Milan
1534

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1912

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565-574

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'Milan: 1534', Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 565-574. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92292 Date accessed: 27 November 2014.


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1534

1534.
Jan. 24.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
934. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Bishop of Paris was sent from Marseilles to England, according to some in order to remove any suspicion the king there might have conceived about the assembly of Marseilles; while others think there was some other reason. The bishop has returned and is coming to Rome as ambassador resident with the pope.
Rome, the 24th January, 1534.
Postscript.—I learn that the Bishop of Paris is going to Paris about the English affair and that another is coming as resident ambassador.
[Italian.]
Jan. 31.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
935. Gal. Capella, Milanese Ambassador at Venice, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The English ambassador, I am told, has informed the Signory of the peace made between his king and the King of Scotland. (fn. 1)
Venice, the last day of January, 1533.
[Italian.]
Feb. 6.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
936. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Bishop of Paris arrived in Rome three days ago, and has spoken several times with his Holiness. I have not yet found out what he brings.
By letters of the Queen of England it is understood that they have taken away all her servants, male and female, and the little silver left so far for her use. They wanted to send her to live in a private house situated in a marsh, (fn. 2) so that the bad air might speedily end her life. She would not go, saying that God did not wish any one to go to voluntary death of their own accord; if they used force she would be patient, but they could not do it otherwise. They have given her daughter to the concubine as a maid who serves like the others of her household.
Rome, the 6th February, 1534.
[Italian.]
Feb. 6.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
937. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, at Milan.
The Bishop of Paris arrived three days ago. He has spoken with his Holiness at length several times. From what I hear he reports that the King of England will not obey in anything declared by his Holiness about the separation of the marriage, but if the Apostolic See proceeds against him he will not fail to oppose it, threatening to join the Lutherans and in particular with the Princes of Germany, with whom he boasts he has good relations and friendship, with the Danes and others.
Some think that this is one of the Marseilles operations, to wit, that the Most Christian making every instance with his Holiness not to pass sentence upon the principal point of the cause, and his Holiness promising, so that the matter might pass in the manner arranged between them, when he arrived here, said he wished to proceed
ad ulteriora directing the imperial ambassador to write to the emperor, as besides the claims of justice he recognised that the Most Christian took no account of it but agreed more quickly to their proceeding, and he began to speak consistorially to that effect. So they understood that he did not wish to make an end. Now when it is clear that his Holiness is disposed to dispatch and that it is not hindered by the Most Christian, this Bishop of Paris has arrived, alarming the whole College of Cardinals by his threats against the Apostolic See.
It is thought that his Holiness ought to refer to them after he has persuaded everybody that he only wanted the dispatch of the cause. They also make the excuse that the Most Christian will not mind whether they proceed at his instance. It is thought undoubted that his Holiness should put this resolution to the vote in the College of Cardinals, and with their zeal about losing a member of such importance to this see, it is considered certain they will judge it safer to preserve that king and his realms in devotion to Christendom and the Apostolic See, rather than go against him, driving him to such desperation that he will be forced to join so many other Lutheran princes, and ruin the faith of Christ. This morning they held a long consistory on the subject with so many oaths and excommunications to prevent any one publishing what took place there, that not the least whiff has transpired so far. If I hear anything your Excellency shall be advised.

Idem ut in litteris.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 8.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
938. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The prohibition to speak about the cause of England outside the consistory is so strict that it will be very difficult for me to learn anything of substance, though your Excellency shall be advised of all that can be gathered indirectly.
Rome, the 8th February, 1534.
[Italian.]
Feb. 14.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
939. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I wrote before what little I could gather of the report of the Bishop of Paris, which only served to infuse terror into the pope and the College of Cardinals, asserting that the ambassadors of all the Lutheran princes had negotiated in England, and the English king was most disposed to join them with all his kingdom. The bishop pointed out what harm it would do the Apostolic See to proceed so rigorously against the King of England, as if such a king and all his dominions fell into this heresy they would have no small difficulty to prevent his neighbours from catching the malignant infection, especially as they began to hear of outbreaks in various parts of France. This might gather such force that it would be beyond the power of the Most Christian to remedy it, however hard he might try and therefore he made it known to his Holiness and the Sacred College in the name of the Most Christian to the end that they might provide against the dangers which might arise from this matrimonial case.
After he had made his statement in the consistory and gone, they consulted among themselves
quid agendum, with so many prohibitions against speaking outside of what they decided that I have not as yet been able to learn anything. From outside it is surmised that they proposed to send Messer Sisto Zuchello to the emperor to tell him of this proposal and offer to proceed against the English king as far as deprivation of his kingdom, so that his imperial Majesty might afterwards execute this by force, to remove all obstacles. They suggested it would be a good thing to offer the King of France some modification of the treaty of Cambrai, as this might induce him not only to consent to the ruin of the English king but even to grant a subsidy to the emperor to help that ruin.
When the imperial ambassador was informed of this decision he said he did not think it good to send a man on purpose but it would be enough for him to write this proposal of the bishop and resolution of the College to the emperor, so they gave up the idea of sending Zuchello and decided to write. This is all I can learn so far, but as I do not consider the chimera so well designed and coloured as the execution requires I do not relate it as certain until I receive some confirmation. Your Excellency shall be advised of anything further I may hear.
This evening, at last, I learned for certain that Messer Ottaviano Vuasco, chamberlain of his Holiness, is the one who has charge of the affairs of the Bishop of Alexandria; further that the bishop took into his service at Marseilles a Doctor of Forli who besides the laws also plays the squire, and there he happened to meet Count Ludovico Rangone. He now sends him to Rome, and from what I gather he remains sick at Narni. He comes to beg for the money of the chapel again, formerly promised, the revenues of the benefices in the future and he also wishes to recover the past ones. I think he will have scant success. I am sorry to write so much of this bishop, as it looks as if I attached great importance to him and this adds to his reputation without any desert of his.

