Milan
1530

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1912

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517-533

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'Milan: 1530', Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 517-533. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92288 Date accessed: 25 July 2014.


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1530

1530.
Feb. 5.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
813. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Alexandro Bentivolio, Lieutenant-General of his State.
Order to visit and make much of the English ambassadors, (fn. 1) who are passing through Milan, as is fitting from the great respect the duke owes to their king. If necessary he will provide them with an escort or anything else, leaving nothing undone which may please them.
Bologna, the 5th February, 1530.
[Italian.]
March 30.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
814. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Alexandro Bentivolio, Lieutenant-General of his State.
Has expressed his wishes about treatment of the English ambassadors, for greater clearness deserves all their expenses defrayed through his state, and treat them so well that they may be pleased and send a good report to their king. This expense will pass with the numerous others which he has.
Cremona, the 30th March, 1530.
[Italian.]
March 31.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
815. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Alexandro Bentivolio, Lieutenant-Governor of his State.
Has sent orders for reception of the English ambassadors passing through Lodi, Milan and Novara. Now hears they have reached Parma and may be at Lodi to-morrow. Has this morning sent Giovanni Fermo, his courier to Lodi with orders to assist in making provision for the ambassadors; and has also sent Ludovico and Constantino Vistarini to meet the ambassadors at Placentia and accompany them to Lodi and beyond. He will tell them what to do.
Proposes to ask for a loan of 50,000 ducats from the King of England, and have written the enclosed to him by Earl of Wlgeri, the principal ambassador, a man of great influence with his Majesty and who is well disposed. Writing also to the Cavalier Casale and Giovanni Guglielmo Panizono, whom he is to help in this matter.
Encloses letter to Scarpinello in England, in reply to his. To send word of what he gathers from the earl.
Cremona, the last day of March, 1530.
[Italian.]
June 28.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
816. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 2)
In two former letters I mentioned the impossibility of doing the matters enjoined upon me by your Excellency's lieutenant, by reason of the absence from this Court of the Earl of Wiltshire; the king's almoner being of opinion that this business should not be attempted through any other channel than that of the earl, as I myself inferred before my interview with the almoner, perceiving affairs here to proceed more restrictively than ever they did hitherto, and that the crew are determined to make amends for what has been misspent by extreme parsimony. Daily proofs of this are afforded, and especially within the last four days, when they positively declined the request of the Florentines, as reported in my last letters. I will, however, do what is necessary on the arrival of the earl in question, which is expected to take place immediately on the release of the French princes. As this is supposed to have occurred already, he will depart on his return hither. God grant that my exertions may obtain the result desired by your Excellency, but I certainly could have wished for instructions concerning what we could offer on our part, both as to security and also with regard to gaining some powerful support whereby to obtain the desired effect.
The only news here is that his Majesty amuses himself at his places hereabouts, passing from one to the other, and is now at Hampton Court, a most noble palace which belonged heretofore to the Cardinal of York. The queen also is with his Majesty and they pay each other reciprocally the greatest possible attention, or compliments in the Spanish fashion, with the utmost tranquillity of spirit, as if there had never been any dispute whatever between them. Yet, the affair has not slackened in the least, although, at the present moment but little is being done here, as both parties are collecting votes, in France, Italy and other places, but it is not yet known with what success. At any rate this most virtuous queen maintains most strenuously that all her king and lord does is done by him for pure conscience's sake, and not from any wanton appetite. (Questa santissima regina contende summa contention che suo re et signore quanto fa lo fa per vera et pura conscientia et non por alcuno altro inhonesto zelo.)
Parliament is now holding the Midsummer session, which is attended by the usual numbers, and especially by the Duke of Norfolk and the Chancellor.
Cardinal Wolsey is at his diocese of York, and we hear that he makes good cheer and is gentle as a little lamb with everybody. (Et intendesi facia bona cera et mazo contucti come uno agnellino.)
The princess occupies herself with her very becoming studies, in her usual residence. Were there anything else worthy of your Excellency's knowledge, I would not weary you with such matters.
I also understand that the King of Scotland has imprisoned some fifteen persons of account and beheaded two of them, some say for having plotted against his Majesty, as accomplices of the Earl of Angus and other outlaws. Others assert it is because they encouraged a number of hostile pillagers, who have made forays in that kingdom, encouraged by the said earl and by conspirators resident in some English places on the borders. On this account they say the King of Scots has raised a considerable force of troops, to rid his territory of such incidents.
