Milan
1537

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1912

Pages

580-587

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Milan: 1537', Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 580-587. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92295 Date accessed: 23 September 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Contents

1537

1537.
Jan. 19.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
974. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador at Venice, to Cardinal Carraciolo, Governor of Milan.
By Otters from Flanders of the 23rd and from England of the 16th ult. I hear that the Duke of Guelders has made peace with Flanders; and that between the King of England and the rebels of the North a parliament has been arranged which shall determine what the others desire, and if the king will not agree, they will rise again against him. The King of France was to return to Paris on the 1st for the marriage of his eldest daughter to the King of Scotland.
Venice, the 19th January, 1537.
[Italian.]
Jan. 22.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
975. Advices of Doctor Zinna on the 22nd January from Salzburg.
The King of England has been compelled to dismiss four of his leading men, and he obtained their lives from the people with difficulty. They are to negotiate a peace between his Majesty and the people, and the Archbishop of Canterbury has been chosen by the people.
[Italian.]
Feb. 3.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
976. Eustace Chapuys, Imperial Ambassador in England, to Cardinal Caracciolo, Governor of Milan.
When his Majesty was in Italy these last years, I feel sure that your Eminence will have heard all that I wrote as ambassador of his Majesty in the Court of England, so that I need not weary you by repeating the same matter in special letters. However, now that his Majesty is living in Spain, I have thought it right to give you news of affairs here, both because I am sure it will be rendering a service to his Majesty and I shall continue to do so, in the assurance that it will be useful to you, because formany years I have been anxious to render you service.
Your Eminence must know that the late queen, who is now in glory, suffered ill-treatment for many years, and in such various ways, that the slightest account of her sufferings would be an endless task, and would weary your Eminence in the recital and would never be done, especially in writing. The last years before she died she remained shut up in a room, without being allowed anything that she wanted. It proved that she was supported by the hand of God, in being able to suffer such a martyrdom with so much complacency that with all that she endured, no one ever heard her utter the slightest word against the king or the ministers, but she always prayed to God for every one. I call this to mind merely in order to say that the princess her daughter, who is still alive, has always shown herself in everything the veritable heiress of her mother, both in the ill-treatment she endured and in all her virtues, such as patience and wisdom. These last days the king had his daughter fetched from the North to his Court, where she remains, with satisfactory indications that she will be well-treated. Thus she would seem to have arrived in port, although not to what she is entitled, as she has not the title of princess or heir, notwithstanding that she is well-treated as the king's daughter. The whole kingdom not only loves her, as one would desire, but seems almost to overvalue and to adore her, desiring her every good, because they know her rights, and because they loved the queen, her mother, and because of the great virtues which it has pleased God to give to her Highness, so that she is a veritable paragon to the world.
I must also inform your Eminence that the people of the Northern parts have revolted, with a number of pilgrims, demanding the putting right of the things accomplished these last seven years against the Church in general and particular, and against the temporal, which have oppressed and restricted one and another in a number of things, contrary to the ancient and Catholic custom. The king here made great preparations of troops to fight them, but as they found them numerous, of good quality and very well armed and of high spirit, they did not fight with them except by promises, which the royal ministers and captains made by his commission and mandate. This assuaged matters, but the insurgents continued to make demands, which were accorded. The principal one was for a general Cortes, which they call a parliament here, where, as they used in times past, they might freely debate the steps to be taken, although nowadays everything goes perversely.
The king has kept them amused by parleying so far, while by bribes, promises and other ways, he is trying to disunite them, and then the king's men say that their turn will come. Thus it is necessary for the insurgents to stand firm in their demands. It is not possible to know the truth absolutely because the information about them comes through the hands of the king's side, and if any other news arrives from them, they dare not publish here anything that they know to be contrary to the king's wishes, and thus one knows nothing but generalities, that the insurgents stand firm to their demands. To show the sincerity of their intentions they have not slain a single man or done the least harm since the very beginning, which is three months ago, and they continue this practise. They say that they have assembled for the
