus quin abatiam charavallensem III. Dom. Blance, ave nostre manu reformata fuit et eam que sub Sancti Ambrosii titulo in hac urbe est Rev. Dom. Cardinalis Ascanius patruus noster cum antea non esset in ea in congregationem ipsam transulit ipsa felicius et incoet et perficiat. Aget enim opus laude magna dignum et protectionis officio quod sustinet valde conveniens nemini enim ignotum est in ecclesia dei cistersiensem congregationem excelluisse semper non copia solum virorum sed qui virtutem qui veram religionem colerent et ex qua tanquam ex optimo seminario ad ingentes dignitates multi promoverentur eam nunc inter se altercari et scevas contentiones exercere impium et turpe est taque bonis omnibus dolendum. Itaque vehementer optamus ut dissidentes ejus partes componantur et hinc rei Rev. Dom. V. pro singulari sapientia sua manum apponat neque alterius ipsarum jurgia, si que ingesserint ut acerbe contendentis solent respiciat affarmamus enim hunc abatem qui remansit et brevi sequetur totius hujus urbis judicio optimum virum haberi et non solum a scismate alienum fuisse, sed dum Mediolani conciliabulum haberetur Rome semper versatum esse nullaque tam atrocia odia putamus esse quam virtutis et bontatis magnitudine que in Rev. Dom. Vestro est ad amorem et concordiam indigi non possit.
Mediolani, primo Februarii, MDXIV.
[Draft.]
Feb. 1.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
677. Francesco Sforza, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Maximilian Sforza, Duke of Milan.
We shall never cease to solicit his Holiness and the friends of your Excellency who are about him, as well as the Most Reverend Gurk and the imperial, Catholic and English ambassadors. From England, the ambassador hears that his Majesty is waiting to fill up the number of 15,000 horse and his other extensive preparations for the French expedition, and that the Scots have sent eleven ambassadors to his Majesty to submit to his will and patch up (aconzar) his affairs. In England they say the French will come to Italy soon.
The Scots have sent an ambassador to the King of France to offer excuses for taking the side of the King of England, but offering to make war on him if the King of France will give them 1,000 lances, 10,000 foot and a quantity of artillery. But in France they have neither the means nor the power to supply such succour, and so it is expected that they will give up all hope from Scotland.
Rome, the 1st February, 1514.
[Italian.]
Feb. 22.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
678. Francesco Sforza, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
His Holiness commends what you have done about the dispute between the monks or abbots of Clairvaux and St. Ambrose, and he will see to it that the goods of the church are not wasted in litigation and that no scandal ensues. He has sent back the envoys to the English cardinal, protector of that religion, and they will present themselves to him to-day and perform their office.
Rome, the 22nd February, 1514.
[Italian.]
[1514.]
Feb. 22.
Potenze
Estere.
Svizzeri.
Milan
Archives.
679. Ex litteris D. Joachimi et Augustini Paravisini, Dat. Zuregi die xxij Feb.
The Duke of Savoy has informed the Swiss by his ambassadors that in Dauphiné there are 800 lances with six large pieces of artillery, 12 falconets, two bombards, 12,000 landsknechts, besides other infantry, and the king has sent 12,000 infantry and 400 lances to the King of England.
The emperor, the Catholic king, and the King of England have undertaken not to make peace with France unless they all agree.
[Italian.]
1514.
March 7.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
680. Bartolomeo Ticiono, Count of Clarasci, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
A dependant has reached me from Lyons and Dauphiné, who says they are much afraid of war, all hope of an agreement with the Swiss and a truce with the Catholic having vanished, and because they have certain news of the return of the English with a greater power than before. However, the French are making great preparations for their defence and the king has laid a general impost of a million of gold on the realm of France.
Ostia, the 7th March, 1514.
[Italian.]
March 12.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
681. Francesco Sforza, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Spanish ambassador told me that his king had sent to France and the emperor to negotiate a universal truce for a year, provided the emperor and the King of England agreed, so that in the interval they might treat for a proper universal peace; but if the parties did not like this, he was ready for war. The emperor had written to the King of England to ask his opinion, and they expected a reply at once.
Rome, the 12th March, 1514.
[Italian.]
April 5.
Potenze
Estere.
Svizzeri.
Milan
Archives.
682. Summarium litterarum D. Joachimi et Aug. Paravisini ad Dom. Ducem Mediolani, Turegi, 5 Aprilis, 1514.
They have held their diet and have at once settled on their ambassadors for the King of England.
[Italian.]
April 18.
Potenze
Estere.
Germania.
Milan
Archives.
683. Augustino Somentia, Milanese Ambassador in Germany, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
A post has arrived from England, but has not spoken with the emperor since. Understands that the King of England does not want the truce, and if he does not accept it, neither will the emperor. Flanders has also advised his Majesty not to accept.
He heard the King of England is making very great preparations for war. All the lords say that even if the emperor and England do not accept the truce, the Duke of Milan will be included.
Veltz, the 18th April, 1514.
[Italian; copy.]
May. -.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
684. Summary of News brought by the Courier of Rome.
They also write that in France they are expecting a great personage from Madame Margaret and the archduke to treat for a marriage alliance between France and England, and the marriage alliance between France and Burgundy is considered excluded.
