Milan
1531

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1912

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533-548

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'Milan: 1531', Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 533-548. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92289 Date accessed: 31 July 2014.


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1531

1531.
Jan. 4.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
841. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Nothing more has been said of the marriage of the English king's daughter to the Most Christian's second son since the recent decision of England that if the Most Christian gave him the second son he would do it and not otherwise, against the wish of the Most Christian.
An assignment has been made to the English king for the debt, besides the money paid, for 56,000 crowns, upon some
jurrati here at Paris and at Tours, and little remains for the complete settlement. Nevertheless, the King of England is irritated by so much delay and is very dissatisfied with his ambassador, and so if the relations between the kings are not bad, neither are they cordial.
Paris, the 4th January, 1531.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 10.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
842. Francesco Casato, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of The Bishop of Casale, ambassador of England to the Venetians, has been here and has left with a friend of mine an opinion of Messer Filippo Decio, signed by one Messer Raynaldo Petrucio, a Sienese doctor, upon the invalidity of the dispensation made to his king by Pope Julius, with directions to get it signed by three or four of the most excellent doctors of this our college of Milan. I fancy the bishop is going about our city solely for this matter, because he has been to Cremona and obtained the signatures of Messer Josepho Maria Brumano and Messer Nicolo Botta. In this opinion they name as many persons as they can.
Milan, the 15th January, 1531.
[Italian.]
Jan. 10.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
843. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
By my last of the 15th ult. I wrote of the death of the Cardinal of York and the edict issued by the vicar of the Archbishop of Canterbury in answer to the libel entitled Practice of Prelates. Since then a gentleman has arrived from the Most Christian called Mons. de Ghiza. We others cannot help wondering at the multitude of envoys passing between the two kings. After he had been negotiating for three days and a writ had come from the pope notifying the future Council to the king here, they sent Messer Jo. Joachino in haste to France. We can only conjecture the reason. Some say it was about the Council or the divorce, and the king sent Joachino as being well disposed to his service and because he does not favour the Council, fearing that it may decide against this divorce. This opinion gains weight because they have delayed to answer the nuncio. It is understood that the pope, through the Cardinal de Tarbe has exhorted the Most Christian to bring the two sovereigns to terms about the divorce, and it is supposed that M. de Ghiza has been sent to suggest the plan thought out, and that this king sent Joachino with some other proposal, Ghiza remaining here until his return. These are only vulgar rumours, as well as a report that it is about the conference between the emperor and France.
Parliament is to meet on the 15th inst. instead of the Purification, so that most of the members are already here. It is whispered that they will have the clergy here and decide about the divorce; but I do not think they will do anything precipitate. I heard some days ago that your Excellency had decided to send back a gentleman to his Majesty to renew offices and compliments with him. I am very glad of this, but it must be done soon, if you would profit by his Majesty's offices at a future Council. The one sent should not fail to pay his respects to some of the lords here, who have influence with the king and to propitiate the most illustrious and beloved Anne with some trifles, preferably something brave and novel from those parts, which she may know to be worth from 1,200 to 1,300 crowns a year (intertenir la Ill. et Amata Anna con alcuni cosselin piu presto nove et galante di quelle parte, che cognose da ascendemo ad un ducento o trecento scudi lo anno), to be divided among two or three visits.
I wrote that the pope would not make both the Auditor of the Chamber and Casale, this king's ambassadors at Rome and Venice, cardinals, as the king desired, but only created the auditor. It was expected to take place sometime after Christmas. The king has been very indignant about it, as it seemed as if no attention was paid to his recommendation. Every one is persuaded that if his Holiness cannot gratify his Majesty in a matter prejudicial to others he should not fail to do so over such a promotion.
The Venetian ambassador has told his Majesty that at the great festivities given in your Excellency's honour at Venice, the ambassadors accredited to the republic were not invited, because the Imperial ambassador would not recognise you.
London, the 10th January, 1531.
[Italian.]