maintenance of our holy faith and the church militant. To fortify themselves in this, in the face of the king and kingdom, they have imposed a general oath, a copy of which I enclose herewith. In particular they have made a declaration in nineteen articles to show the king in especial that they are actuated by zeal for the service of God, and for the welfare of the king and kingdom, and to prove their good intentions on the day that those of the kingdom venture to fight them. They said, We are neither able nor do we wish to do hurt. We have no other object than to try and show the king his mistake and the bad advice he follows, and ask him to forsake such courses. They have an abundance of victuals, while in the king's army they can scarcely obtain sufficient for themselves, and four-fifths of his forces have no desire to fight.
As this has lasted some time, it might render a great service to God, and this might happen if something were done speedily, to assist them by means of some favour in those things whereof they have need, in order to keep them united and steadfast in their demands, as the pope is well aware, being informed upon this. Every effort ought to be made for this by every means possible which has presented itself or may do so, in order to effect thereby what is so greatly for the service of God, of our holy faith, for the welfare and honour of the apostolic see, and the tranquillity and repose of the world, because from this arises practically all that is necessary to give it peace, and it will afford an example to all the rest. What they most need and what are required to keep them together are arquebuses and bombards, with some munitions.
All the danger consists in the possibility of all that they have done hitherto resolving itself into nothing if such an opportunity is lost. The king will inflict such cruelties on those who are the leaders and chiefs that there will be no further hope of remedy. If he prevails against the insurgents, he will not only complete the dissolution of all the churches and monasteries, which has already been ordained, and which he has once more ordered to be continued, numbering more than 350, according to the information given to me, whose revenues do not amount to more than 800 ducats a year, but he will send to lay hands on all the rich ones, which are numerous, but which he has not ventured to touch so far, and there will be unheard of deeds of cruelty. May the Almighty, of His mercy, interpose His hand, and guide towards the end that is desired, and it is to be hoped that the Lord will provide for things here for the sake of the welfare of the apostolic see.
With regard to the good will and friendship between the king here and France, we gather that they are offended here with the marriage between France and Scotland. Thus the understanding and cordiality which existed between them before has grown cool. They themselves have expressed their dissatisfaction to me and remarked that it is contrary to the agreements made between them.
In order to show your Reverence that I have good reason for my assurance that the insurgents, if they are favoured, will carry through what they have begun, I venture to add that in all their demands and replies to the king in writing or by their own men, and in their negotiations with the king's captains, they have shown themselves firm in their demands, and so prudent in their actions and in everything that the very members of the king's own Council, putting aside their desire to serve the king against the insurrection, cannot refrain from speaking well of them, praising their good counsel, and the prudent manner in which they have behaved throughout. It is to be hoped that they will not slacken their efforts to force those here to abandon what they have done, and to fulfil what they have promise them.
Before sealing I must add that they have quartered the Earl of Kildare (Gildara) who for two years has done so many things against the king here, assisting those who did not obey the king's commands, where he desired to be supreme head of the Church and other matters which they have done here. Together with him they have removed his uncles. May the Almighty receive them into his kingdom.
London, the 3rd February, 1537.
[Spanish; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure.977. Copy of the Oath taken by the Insurgents in the North of England. (fn. 1)
You shall not enter upon this Pilgrimage of Grace, established for the profit of the commonwealth, unless for the love you have for God, His faith and His church militant, for the maintenance thereof, and for the preservation of the person of the king and his heirs, and to guard and maintain the true noble blood, with intent to disinherit therefrom the vile blood and all other evil councillors, who are against the commonwealth, near the king and his privy council. You shall not enter upon our pilgrimage for any private gain for yourself or for the sake of doing hurt to any private person without the consent of the commonwealth, and without wounding or slaying, neither for envy nor malice nor for any other thing, but to put away from your hearts all fear, in order to maintain the good of the commonwealth, taking before you the cross of Christ in your hearts and His faith for the restitution of the Church and for the destruction and abasement of the heretics and their opinions, and to subject them to the just law of God. You shall not depart from this royal army and very devout pilgrimage without leave in writing from the captain-general and council of war under which you are. You will not receive royal letters or messengers either in secret or in public without informing about or showing them, and neither for reward nor for promises, for love or for fear will you make terms, backslide or disband without the consent of the great captain and the council being obtained. You will affirm and promise this upon oath made upon this book.
