Milan
1533

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1912

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556-565

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'Milan: 1533', Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 556-565. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92291 Date accessed: 26 July 2014.


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1533

1533.
Jan. 17.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
904. Giovanni Francesco Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The grandees here think that Scotland would not be so anxious for a reconciliation with England if he was not so encouraged (cosi animato) by the emperor, and it is considered difficult to make peace if the Most Christian does not give him the daughter promised to him previously, and if he does give her the English ambassador resident here does not hesitate to say roundly that the friendship and alliance between the Most Christian and the English king will forthwith be dissolved and a rupture will undoubtedly ensue.
Paris, the 17th January, 1533.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 17.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
905. Giovanni Stephano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Most Christian, seeing the war between the Kings of England and Scotland grows worse every day, news having arrived a few days ago of an encounter between their armies in which some were slain, chiefly English, is making efforts to send personages to them to try and bring about a peace. He is very sorry about it, because if peace does not ensue he sees that a thorough friendship with will be difficult.
The imperial ambassador told me that he heard from England that they have appointed two persons for the reformation of the benefices of that kingdom, who are reputed great Lutherans.
Paris, the 17th February, 1533.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 21.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
906. Giovanni Stephano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Nothing has happened since I wrote between the English and Scots, except that the English have made an incursion into Scotland of no great moment. Thus they keep the war going and we hear nothing of peace.
Paris, the 21st March, 1533.
[Italian.]
April 14.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
907. Giovanni Stephano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
They remain armed on the frontier between England and Scotland, and not long since the Scots took seven English ships of great value. They also make a few raids. A Scottish ambassador has come here; his exposition has not transpired as yet.
Regmont, the 14th April, 1533.
[Italian.]
April 22.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
908. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Since my last of the 14th nothing of serious moment has happened, except that it is considered certain that the English king has actually married the Lady Anne, and his Majesty has taken his daughter away from her mother and put her in the company of this Lady Anne.
Great negotiations are on foot to bring about an accord between England and Scotland, and the ambassadors of both are losing no time; but the Most Christian finds its difficult.
Paris, the 22nd April, 1533.
[Italian.]
May 8.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
909. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Yesterday I showed the Duke of Bari what your Excellency directed. He said that when he was at Bologna there was a most active negotiation for the eldest daughter for the King of Scotland, and the ministers of his Imperial Majesty had already spoken of it to your Excellency, whether for the first or second he does not know. You seemed to object at first, but afterwards were pleased. Rome, the 8th May, 1533.
[Italian; deciphered.]
June 1.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
910. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Since my last of the 29th ult. I have found out more about the negotiations for a marriage between the King of Scotland and the Most Christian's daughter. After the truce for a year between England and Scotland, brought about by the Most Christian, his Majesty lost no time in forwarding a peace or alliance, and it is expected to ensue; he himself expects it soon. In that case the Most Christian thinks he can conclude that alliance without giving offence to England, and he will gladly do so, from what one hears, while Scotland will more than willingly accept, putting aside the daughter of the King of Denmark; and so Scotland which was so eager for a resolution is now content to wait.
Lyons, the 1st June, 1533.
[Italian.]
June 3.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
911. Advices from London and Vienna.
Advices from London of the 3rd report the great festivities and triumphs celebrated by the King of England at the nuptials of his new bride, which have cost 300,0000 gold ducats, 100,000 from his own pocket, and 200,000 expended by the City of London.
Also that he had caused the old queen to be cited to show cause why she should not be repudiated, in accordance with the sentence passed by the three bishops, and she replied that they were not her ordinary judges, but the cause was being dealt with at Rome, and sentence must be delivered there.
She was once more cited before his parliament by the Duke of Norfolk, and by the brother of the new queen, under pain of losing her goods and her life. She answered that she had no fear of such a command because his Majesty was lord of her life and death as well as of all her goods, and therefore she would not appear. Accordingly, the king wrathfully sent to the one who has charge of the queen's crown, Master Sadocho by name, a great man in that island, requiring the crown for the coronation of the new queen. Messer Sadocho replied that he could not give it up because of the oath he had previously taken to the said queen, that he would guard that crown faithfully. The king then went to see him and expressed his desire. At this Master Sadocho, who is a man of ripe age, took off his cap and flung it to the ground, without saying a word. When the king saw this he asked him what moved him to do a thing like that, to which Master Sadocho replied that rather than give him that crown he would suffer his head to lie where his cap did (lo Re se accorezo et mina la voli, per la qual cosa luy, che persona di eta matura, prese la biretta sua et la getto in terra senza dir altro: il che vedendo il Re gli disse che lo moveva a far tal cosa: che detto Messer Sadocho rispose: piu presto che dargli tal corona, soportaria che la testa mia sia gittata dove era stata la berretta!).
As he is a great personage and has a son who is a man of great worth (molto valente) and has a great following in that island, the king took no further steps, but had another crown made for the coronation of the new queen, who has been pregnant for five months. Owing to the completion of this divorce the imperial ambassador accredited to the said king has left in an ill humour.
[Italian.]
June 7.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
912. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
This week the English ambassador with the excusator of that sovereign appeared before his Holiness and after some fair words they protested the nullity of the matters in negotiation upon the suit about the first marriage against their king, because the suit was decided in England. His Holiness, from what I hear, turned on them with very evil words, telling them they were doing and had done insupportable things to God and the world, confounding jus divinum et humanum and owing to these excesses the total ruin of that kingdom will follow. He would not answer their loud protests, but said that he would consult with the College of Cardinals and do what was indicated as honourable and useful to the Apostolic See. Yesterday morning there was some discussion in the Consistory, and they decided to speak of it with deliberation at the next consistory, which will be next Monday.
The going of his Holiness is considered to be fixed for the beginning of September next, and also the settlement of the marriage of his niece to the Duke of Orleans, contrary to my judgment based on the reasons I wrote before. The French asked his Holiness to take her with him to Nice, but this was curtly refused, as they said that it would be stated everywhere that his going to Nice under colour of making peace between Christians was for no other purpose than to bring this particular object about, and so this request was put aside as impossible. But his Holiness, thinking that by this means of an expected conference he would bring about the marriage contract and consummation, had already thought of sending her on before, and after turning the matter over he decided that to do so would be against his interests, as the French would have that pledge in their hands and it would rest with them to have the marriage consummated or no and would give them time until the Most Christian had conferred with her. If she obtains what she has decided to ask of his Holiness she will consummate the marriage; but if he does not gratify her he will have a pledge in his hands to dispose of as he pleases, even if the pope is unwilling, and so he decided it would be much safer for his Holiness to send her after his conference than before, because things might happen at the conference which would determine him not to send her. Nevertheless the course to follow is not yet decided but it is thought that they will wait, as it is not honourable to take her with his Holiness or cautious to send her before.