Jan. 20.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
844. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I know that various opinions about Joachino's coming from England will be written. He arrived after I had written my last of the 10th. The chief reason and the reason why the English king recently sent his man to the pope, was to implore the consent of the pope to the divorce, his Holiness fearing that the King of England with his parliament and other prelates would do something extravagant. So the pope sent some inhibition to England at which the king was very displeased. Accordingly Joachino begged the Most Christian in England's name to dispose his Holiness to remove this inhibition and assist the divorce; and to ask France to write or send a man post to the pope for this. Joachino is also endeavouring to bring about a closer union between the two sovereigns and remove some outstanding differences about the frontiers, while bringing a reminder that England wants payment. Paris, the 20th January, 1531.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 26.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
845. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in Carteggio France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
A gentleman has arrived post from the Duke of Albania with letters of credence for the king. I have not been able to learn anything further as yet.
Poissy, the 26th January, 1531.
[Italian.]
Jan. 28.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
846. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The nuncio who arrived here yesterday evening, asks me to write that the coming of the gentleman of the Duke of Albania here was more concerned with the divorce of the English king than with anything else, and they are waiting for what will follow the arrangement made in England. His Holiness is well disposed, and it is true that the Duke of Albania, speaks of the marriage, but there is no understanding or expectation of this at present, and in his opinion it will never take place.
Poissy, the 28th January, 1531.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 28.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
847. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Duke of Albany spoke to a friend the other evening before supper, saying that he had come to communicate a plan of his, asking him advice and aid. His plan was to betake himself to his king while he was still sufficiently young. He wished to know if he approved; he thought he would because it would be a useful thing to his Majesty. The friend asked the reason for his going. He answered that he knew his Majesty was in great need owing to the long and serious war he had with the Turk and Caesar his brother, and he could not have much subsidy. On behalf of the Most Christian, seeing that he had to pay 500,000 crowns to the emperor and 300,000 to the English king, he would not offer him help and money, troops and such like things, but that his Majesty should interpose to induce the emperor to agree to a good understanding and alliance, including a marriage and other obligations, so that it should not be necessary to look backwards any more, but to make a new composition. If there was a thoroughly good understanding his Majesty would receive such assistance from the Most Christian that he would remain peaceful sovereign of Hungary, and the emperor, his brother, would subdue the Lutheran faction and dominate all Germany at his pleasure. With that and the help that the Most Christian would continue to render him he would take Constantinople and all the dominions of the Turk.
The friend replied that if his proposal was just, and could be worked out with honour to the emperor, and without breaking his faith, he would commend his journey; but if these particulars were not satisfied he would prefer his not losing his pains, as his king would not presume to speak to the emperor of anything that might involve a burden; and even if he was so ill advised as to speak about it, he would produce no effect, because his brother would not listen to him, and he would be left with the shame of trying to get something done that was shameful and unworthy of his honour. They were very intimate together, being good kinsmen, and they lacked nothing except the observance of what had already been arranged between them. With this conclusion he ended the discussion.

Rome, the 28th January, 1531.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 30.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
848. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Yesterday the Most Christian, the English ambassador and Joachino with Baiosa had a long conference about the divorce, they say. I have been unable to learn for certain if it was about anything else. Men of ability consider that the divorce will take place if the pope can find some colourable way (via excusabile), although the nuncio, for his honour's sake, says not. He does the same about the marriage, of which, however, they do not speak. I cannot find out the truth.
Poissy, the 30th January, 1531.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 12.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
849. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Last Friday, the 10th, in the Consistory, notwithstanding many intercessions for the King of England, the cause of his divorce was sent back to the Rota, to report to the Consistory, with small satisfaction for his Majesty, who pressed to be enabled to make the divorce.
Rome, the 12th February, 1531.
[Italian.]
Feb. 19.
850. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 1)
Wrote on the 11th ult. giving a full account of events here. Subsequently, according to the general report, it has been resolved first of all to impose on the clergy a tax of 100,000l. sterling, equivalent to 500,000 crowns, payable in five years. Many are of opinion that this term will be reduced to a briefer period. This sum is disbursed by the clergy for the remission of the crime of praemunire, incurred by them, and although they entreated that the remission might be valid for the future or that the crime might be clearly defined, since it is understood by no one or only by a few, his Majesty would on no account grant their request.
The foregoing matters being settled, this same clergy, de consilii sententia et communi consensu, submitted themselves entirely to the king, as proclaimed in the following words of this declaration, to wit: Agnoscimus et confitemur Majestatem Regiam totius Anglicanae Ecclesiae protectorem summum et caput supremum, quatenus per legem Christi liceat, and the clergy having urged the addition of a clause thus, et quatenus per leges canonicas liceat, it was denied them.