Should anything else occur I will not fail to notify it to your Excellency. I beseech you in the meantime to provide graciously for my need, which in truth has reached such a pitch of unbearable misery, as you will easily understand, knowing when it began and that it has not yet been alleviated.
London, the 28th June, 1530.
[Italian.]
July 14.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
817. Augustino Scarapinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
My last was of the 28th ult. The Earl of Vulgieri was unable to do anything. Now the sons of the Most Christian are released, and, as I hear, the work done he had charge of in the University of Paris about the divorce, for which he was said to be resident with the Most Christian, it is expected that he will soon come back here, in which event I will lose no opportunity of urging him, to fulfil his promises.
The French ambassador has told me that this divorce was discussed in the Colleges of Paris, and more than a hundred doctors and divines voted in favour of the English king. They are waiting to see what will be done here, and many think that they will proceed to the divorce, especially now France's sons are released, as there is nothing that the English king does not promise himself from the Most Christian, and can in no wise dissimulate his desire to throw difficulties in the way of the emperor, and show his concern for the affairs of the Most Christian. This Joan Joachimo does not fail to help this spirit, saying that the Most Christian made promises to the emperor for the release of his son who does not find himself specified, and therefore after the release they should have the rights that were their due. The people here openly take the part of Caesar and the queen (questi populi aperte favent Cesari et Regine).
We hear that some popular tumults have broken out in Wales, the origin of which was a private dispute between a primate of this country and the governor, mid they fought fiercely together (havendosene ben battuti).
The king here has displayed great satisfaction at the release of France's sons, and ordered illuminations to be made in this city. He left two days ago for Hampton Court, where he is hunting and enjoying his usual diversions. Yesterday he sent for the French Ambassador Joachimo, it is supposed about the report from the University of Paris. Doctor Phox, (fn. 3) his Majesty's auditor, has gone there to find out about the discussion on this divorce, so they say.
The Cardinal of York is in his diocese, where they say he is very comfortable, and there is little more talk now about his affairs. The son or nephew, (fn. 4) who was at his studies in Paris, arrived the day before yesterday, it is understood by order of his Majesty, kissed hands and was humble according to the fortune of his father. In the evening he obtained permission to go when he pleased, whether in or out of the realm.
We hear that this favour of the Most Christian had great influence in obtaining the votes in favour of the king here.
I have nothing further to write except to beg your Excellency to provide for my state, which has become unbearable.
London, the 14th July, 1530.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
[1530.]
Aug. 15.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
818. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 5)
On the 4th inst. I wrote to Messer Jo. Angelo Riccio, your secretary, of events here, and of the arrival of the Earl of Vulgieri, who is now at Windsor, where the court is at present. The earl promised me that the king would soon return to this city, and he would do his utmost for me.
The king occupies himself entirely with hunting and other becoming amusements, in places some twenty or thirty miles from here. The usual diligence is being shown with regard to the divorce. Some days ago there was a great debate in the University of Paris among upwards of ninety doctors, the majority of whom voted in favour of the king here. It is said that these and other similar certificates from the English universities have been sent to the pope in Italy by one Gurrone, a Modenese agent, despatched hence on the 6th inst. by Sir Gregorio Casal.
The persons who have influence with the king are the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Vulgieri and Doctor Stephen; but his Majesty desires to know and superintend everything himself.
The Right Rev. Cardinal of York is at his diocese and is understood to be leading a life of humility and sanctity, and is therefore much beloved by his flock.
Here they are hourly expecting the arrival of the Bishop of Bayonne, on a mission from the King of France.
Many persons apprehend that should this marriage come to pass, the population here will rebel, declaring that the votes of the universities of England and of Paris have been obtained unfairly.
London, the 15th August.
[Italian.]
1530.
Sept. 14.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
819. Il Gilino, Milanese Ambassador with the Emperor, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Encloses a petitionary libel made in the name of the poor of England to their king. The duke will see from this if that Most Christian province is much averse to the Lutheran precepts. God grant that Italy also may not turn from the Roman church to the shame of the priests. The libel is rare although it was printed.
Augsburg, the 14th September, 1530.
[Italian.]
Sept. 16.