They understand in France that the preparations in England are even greater than those made last year against France. Letters of the 10th relate that the King of France is so perturbed that no one dares to speak to him about the affairs of England, owing to his hopes, encouraged by the Catholic king of having peace with him, because he has heard that England is making strong preparations, and he has also heard that his Majesty has given orders for his viceroy to cross to Tournay with 16,000 men and other troops, and has ordered munitions and victuals to be sent to Calais, while he is arranging to cross himself with the rest of the army. So the Most Christian has given orders to prepare the defence.
[Italian.]
June 5.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
685. Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Christopher Bainbridge, Archbishop of York, Cardinal of England.
Putavissimus pro nostra in Serenissimum Dom. Regem vestrum observantia et pro ipsius erga nos singulare bonitate et amore Rev. Dom. Vest, diligentius quam nos ipsi possemus curaturam fuisse: que ad rem et quietem rerum nostrarum pertinent; quia cum patria procul ageremus Ser. Rex Vester arma pro restitutione nostra suscipienda unus maxime inter alios censuit. Sed longe aliter actam est in cisterciense congregatione, cujus compositionem Rev. Dom. V. susceperat. Omnina enim incontrarium cesserunt eorum que expectabantur non Rev. Dom. V. culpa quid enim minus quam de ejus virtute dubitari poterat. Sed illius vitio qui sub Rev. Dom. V clipeo struere viam sibi ad religionis eversionem quesivit et invenit: cum ei permissum est, ut tota congregatione inter suos divisa, aliam partem everteret. Cujus rei significatio in urbe Mediolanensi nuntiata ita civium animos afflixit ut primo animis capti cives videbatur, mox indignatio ita animos corriperet ut arma et ignes spectarent, cujus periculi atrocis nos impulit ut Dom. Thomam commissarium vestrum statim vocaremus et quo in periculo res versaretur moneremus: cum publica et tutellaris religio evertitur in qua civitatis quies contractur et in hac urbe sine ea fidum et certum nihil omnino est cui opem a nobis statim ferri oportet nisi everti omnia tumultuante urbe velimus. Jussimus igitur eum ad Rev. Dom. V. scribere harum rerum casum et rogare ut cum celeritate remedium rescisso capitulo mittat neque differendo nos ad pontificis pulsandas aures deducat missis litteris que tandem in suspenso mansure sunt quando ad ipsius opera illo dit quando litteras accipiet perspicietur quod si ipsa negligeret eam inter alia mala tutelaris religio Mediolani moram non ferat quin ad eam omnium oculi intendant.
Ignoscet nobis V. Rev. Dom. si pontificis manum requisiverimus, que deesse nobis non debet, cum honestissima causa petendi sit et ad revocandum iniquam constitutionem in qua servanda publica quies evertitur ferre opem omnes debeant et imprimus Rev. Dom. V. cum Regis illius nomen ferat, cui nos omnia nostra debemus. Rogamus igitur denuo ut habito ei honore in eo quod primo eam adimus contenta maneat et statim nobis ad avertenda hec mala opem ferat nisi fateri velit aliud nihil fuisse quod ei honoris gratia prestare ultra possemus, cum lesi in media et meliori parte status rerum nostrarum cui omnibus rationibus occurrere propter periculum debebimus injuriam dissimulaverimus quoad intureremur si ab ipsa erratum corrigeretur.
Papie, quinto Junii, MDXIV.
[Draft.]
June 12.
Potenze
Estere.
Svizzeri.
Milan
Archives.
686. Summary of the Letters of the Milanese Ambassadors with the Swiss.
How on that day the five Ambassadors of the King of England had arrived, with the two sent by the Swiss to his Majesty, and the Swiss lords had shown these English ambassadors more honour than had ever been shown to any other ambassadors, doubling the quantity of wine that is usually given to ambassadors and showing them the other customary honours.
That on their arrival a diet has been appointed to be held at Zurich on Monday next, the 19th inst.
A man of influence and trust has given them a succinct account of what has been done by the ambassadors who went to England, (fn. 1) and their relations between them and the King of England, which are as below.
That when they reached London they were introduced to the king's council, to whom they presented their letters of credence and set forth their commissions. At the end of their speech they said they wished to present themselves to the king in person. The Council answered in most friendly fashion that their coming was most acceptable both to the Council itself and to all the people of England, and that on the following day they should have their wish and be taken to the king. Their letters of credence were returned to them open.
On the following day the Council accompanied them to a place half a day's journey from London, where the king was, who sent two of his nobles as far as the palace gate to meet them. When they were introduced to his Majesty, he rose from his seat and went about eight paces to meet them. They touched his hands and presented their letters of credence, making their exposition in the presence of the Council. The king himself replied that their coming was most welcome to him, to all the lords and barons and to all the people of England, but as the hour was late, he invited them to supper, saying that he would despatch them on the following day.
On the following day the Council made a most gracious and favourable answer to them, telling them that the king would send two of his ambassadors, who would give them a reply in their house and would have authority to treat and conclude for his Majesty. As they had already returned to London, the king sent for them again. When they were introduced, his Majesty asked the Marquis of Rotolin, who was present, if he knew them, as he had been a good deal in the country. He replied that he did, and gave some particulars where he had met them. After this the king drew apart with them, and they remained alone together for about two hours. He asked them questions about various things and made the following arrangement.