[Spanish.]
Feb. 22.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
978. Lope De Soria, Ambassador at Venice, to Cardinal Caracciolo, Governor of Milan.
Cardinal Pole, a kinsman of the King of England, is going as legate to that king. He left on the 18th inst.
Rome, the 22nd February, 1537.
[Spanish.]
March 24.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
979. Lope De Soria, Ambassador at Venice, to Cardinal Caracciolo, Governor of Milan.
I have letters of the 4th inst. from Flanders in which they tell me that the King of England is still on bad terms with his revolted subjects and that he punishes severely those who fall into his hands.
Venice, the 24th March, 1537.
[Italian.]
April 22.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
980. Eustace Chapuys, Imperial Ambassador in England, to Cardinal Caracciolo, Governor of Milan.
Of affairs here, which I have to relate, the king and his people seem to be dissatisfied with the French. They seem to be disturbed by the attack made on the frontiers of Flanders, and the capture of the castle of Hesdin. From all the indications that I see and the words that I hear, there is no fear that they will favour the French. If they should happen to wish to intervene in questions touching the repose of Christendom, I think they are more likely to assist than to oppose us. If it were not that I consider them somewhat given to talking at large (liberales de palabras), might hold out greater hopes that they would favour us. Thus among other things, the government is disturbed at the Turks having taken Clissa and slain some men of the King of the Romans, sent there by his lordship. They said it would be advisable for all to agree to support that business. May God in His mercy inspire them and guide them to all good.
A gentleman came here from France, but so far I have not discovered for certain what he came about. From what I hear he was sent away dissatisfied. Since the taking of Hesdin another has come. When I know the object of his visit, I will advise your lordship.
The king here is very dissatisfied with his kinsman, Cardinal Reginald Pole, who is going as legate to France, with a report that he will try to negotiate peace between his Majesty and France. The king has accordingly tried to prevent the King of France from permitting the cardinal to go to his Court, saying that he is a rebel and traitor, and by the treaties between the two kings one of them may not receive such men of the other. In spite, of all this, they tell me that Cardinal Pole was at Cambrai on his way to Paris, and the Bishop of Verona, who was in his company, went on thither, and the King of France was to give him audience on the 16th inst. Those who revolted in the North, notably the principal persons and those hitherto considered the most prudent, have placed such implicit confidence in the fair words and promises with which the king has enticed them, that Lord Darsiser, Robert Conestable and Captain Esqui, confiding especially in the promise of a general pardon given them by the king, have come here. They were immediately taken and put in the Tower, and so was another called Lord Dousi, two days later. Judging by previous experience, it is thought that they will pay for the madness of not having completed what they began and in coming here.
The princess, thank God, is in good health and is at the Court with the king, her father. There is nothing fresh to report about her. I hope at any moment to see a gentleman of his Majesty to discuss a marriage between her Highness and the Infant Don Luis Angue. I cannot say that I hope for any profit therefrom, owing to manner in which they are accustomed to treat here, but it will at least serve to keep them busy. This is for your Eminence's use alone.
The king here is sending a gentleman of his chamber to France. (fn. 2) It is suspected that this is in order to try and play some scurvy trick on Cardinal Pole. However, I do not believe that the King of France will play tricks in such case with one who holds the office of legate. The ministers here have sent to tell me that when they see me they will inform me of the instructions given to this gentleman.
When I know them I will advise your Excellency, as well as of anything else that occurs.
London, the 22nd April, 1537.
[Spanish; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 12.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
981. Eustace Chapuys, Imperial Ambassador in England, to Cardinal Caracciolo, Governor of Milan.
The princess is well, thank God. There is nothing new in her affairs. I am eagerly expecting a courier whom his Majesty is sending hither upon the affairs of her Highness and other affairs of his Majesty. As soon as he arrives I will advise your Eminence of everything.
At all events they are dissatisfied with the French. This gives me much satisfaction, but I shall have to see other results before I believe that they will do anything effectual.
There is nothing fresh since my last letters about Cardinal Pole, except that they are endeavouring in every possible way to get him into their hands, or to do him some immediate hurt if they can, which God forfend.
It is expected that those who came from the North and were taken will soon pay the penalty, as their madness deserves.