Potenze
Estere
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
820. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Henry VIII, Most Christian King of England and France. (fn. 6)
After the troubles and calamities, which I never expected to outlive, being now established in my paternal dominions, as soon as the nature of the times and my grievous chronic malady rendered it possible to render my debt of observance and service for the infinite obligations conferred on me by your Majesty, I have sent the eminent Pietro Francesco Bottigella to kiss your Majesty's hand, acknowledging you for my lord and offering you my state and substance. It therefore remains for your Majesty to deign to hear him, together with my secretary resident at your Majesty's Court, Augustino Scarpinello.
Pavia, the 16th September, 1530.
[Italian; draft.]
Sept. 16.
Potenze
Estere,
Inghilterra
Milan
Archives.
821. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire. (fn. 7)
Recommendation to him of Pietro Francesco Bottigella, who is to consider the earl as his director and protector in all the duke's affairs, and above all, concerning his need, whereof the duke's lieutenant spoke to the earl at Milan, when he gave fair hopes. It remains for the earl to give credence to the duke's agents and do what is hoped of him.
Pavia, the 16th September, 1530.
[Italian; draft.]
Sept. 16.
Potenze
Estere,
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
822. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. (fn. 8)
Recommendation of the same Peter Francesco Bottigella. Pavia, the 16th September, 1530.
[Italian; draft.]
Sept. 16.
Potenze
Estere,
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
823. Instructions from Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Pietro Francesco Bottigella, his envoy to England. (fn. 9)
Having recently been restored to his state by the emperor at Bologna, is anxious to send to the King of England, to whom he is indebted for many benefits. Hitherto detained by ill health and many occupations.
Appoints Bottigella to go to England and to the duke's secretary and ambassador with his Majesty, Augustino Scarpinello. To obtain audience of the king accompanied by Scarpinello, and state the object of the visit is to offer the duke's service, his state, and all his resources to the king, as throughout the last wars his Majesty constantly protected him and ever exerted himself to obtain his restoration.
To confirm Scarpinello in his post, and pay him ducats. He has received 1,700 ducats recently, but is to have monthly payment for the future. To visit in the duke's name the Duke of Suffolk and the Duke of Norfolk, K.G. and privy councillor, as well as the Earl of Wiltshire, who was lately ambassador at Bologna from the king to the pope and the emperor. To address them in substance in the same terms used with his Majesty respecting the service offered to their king and master, and to request them in the duke's name to consider him their good friend.
When the Earl of Wiltshire passed through Milan, the duke got his lieutenant to request him to obtain from the king a loan of 50,000 ducats to recover the castle of Milan and the city of Como, which are still held as security for money due to the emperor, as, up to the present, the duke has only been able, with great difficulty, to discharge one half of the debt. The earl practically assured the lieutenant that this request would be granted. To discuss the matter with him and request his assistance and advice, and to act in concert with Scarpinello in accordance with that advice. If necessary to address the king and other personages on the subject in the duke's name. By these arguments hopes that the king will be induced to oblige him, as thereon depends the establishment of his rule.
As security for the repayment of the sum required, to offer hostages, selected from the leading Milanese nobles, as many as his Majesty's pleases, including the illustrious lord, the duke's brother, as suggested at the time to the Earl of Wiltshire according to whose advice he is to regulate his proceedings with Scarpinello and according to his counsel. After initiating this business, to leave its completion to Scarpinello and to return to the duke.
To see Messer Giovanni Dominico Panizone, a native of the duke's city of Alessandria and gentleman in waiting on the king. To salute him in the duke's name, acquaint him with the aforesaid matters, ask suitable assistance and offer whatever he may require in the Milanese.
The 16th September, 1530.
[Italian; draft.]
Sept. 16.
Potenze
Estere,
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
824. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, to the Duke of Norfolk.
Recommendation and credentials for Pietro Francesco Buttigella, with a request for the duke's help and favour.
Pavia, the 16th September, 1530.
[Italian; draft.]
Potenze
Estere,
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
825. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Gio. Dominico Panizono, the king's chamberlain.
Letter of credence for Butigella.
Pavia, the 16th September, 1530.
[Italian; draft.]
Sept. 16.
Potenze
Estere,
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
826. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Augustino Scarpinello, his Ambassador in England.
We have recently received your letters of the 28th June and the 14th July, the latter mostly in cipher. We at once decided to send to his Majesty one of our gentleman, Petro Francesco Butigella, for matters which you will learn from him. We have delayed answering you, but Buttigella will make this good by word of mouth. His most important business is what he is to ask of his Majesty by means of the Earl of Wiltshire. You will consult together as to the best course to pursue and then act jointly to get all that you can.