Many persons, and especially the court of Rome, will be able to estimate the importance of this enactment, and although it has been rumoured for several months, a milder result was hoped for. Heaven grant that it be propitious.
As yet not a word has been said in this session of parliament about the divorce, though some persons assert that the matter is transacted covertly. It is supposed that the parliament will not end with this session, but be again prorogued, and many are of opinion that it will not end without discussing this repudiation.
After having heard the foregoing on good authority, delayed writing immediately as he expected the printers to issue a certain manifesto, but as it has been postponed so far, transmits accounts received from others until he can authenticate them further by official documents.
The king accepts the Council, both for the extirpation of heresies and of abuses of ecclesiastics, and desires the place of meeting to be convenient, free and secure for all men.
The king some time ago sent to his Most Christian Majesty, Messer Joan Joachino, Monsig. de la Ghiza remaining here. Joachino's return is expected daily. Since his arrival in France he has written several times, so that the king has been able to receive a decision and reply to the matter negotiated by him.
London, the 19th February, 1531.
[Italian.]
Feb. 25.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
851. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Duke of Albania proposed a marriage between the pope's niece and the Most Christian's son, the pope giving Parma, Placentia, Regio and Modena as dowry. The pope answered that he would never alienate anything assigned to the church, and would not consent to anything contrary to the capitulation of Bologna. Everyone talks about it and makes it a jest.
Paris, the 25th February, 1531.
[Italian; deciphered.]
March 3.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
852. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The English ambassador here and Jo. Joachino urge the Most Christian to close union with the English king, Joachino saying that the English king cannot put up with this style of thing any longer. Nevertheless they move cautiously. In letters of the 19th from the pope, his Holiness persists in his unwillingness to change what is ordained for the prevention of England's divorce.
Paris, the 3rd March, 1531.
[Italian; deciphered.]
March 14.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
853. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The English prelates and all the other priests, according to Archives, news recently arrived from that quarter, have submitted to the judgment of their king in all their actions. This looks to me like an indication that they intend to withdraw themselves altogether from obedience to the Holy See. May God forgive them. Jo. Joachino is returning thither, now to arrange something which was lacking, in the pope's opinion.
The King of Scotland through the Duke of Albany and another gentleman with him, who has not, however, come as Scottish ambassador, made some exorbitant demands in the Consistory on the 20th inst. (sic), brought forward by his protector Ravenna. He obtanied nothing that day and I do not know what will happen. It is all to the hurt of the clergy. He asks leave to raise a third from ecclesiastical revenues, for a year at least, to raise an army against the Lutherans, who are beginning to swarm in his kingdom, so he says. He also wants to raise 12,000 ducats a year from the ecclesiastical income to make a parliament in his metropolis and pay them therewith.
Rome, the 14th March, 1531.
[Italian.]
March 18.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan.
Archives.
854. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I have learned to-day from one who knows that the Most Christian is greatly incensed with the pope because he has not chosen to remove the prohibition against England and himself. Both he and the English have sent another courier to Rome to-night, for this cause, and the English king asks the Most Christian, in case his Holiness will not do it, to take away from him the authority over the clergy, as he has done himself; however, so far France does not think of doing this.
Paris, the 18th March, 1531.
[Italian; deciphered.]
March 19.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
855. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The King of England, by an agent sent here, has tried hard to have the matter of the divorce put in their hands there, but has not been able to get it. He asked for a delay of a month and a half in order to obtain a power, and he obtained that.
Rome, the 19th March, 1531.
[Italian.]
March 24. Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
856. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Gio. Joachino was sent the day before yesterday to his legation in England. They are now expecting the final reply of his Holiness any day, to the letters written about removing the inhibition. It is considered certain that he will not change his mind. Paris, the 24th March, 1531.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 1.
Potenze
Estere.
Germania.
Milan
Archives.
857. Gilino to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Novato told me he had heard from the Bishop of Como that the King of England has tried to get the King of France to break with the emperor. He has not so far succeeded in this, and he hopes that this next August they will bring the wife of Duke Alexandro to Rome.