He would give them his ambassadors. He asked them to keep these in their company so that they might arrive safely. His Majesty would place his faith and confidence in the Swiss and give his ambassadors commissions to make a good arrangement with them, and although he was only one man, yet as he had been created king and as the other kings, his predecessors had been men of their word, they ought likewise to believe that he would keep faith with them and would observe what he promises, as he was sure they would do the same by him.
After they had received a handsome present of the gold of England, the king dismissed them. Among other expressions used by the king, he remarked that he thought it was decreed by fate that these two peoples, the English and the Swiss, should unite to chastise the French.
The Marquis of Rotolin was filled with astonishment when he saw them, as it seemed almost incredible to him that the Swiss should send ambassadors to England.
They write afterwards that they have visited the aforesaid English ambassadors in the duke's name, and were welcomed with a cordiality impossible to describe, showing the king's love for his Excellency and his care for his establishment. They replied with suitable thanks, and they will not fail to perform the other offices required in honouring and welcoming them.
Zurich, the 12th June, 1514.
To be sent to the Cardinal of Sion at Rome, to Dom. Prospero, and to Dom. Daniele de Burgo.
[Italian; copy.]
June 13.
Potenze
Estere.
svizzeri.
Milan
Archives.
687. Joachim Molzanus and Augustino Paravisini, Milanese Ambassadors with the Swiss, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
This evening the ambassadors arrived, sent by the King of England to the lords here, who welcomed and honoured them in a way that has never, they say, been done with any other ambassadors sent to them. They will remain here. A diet has been arranged for them next Monday, to hear their commissions and to give form to what is to be arranged with them. I, Joachim, have been to visit them in the name of your Excellency. It pleased them greatly, and we asked simultaneously, they after your Excellency and I after his Majesty, without speaking of any other individual. We did not go to meet them, although preparations were made to accompany them to the place, because the imperial ambassador would not go, since he had no instructions from Caesar, nor would the lords here, because it is not their custom. I remained away because I had no other commissions than those either, but we have always communicated everything to the lords, as you will see more at length in my letters.
I am going to Lucerne, to the diet to be held there upon these movements of France, as we have written; I shall afterwards return here, and you shall be advised of what takes place.
Zurich, the 13th June, 1514.
[Italian.]
June 16.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
688. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
We have letters of the 3rd from the Court of France to a person of authority. They relate that they are waiting with the greatest anxiety to hear what decision the General of Normandy will have obtained from the King of England and that the King of France was doing his utmost to make peace and not a truce, because with a truce the emperor and the Catholic might in the interval remove the misunderstanding between them and the King of England and at the expiry of the truce it would be necessary to begin the war again and incur great expense without result and with anxiety. But if peace is made he can arrange it with more advantage while the angry feeling is hot, and he can show his own teeth to the others with a quieter mind and undertake the enterprise of Italy. Once he has arranged with England, he thinks of approaching the Swiss once more, to win them over, and if he succeeds he considers success assured for his undertakings, if he is free from fear of the English, and even if he does not win them he will think of attempting the affair of Lombardy.
The letters say that some one had come from the Catholic king who was to bring the ratification of the truce, and he had not brought it. They say that the emperor had sent this ratification to the Catholic king. The King of France was very displeased about this and fears some hitch, as he heard that the Catholic was going to England. The French hoped that by the 6th of this month they would have some good results from the operations of the General of Normandy, which would be sent here at once. But now we are at the 16th and no word has come from France, and the advices now arrive in seven or eight days. This arouses the belief that the King of England will not be cajoled so easily. I have been told that the King of England is sending his ambassador to the Swiss, but with the intention to make a settlement with France. He wishes to alarm them and so make advantageous terms, but he will remember to include your Excellency. I wish your ambassador was already there.
Rome, the 16th June, 1514.
[Italian.]
[1514.
June 14–18.]
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
689. Postscript of Joachim. (fn. 2)
Before dinner to-day I visited the English ambassadors as usual and conferred with them in the most friendly way imaginable.
They answered with every show of affection, calling to mind with many gracious words the great love of their king for your Excellency, and that for your security and advantage he would expose himself to any risks. We then went on to ask each other questions, they about the affairs of your Excellency and I with proper tact about English affairs. They asked me separately whether the report of the French returning to Italy were true or false. I told them what I knew in reply, and then as an opportunity presented itself, I adroitly contrived to take leave.
To-day I am going to Lucerne, where the negotiations and conclusion will take place, there to represent your Excellency, after which I shall return to Zurich.
From what I hear, a satisfactory conclusion will be arrived at between the English and the Swiss, unless the Swiss show themselves too greedy or the English want to carry matters with too high a hand, as is their manner. However, I will write soon at length and exactly about everything.
[Latin.]
1514.
June 19.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
690. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I Spoke to the Cardinal of England about the affairs of Clairvaux and Saint Ambrose. His Eminence told me that he thought the life of Brother Arcangelo had not been very creditable, but the others were not much to be commended either. He said that Brother Basil had offered 3,000 ducats to his very self. He further said that what was done in the chapter had been done by his orders, and that the chapter had made Brother Arcangelo president, and he had sent information about everything to your Excellency because he could not revoke what had been done and it did not seem to him convenient, but he would direct that sufficient religious should be placed in the monasteries of Clairvaux and Saint Ambrose. He would see how Brother Arcangelo comported himself, and if he did not behave well, he would have him charged and punished. He did not mean to listen to passion.
