Rome
1559

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J. M. Rigg (editor)

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1916

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'Rome: 1559', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Vatican Archives, Volume 1: 1558-1571 (1916), pp. 2-16. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92524 Date accessed: 26 November 2014.


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1559.

1559.
Vat. Arch.
Borgh. I.
vol. 633.
f. 278.
Corsini Palace.
38. F. 6. f. 134d.
3. Papal Diary.
“At last, this month, the Queen of England has declared herself a Lutheran, and made a decree (fn. 1) that there is to be no preaching save of the Gospel and the Epistles of St. Paul; and, being at Mass, she would not stay to assist at the consecration, but was rather minded not to let the Bishop consecrate. She suffered all to live after their own fashion until she declared by decree of Parliament that they ought to live according to the true and pure faith, by which she meant the faith as the Lutherans understand it.
“King Philip has given the said Queen to understand that, since she will not live after the Catholic fashion, she shall have no more of his alliance, and that English affairs concern him no further.”
Jan., 1559. Rome. Italian.
Vat. Lib.
Barb. Lat.
5717 (lxi. 26).
f. 108.
4. Laurence [Lenzi], Bishop of Fermo, [Nuncio in France] to [Alfonso] Carafa, Cardinal[Archbishop of Naples].
… “There is the best hope of the peace; and some days ago I learned that Ruy Gomez wrote to the Constable [Anne de Montmorency], that, if his Excellency should continue in the same good mind, the two Princes would come to an agreement in every particular. It is therefore thought that all depends on the affairs of England, where it is not as yet known whether the Queen has come to any resolution, although the Estates were assembled to that end; which delay gives many to think that she might yet postpone the peace.
“As touching religion, no change therein is known as yet to have taken place in England, but there is much apprehension thereof, seeing that all the officials recently created by the Queen are persons much suspect. The Queen Dauphiness is chagrined thereat, and those who pretend to know her mind say that she will assume the title and arms of England.
“Milord Grey [of Wilton], who was prisoner here, as you may remember, has been sent to England on parole in place of M. Rubert [Robertet].
“God grant that out of all this may come that tranquillity and universal peace that the Christian commonwealth needs.
“The Cardinal of England made Priuli executor of his will, but he will have little to do, for it is known that at the instance of the Court an inventory was made and possession taken of all the goods and chattels that he had in the realm.
“The Duke of Lorraine has gone [to his Duchy] to hold the Estates. He will, however, soon return for his wedding, for which, and the subsequent festivities, arrangements are already being made.”
4 Jan., 1559. Paris. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Lett. di
Princ. e Titolat.
vol. xi. f. 373.
5. [Antony] Trivulzio, Cardinal[Bishop of Toulon, Legate in France] to the Same.
“I have not written to you since the end of January because nothing happened worth noting at Carnivaltide; and the first tidings of the conference arrived yesterday by a courier who brings advices that the Deputies were at Cambrésis, where they found bad lodging, and that on Monday they all met, but got not farther than the usual ceremonies of courtesy, having appointed the 9th for the beginning of the negotiation; and that in the meantime there came letters from the Free Lands to the effect that they also intended to send ambassadors to the conference to treat of the restitution of Metz, Toul and Verdun as Imperial lands; but that, as they had not yet begun the journey, it was thought that they could not arrive in time, because the ministers of both Kings, having come with definite orders to expedite the negotiation as much as possible, it was likely to be ended in a very few days, and even if they did arrive, it was thought their authority would be slight, their claim being totally distinct from the matters in dispute between the two Kings. Nay, as I learn from an excellent source, the opinion prevails here that there is no sort of intention of despatching the said ambassadors, and that this their letter and protest was more a matter of words than of any design that they had of intervening to purpose, as it is probable that their pretensions in regard to Metz and the other places could be more conveniently and reasonably discussed in the Diet that is to assemble at Augsburg, whither also two ambassadors are gone in the name of his Most Christian Majesty, than in the present conference. As to which it is impossible to form a positive judgment before the event; and, by what I gather, it would seem that the Queen of England is minded to await the result of the Conference before deciding on marriage, and already her three ambassadors have made their appearance, of whom two have been in residence here, the third having recently come from England.”