Scarpinello writes to me from England in these words: There is nothing new here. I have not heard that anything of moment has been decided in this parliament, except, so they say, some sumptuary laws about dress. De repudio nihil adhuc. The day before yesterday the king sent a courier to Rome. This is supposed to be in reply to the report of the intercession and efforts of the Most Christian with his Holiness. Quid sit ibi actum in re ipsa ignoramus. It is said the parliament will adjourn in two days until Michaelmas.
Hic non desunt aliqua semina lutherane heresis in dies pullulantis; although the king does not cease to make the necessary provision. The day before yesterday they arrested a parish priest of great reputation and credit in this city, who declared in his preaching that images must be removed and that there is no purgatory. He was released, however, with a caution. Nescimus an promissa palinodia. You shall hear what follows. I beg you to recommend my fortune to his Excellency and ask him to make provision for me.
Ghent, the 1st April, 1531.
[Italian.]
April 3.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
858. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
They persist that Agramonte will go to Rome about the English matter, to take the opinions of the French doctors that the marriage of the Queen of England was not valid, and so regularise the divorce. As the queen preferred to consult here in France, and the Council was for her, Agramonte has contrived to get his advice to prevail over that which was given on behalf of the queen.
Paris, the 3rd April, 1531.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 7.
Carteggio.
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
859. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
They say that Agramonte will leave post for Rome very shortly. Besides speaking of the affairs of England he is to remonstrate with the pope for never doing anything to please the Most Christian.
Paris, the 7th April, 1531.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 16.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
860. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza. Duke of Milan.
The Cardinal Agramonte was supposed to have come chiefly about the divorce of the English king, owing to the difference which arose over his report, when he went from here to the Court of France, over an equivocation between three weeks and three months in some term, about which there was a great controversy between him and the English king. As a fact, he has not come about a matter of such small moment, but about the marriage of the niece, to oppose the Council and propose new alliances between the pope, the King of France and the English king, making very great offers, as is usually the case when there is no intention of observing them. The pope is not expected to listen to any of his proposals.
Rome, the 16th April, 1531.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 20.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
861. Augustino Scarapinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 2)
Congratulates the duke on the restoration of the castle of Milan and the city of Como. Desires to be provided for as his means and expedients are exhausted. Wishes to be recalled if of no use. If he be of use, the duke should maintain more constant and friendly communication with the king and certain persons who have influence with him. A mere occasional letter is considered as an affront rather than a compliment.
Parliament was prorogued many days ago until the month of October. The acts which it passed have been in part publicly printed in part not, though even these last are known to many. This most serene king is content to be able to avail himself of the enactment than with its publication, especially with regard to ecclesiastical matters.
On the prorogation of parliament it is understood that mention was made of the divorce, when the Bishops of London and Lincoln confuted malignant opinions, which insinuated that the king sought this divorce from a false and libidinous motive; demonstrating that his Majesty acted from upright and just, holy and righteous cause, approved by the greater part of the men who in the Christian world are learned in the civil and canon law. To this two other bishops, St. Asaph and Bath, replied intrepidly, saying what they thought about the truth and notifying it in writing and by word of mouth to the king. They also said that if opportunity were given to discuss this matter they would not fail to say the same. Thereupon silence was enjoined upon all parties, though every opportunity is seized to expedite the business.
Messer Joan Joachino having returned from his Most Christian Majesty, Mons. de la Ghiza, who had remained here in the meanwhile, departed on the 17th inst. Before his departure he held many and long conferences with his Majesty, though not of much importance, being merely about private affairs. Since his return from France Joachino seems less elate than before. His Majesty is now staying at Greenwich, and comes often to Westminster, having designed new lodgings there and a park adjoining York House, which belonged to the late Cardinal Wolsey. The place is on so large a scale that many hundreds of houses will be levelled, nearly all of which belong to great personages.
The queen still follows the king. The princess is at Richmond, and was lately very ill from what the physicians call hysteria (male de matre).
London, the 20th April, 1531.
[Italian.]
April 20.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
862. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Cardinal Agramonte is expected to arrive next Saturday or Sunday. There was a more important difference with England than the one I wrote of, namely, that when the cardinal arrived in France he told the king there that the pope had excused himself over the divorce, saying that he knew the English king had right on his side, but as there was an imperial army in Italy, while he was destitute and needing help to recover Florence, he could not help satisfying the emperor in all he asked in this matter. He held out the hope that when he was not so much overshadowed by the emperor he would do something. When the Most Christian heard this excuse, he sent it to England, who was very glad of it, but when experience proved the opposite, they complained that they had been deceived by the promises, adducing Agramonte as the witness. His Holiness declared he had not given the cardinal such a commission, and it seems he is coming to clear up the matter.