Rome, the 7th June, 1533.
To the Duke of Milan at Milan.
[Italian.]
June 9.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
913. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The strife (lite) against England becomes much closer. To-day a great deal was said about it in consistory, with such secrecy that nothing has come out as yet, so far as I can learn.
Rome, the 9th June, 1533.
[Italian.]
June 11.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
914. Giovanni Stefano Robio, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Duke of Norfolk, who was invited to attend the conference, has been in Paris for some days, awaiting orders as to what he is to do.
Lyons, the 11th June, 1533.
[Italian.]
June 13.
Carteggio.
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
915. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
To-day they began to make the relation in consistory of the matrimonial cause of England, by el Capisucca, vicar of his Holiness. He was not able to finish to-day. I think that he will finish his statement at the next consistory, and then the cardinals will break their lances like worthy men. Those will be no lack of supporters either for one who ought to be destitute of all defence.
Rome, the 13th June, 1533.
[Italian.]
June 25.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
916. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
No other reply was given to the English excusator, except that is he would show the order of his king they would give it him. He attends constantly to the expedition of his cause. It is calculated that this will last no small time because there are many testimonies produced to be published in the Consistory.
Rome, the 25th June, 1533.
[Italian.]
June 26.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
917. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
By letters of the 14th from London we hear of the coronation of the new queen, if so she may be called. The true queen was summoned to appear in person for judgment but did not appear.
The Duke of Norfolk has arrived in Paris, to assist at the conference between the pope and the Most Christian. We hear that the father of the new queen is with the duke. They will stay this side of the sea until the conference takes place, in order to be present at it.
Rome, the 26th June, 1533.
[Italian.]
July 1.
Carteggio.
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
918. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
In the cause of England they are proceeding judicially in secret consistory; not a word is said extra muros. I hear, however, that they would speedily come to a decision without difficulty if they would lay aside ulterior considerations (rispetti.) What the royal ministers are doing does not transpire, because they do not appear before the cardinal or his Holiness except in private, stating their case in secret. As it is iniquitous and wicked notoriously, it is abhorred by every one except the partisans of the French, from whom they receive no little encouragement. I fear they will be heard with great difficulty by few, and therefore I shall be able to give your Excellency little or no knowledge of this affair.
Your Excellency may have heard that the first queen has been ordered no longer to call herself Queen of England, and the people are told no longer to honour or recognise her as queen, as she is deprived of everything pertaining to that rank.
Rome, the 1st July, 1533.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
919. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The whole of the last three days the three English ambassadors with the two excusatori have been stating their case before the cardinals, to the end that it may be postponed until the middle of October next. The queen's proctor and Sig. Rodrigo Daulos, sent recently by the emperor, have, on the contrary, urged despatch, and this because his Holiness had given the cardinals to understand that they should come to-day with their minds made up how to vote. In addition, the emperor's ambassador and the two ministers mentioned above, appeared in the Consistory this morning, to approach the cardinals, except the French ones and those openly on their side, giving fresh information against England, before the pope came. They spoke to him a while on his arrival before he mounted the throne, and told of the behaviour of the English ambassadors with the French cardinals. I do not know which will conquer. It is thought that the cause will be postponed, because time bears many things in itself, and they want to postpone the sentence till after the conference, as his Holiness is far from resolute by nature, and if he can put anything off he does so gladly. I hope we shall be enlightened in a few hours.
Rome, the 9th July, 1533.
[Italian.]
Aug. 13.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
920. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
A gentleman coming here happened to fall in, on the way, with another gentleman of the English king, a nephew of the Auditor of the Chamber who was with the Duke of Norfolk in France. They reached Rome together. The man who came from England has stayed with the said duke, in order to return to England with him, by commission of his Majesty, who has recalled him by his letters and has consigned other letters to this nephew of the auditor whose report has not yet appeared. However, this morning, we have heard from a cardinal who is in a position to know, that the king is recalling all his ambassadors resident here, without saying a word to his Holiness. This indicates extreme dissatisfaction with the sentence given for him.