There is no difficulty about the rest of the instructions and we feel sure that you will fulfil our hopes. We are sending you provision for past debts and supplies for the future. This is all we can do for the present and you must rest content, assured that we shall not fail you in the future. We commend the part of your letters containing advices, and, for the rest, you will confide in what Butigella says as if it came from ourselves.
Pavia, the 16th September, 1530.
[Italian; draft.]
Sept. 20.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
827. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 10)
Wrote on the 25th ult. that the Earl of Wiltshire said his occupations prevented him until then from acquainting the king with the business entrusted to him by the duke's lieutenant, Sig. Alessandro; but promised that when the king came to London he would do his utmost in this matter.
The arrival of the French ambassador, the Bishop of Bayonne, took place some days ago. He was accompanied by the resident ambassador, Joan Joachino, and went to the king at a distance of forty miles from London, negotiating with him during ten or twelve days; and on the 6th inst. the bishop returned to his own king. The only thing known about his negotiations is that he told some of his friends that he was sent by his Most Christian Majesty to thank the King of England for the trouble taken by him in the release of the French princes, and for his sincere joy at its accomplishment. Other persons, rather more inquisitive, believe this not to be the sole cause, their arguments being based on the length of the bishop's stay and the protracted conferences, as well as that four days before his departure, the ports were closed, so that no one dared cross the sea, and afterwards they were opened.
On the 8th of this month the pope's nuncio, the Baron de Burges, a Sicilian, arrived in London, a well-mannered person and learned. Has visited him several times and proposed going to meet him outside the city, had he announced the hour of his entry. Offered him most obsequious service in the duke's name. He remained three days in London to arrange his establishment, and was then conducted by the Reverend Peter Vannes, the king's secretary and the pope's collector in England, to Gualta, a forest fifteen miles from London, where his Majesty is now staying. He was received there very honourably, held long and constant conferences, and went out hunting some five or six days.
Subsequently Master Guglielmo Pannizane arrived, to whom the lord lieutenant had referred him about Wiltshire's affair. Pannizane said he had been merely charged, in case the king conceded this favour, to promise hostages as security without any other obligation, so as the duke has given no further orders, infers that he holds this matter of small moment, but will do his utmost to facilitate it and transmit account of his proceedings as best he may, being always doubtful of the delivery of his letters, as they never obtain any reply, which is a hardship and no less grievous than the misery he endures from inability to provide himself, having exhausted every remedy, and so wearied and harassed all friends that they neither can nor will help him, wherefore he prays the duke to make such provision for him as is becoming.
It being understood that the negotiations of the Bishop of Bayonne related to a dispute between the two parties, persons conjectured that the English king, being the creditor of his Most Christian for a considerable sum, without any other security than mere paper, is seeking in one way or another to guarantee himself, and as the French, in the negotiations with Spain, promised on the release of the princes to send the Duke of Orleans hither, it is supposed that the English king under the pretence of the promised marriage of the princess here, made a demand for this duke, rather as a security for his credit than from any wish for the marriage. The Frenchman, being perhaps aware of this declares that his son is not of an age to consummate; so possibly from this dispute the statement made by many to the effect that here they insist on the dissolution of the marriage contract may have arisen. The King of England also wishes it to be manifest that he on his part has performed all the promises to which he was bound hitherto by the articles of the confederation, this being done by him in order not to give any cause to the Most Christian king for evasion with regard to payment of his debt. Such are the conjectures based on certain murmurs made by the parties. If able to obtain more authentic intelligence will communicate it.
Since his return the Earl of Wiltshire has been in disgrace, because he did not go to the emperor at Mantua, according to the orders received at Modena.
These parties are still very obstinate about the divorce, and think to effect it in a civil manner without the consent of the pope, of whom they complain greatly; and thus far he is certainly in the wrong.

It is said that they are in hourly expectation here of an ambassador from the Vaivode, alias King John, who left the French Court several days ago. If able to ascertain the object of his negotiations, will acquaint the duke. Has been subsequently informed, he himself not understanding the language, that a few days ago a proclamation or edict appeared in the English tongue, to the effect that no one is to hold a plurality of benefices, and should any one attempt to obtain from the pope a contrary award, he is to be imprisoned and fined.
Also that any person soever for whatever cause, claiming property or damages from the Cardinal of York, is to state his case to the judges appointed for this purpose, and it is also said that the cardinal is to appear before parliament at the next session.