Rome, the 14th February, 1534.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 23.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan.
Archives.
940. Andrea Doria, Milanese Ambassador at Genoa, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I am advised that the King of France is busy exacting the tenth granted him by the pope upon the churches of France, and with that sum and another promised by the King of England, he has determined to make war in Italy.
Genoa, the 23rd February, 1533.
[Italian.]
Feb. 24.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
941. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
In the common opinion, they will begin to set forth the English cause in the first consistory. The proctor of the queen says that this week he will begin to inform their reverences of what has been discussed upon this matter in the preceding consistories. I have not been able to learn anything of moment, but from conversation with various persons I gather they have come to no other decision than to proceed in the cause, and from their previous conduct they will presumably propose the cause for the satisfaction of one side and will drag things out so that they will satisfy the other also so soon as they recognise the drift.
I must not omit a conversation with an honest man worthy of all confidence. When the Bishop of Paris visited the Cardinals and especially his friends he came to the house of a cardinal where, after a few general phrases, he plunged into the proposal which he had made shortly before in the consistory in the name of the King of France, endeavouring to inspire all the alarm he could about Lutheran matters. The cardinal answered most moderately to the following effect: My bishop, so far as I can gather from your conversation, as well as from what you said in the general consistory to all, and to me here privately, you have an inclination to inspire fear in our College over the matrimonial case of the English king, lest in dissatisfaction and despair he become a Lutheran, which would inflict a severe blow upon the Apostolic See and consequently upon all Christendom, and therefore it would be advisable to desist in order not to give the English king cause to proceed to extremities. I am not the oldest or the most prudent in the College, but I will say for my own part that if out of fear not so much of the Lutherans but of my own death I did an unjust thing and unbefitting my rank, I should not consider myself worthy to wear this dress or have the rank I hold. Your request is neither just nor honourable and therefore ought not to be granted, either from fear as you suggest or from hope which you promise in asking us as judges not to do justice. We ought not to fear in any case, especially in this where the judgment rests with God Almighty, and if we must tremble, we have much more to fear from the emperor than from the king of England, as Caesar could bring destruction upon us without any one intervening, nevertheless his imperial Majesty does not threaten but mildly asks us for justice, to uphold the honour of the queen, his aunt. If we fail in this we must expect to have God for our enemy and Caesar as his minister to inflict penance. To give you my personal opinion, this petition of that king and the attempt to intimidate are altogether beside the point, and if the other cardinals are as prudent as I believe them, they will agree with my opinion. If they think differently, you know my decision and which way my vote will go. In this I shall be led by no passion, but only by the rank I hold. I merely state what I feel, putting aside all personal passion.
He gave many other substantial reasons which I need not write, and he so far overwhelmed the bishop, that he held his peace, not knowing what to say in reply. Your Excellency will rest content with this much which you may have found tedious. I have not been able to obtain better confirmation of what I wrote in cipher in my preceding letter upon this subject, but it occurs to me from what others have said that those who know do not wish to confirm it to me for fear of censure.
From what I can gather here the Bishop of Alessandria should by now have left Piacenza. His agent has come hither. He is not yet quite well. He lodges in the house of Count Ludovico Rangone, who, from what I have heard, has also undertaken his protection. His Holiness said he had been asked to proceed against your Excellency for the fruits received from your benefices. He answered that he was not Fiscal Procurator, treating the request as a jest.
I told him that if they would agree that the Fiscal Procurator should do justice to all the plaints of the parties I would agree to his seeing those of the fruits received, meaning that they should proceed criminally. His Holiness laughed, showing that he attached little importance to the request, and even mocked at it as something most impertinent. I recommended to him the honour of your Excellency. He seemed to marvel at there being any question about his attending to so inconvenient a request.