Others declare that the English king, considering the cardinal a very clever man, well suited to obtain from the pope what he wants about the divorce, begged the Most Christian to send him here, both to clear up the differences mentioned, and also to obtain his intent by the cardinal's means as he had already obtained other things previously by his industry.
Rome, the 20th April, 1531.
[Italian.]
May 10.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
863. Ferranti Gargano, Milanese Ambassador at Ferrara, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
By letters of the 3rd and 4th from Rome, the duke learns among other things that Don Luigi, brother of the King of Portugal had slain the Duke of Breguntia. The reason is said to be that Don Luigi was to go with a fleet of the said king to unite with one of the English king against the infidels, and the duke had slandered Don Luigi.
Ferrara, the 10th May, 1531.
[Italian.]
June 5.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
864. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Cannot hold out more than two months or at most two months and a half longer. Begs for letters of recall to the king, when he will escape from his creditors as best he may; asks for money so that he may come away with honour.
London, the 5th june, 1531.
[Italian.]
June 6.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
865. Augustino Scarpinello, milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I have consumed all my means and exhausted every expedient. If your excellency cannot make me some better provision in time I beg at least you to give me a letter of recall to his Majesty and enough to satisfy my creditors, so that I may depart with honour.
In these last five or six days his Majesty had a warning from the nuncio that the pope cannot postpone any longer the settlement of the suit about the marriage, now pending in the Rota. He has also been cited for sentence to Rome, at the instance of the queen; so that the day before yesterday the whole Council went to the queen to expostulate, saying that she was acting without sufficient respect for the king, and warning her that if she persisted in this course of prosecuting the cause in Rome, without paying attention to the institutions and privileges of the realm, or did not refer it to common friends, who would decide it in a friendly way, it would be the cause of infinite harm to this realm and lead to a great war among Christians, as although the emperor was great, she should reflect that she must not wrong the king and his friends and allies.
The queen answered all this point by point. Among other things she said that the proceedings in the Rota were in accordance with justice, which would be ignored if she referred to the opinion of the world. She only wanted the truth to be determined, and such a tribunal could cause no harm or war among Christians. All these disadvantages would be removed by the declaration of the truth and by the exoneration of her conscience and that of the king and by the confirmation of the true Christian law in a tribunal which God has appointed upon earth. She was convinced, and protested before God and the world that these same councillors and others like them would be and were the cause of all the evils indicated and worse, in persuading her king to most impious things, abominable to God and man. They should reflect that their force and favour would avail little against the truth and the true Christian faith, and would fall to the ground without the emperor exerting his power. She said more to the same purpose, showing a reasonable disposition towards his Majesty and with a tranquil face. Some prelates who defend her cause show no less constancy and firmness, despising all the punishment with which they are threatened. Tanta est pietatis vis et veritatis.
After two days his Majesty sent two couriers, one to Flanders and the other to France. The cause is unknown, but there are many comments. Some think it is to make the same notification to the emperor as was made to the queen. Also in this last two days the king has given order for the review and preparation of all his ships of war, his artillery and other things and to have them taken to the Thames. Some therefore fear some future disturbance. I see no inclination that way and rather think it is for the safety and better management of the ships.
His Majesty is still staying at Greenwich, engaged in his customary diversions of the bow and the chase. They say that the queen will go to Windsor in six days. The buildings begun at Westminster keep growing. The princess is at Richmond with a respectable (honesta) court. She has been very ill these last days, so that they had to let blood; the trouble being with her womb (et per causa di matrice). She is now well and tall and wise beyond her years.
London, the 5th June, 1531,
Postscript.—I have heard that the courier sent to the emperor was to obtain from him. a somewhat slower proceeding in the cause, and to propose this new form of judgment, if it takes place at the dispatch which is expected almost at once, and to traverse what the queen may have been able to do.
The inspection of the ships was ordered because they are nearly all leaky, and that is why they have been ordered into this river, where there is more convenience of all materials. They propose to put them in repair and then hire them out to any one who may need them, if they will keep them in order, with gain to them and to the ships.