Afterwards I presented the letter of your Excellency to the pope and spoke to him, begging him to make provision about these scandals. I also spoke to the Cardinal de' Medici. His Holiness promised to speak to the Cardinal upon occasion, and he would put the matter into shape.
Rome, the 19th June, 1514.
[Italian.]
June 19.
Potenze
Estere.
Svizzeri.
Milan
Archives.
691. Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Agustino Paravisino, his Ambassador with the Swiss.
We are sorry for your indisposition, and also because it interferes with our affairs, especially at the moment of the arrival of the English ambassadors. If they were in the case which we desire, we should think of nothing so much, but as you need rest, we advise you to hold your hand until these English affairs take more definite shape, as if you take care of your health your efforts cannot fail to produce good results and once things are settled down we will willingly grant the leave you ask.
Cremona, the 19th June, 1514.
[Italian; draft.]
June 28.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
692. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Since my last, letters of the 20th and 21st have arrived from France. They relate that by the letters of the General of Normandy from England, they have hopes not only of a truce and peace, but of a marriage alliance between England's sister and the King of France. Some say the Queen of Scotland, some the damsel promised to the archduke, and that the King of France will not want to take a wife. We shall soon hear the truth; according to the conclusion taken between the Swiss and the English ambassadors, we shall be able to guess quid agendum.
Rome, the 28th June, 1514.
[Italian.]
July 1.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
693. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Your Excellency's letter of the 26th with the summary of the exposition of the English ambassadors was read by his Holiness. He expressed the greatest satisfaction at the alliance between the English and the Swiss, especially as it included your Excellency, saying that it would prove your salvation.
Rome, the 1st July, 1514.
[Italian.]
July 1.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
694. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I presented your Excellency's letter to the English ambassador. He was very pleased and told me he had always been the servant of your illustrious house. He has never failed me and will not whenever he can help.
Rome, the 1st July, 1514.
[Italian.]
July 7.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
695. Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan, to the Protonotary Caracciolo, his Ambassador at Rome.
We have this day received letters from the Cardinal of England about the chapter held at Rome in the Cistercian congregation. In these letters his Eminence casts aspersions on our name, saying that on this subject we have written in different senses, and stating that in our first letters we commended what had been done in the chapter, and afterwards we wrote that it was necessary to change what had been done and give it a better form. The nature of the affair has compelled us to justify our action, for two reasons: one, that we have the responsibility as nephew not to fail to maintain what our uncle left under the apostolic authority, the abbey of Saint Ambrose, given to the Cistercian congregation, which ought not to be diverted from its form. The other to declare that we have not been at fault for writing in different senses, but those who gave the advice. Accordingly we have answered at once; but as we have been at Pavia, and since our return, occupied with current events, our reply has not been sent as yet, so that it may have our signature and it may not be said that the letters were made without our knowledge. We therefore send you this reply, so that you may hand it yourself to the cardinal, and ask his Eminence to take it as a reply made by his son to tell him the truth, and to seek his help for a scandal in a matter of great moment, in which his Eminence and the city of Milan under his shadow, have been deceived by the vice and wrong-doing of one who has ruined the congregation in the past, and is now ruining Saint Ambrose, to our disgrace and danger. You will try to move him for these reasons to maintain what remains as a remarkable testimony to the virtue and goodness of our uncle.
Milan, the 7th July, 1514.
[Italian; draft.]
July 11.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
696. Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Christopher Bainbridge, Archbishop of York, Cardinal of England.
Paucis ostendere poterint Rev. Dom. Vestr. quanti eam facere debeamus non solum propter Christianissimum Regem, a quo nomen et honos ejus descendit, sed etiam propter se ipsam. Nam ipsius Domini Regis merita in Principem nostrum nequaquam obscura sunt quem Princeps noster inter eos numerat quibus salutem suam acceptam refert. Et Rev. Dom. Vestr. ab initio cum de restitutione Principis nostri ageretur. Ita se animatam ostendit ut nulli locum relinqueret qui ejus studiosior videretur sed non iccirco Rev. Dom. V. quamquam de nobis omnibus polliceri sibi omnia possit poscere a nobis debet ut que proxime acta sunt Rome in capitulo Cistersiensium congregationis rata facere velimus. Auferri enim autem oportuit populi querimonias cui persuasum est nihil jure, nihil more factum esse, sed vocatos monacos nihil potuisse ex sententia sua proferre et dimissos a conclavi in quo convenerant cum militari custodia emissos esse ut ne verbum quidem hiscere possent. Non videntur hec moris esse, non a jure ordinata sed ab iis facta qui sub capituli nomine ea extorquere vellent, quibus assentiri nullus debebat: minime quidem horum culpa Rev. Dom. V. tribuitur, sed illi qui ante Julium secundum fefellit ut Gallicum concilium impugnasse putaretur. Cujus minister fuit et pro quo omnina effecit quam vir ingenuosus quidem sed inops efficere potuit, per Julium hac fraude assecutus et haberet ne habere desinat Rev. Dom. V. eadem fraude agressus divina et humana miscuit et per Julium Claram Vallem assecutus nunc per Rev. Dom. V. omnia obtineat et que in Claravalle dispersum est per Sanctum Ambrosium et Abatiam Parmensem resarciatur. Id Rev. Dom. V. ferre non debet ne alterius crimen cujus ipsa expers putatur esse ad se trahat et suum faciat esse quod nos molestissime propter nostram in Dom. Vestr. Reverendissimum aegerrime observantiam ferremus qui nihil magis quam nominis ejus candorem optare debemus. Nam quod de severo et tribus aliis monachis Rev. Dom. V. scribit ea nobis nova sunt. De Rev. Dom. V. nihil apud nos dictu est, quod illi notam impingat, nisi que Archangelum suscepit et tuetur quem si proter anteactam vitam defendi non debere putat, nulla etiam ratio efficere poterat ut eum toti preficerit congregationi Nam quamquam ingenio polleat ut Rev. Dom. V. scribit et nos negare nolumus quis prestare potest ut recte hec Prefectura illa credita sit qui hactenus ingenii sui vires in nullo alio exercuit nisi ut congregationem everteret et eversa caravallensi abatia quam etiam ipsius monachi proter extremam inopiam diffugiunt nunc etiam ambrosianam et Parmensem abatias prorsus subvertat ad quas se convertit postea quam alia omnia consumpta vidit unde ad congregationis sue evertende factas promissiones impleat. Hac cum a Dom. Thoma Commissario suo Rev. Dom. V. cujus honori et redintegrationi non defuimus habere possit, habet unde vera erruat et caveat ne dum placere viventi homini velit, ejus ostensionem incurrat qui vivit et vivet semper et alios omnes judicaturus est.