Rome, the 24th February, 1534.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 27.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
942. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
A consistory was held this morning in which the Most Rev. Symonetta brought forward the English affair. He acted as Substitute for the Most Rev. Capisucca, vicar of his Holiness, who is staying at Avignon. Before Capisucca left the Curia for Marseilles he brought forward the said case in three consistories. At that time there were only five letters of remission (remissorie) in the case, whereas now there are ten. In this single consistory Symonetta set forth the whole matter with such skill, clarity and circumspection as to afford universal satisfaction to the College, earning infinite praise not only for his understanding and perfect learning, but also for his sincere and clear statement, so that even the enemies are forced to praise it. From the report brought to me I am sure that he bore himself admirably and set forth the matter in such sort that it will be impossible to introduce delay without betraying the presence of deceit and mystery.
Rome, the 27th February, 1534.
[Italian.]
March 21.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
943. Zorzo Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
A printed copy has been sent here of the slanders spoken in England against his Holiness and the College of Cardinals. This will do that king more harm than good. From what I gather his cause was well ventilated in the preceding consistory, and the agents of the queen are hopeful of obtaining a sentence in their favour and that soon or else will be enlightened as to why it is not pronounced.
Rome, the 21st March, 1534.
[Italian; deciphered.]
March 23.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
944. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
This morning there was a consistory, which lasted until the 21st hour. In this, at last, by the grace of God, his Holiness promulgated the sentence against the King of England, in favour of the queen; at which, in my judgment, the whole of this Court has shown gladness and relief. The imperial ambassador lighted bonfires and fired guns, with other demonstrations of rejoicing, and some private persons of the Spanish nation did the same, following his example.
The French and their supporters wanted the votes to be collected and a decision to be taken in the case but not have it published until the next consistory, saying they hoped that England would change his mind in the meantime about his proposad criminal action (attentati) and so the sentence might not be necessary. But the cardinals considered this rather as a prorogation in order to interrupt the sentence and finally decided on its publication. Quod felix faustumque sit.
Rome, the 23rd March, 1534.
[Italian.]
March 28.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
945. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The French ambassadors state that a post has reached them in great haste by which they advise his Holiness that the English king is content to desist from his proposed criminal action and submit to the judgment, provided that his matrimonial case in its essentials is submitted to parties in whom he has confidence. This is believed to be a French fiction, but be that as it may, they are too late, as the goose's bill is already made (per esser gia fatto il beccho all'ocha.)
Rome, the 28th March, 1534.
[Italian.]
March 30.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
946. Jo. Jacomo de Ferrero, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
We hear that the King of England wants to make war on the emperor in Flanders. That the Landgrave, Philip Melanton, the Duke of Saxony and the Duke of Bavaria have declared war on the King of the Romans, with the intention of deposing him, and that the Most Christian and the King of England are giving them 30,000 ducats a month, according to an agreement made between them.
Senlis (Samli), the 30th March, 1534.
[Italian.]
April 8.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
947. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
According to the French ambassador, the King of Scotland has sent his ambassadors to espouse the daughter of Mons. de Vendome. (fn. 3)
Rome, the 8th April, 1534.
[Italian.]
April 8, 14,
15.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
948. By Letters from the Court of France of the 14th and 15th April.
It is said that the ambassadors of Scotland who went to that Court took to Madama Madelana as wife for their king; and those ambassadors said that their king and the King of England would be friends and would soon show it.
The ambassadors of the King of France had come back from England, and said that the parliament of England had met on the 30th of March and had confirmed the deprivation of the daughter of Queen Catherine from the Principality of Wales, with which they had invested the daughter of Queen Anne.
By letters from England of the 8th and 15th April.
That the second daughter of the King of England had been declared heiress and that the said king and the King of France had decided to have an understanding with some of the princes in Germany, thinking that the pope has declared himself on the side of the emperor.
The sect of the Anabaptists has occupied the city of Munster. Some 30,000 men have joined that sect.
In Germany they are trying to restore the Duke of Wirtemberg to his state, and to create a new king of the Romans.
The King of England is attending to the equipment of his ships and to the making of artillery, with all speed.
There is peace between the Kings of England and Scotland.
The Kings of England and Scotland are to meet the Most Christian between Calais and Boulogne, and they say that the marriage of the King of Scotland to Madama Madalena, daughter of the King of France will take place there.
The King of England had taken time to make up his mind in the matters against the pope, about changing faith and opinion, and seeing the sentence given against him, he had then ratified what had been decided in his parliament against his Holiness.
Two ambassadors of the King of England will leave very soon for the King of France, and one will be the brother of the courtesan Queen Anne.
[Spanish.]
June 5, 14.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