10 Feb., 1559. Paris. Italian.
Ibid. f. 377.6. The Same to the Same.
“I wrote to you on the 10th upon receipt of the first intelligence of the Conference, whence some have since arrived, among them the Vidame de Chartres, (fn. 2) who, as I understand from a good source, reports that the ministers of the Most Christian King having proposed that there should be no discussion of the affair of Calais, the deputies of the Catholic King not only agreed thereto, but consented likewise that the ambassadors of the Free Lands, who were to demand Metz, Toul and Verdun, should not be admitted, this controversy being entirely distinct from the interests of both Kings, and the more so that it seems that they were also to urge the restitution of Tournai, Cambrai and some other places, which are held by the Catholic King. The Vidame also says that Mgr. Limoges (fn. 3) was expected at Court in five or six days, bringing the King of France a definite statement of what shall be negotiated.
“I have now heard from a very good quarter that there is to be another conference at Boulogne between the said King and the English; and to-day it is to be decided whether the Duke of Guise or others shall go thither on the part of the King; and as to particulars, I am informed that his Most Christian Majesty apprises the Queen, that, since she has shown a disposition to wed a foreigner, he offers to restore Calais to her, if she will take a husband that is persona grata to him and proposed by him.
“The Cardinal [Odet de Coligny] of Châtillon told one of my gentlemen whom I sent to visit him that there was good hope of the peace, for which reason by his Majesty's order a great procession will to-morrow take place in Paris.”
13 Feb., 1559. Paris. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Carte Farnes.
vol. vi. no. 134.
7. Il Orio to [Ranuccio] Farnese, Cardinal[Arohbishop of Ravenna].
“Yesterday arrived a courier from the Court with letters of the 4th, 5th and 6th inst., whereby we understand that the Commissaries of the Peace were to assemble at Cambrésis on the 5th inst. Albeit I have spoken with all that are supposed to be in the secret, I have elicited nothing more for certain. In the course of conversation with Don [Juan de] Yvara as to the hope that is entertained of this Peace, he told me that it is slight indeed. Signor Castaldo says that the Duke of Sessa deems it sure; and no less discrepant are the views that I have gathered from other persons.”
15 Feb., 1559. Milan. Italian.
Ibid. vol. ii.
no. 98.
8.The Same to the Same.
“I have seen a letter of Count Brocardo, which says that the Commissaries of the Peace had already met once in Conference, and that the business was on so excellent a footing that he firmly expects that it will be carried to a conclusion, and that though the English may retard it somewhat they cannot frustrate it. Don [Juan de] Yvara has since shown me a letter of Ruy Gomez to the effect that on the 11th of this month they were discussing the matter of the Peace; before which there was no Conference, because they were awaiting the arrival of an English milord. His secretary writes to the same effect, adding, ‘God grant that these Frenchmen be not trifling with us, as it would seem they have done hitherto.’ ”
28 Feb., 1559. Milan. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Lett. di
Princ. e Titolat.
vol. xi. f. 392.
9. [Antony] Trivulzio, Cardinal[Bishop of Toulon, Legate in France] to [Alfonso Carafa,] Cardinal [Archbishop] of Naples.
“Yesterday evening there arrived here a courier despatched by the deputies to his Majesty. His news (so far as one can gather it) is that on the return of the Constable [Anne de Montmorency] to the Conference the ministers of the Catholic King declined to proceed further with the negotiation, seeing how many bonds united the Catholic King with the English, until the affairs of the English were arranged. And as the English displayed ever more pertinacity in regard to the restoration of Calais, the ministers of his Most Christian Majesty, being in no wise inclinable thereto, and seeing no further reason for staying, began to think of taking their departure, when it seemed that the English were disposed to be content that the place should be razed, if it might not be surrendered to them, as they had demanded. But this request was also refused by the French, who answered that the place being, as they had often said, the property and patrimony of the Crown of France, it was not meet to ask such a concession of them, and that, as they saw that the English still persisted in the demand, they were resolved to cut short the Conference and depart. And they were on the point of doing so, but the deputies of the Catholic King prevailed with them, saying that it would be better far to write to their King and learn his mind as to the razing of the fortress. And so they stayed and by this courier reported the whole matter to his Majesty, who to-night has replied in his own hand that of Calais he will hear no more, and that, if the question is raised again, they are to return forthwith. This I have from one who says that he has it from his Majesty's own mouth, so that it is judged that in six or eight days at the most the event must certainly be known in full. Now, such being the state of affairs, it must be concluded that it was for one or the other of two reasons that the ministers of the Catholic King procured the continuance of the Conference, either because they really desire peace, but are minded by this procedure to satisfy the English, making it plain that they have done all in their power in their interest, and at last, marking the determination of the French, to come to an agreement, or because the Catholic King, being committed to a negotiation for the hand of the Queen of England, is resolved to see the result, and then to make his mind up as to the peace.”