The 6th June, 1531.
[Italian.]
June 18.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
866. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Cannot support himself any longer without some provision. What he received there last month is all scattered to the winds. If it is not convenient to make better provision for him, begs that he may be recalled.
The king at present at Hampton Court and other places hard by, in order to review his buildings which will absorb many tens of thousands of crowns.
London, the 18th June, 1531.
[Italian.]
June 21.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
867. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The King of England has sent to revoke the protection of his negotiations from the hands of Cardinal Campegio. It is not yet known whether he will give it to any one else, or keep it to himself, because he does not reckon to have much business at this court.
Rome, the 21st June, 1531.
[Italian.]
June 23.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
868. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Augustino Scarpinello, his Ambassador in England.
Has received his letters of the 5th inst. Regrets his plight. Intends to provide for him, and will send the provision soon, together with letters to the king, so that he may return with honour. Fully satisfied with all he has done; recognition only prevented by numerous occupations and heavy expenses.
Milan, the 23rd June, 1531.
[Italian; draft.]
June 28.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
869. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Cardinal Agramon is to ask the Most Christian to use his influence with the English king to send a proxy here or rather a proctor, to prosecute has cause here in Rome, at least until a definite sentence is given.
The clergy of his realm have not agreed to remove themselves from subjection to the Apostolic See, and have protested that if anything is done it will be through violence and fear, and not of their own accord.
Rome, the 28th June, 1531.
[Italian.]
July 15.
Sezione
Storica.
Autografi
Sovrani.
Milan
Archives.
870. Katherine, Queen of England and France and Lady of Ireland, to Francesco Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 3)
Her familiar and surgeon, Balthasar Guercius, native of Bosco, in the duke's dominions, is now going to Italy with her permission, on his private business. He has served her many years faithfully. He is lawful heir to certain lands, estates and possessions, and having been so long absent hopes through the queen's intercession and through the duke to obtain his due and return the more quickly to her. Prays the duke out of regard for the queen herself, to assist her aforesaid familiar.
From our palace of Windsor, the 15th July, 1531.
[Signed] Catherina (manu propria).
[Latin.]
July 19.
Sezione
Storica.
Autografi
Sovrani.
Milan
Archives.
871. Henry VIII, King of England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 4) Balthasar Guercius, of Bosco, surgeon, a native of the duke's territories, has served the king's consort, holding an honourable position in England and at the court. The king wishes to assist him. He is going to the duke to arrange certain private business of his own. Prays the duke, should Guercinus require his patronage and favour, to make good his claims to certain hereditary estates, to favour him for the king's sake.
From our palace at Guildford, the 19th July, 1531.
[Signed] your good friend, Henry R. (manu propria).
[Countersigned] Petrus Vannes.
[Latin.]
July 23.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
872. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Letter of recommendation for Maestro Baldasar Guercio del Bosco, a physician, of Alessandria, who left Italy because of the wars, and after living in various countries, settled in London, His skill in surgery recognised throughout England, especially by the king and queen. He has lived there about twenty years. He now hopes to pass the rest of his days in his native land.
London, the 23rd July, 1531.
[Italian.]
July 25.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
873. Augustino Scarpinello, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Since my last of the 5th and 10th ult. I have your Excellency's reply of the 23rd, for which I humbly thank your.
The king remains some 25½ miles away, engaged in his honourable diversions of hunting and other exercises. The queen is at Windsor and the day before yesterday the princess went to visit her. As regards a new war, I may say that many anticipate it, but there is no sign of it here, except that some want it for their own purposes; and some princes are very ill pleased at the greatness of Caesar. There is not doubt but that the English king would be glad to see the emperor and everyone else ruined in order to achieve his intent. It is said that he will go so far as to offer the pope money in order to make war, and there is a suspicion that something of this kind was in the commissions given to Panizone, who is constantly going to and fro between here and France. He told me he was going on private affairs, namely compensation promised them by the Most Christian on his Majesty's recommendation for damage done to him by Gioan da Biraco and other soldiers of that monarch at Corticella, at a time when there was peace between the two kings; but the diligence he has shown in going and returning makes me suspect that he carried other than private matters on his journeys to and fro (non e dubbio chel Re Anglico voria vedere l'Imperatore ruinato et tutto il mondo per asseguire suo intento, et se ditto non mancar di offerire al Papa danari a fin che faria la guerra et se havuto suspitione chi aliquid tale sia stato dato in comissis al Panizone, ch'è andato et tornato di continuo di Franza; a me disse andare per facende particolari cioe per una recompensa che per recomandatione di Sua Maesta gli haveva promisso il Christianissimo per il danno che Gioan da Biraco et altre soldati di esso Re gli havea fatto in Corticella, stante la pace tra ambe esse Maestà, pur la diligentia usata in lo andar et tornar da suspection haver portato et reportato altre che cose particolari).