[Draft.]
July 12.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
697. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The pope is very anxious to hear what will be done between the English and French. He hourly expects letters from Tricarico. (fn. 3) He would like a truce, and the French want peace.
The French have complained to his Holiness that he is working with England. They also hear thence that the English will not make any arrangement, unless there is a definite engagement that the French will leave Italy alone; but the King of France will never agree to such a condition.

His Holiness is in great expectation of the arrangement to be made by the Swiss with the English. He told me that the Swiss are not content because they have not had their payments. He advises your Excellency to keep them in a good humour before everything else.
There are letters from France of the 2nd. They are waiting for the decision of the English about the treaty and stand between hope and fear.
Rome, the 12th July, 1514.
[[Italian.]
July 12.
Potenze
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Archives.
698. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
we are told that the Cardinal of England is very ill and they fear he will not last two days. When I enquired what the pope would do with the Archbishopric of York, which has a very large revenue, I was told that his Holiness will have respect for the King of England in these times, and gratify him, even though the vacancy takes place at the Court. They say he has a large sum of money, and the pope would like him to make a will. It wil show great restraint to abstain in these times.
Rome, the 12th July, 1514.
[Italian.]
July 14.
Potenze
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Archives.
699. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I am sending this courier at the instance of Messer Pietro Magni, merely to inform your Excellency that the Cardinal of England is dead.
Rome, the 14th July, 1514.
[Italian.]
July 17.
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700. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I notified the death of the Cardinal of England by my last. They have found a sum of 20,000 ducats in money and plate, and they say he has 30,000 ducats in England. The pope allowed him to dispose of everything by will and nothing whatever will come to his Holiness.
It seems that the pope will wait for the nomination of that king to his bishopric, as his Holiness shows extraordinary respect for that monarch and indeed has great confidence in him. The bishopric is worth 15,000 ducats yearly and more.
The news so anxiously awaited about the decision of the English as regards the French, or of the Swiss as regards the English, has not arrived from any quarter.
Rome, the 17th July, 1514.
[Italian.]
July 17.
Potenze
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701. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Maximilian Sforza, Duke of Milan.
His Holiness said it would be a great matter if the agreement between the English and Swiss was made, but seeing that they delay so much to write definitely from England he thought difficulties must have arisen and that the French will not bring about the agreement so easily
Rome, the 17th July, 1514.
[Italian.]
July 20.
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702. Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan, to his Governor of Asti.
Your letters of yesterday contain various matters which we will deal with here. As regards the rumours abroad in those parts, that peace has been made between France and England and that the French are about to come here at once, it is all fictitious and a device in order to encourage those who delight in such news. Thus we have letters which have recently arrived from our representatives with the Swiss, who write to us that the ambassadors sent by the confederacy to the King of England have made most ample offers of as many men as his Majesty desires for his enterprise. This offer was very welcome to him and the ambassadors had a most cordial and honourable reception and rich presents. When they returned home, six ambassadors of his Majesty were sent in their company. We are advised that they have arrived and the diet has already begun, in which they will have to decide about what his Majesty will do with regard to the offer made to him of troops for his enterprise, and the English and Swiss will kindle such a fire in France that they will find it hard to extinguish, unless they make peace. We leave it to you and to all who have proper sentiments if they are not deceiving themselves by passion, seeing that the king is expecting to have Swiss troops in this manner, and if the rumour about the coming of the French can be true or pure fiction, such as they have been disseminating during the past months. What has been reported about the interdict which the pope is to proclaim against us is equally false.
Cremona, the 20th July, 1514.
[Italian; draft.]
July 20.
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703. Agustino Paravisino, Milanese Ambassador with the Swiss, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Last Thursday evening the English ambassadors were admitted to the diet. They asked for nothing except an understanding in the name of their king. The Swiss lords, seeing that they had no mandate from their king, did not think it advisable to come to any decision on this subject, but they told them that if their king would send them a supply of money, they would take up arms against France and they would never make peace with France unless his Majesty was included, and he must do the like. This was the only decision arrived at, though many of them would have liked something better.
Comi, the 20th July, 1514.
[Italian.]
July 21.