5 March, 1559. Paris. Italian.
Ibid. f. 394.10. [Laurence Lenzi,] Bishop of Fermo [Nuncio in France] to the Same.
“I wrote you on the 2nd inst. all the news received to that date. Yesterday evening there came a man from the Conference, and by what I gather his report was that, the deputies being assembled, the ministers of King Philip announced that his Majesty was so beholden to the English for aid rendered him by them in his affairs, that nothing whatever ought to be discussed until they were satisfied. So the English appeared and renewed their claim to Calais; whereto it was replied that if they were resolved at all events to have the place, the result might be the dissolution of the Conference. Whereupon it was suggested by the ministers of King Philip, that, if the King [of France] would not restore the place, at any rate it might be razed, which was likewise negatived; and it was again proposed that the Conference should be dissolved, according to the instructions of the Most Christian King, who deems himself under no obligation to restore an acquisition which is but the recovery of his own royal patrimony. This, however, was not agreed to, but a new proposition was made by the ministers of King Philip, to wit, that before it came to that, the matter should be referred to the respective sovereigns, which gives rise to conjectures, whether his Majesty is minded to shew that he has done all that he can for the English, and afterwards to yield to the difficulty of the case, or to await some resolution touching the marriage, which would put him in a better position to make up his mind, seeing that if it were decided to rupture the marriage affair, he would be no longer concerned to continue the treaty of peace, being, as it is said, in some measure armed, and able to take the initiative in the field. The King [of France] is said to have answered firmly that he will in no wise restore or raze the place, and that he would have the negotiation terminate in one way or another in eight or ten days. All these matters I report upon the authority of the Prince of Fermo and the Count of Mirandola.”
5 March, 1559. Ferté Milon. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Carte Farnes.
vol. vi. no. 139.
11. Il Orio to [Ranuccio] Farnese, Cardinal[Archbishop of Ravenna].
“The ordinary of the Court is arrived with letters of the 19th and 20th of last month, whereby it appears that the King of France would fain hold Calais for eight years by way of pawn, binding himself in a million of gold to restore it at the end of that term; that it is believed that the Queen of England would be content to leave it in his hands for four years; that the said King has sent the said Queen word that he will abandon Calais and renounce all pretensions that he might have in her kingdom on account of Scotland, if she will consent to marry the Duke of Saxony (fn. 4) ; that the Duke of Alva writes that the question of Calais will not stand in the way of the conclusion of peace; and that Marshal St. André, (fn. 5) having gone to surrender himself prisoner at Breda, found none to receive him, and departed.
“This has given occasion to many conjectures here, and is believed by few.
“The letters also report that our King was about to go to a place distant seven leagues from Cambrésis, which has occasioned the belief that he goes thither to confer with the King of France upon the signing of the articles of the Peace.” 6 March, 1559. Milan. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Borgh. I.
vol. 633.
ff. 281d. 282.
Corsini Palace.
38 F. 6. f. 140.
12. Papal Diary.
“The deputies of the two Kings were in a conference about the peace at Cambrésis from 5 to 15 Feb., and discussed all the difficulties. But at last, as they must needs talk of Calais, the French let it be clearly understood that they would on no terms restore that place to the English; whereto it was replied on the part of King Philip that there was no more occasion to talk of peace, for that without the restitution of Calais the treaty was out of the question: which hint caused the French to communicate forthwith with their King; and soon afterwards they returned with a new proposition, to wit, that they would be content to restore Calais to the English in eight years' time, upon condition, however, that the eldest son of the Queen should wed without dowry the eldest daughter of the Dauphin and Dauphiness of the King of France, and that as to the pecuniary and other claims that the English had upon the French, they should be referred to arbitration. The English deputies and those of King Philip have sent to the Queen to know if she would accept this arrangement.