London, the 20th September, 1530.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 27.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
828. Il Gilino, Milanese Ambassador with the Emperor, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
It is stated that his Majesty should write to the pope, the Most Christian and the King of England and other princes of Christendom for help against the heretics here, and also about the Council, but almost every one is of opinion that it would do no good.
Augsburg, the 27th September, 1530.
[Italian.]
Oct. 5.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
829. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Duke of Albania will be here in ten or twelve days. I hear he is sent by the King of Scotland to ask for the pope's niece, I know not if it be for himself or his son. I am told on good authority that the Ambassador Agramonte told his Holiness that he ought not to believe anything for his king, but only Count Pietro Francesco Pontremulo.
Rome, the 5th October, 1530.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Oct. 20.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
830. Alexandro Landriano to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I have seen letters from France of the 7th inst. from one Tomaso Truso stating that the emperor, the King of England and the Most Christian have made a league for the destruction of the princes and republics of Italy and to the pope's hurt.
The Duke of Albania arrived to-day. He asserts that this league has been made.
Parma, the 20th October, 1530.
[Italian.]
Oct. 20.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
831. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
On the 16th I went with Messer Guglielmo Pannizone to the Earl of Vulgieri and set forth to him all the reasons why his king should gratify your Excellency, hinting what your future gratitude would do. He swore by God and the saints that he had already done everything possible, not that his Majesty needed much pressure, as he was very anxious to gratify you, but matters were in such a state that it was impossible to do so at present. I replied that his Majesty's good will was no less dear to you, and so forth, leading the earl to explain to me the present pecuniary difficulties of this court, which persuaded me that they are not actuated by lukewarmness towards your Excellency, but by the unpromising state (poco aptitudine) of his Majesty's affairs. They thought they had some secret sum, and it may not be so much as they expected, considering how much they have spent in the last few years, and they are obstinately determined to reserve themselves for extreme cases. As is usually the case, parsimony is at the bottom; they have ordained a daily supervision, and expect that they will not exceed their ordinary expenses, and their heavy extraordinary expenses in the settlement of Ireland and this divorce.
I thought it my duty to recommend Messer Pannizone highly to him. I make my petitions to the earl when I can, as he is always absent from this city, where the ambassadors and other agents live. He can be very useful to your Excellency, as he is high in favour with all, and you could have daily intelligence from him of what is going on.
The Cavalier Briante left here two days ago for the affairs of France, to reside as ambassador there. His Majesty is preparing a very rich present for the Most Christian of finely caparisoned horses and other pleasing things, and so he leaves nothing undone to keep his friendship.
The general parliament has been prorogued to the Purification. They hope the interval will serve to find some better way of contenting his Majesty. Meanwhile they will not neglect their steps to diminish the power of the clergy here. Of these, three bishops, Rochester, Ely and Bath, have been cited for the crime of praemunire, a purely English word, into which, it is understood, there is no prelate or priest in the realm who has not fallen several times, because it consists in the collation, retention, ablatione and assensu of benefices and in interdicts and appeals, non servata forma anciently instituted by the kings here. As these bishops advocated the queen's cause, ill natured persons think that the proceedings against them will be more rigorous than they ought, especially seeing that these prelates have letters of his Majesty giving them authority for the good governance of their churches, according to ancient custom. The nuncio has interceded for them, admonishing them not to proceed further, they say his Majesty replied that but for his fatherly care for the clerical order, the secular would have long since proceeded with greater rigour against the abuse of the clergy, and that justice must have its way in the end.
By his Majesty's command the cardinal has gone to York, although he was not allowed to do so. It is said to be in order to incline the people there to some things which his Majesty has in view.
The king is now at Hampton Court and will shortly proceed to Greenwich. The Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Vulgieri and some other magnates are in this city with the Chancellor, taking part in the ordinary business of this time.
I beg your Excellency to provide for my necessities. There is no longer any one who will lend me a farthing, and no one believes you can supply me with even a small sum.
London, the 20th October, 1530.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
832. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 11)
On the 20th ult. I announced in detail by duplicate letters that the promise made by the Earl of Wiltshire had been negatived on account of the present unfitting state of his Majesty's affairs, and by reason of other business and expenditure. I also wrote that I had adapted myself to the reply in such wise as to prevent them from supposing that it had in any way estranged the duke from the king.