949. Advices from France between the 5th and 14th June, 1534.
Mons. de Ghys and Andrea Corsin, ambassadors of the Vayvoda, had returned from England, and brought word that if the Most Christian would get the Vayvoda to continue the war with the King of the Romans, will resign his obedience to the church, the English will send the Bishop Casal, his ambassador in Venice, to the Vayvoda, and will send his brother in his place, and also promises to give every assistance for making war on the emperor.
In the conference between the Kings of France, England and Scotland, they will decide what wife the King of Scotland is to have.
[Italian.]
June 25.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
950. Copy of Letters from London on the 25th June, 1534.
This is only to relate that yesterday the king and all his Council gave their answer to the French ambassador about the conference, and the term and manner were decided. It will be on the 20th August, and held precisely like the other one, except that no ladies will be there as the queen is pregnant according to what they say.
His Majesty states that the Grand Master is coming to Picardy to the frontiers of Flanders with 2,000 lances and 18,000 foot, they say it is not to make war, but for defence.
[Italian.]
June 27.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
951. Copy of Letters from London of the 27th June, 1534.
On St. John's day the German ambassadors had audience of the king, and were very well received. There are six of them and they are sent by Lubeck and the other Hanse towns. Others are expected from Dance and from Mus, where their bishop is encamped, from Pomarea and many other places. They will make their arrangement with the Easterlings, Danes and others before the conference, in which matters of great importance will be settled, much greater than people suppose.
The conference is fixed. It will not be before September, The King of France will not bring more than 300 horse to Calais, nor will this king to Boulogne. They will go to the same places as last time and it will last as long. No ambassador will be present. Those of France will remain at Bevilla and those of England at Dover; in fine, it will be exactly as last time.
[Italian.]
July 10.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
952. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
On the 6th inst. they sent Messer Ubaldino as nuncio to France about the Savoy business. As it is understood that no representatives of princes are to be present at the conference between the Most Christian and England, they have selected this Ubaldino, a person not much known and of no great authority at this Court, though very learned and with considerable experience, so that with this excuse he may go straight to his Majesty and be present at the conference. I do not know how it will succeed. He is going post, but in no great hurry; about fifty miles a day.
According to the pope's information the King of Scotland will not be present at this conference, and I have heard from a secretary of that king, who has come here on purpose to inform his Holiness, that he desires to be a good son to him, and expresses great affection for the emperor. I think that if they devote their attention to the marriage with the emperor that they may possibly succeed (et credo che sel se attendesse alla practica del matrimonio con diligentia de la prefata Cesarea Maestà che la potria forsa anche reuscir).
Rome, the 10th July, 1534.
[Italian.]
Aug. 3.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
953. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The conference with England is postponed until the middle of September, and it is thought that nothing more will be done for this year.
Rome, the 3rd August, 1534.
[Italian.]
Aug. 8.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
954. Zorzi Andreasio, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Letters of the 24th ult. from France state that the Most Christian is well again, and that the meeting with the English king is postponed until next spring. Many things may happen before then.
Rome, the 8th August, 1534.
[Italian.]
Sept. 18.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
955. Ottaviano Visconti, Milanese Ambassador at Venice, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Two days ago a servant of the Vayvoda arrived here secretly from the Kings of France and England. He says he is returning with the negotiations for the marriage of the King of Scotland's daughter to the Vayvoda. It is asserted that Monsig. Casale will go to the Vayvoda by order of England, to reside with him, according to many, in the name of France and England equally, and that the Cavalier his brother, will come in his place.
Venice, the 18th September, 1534.
[[Italian.]
Sept. 26.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
956. From Blas, the 26th September.
In Ireland they say that an English gentleman, whose father died recently a prisoner in London, has made himself master of practically the whole of the country, and has made it swear obedience; but it seems that later this gentleman suffered defeat, and no small one. (fn. 4)
[Italian.]
Oct. 27.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
957. Thomaso Gallerato, Milanese Ambassador in Spain, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The Venetian ambassador in France writes to his colleagues here that they have news that the people of Ireland have rebelled against the English king, cut off the head of a bishop, their governor, and slain all the English they found in the island, saying that they were the enemies of Christ and of the Catholic faith.
Madrid, the 27th October, 1534.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The treaty was not signed until the 11th May, 1534. Dumont: Corps Diplom., vol. iv, pt. ii, page 114.
2 Somersham, co. Huntingdon.
3 Marie de Bourbon, daughter of Charles, Duke ot Vendome. The marriage never took place, though it was arranged. Pere Anselme: Hist. Gen. de la Maison Royale de France, vol. i, page 330.
4 This and the following entry refer to the revolt of Thomas Fitzgerald, tenth Earl of Kildare. According to G. E. C. (Complete Peerage) his father, Gerald Fitzgerald, the ninth earl, died in the Tower on the 13th Dec, 1534. The murdered bishop was John Allen, Archbishop of Dublin. The rebellion broke out on the 11th June.


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