Moreover, as the English king has left the queen at Windsor, some think that he does not mean to take her back again. However, we shall soon see the truth.
London, the 25th July, 1531.
Postscript.—I have since had occasion to speak with Panizone, and from thinking things over, I favour the suspicion about his journeys is not altogether vain, since he openly says that the pope is most averse to war, and is determined not to make it under the cover of others, since he has been deserted by many, especially his neighbours. He adds that there does not seem to be any lack of money there.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 16.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
874. Camillo Gilino, Milanese Ambassador with the Emperor, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Yesterday evening and the night before a large comet appeared with a long tail. It moved towards the North. It causes much comment, especially about one to whom every change is hurtful.
Worse news comes from England every day about the illbehaviour of the king to the queen. She is most patient and behaves with great prudence to show that it is not her doing. It is thought that the matter will lead to a rupture, more serious than has hitherto occurred, as all those affairs arc controlled by the caprice of a mistress and her father.
Brussels, the 16th August, 1531.
[Italian.]
Oct. 8.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
875. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The English ambassador here, unless his king changes his mind, with leave shortly for England, and another will come in his place, because the English doctor is only here about the divorce.
Paris, the 8th October, 1531.
[Italian.]
Oct. 13.
Categgio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
876. Amico Targio to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Nothing definite has been decided about the conference of his Imperial Majesty with the Most Christian. If it takes place the King of England may perhaps make a third.
Spires, the 13th October, 1581.
[Italian.]
Oct. 17.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
877. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Two days after my letter of the 8th, the Bishop of Bayonne was sent to England to soothe the king there, who is said to be incensed against the Most Christian because of the late negotiations for a conference, and complains of the lack of support in the matter of the divorce from the Duke of Albania and Agramonte.
Paris the 17th October, 1591.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 11.
Carteggio
Generale
Milan
Archives.
878. El Gilino, Milanese Ambassador to the Emperor, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Scarpinello writes to me on the 28th that the king had indicated one of three places, which he does not name, twenty miles from London, for the queen to choose for her residence, and notwithstanding the first prohibition about going to Rome to obtain benefices and other pragmatics, made against the dignity and advantage of the Apostolic See, he has ordained that the first rites shall be preserved, despoiling himself likewise of the authority which the English clergy had conferred upon him. He also writes that the Bishop of Bayonne, sent by the Most Christian, left on the 26th, and informed the English king that the emperor had urged the Most Christian to have a conference with him, but he would not agree, so as to avoid doing anything displeasing to England and his other allies and friends. He asked for a loan to redeem the lands of Madame de Vendome and tried to obtain some delay for the money which he owes.
Brussels, the 11th November, 1531.
[Italian.]
Nov. 30.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
879. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Bishop of Bayonne has been back from England some days. We learn that he has soothed the suspicions of the English king about the conference, and also, on good authority, that the English king is strongly urging the Most Christian to declare himself the enemy of the emperor with England. But France moves cautiously and it is considered certain that he will not agree.
Chiaoni, the 30th November, 1531.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 6.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
880. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I met the imperial ambassador to-day. He asked me among other things if I knew what the Duke of Albany wanted with his Holiness. I said I heard he had come to arrange a marriage between the pope's niece and the King of Scotland in order to win that sovereign, but he had given it up by command of the Most Christian.
Rome, the 6th December, 1531.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 12.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
881. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
They are recalling Joachim, the ambassador to England. It is said that his offices do not please either sovereign. They have already chosen a man of Mons. Grammonto in his place.
Amiens, the 12th December, 1531.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Venetian Calendar, vol. iv, no. 656.
2 Venetian Calendar, vol. iv, no. 664.
3 Venetian Calendar, vol. vi, no. 674.
4 Ibid., no. 676.


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