After Cardinal Wolsey's departure, by the king's order, to visit his church at York, which he had not done previously by reason of his public occupations connected with the government of this realm and other arduous affairs he made his entry into that city with upwards of 800 horse, and other usual ceremonies, but by the doom to which Fortune had destined him, a few days after he was made prisoner by the king at the hands of the Earl of Northumberland, chief baron of the North, and then taken and given in custody by Lord Talbot, Lord Steward, Earl of Shrewsbury, by whom he will be brought to the tower or castle of this city, either to-day or to-morrow.
Of the result of this arrest and of its causes, I have been unable to hear any authentic account. On obtaining certain intelligence I will not fail to transmit it. In the meantime, however, I will not omit to report the opinions and reports of the vulgar. Some say the cardinal purposed making his escape. Some that he wished and advised the pope to make some necessary provision in his own favour, and that of all the English clergy, contrary to the statutes of the realm, and to the will of the king. Others more friendly to his lordship attribute everything to the envy and fear of his rivals, who had now repented of having made him fall on a feather bed, from which they were afraid he might rise again, and so they determine to make an end of him. These, however, as aforesaid, are the trivial opinions of the vulgar. Since my letters referred to above nothing else new has occurred. Down to this time the cardinal's physician, a Venetian, by name Messer Augustino, and a chaplain, have been arrested. The latter was already on his way to cross the Channel with certain letters which are understood not to have been of much importance. As yet no harshness has been used in the examination and interrogation of the two individuals indicated.
I humbly commend myself again to your Excellency and beseech you to deign at length to have mercy on my plight and provide for it.
London, the 17th November, 1530.
[Italian.]
Dec. 2.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
833. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 12)
On the 17th ult. I wrote an account of the current events here, and more especially of the recent arrest of Cardinal Wolsey. Subsequently, the king having determined on his removal to this castle of London, sent Captain Kingston with his guard to carry it out. On arriving at a place sixty miles from here he found the cardinal very ill, and in bed, so that the day before he had confessed and taken the sacrament. Although the captain exhorted him to hope for the best from the king's clemency, declaring that he was to convey him at his entire convenience, and that he might remain where he was so long as he pleased, yet at the end of two days he departed this life, at the close of which he drew a deep and loud sigh. Some six hours afterwards they deposited in the earth that personage, who had prepared for himself a more costly mausoleum, than any royal or papal monument in the world, so that the king intends it to serve for himself, post multos et felices annos, and he has caused the cardinal's arms thereon to be effaced.
It is said that his lordship's indisposition was preceded by two very bad symptons. When first arrested, owing to mental depression, he would take no food, nisi coactus, and then came flux, and he could not retain anything in his stomach. According to report, his mind never wandered at the last, and on seeing Captain Kingston, he made his attendants raise him, in his bed, where he knelt, and whenever he heard the king's name mentioned, he bowed his head, putting his face downwards. He then asked Captain Kingston where his guards were, and being answered that lodging was provided for them in several chambers on the ground floor of the palace, he requested that they might all be sent for into his presence. As many having entered as the place would hold, and having raised himself as much as he could, he said that on the day before he had taken the sacrament and expected to find himself soon before the supreme judgment seat, and that in such an extremity he ought not to fail in speaking the truth, or leave any other opinion of him than such as was veracious. He added, I pray God that that sacrament may be the damnation of my soul if ever I thought to do disservice to my king.
The noblemen, however, who are at the head of the government, say, without entering into any detail, that great were the causes which induced his Majesty to order the arrest of the cardinal. With him they seized a physician in his service, by name Messer Augustino, and immediately, from the very first, when he was brought to London to the house of the Duke of Norfolk, and examined without any violence, he found great favour, which he still enjoys with the said duke, who gives him a good character. Accordingly it is supposed that his deposition justifies the capture of the cardinal. It certainly may be supposed that his Majesty would not have acted thus without strong causes. It is undeniable that a few days before the arrest certain letters from this same physician, Master Augustino, were intercepted, containing a few lines in cipher. According to the report of some people they were addressed to the French ambassador, who was at Dover, building a hermitage on a rock in the sea. It is also said that the letters were addressed to the ambassador for delivery by him to other persons, and that the cipher merely contained a request for some favour and intercession on the part of his Most Christian Majesty with King Henry.