“In the meantime the affairs of Corsica, Tuscany and Montferrat, as also those of the Duke of Savoy, are adjusted, though indeed the French have not communicated what they purpose to do. The Constable, however, gave an assurance that there would be an accord.
“In England religious affairs have gone from bad to worse. They have instituted inquisitions against the Papists so called by these heretics.”
7 March, 1559. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. xii.
vol. 28. f. 223.
13. Papal Diary.
“To-day in the church of St. James of the Spaniards a requiem mass was celebrated for the soul of the Queen of England.”
8 March, 1559. Rome. Latin.
Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat.
1039. f. 18.
14. News Letter. (fn. 6)
“The English ambassador has been recalled by the Queen and Council, but it is surmised that the Pope will not suffer him to depart at the first request.”
18 March, 1559. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Lett. di
Princ. e Titolat.
vol. xi. f. 278.
15. John Francis Canobio (fn. 7) to Pope Paul IV.
Post beatorum pedum oscula. On the 13th inst. I wrote your Holiness all that was known about public affairs, and that the deputies for negotiating the peace on the part of the one sovereign and the other came very near dissolving the assembly on the question of Calais, and that the Duchess [Dowager] of Lorraine as mediatrix proposed new propositions which brought them together again. (fn. 8) Such indeed.was the result that on the 13th the difficulties of Calais were arranged to the satisfaction of all parties, and, as it is commonly reported, in such wise that the Most Christian King is to keep Calais for eight years, and meanwhile to give the English security in 500,000 ducats (and hostages till performance) for the restitution of Calais.
“On the same day they came to such an agreement as to other matters discussed and digested in the late conference at Cercamp that the Duke of Alva wrote to his Majesty and others that the peace might be considered to be concluded, as there remained nothing more than to adjust some trifling matters and the drafting, which might easily give rise to some serious difficulties, so that even yet neither his Majesty nor the chief ministers dare make sure of the settlement. Among the matters that remained was the number of the places that the King of France was to retain in Piedmont (five being claimed by him), and the time of restitution. This by the latest advices is understood to be arranged as follows: that his Most Christian Majesty is to keep four of the places, to wit, Turin, Pinerolo, Chieri and Chivasso, for four years. And as Don Ruigomez is come hither, and the end of the negotiation is not in sight, it is suspected that some other difficulties may arise in regard to the reciprocal restitution by their Majesties of their conquests, though it is generally hoped that it may be done to good purpose and in good time. Corsica with a pecuniary indemnity, the amount of which is not yet known, is to be restored to the Genoese and Montferrat to the Duke of Mantua. The places in Tuscany held by the French are to be consigned to the King [of Spain], as the French have throughout steadfastly resisted their cession to the Duke of Florence. However, the Duke's ministers make much ado about the capitulation and the obligation which is upon his Majesty to put him in possession of the places either by negotiation or by force of arms. We know not as yet whether his hope be assured. When this blessed treaty is concluded I will send your Holiness a courier whose return is many days overdue, and will also try to send you the capitulation and all else that I can for your Holiness' better information and my satisfaction.
“From England by letters of the 8th inst. we learn that the prelates and the rest of the Upper House after much dispute with the Lower House succeeded in suspending for the present discussion of a resolution upon that infernal article of the Queen's headship of the Anglican Church, and in committing Parliament to the discussion of other matters, with intent to consign that to oblivion. God grant that it be so! The Bishop of Aquila, who many days since went to that kingdom as coadjutor to the Count of Feria, returned a week ago, reporting that the Queen is badly infected with heresy, that her conversation is mainly with heretics, and that it will be no easy matter to cure her: but potens est Deus.
19 March, 1559. Brussels. Italian.
Ibid. f. 288.16. Intelligence from London.