London, the 12th May, 1537.
[Spanish; deciphered.]
May 14. Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
982. Advices from Brussels of the 14th May.
The English king requires payment from the Most Christian, and it is hoped that he will become imperialist. Monsignor de Arbays, a chamberlain of the emperor, is to go to the English Court, and it is expected that this will yield some fruit.
[Italian.]
June 2. Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
983. Eustace Chapuys, Imperial Ambassador in England, to Cardinal Caracciolo, Governor of Milan.
Don Diego Hurtado de Mendoza and Mons. de Orton have come to speak about a matter which your Eminence ought to know, namely a marriage of the princess to Don Luys of Portugal. The business has merely been introduced; the king, on his return, has kept very silent. He has sent orders that all possible honour and welcome shall be shown to us. Up to the present I have nothing to add to give your Eminence further hopes. Whatever may be worth reporting in the future, I will send at the earliest moment.
Of the northerners who were taken here they have recently executed three gentlemen, the wife of one of them and three abbots of certain abbeys of those parts. It is expected that the lords and other gentlemen, who are already condemned to death, may suffer the same fate at any moment. The Lord pardon their fault and receive them into His glory.
The Carthusian friars of the convent of this city have been sent to prison because they stand firm in their ancient devotion to the apostolic see. May the Lord, of His mercy, keep them in His hand.
There is no further news here at present.
London, the 2nd June, 1537.
Since I wrote the above they have taken away to execution a brother of Lord Northumberland and a son of Lord Lomele, and a certain Bigot, who was a captain, with two abbots. Our Lord receive them into His glory.
[Spanish; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 25. Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
984. Lope Di Soria, Imperial Ambassador at Venice, to Cardinal Caracciolo, Governor of Milan.
They write me from England in letters of the 2nd inst. that Don Diego de Mendoza, the imperial ambassador, has arrived and been very well received. They say the king is constantly proceeding against his people who rose against him, and every day he puts to death some one whom he considers a heretic.
Venice, the 25th June, 1537.
[Italian.]
July 14. Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
985. Eustace Chapuys, Imperial Ambassador in England. to Cardinal Carracciolo, Governor of Milan.
The principal lords of the North who were taken were Lord Darsi, Lord de Usi, Sir Robert Unlestable and Captain Asqui. They have been put to death, and have thus paid the penalty of their madness,
At present I have nothing to write to your Reverence about the affairs for which Don Diego Urtada de Mendoza has come, as they have come to no decision in anything, except fair words. They rejoice greatly at all the victories over the French.
London, the 14th July, 1537.
[Spanish; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 4. Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
986. Eustace Chapuys, Imperial Ambassador in England, to Cardinal Caracciolo, Governor of Milan.
Since my last, all that I can write to your Eminence of affairs here is that they have done nothing therein and they are waiting to see how things will turn out. In the meantime they avoid committing themselves, after the manner of those who do not intend to do any good. Every time that anything arises which might cause them alarm, they sheer off, although they have less to fear now, since the death of the daughter of France, wife of the King of Scotland, an alliance which alarmed them. It therefore appears that they put us off and induce delays, avoiding anything that may commit them. It is evident that they are extremely afraid of doing so, and they are seeking to ensure themselves against any one reducing them to obedience to the Roman see. But the situation is such, that if they must do any one a good turn, they will do it for us sooner than for any one else; and so matters are held up in this way. We are always hopeful that something may be done to report to your Eminence.
The princess, thank God, is in good health, but is anxious, as your Eminence may imagine, to see some good end in her affairs. May our Lord, of His infinite goodness, direct all for His holy service, and as her merits deserve. The Bishop of Limoja, who accompanied the Queen of Scotland, passed this way on his return, and is still here. His stay is an advantage to the affairs of France, but so far I have not heard of any negotiations, which they avoid. If anything occurs I will advise your Eminence immediately.
Letters of merchants of the 27th from France state that the king was very dissatisfied because the war was not proceeding as he desired. He did not consider this good and was making every effort possible in order to find money, but without success. For these and other reasons they write that he was trying to prevent the Queen of Hungary from making any truces, but your Eminence will know more about this by letters from the queen's court, May the Almighty direct everything for His service and for the extension of the Christian republic. May He extend the life and estate of your Eminence for many years.
London, the 4th August, 1537.
[Spanish; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 Letters and Papers of Henry VIII., Vol. XI. p. 272.
2 Sir Francis Brian.


<--Previous:
Milan:
1536
Next:-->
Milan:
1555