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704. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
My last were of the 17th. Nothing fresh has happened since, except that letters of the 6th inst. have arrived from the Court of the King of France. They relate that a post had come from England, from the General of Normandy, the purport of which was kept very secret, though efforts were made to find out about it. It is understood that he writes that there are difficulties in the way of the peace negotiations, because the King of England wants some places in Picardy, and he also wants a very large sum of money. The King of France does not seem inclined to concede either, and it had been said that even if peace did not ensue it would be impossible to make war this year now. There is an idea that the King of England keeps this negotiation afloat in order to see what decision the Swiss will take with his ambassadors, and accordingly it may be advisable to warn them of this, so that they may arrange to make some good and acceptable arrangement against France, which would mean their safety and aggrandisement and the establishment of your Excellency.
Rome, the 21st July, 1514.
[Italian.]
July 27.
Potenze
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Archives.
705. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Letters from France of the 15th state that Tricarico had returned from England. Since then, letters of Tricarico of the 17th state that the agreement between the English and French was not concluded. The difficulty consisted in the English demand for a large sum of money, to wit, one million, one hundred thousand ducats, and to keep Tournay. He writes that the money would be conceded, but they will on no account agree to give up Tournay. Yet it seems that the difficulties are being reduced. The negotiations for this agreement took place between king and king, and they did not want Tricarico to intervene. His Holiness does not say this, but the Spanish ambassador (fn. 4) has heard it and a great personage told me so. The pope seems unhappy about it, and the French have remonstrated with his Holiness, because they had learned through the English that he was dissuading the peace. He says it is true that he urged the truce, with the inclusion of Italy, so that the peace might be universal.
The Spanish ambassador, being extremely dissatisfied at this delay in the emperor's decision, has sent a courier to Don Pedro Durrea (fn. 5) to push matters on the ground that if a decision is arrived at they will come to a proper decision here, while he fears that if peace ensues between the Kings of England and France, the pope will proceed cautiously.
Letters of the 15th state that Gurk is with Caesar.
The Spanish ambassador told me that he was advised that Bontemps had arrived with the Catholic, and he had heard that the King of France and England are sending ambassadors to his king, and therefore it would be advisable for your Excellency's ambassador to be there.
If the emperor's reply is delayed, or if he comes to no decision, and peace ensues between the two kings, I fear that we shall entirely lose his Holiness, or rather, as the lesser evil, he will not meddle with anything, and will not restore us the city.
Petro Magni had a courier from Sion; I have spoken with him. He showed me some articles upon matters on which it seems the Swiss have replied or are about to reply to the English ambassadors. They seem to me very feeble. He says the diet has been postponed until the last day of this month. He has gone in haste to his master. It will be advisable to have the restoration of our city included in all arrangements to be made with the pope.
Rome, the 27th July, 1514.
[Italian.]
July 29.
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706. Galeazzo Sforza, Milanese Ambassador with the Swiss, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
They are expecting the English ambassador here, and from what I understand, the business between his Majesty and the Swiss will come off. I hear from a person worthy of confidence that the cardinal has got the matter in good train, and I hope to send more precise news soon.
Berne, the 29th July, 1514.
[Italian.]
July —.
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707. Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan, to the Protonotary Caracciolo, his Ambassador at Rome.
The reasons whereby his Holiness explains the delay of any decison between the English and French show great prudence, because, since the French desire the agreement, it does not seem possible to explain why it does not follow in any other way than that the King of England cannot get what he wants, except with the grain of salt, and wishes to serve his interests better. Yet, like his Holiness, we may at any moment expect some indication of what decision they will arrive at, or some conjecture of what we may expect. We say the same with respect to his Imperial Majesty and the Bishop of Gurk.
Our conservators do not give themselves the trouble to answer by what man you should send their letters to the Cardinal of England. We should have liked you to have had them in time and to have been able to present them, so that you might have added some suitable remarks, with your usual tact. To remedy this vanished opportunity you will present to his Holiness this reply of the conservators, as since England is no more, it cannot reasonably be given to any one else than the pope, who is the head, and whose province it is to examine into the necessary provisions in the case of the Cistercian congregation. Accordingly, what we wrote to the Cardinal of England, to move him to remedy the scandals which had occurred, must also be made known to his Holiness and the Sacred College, so that they may the better know how to put their hand to the remedies and the enforcement of the rule, ordained with remarkable circumspection, under apostolic authority, by the vice-chancellor, our uncle, to distinguish the table of the monks from the sum of the fabric and alms, and to give them various governors, with the obligation to render a good account, obviating the ambitions of the prelate restricting their powers against doing anything but what pertains to the food and clothing of the monks. We expect you to show your prudence in this.
Milan, the — July, 1514.
[Italian; draft; the day of the month torn off.]
Aug. 5.
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708. Galeazzo Sforza, Milanese Ambassador with the Swiss, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
While I was awaiting the coming of the Magnificent Joachim here in Berne, the English ambassadors arrived. In fulfilment of my commissions, I immediately called upon them. After the proper compliments, I thanked their king in your Excellency's name for his good offices last year against the common enemy. I then asked them to use all their influence with their king so that in any arrangement his Majesty might make, he should include your Excellency and your state, in which Genoa and Asti should be understood as comprised as appurtenances. They answered frankly and with the utmost courtesy that their king cherished the most cordial affection for your Excellency, and considered you his good brother, and in this and in every other matter where he could do anything for your advantage, he would not be found wanting. They promised to perform this office punctually in person when they saw his Majesty.