A servant of your Excellency informed me this morning that he had learned on good authority that the English king, in furious wrath at hearing the sentence, has recalled the Duke of Norfolk, who was selected to go to France to take part in the conference to take place between his Holiness and the Most Christian, as you will have heard from me before. As the duke is considered the greatest personage in England, both for his rank and connection and for his prudence and benevolence, it is uncertain whether the king has conceived some suspicion about his entering into some negotiations with the emperor, or else he does not want him to take part in that conference because of his displeasure about the sentence. The latter appears to me the more probable, and as we have had no news since the 14th ult. either from the Most Christian or the nuncios of his Holiness, it is presumed that England has hastened to dissuade the Most Christian from this conference, which was already arranged, and to temporise, not writing or allowing others to write here, in the expectation of some better decision, with the fear of losing his Holiness for the sake of England or England for the sake of his Holiness. While he remains in this ambiguity, though he tries to persuade England, he does not make up his mind about this matter of the conference. But if by any chance no firm decision about this is made within a short time, it will be difficult for it to take place at present, because the winter will be with us before long, and even if there was time to go, the return would involve difficulties, and so they may perhaps consider it better to put it off.
Rome, the 13th August, 1533.
[Italian.]
Aug. 15.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
921. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The English ambassadors, being recalled by their king, went to ask for license from his Holiness, the two Italians not to have to appear as ambassadors, and the Englishman to return to England. The pope neither refused nor consented but said it might be as well to wait until the excessive heat had passed a little. I believe he has decided to leave.
I have also heard, but not for certain, though there may be something in it, that the English king, besides the Duke of Suffolk, has also recalled his ordinary ambassador with the Most Christian. If this is true, it would denote dissatisfaction with France, out of suspicion that he may have tacitly consented to the sentence against him, especially as the two French cardinals were present with all their other supporters, to give that sentence, upon which it may be the Most Christian gave many promises contrary to what has taken place.
Rome, the 15th August, 1533.
[Italian.]
Aug. 23.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
922. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The English ambassador and the excusator left yesterday to return to their king.
Rome, the 23rd August, 1533.
[Italian.]
Aug. 28.
Carteggio.
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
923. Copy of a Letter from the Imperial Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Duke of Norfolk turned back from here for England, because he did not wish to go on his said visits, because of his dissatisfaction about the sentence pronounced by the pope against the King of England in favour of the queen.
Montpellier, the 28th August, 1533.
[Spanish.]
Sept. 1.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
924. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Yesterday letters of the 17th ult. arrived from the Imperial Court, relating the emperor's satisfaction at the sentence given by the pope against the English king, though he was not satisfied upon the principal point, namely, the honour of his aunt, and asking the pope to deliver sentence against the aspersion of that sovereign, as to whether he could dispense or no in the marriage between his aunt and the English king, on which his aunt's honour depends, otherwise he would be but ill pleased with the sentence.
Rome, the 1st September, 1533.
[Italian.]
Oct. 1.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
925. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The King of England has had a daughter by his new wife, which shows that God disapproves of his unholy designs and appetites. They say that the Most Christian will go to meet the English king after the pope has left, because he fears that England has become mistrustful of him since his insistence upon this conference after the promulgation of the sentence.
Rome, the 1st October, 1533.
[Italian.]
Oct. 22.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives
926. Francesco Taverna, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I find that the pope's visit is to discuss three things, the sentence against the English king, the matter between the Most Christian and the emperor, and this marriage. It seems that the pope is determined to uphold the sentence for the reinstatement of the English queen and the removal of the new one, and for the arrangement of some place such as Cambrai for the principal judgment, the trial being held there and judgment delivered at Rome. The Most Christian does not seem averse from this, although it does not please England and without that it seems impossible to carry it out.
Marseilles, the 22nd October, 1533.
[Italian.]
Oct. 23.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
927. Giovanni Francesco Taberna, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