In order not to omit acquainting your Excellency with the common reports on the subject, I must add that among the vulgar some say that the cardinal meditated escape to Scotland, others to France. I consider both these ideas absurd, as the cardinal could not suppose that for his sake the Most Christian king would renounce so valuable a friendship as that of the King of England, the same consideration applying to the King of Scotland. Others declare that he had treated about going to Rome, and had given the pope advice as to the course he should adopt in order to thwart the proceedings of the English government against him, and for the diminution of the authority of the clergy in England. So that all, in ignorance of the truth keep guessing what he might have devised.
Such in sum was the end of the man who boasted that he ruled the whole world. It is said that the king somewhat regrets this catastrophe, especially as a few days before he ordered this arrest, when discussing and debating certain important affairs with his Privy Council, he exclaimed, I miss the Cardinal of York every day (omne giorno mi manca il Cardinale Eboracense).
Of other affairs in England there is nothing new. His Majesty is staying at Hampton Court, where he likes to reside. For the present nothing is done or heard in London about the divorce, as all the proceedings are taking place in Italy. A few days ago the king proclaimed to all the magnates and magistrates of the kingdom the opinions and sentences of the doctors and universities in favour of his suit so that this intelligence might circulate amongst the vulgar and the populace.
Some while ago his Majesty requested the pope to create two of his servants cardinals, naming the Reverend Auditor of the Chamber and the Protonotary Casal, now his ambassador at Venice. His Holiness has so far delayed to do so, and as Christmas is approaching, the king has now urged his request through two couriers, so that should the pope be of opinion that he cannot gratify him with regard to the more important affair, he may not fail to oblige him by promoting the aforesaid individuals, or at least one of them, that is to say, the auditor, as his Majesty made a declaration to that effect in his petition.
I have nothing else to mention, save to continue my petition for some recognition of my plight, which assuredly deserves commiseration. I pray that God may grant all your lordship's wishes with long life and good health.
London, the 2nd December, 1530.
[Italian.]
Dec. 3.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
834. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
News has come this evening that the Most Christian has written to the Duke of Albania, highly praising the business of the Council as a good and holy work, and directing him to agree to it in the king's name.
We hear that the King of England has again had the Cardinal of York arrested and imprisoned, owing to some intercepted letters by which he plotted to have himself made legate again, in order to bring himself once more into reputation and be somewhat more respected.
Rome, the 3rd December, 1530.
[Italian.]
Dec. 12.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
835. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Bayonne has returned from the King of England without success. The Most Christian wished to hold the English king by a marriage between that king's daughter and one of his sons, but England did not wish it. He demands his debt very sharply and the Most Christian was compelled at Blois to answer to him for a certain sum of money. They say that he has given 100,000 ducats in two instalments.
The death of the Cardinal of York was known here on the 8th.
Melun, the 12th December, 1530.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 12.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
836. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The death of the Cardinal of York is reported here in this fashion: that he had prepared a great company to proceed to Scotland. When the English king heard of this he commanded one of his captains to go with a good provision to arrest him and bring him to his Majesty. He was thus taken on the road. Seeing himself in peril of his life, he begged the captain not to take him to the king for two days, during which time he would arrange his affairs. Having obtained this, he took a paper of powder from his pocket in the interval, and putting it in his mouth he died in a short space. This is what the nuncio and Venetian ambassador have heard and thus it is published at the courts. Your Excellency will be better informed by your ambassador in England.
Melun, the 12th December, 1530.
[Italian.]
Dec. 15.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
837. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The business of the English king is on the point of settlement, because they say they will give him a certain sum of money and make an assignment for the rest, and it seems that the English ambassador accepts this.
Melun, the 15th December, 1530.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 16.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
838. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 13)
By my last of the 17th ult. and of the 2nd inst. I announced first the arrest and then the death of the Cardinal of York, adding various opinions about the reasons for his arrest and particulars about his sickness and death. It has since been ascertained by his letters and writings and also by the depositions of Master Augustino, his physician, that in the state to which he was reduced he could not refrain from endeavouring to recover that which he enjoyed formerly. To effect this he endeavoured to induce the Most Christian king and the pope also to assist and favour him, to which end he gave them various hints and suggestions with regard to certain ways and means but slightly advantageous or satisfactory to his own sovereign. Some say that he proposed a plan to the Most Christian king, or rather promised him, that on his return to his former post he would cancel the debt due from France to England; whilst to his Holiness he demonstrated how he ought and might retain summum jus in ecclesiastical matters in England. But the serpent being dead his poison also died. He has at length disappeared, nor is there any longer remembrance of him.