We understand that an agreement has been made between the English king and the Swiss lords here in the following manner: to wit, that in time of peace the king is to give the Swiss a pension of 15,000 ducats a year; and in time of war, 40,000 florins a month. The Swiss undertake to put into the field as many infantry as they are able, every time that the king declares war on the French. Each shall make war upon his own account, but neither the King nor the Swiss may make any agreement with France without the knowledge of the other. This is all I have been able to learn about the subject.
Berne, the 5th August, 1514.
[Italian.]
Aug. 5.
Potenze
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709. Bartolomeo De Madiis, Milanese Ambassador with the Swiss, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The English ambassadors are at this moment within for the final decision, the difficulty consists in the time of ten years for which they ask. As the hour is late I believe that our reply will come after dinner.
The English ambassadors were despatched this morning. From what I hear, they arranged a league for ten years, with articles and conditions; the king is to give them 15,000 crowns in time of peace and 40,000 crowns in time of war, and they undertake to make war on France whenever he does, with at least 18,000 foot; both sides undertake not to make a truce or peace with France without the other.
Berne, the 5th August, 1514.
[Italian.]
Aug. 6.
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Svizzeri.
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Archives.
710. Galeazzo Sforza, Milanese Ambassador with the Swiss, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The English ambassadors left to-day and had a good send off. I once more commended your Excellency's affairs to them. They promised to satisfy your desires and said you should be of good cheer as their king loves you most cordially, and he will do as much for you as if your affairs were his own.
Berne, the 6th August, 1514.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
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711. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Sebastiano left on the 8th. He brought word that the peace was concluded as well as the marriage alliance. Scotland, the archduke, and the King of Navarre are included in the peace. The letters state that it is expected no expedition will be made this year. He has dismissed half the landsknechts, to wit, nine thousand, retaining an equal number. He has paid off about 1,000 lances and 800 Albanians. He is sending the rest of the troops to winter in Burgundy and Dauphine.
I have seen letters of the 30th ult. and the 3rd inst. from a very trustworthy person. They also state the paying off of the troops and that there will be no expedition this year. They also relate that a friar who was with the King of France in the name of the Catholic, seeing the English agreement noised abroad everywhere, spoke to the king and tried hard to get him to temporise for fifteen or twenty days before making the agreement, because his king would make the marriage alliance and the other things at his Majesty's good pleasure. The king replied that he would wait even much longer because he never left his couch except when he went hunting, and he would always be ready to listen to any one who made proposals to his advantage.
Immediately the friar had gone, the king told everything to a person of authority, making game of the friar.
The same letters relate that at the instance of the English king, the King of France will dismiss a duke who has claims in England, whom the king employed as captain of all the landsknechts (fn. 6) ; but he will send him away well content.
Further, that the King of England demands 100,000 ducats of the archduke, which he says he paid him on account of the dowry of his sister, when she was promised, and he wants it all the same, even though the archduke is nominated in the peace.
Letters from England of the 30th, which arrived recently, contain that the king there had tried hard to have your Excellency included in the peace, et nunquam fuit dare remedium that the French should accept it. But seeing the agreement was in danger, and finding himself without a companion in the war, he decided to conclude, chiefly because of his indignation with the emperor and the Catholic, against whom he complains to the heavens, and all the aforementioned results of the marriage alliance and the inclusion of Navarre go to prove it. Your Excellency is advised of all the news which has reached here.
The King of France, having seen the portrait of his destined wife, says he is more pleased to have so beautiful a wife than half his state. He proposes to give Mons. de Angouleme and the daughter the title of Duke and Duchess of Britanny; the king will retain the fortresses and will let them enjoy the rest.
Rome, the 17th August, 1514.
[Italian.]
Aug. 23.
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712. Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan, to the Protonotary Caracciolo, his Ambassador at Rome.
We have to answer your letter of the 17th about Saint Ambrogio, in which we have always placed implicit confidence in his Holiness. But, to speak frankly, it does not appear that we can hope for anything better than what you obtained from the Cardinal of England, as the words you report are of precisely the same kind as England always gave when he was alive. We are the more scrupulous about this, seeing that they speak of the things done in the chapter of England as established. As this was done by violence, upon false representations and with promise of reward, as appears clearly every day, the honour of his Holiness and the Most Reverend Sorrentino cannot suffer things done in such a underhand manner to stand firm and secure, as this would be nothing less than to go against God and the Saint, and utterly bury the congregation under the feet of Arcangelo, who has lacerated and devoured it up to the present.
You will therefore go to the feet of his Holiness and beseech him to think better upon these things, and if it pleases him that somebody shall be gratified with the property, that he shall not permit the destruction of discipline and good behaviour, in which the worship of God consists; when we shall be no less indebted to his Holiness than in what he is doing for us and for Italy.
Milan, the 23rd August, 1514.
[Italian; draft.]
Aug. 29.
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713. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
A groom of the English cardinal, a priest calling himself Rinaldo da Modena, was taken on suspicion of having poisoned his master, because he had beaten him. He confessed without torture that he had done it in a soup. Being unwell afterwards, he said this was not true, and when they were about to take him to the cord, he struck himself in the breast with a knife. In the article of death he confirmed having done it. He was hanged and then quartered, but he was dead of the wound.
Rome, the 29th August, 1514.