To-day I have had a long conversation with his Holiness. I introduced the leading topics and he enlaged upon them at great length. To sum it all up, with respect to the affairs of England, the Most Christian is acting in their favour; nevertheless he tells his Holiness that he does not mean to ask for anything prejudicial to justice and his honour. Accordingly his Holiness has made up his mind, and does not think he will be able to find any way of agreement for them, because the English are willing to obey sententiae attentatorum, but they want to be practically assured of having the sentence in the principal cause.
Marseilles, the 23rd October, 1533.
[Italian.]
Nov. 5.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
928. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The English business of the matrimonial cause goes very badly, in such sort that the English ambassadors say they have no mandate of proxy to accept or arrange anything, being unwilling to obey the sentence given against the king super attemptatis. He offers to set forth his cause in a neutral, trustworthy place, such as Cambrai; but I do not believe the queen will accept this, as so far she has refused to agree to any judge but the pope or any place but Rome.
Rome, the 5th November, 1533.
[Italian.]
Nov. 10.
Carteggio.
Generale.
Milan.
Archives.
929. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
They have written opportunely to England for the mandate, which is expected in four or five days. This may help to detain his Holiness, else it is thought that he will return soon.
Rome, the 10th November, 1533.
[Italian.]
Nov. 16.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
930. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The English business remains incomplete, and they no longer expect any other mandate.
Rome, the 16th November, 1533.
[Italian.]
Nov. 19.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
931. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Letters of the 12th inst. have arrived from Marseilles. They report that no arrangement has been made about the English business, and they represent it as most hopeless.
Rome, the 19th November, 1533.
[Italian.]
Nov. 23.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
932. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
On the arrival of his Holiness at Marseilles the King of England, by the intercession of the Most Christian, obtained the postponement of the censures for three months, with a promise to place the principal cause in a neutral place outside the Roman Curia, dumodo parent judicato. England's agents would not produce a mandate, either because they had not got one, or because they do not wish parere judicato, and so this course was abandoned, although they gave them time for the mandate to come if they wished to present it.
I think your Excellency has heard that the English ambassador, Dr. Benedetto, who was recalled by his Majesty this summer, after the giving of the sentence super attemptatis, fell sick on the road and died with some servants, not without suspicion of poison. (fn. 1)
Rome, the 23rd November, 1533.
[Italian.]
Dec. 13.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
933. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Since my office with his Holiness I have also called upon the Count of Sifuentes, the imperial ambassador. His Holiness, after complaining of your Excellency not making the deposit, told me that he was not pleased at the departure of the Nuncio Verulano and thought he should not have gone so soon, but he should have stayed on, feigning indisposition or some such excuse until his Holiness had written again as he did after his return to Milan, with the intention to return there in any event. I feel sure that one of us is deceived, and as I think it unlikely that he has been recalled in order to be sent back, I fancy my conjecture approaches the truth more nearly than his, but I refer to the issue.
Besides this he told me that the English ambassadors have appealed from the declaration made by his Holiness in the cause of the marriage super attemptatis ad futurum Concilium. This is against the wishes of the Most Christian who forbad them to do it. However, despite this, they persisted, and it has rather helped than hurt the queen, as they do not know how to prove that this declaration has come to the knowledge of the English, because they cannot send it quia non est tutus accessus; now having admitted a knowledge of it in the appeal, no further proof is necessary.
I have learned from others that the Bishop of Alessandria has taken a house in Piacenza, being assured by his Holiness and the Legate Salviati, and is having it furnished. He has many bravi in his company who went about Marseilles armed with the cuirass and the like besides their swords. They say that misfortune has not changed his nature and it seems he speaks like a man who has some hold in Cremona either by friendship or negotiation. I do not know this but have heard it from one who has good sense. Possibly some special malevolence makes him say this, and it is not true; all the same, I did not think fit to keep it hidden from your Excellency so that you may be on your guard and keep an eye on his proceedings and those of his companion, the Cremonese priest, who had a hand in making him fly on the first occasion in the time of the Pizenardo. Immediately he reached Piacenza he met him as if he had had a spy to see when he would leave the castle.
Rome, the 13th December, 1533.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 Dr. William Benet died at Susa on the 26th September. Carne says he died of ague. Letters and Papers of Henry VII vol vi, page 541.

Annotations

87 jacob.ellis - (Tuesday 31 Mar 2009 15:41:17)
Entry number 908, last paragraph, for 'Most Christian finds its difficult.' read "Most Christian finds it difficult.".
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