Subsequently, on the 10th inst., I received our Excellency's letters of the 29th October, written from Venice, which comforted me uncommonly, as they are of rare occurrence, especially as they announced your great satisfaction at the loving and honourable demonstrations of good-will made by the Most Illustrious Signory towards you. I pray God that they may produce the earnestly desired effect, and firm and perpetual friendship.
Concerning the loan through the Earl of Wiltshire your Excellency will have heard the reply in the negative. Your instructions had prescribed recourse to Wiltshire alone. His assistance was feeble, but no better result could have been obtained had any other course been followed.
Little is being done here about the divorce, as of late they have been endeavouring to obtain favourable votes and opinions from many universities and other learned private individuals, partly in France and partly in Italy and other countries. After collecting a great number of them they presented them to the pope, and at length a work was compiled by the convocation of primates, so that these votes and opinions might be generally known by the English people. To confute this work three thousand copies have been distributed of a pamphlet in the English tongue, entitled the The Practise of Prelates, in which the said votes and opinions were attacked. This was answered by a public edict, printed and published in all the most conspicuous places, of which I enclose a translation, for the purpose of answering this pamphlet and of circulating these votes and opinions for the comprehension of all men. It may be inferred that the king's government is firmly resolved to accomplish what they have hitherto attempted. At the next meeting of parliament, which is to take place at Candlemas, the result of the matter may possibly be known.
The author of this work, entitled Practyse of Prelates, by name Tindaro or Tindal, is an Englishman, and for some time he has lived in Germany, where he is now. He is said to be a man magnae doctrinae. His brother, together with certain other persons, who went about circulating this work in vulgus were lately paraded through London along the public thoroughfares, with pasteboard mitres on their heads, bearing this inscription, Peccasse contra mandata Regis, and the book suspended from their necks. After completing the turn of the streets they were ordered to cast the pamphlet into the fire prepared for the purpose.
Two days ago a king at arms called Guienne arrived here from his Most Christian Majesty to announce the tournament and joust which is to be held at Paris in honour of the coronation of the French queen, and to invite all the knights jousters. It is supposed that the English king will not fail to send personages thither in his name, and to encourage other knights to attend the ceremony.
His Majesty is still at Hampton Court, enjoying his usual sports and royal exercises, and the queen remains constantly with him, nor does she at all omit to follow her lord and husband, so much reciprocal courtesy being displayed in public that anyone acquainted with the controversy cannot but consider their conduct more than human.
The princess is always apart, some ten or fifteen miles away, with a suitable establishment. We hear that she is already advanced in wisdom and stature.
It only remains for me humbly to commend myself to your Excellency's good favour and pray you to provide for me, as graciously promised in your letters, for it is now impossible for me to maintain myself any longer.
London, the 16th December, 1530.
[Italian.]
Dec. 17.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
839. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Duke of Albania continues to treat for fresh arrangements, all to the hurt of your Excellency. May God turn them to harm as all the other undertakings of his king against you have been turned.
Rome, the 17th December, 1530.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 25.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
840. Il Gilino, Milanese Ambassador with the Emperor to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Cardinal of York, being taken from the place where he was staying to the Tower of London, could not sleep owing to grief or despair, and consequently fell into a dysentery of which he died in a few days, on the 29th of last month. This is not very far out from what some mathematicians predicted for him, in the days of his greatest prosperity.
Cologne, the 25th December, 1530.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The ambassadors were Thomas, Earl of Wiltshire, John Stokesley, Edward Lee and William Benet. Their commission, dated the 21st January, is to treat with the pope, the emperor, the Kings of France, Portugal, Poland, Denmark and Scotland, the Doge of Venice and the Dukes of Milan and Ferrara, for a general peace and resisting the Turk. Rymer: Fœdera, vol. vi, pt. ii, page 140.
2 Venetian Calendar, vol. iv, no. 584.
3 Dr. Edward Fox, Provost of King's College, Cambridge.
4 Thomas Winter.
5 Venetian Calendar, vol. iv, no. 601.
6 Venetian Calendar, vol. iv, no. 614.
7 Venetian Calendar, vol. iv, no. 615.
8 Ibid., no. 616.
9 Ibid., no. 617.
10 Venetian Calendar, vol. iv, no. 621.
11 Venetian Calendar, vol. iv, no. 632.
12 Venetian Calendar, vol. iv, no. 637.
13 Venetian Calendar, vol. iv, no. 642.


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