[Italian.]
Sept. 1.
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714. The Protonotary Caracciolo, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The letter of the King of England was read in the Consistory. I enclose a copy.
Rome, the 1st September, 1514.
[Italian.]
[1514,
Sept. 9.]
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715. Copy of Letters from Rome of the 9th, to the Duke of Milan. (fn. 7)
My last were of the 5th, and I reported the favourable opinion that his Holiness would proceed admirably in public affairs. Yesterday, I went to the palace to learn if there was any news, though I did not intend to speak with his Holiness. The pope was speaking with the Spanish ambassador and, learning I was there, he sent me word not to go as he had something to say to me. When he had finished his conversation with the Spanish ambassador, he sent for me and said he wished to express the affection he bore your Excellency and tell me the efforts he has made to save you. He showed me letters of the 26th from England, in which the lords who rule there, who are prelates and have need of his Holiness, fearing that he may be very displeased that the peace (fn. 8) has been made without including you, make every imaginable excuse about this. They say that to please the pope and because of the affection that king bears you, they pressed so hard for your inclusion in the peace that twice they were on the point of breaking off on this question alone; but as the King of France is very obstinate and the King of England greatly incensed against the Catholic and very set on making the peace, they have not been able to obtain it now. But his Holiness must be of good cheer, as they do not despair of obtaining by peace what they did not succeed in getting by arms, and they are still keeping the matter to the front.
The Catholic ambassador has also heard from England from their ambassador there that both kings guarded themselves against the papal nuncios when they concluded the peace, lest they should seek to break it, and the pope says that this article was for your Excellency alone. His Holiness freely asserts that he had misgivings about the truce and negotiations for a marriage alliance on the part of the Catholic, and so he furthered the truce between the two kings, but the King of England has made the peace because of his great wrath.
Perhaps God has done it for the best, as when the replies come from Caesar and the Catholic, his Holiness will act as necessity requires, and make a defensive league with the Swiss, thus depriving the French of the means of coming, but he does not think it advisable when such a powerful member as the Venetians is cut off. He desires and hopes that his Imperial Majesty will allow himself to be advised, with his customary goodness, and repair the ruin which will ensue if he remains obdurate; and being good and prudent he will proceed more quickly in these times with clemency and liberality than otherwise, since it is high time to put an end to so much bloodshed among Christians and turn our arms against the infidels.
France is pressing for his wife to be sent to him. The Catholic ambassador writes that the King of England, father of the present one, left 700,000 ducats in cash as the dowry of this daughter. The present king is keeping it all, and the King of France will have to provide the dowry of 700,000 ducats as well as the million which he is paying in twenty years. They are sending the Great Chamberlain and the Prior of England with another lord as ambassadors to France (fn. 9) and they will accompany the queen.
I am told that she weeps bitterly over her misfortune in being passed from one extreme to another (piange molto la sua disgratia che sia transferita da. extremo in extremo).
The King of England will soon send his obedience to his Holiness.
[Italian.]
Dec. 24.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
716. Summary of Letters from Rome of the 24th December.
Letters of the 15th from France state that they have sent out a Scottish captain to the waters of Britanny to proceed to the shores of Provence with a good fleet. At la Rochelle he took the ship Lomelina, and he will join with Pre Jane, who had taken the ship Cattanea. Thus they are pushing on their design both by sea and land.
As regards the enterprise of Lombardy they want to consult with England.
The Queen of Scotland has married a duke in Scotland, some say forced by the people, some of her own choice. (fn. 10)
[Italian.]
1514.
Dec. 25.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
717. Summary of Advices from France by Letters of the 25th.
They are expecting a most honourable embassy from England, which should reach the Court in a week, with the most ample powers to make a perpetual alliance with the king's Majesty.
[Italian.]
Dec. 30.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
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718. Bartolommeo Ticiono, Governor of Asti, to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Has tried to find out about the coming of Monsig. de Borgiis, apostolic legate to Scotland, but so far he has not passed. A certain Messer Raphaello de Hieronimi, ambassador of the pope, accompanied Truglietto, the Savoyard ambassador, for the marriage of the duke's sister. They had no one with them except servants, both by dress and appearance.
Asti, the 30th December, 1514.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Maurice Hierns of Zurich and John Stolz of Basel; their letters of credence are dated at Basel, 13th April, 1514. Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. Brewer, vol. i, no. 4970.
2 The English ambassadors arrived at Zurich on the 13th and the diet at Lucerne was fixed for Monday the 19th. (See no. 687 above.) This fragment of a despatch of Joachim must therefore belong to some time between the two dates.
3 Ludovico Canossa, Bishop of Tricarico, papal nuncio sent to negotiate peace between France and England.
4 Christoval Brizeño.
5 Don Pedro de Urea, Spanish ambassador to the emperor.
6 The Duke of Suffolk. See Giucciardini: Storia d' Italia lib. 12.
7 This letter is wrongly classified with papers for the year 1526.
8 The peace concluded with France on the 10th July, 1514.
9 The ambassadors were Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester, the Great Chamberlain, Thomas Dokwra, prior of the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, and Dr. Nicholas West, Dean of Windsor, appointed on the 18th August. Rymer: Fœdera, vol. vi, pt. i, page 73.
10 Margaret, widow of James IV of Scotland, married Archibald Douglas, sixth Earl of Angus, on the 14th August, 1514.


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