“Parliament was not adjourned on Holy Wednesday as was supposed; but has continued to sit, not being able to come to an agreement, for though the Lords have passed the article of the superiority (sic) of the Church, (fn. 9) they have done so under such conditions that the Lower House will by no means concur therein; whereby they are in greater discord than ever. And on Thursday, the celebrations being done, they will set to work again and begin rediscussing the matter, which, I understand, is committed to four good Catholic bishops and four of their Protestants. I regret that there is no competent judge among them. In the meantime they have ordered and printed a proclamation to the effect that everyone is to communicate sub utraque specie with certain other of their reforms. They have also ordered that it be published, but nothing more is done save that her Majesty came on Easter day into the chapel where Mass was sung in English according to the mode of her brother King Edward, and communicated on her knees sub utraque specie, the priest first making her avow her faith in the body and blood. Which priest was vested but in the surplice, having laid aside the vestments in which he had sung Mass, and many of the Lords of the Council and others followed her example.
“Since then things have reverted to their former condition, and it is doubted whether they will not grow worse, if God set not hand thereto. There is no lack of these accursed preachers come from Germany to preach after their sort, as well in public as in private, in so much that they have persuaded some malignant evildoers, alas! to force an entrance by night into a church in mid-Cheapside called Sta. Maria de Arcubus, and possess themselves by force of the Most Holy Sacrament, breaking open the Tabernacle, and throwing away the most precious consecrated body of Christ that was therein, smashing the altar and the figures and tearing the pall and the cloths into a thousand pieces. This occurred this very night, which is the third since Easter.
“It is said that the Queen, seeing the great controversy that is raised by this accursed title of Supreme Head of the Anglican Church, is resolved to have no more of it. Please God it may be so; in which case we shall soon know it. Many have communicated in the Catholic way, and Mass and the other Divine offices are performed in the churches.”
28 March, [1559]. London. Italian. Copy.
Ibid. f. 302.17. John Francis Canobio to Pope Paul IV.
“By letters from England of the 11th of this month we learn that the tidings of the peace have caused the wretched heresiarchs grievous dismay and dejection and the good people no common cheerfulness; for it has induced the Queen to bid the Lower House give over discussing the article of the [Royal] Supremacy, to the sorrow of all of them, for they fear that she is minded to refuse it; besides which, proclamations are issued prohibiting under the most heavy penalties comedies and other diversions by which in taverns on feast days the corrupt populace used to make mock and scorn of the Catholic and true religion.
“Father Confessor Reggio showed me yesterday a letter of the Count of Feria, who writes that he does not despair of the Queen and by consequence of the rest recovering their senses as the result of this peace quae multos deterruit. I understand that the Count is very fervent in his zeal to give full effect to the judicious and pious instructions of his Prince, who, as the Most Catholic King, has the salvation of that realm incredibly at heart. Nor does the said Father, absent though he is from the country, relax his endeavours by letters, nor are they by any means without effect, for which cause he richly deserves that your Holiness hourly bestow upon him abundance of benedictions.
“It is hoped that the Queen will not long continue to temporize so much in regard to her marriage, and many think that she will not be so very uncompliant with the wishes of the King, who greatly fears lest your Holiness should make some pronouncement (fn. 10) (and this I have learned from an excellent quarter) against the said Queen to the advantage of the King of France.
24 April, 1559. Brussels. Italian.
Ibid. f. 310.18. The Same to the Same.
… “Father Confessor Reggio, who kisses your Holiness' most holy feet, told me this morning that the Queen of England is much perplexed how to decide in matters of religion, being swayed now this way, now that, by her pernicious learning on the one hand and her fear of losing the State on the other, and that the Count of Feria, having plainly set before her on the part of the King the perils which surround her, is doing all that he can to restrain her, and to such effect that, though she is pressed by her heresiarchs to accept the Augsburg confession and enjoin its observance, she has not yet ventured to declare her will. The Count is appointed to stay there until the dissolution of Parliament, which, it is hoped, will be soon.”
10 May, 1559. Brussels. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. xlii.
vol. 12. f. 183.
no. 157.
19. Pope Paul IV to Laurence [Lenzi], Bishop of Fermo, Nuncio in France.
Letter of recall.
15 May, 1559. Rome. Latin.
Ibid. f. 184.
no. 158.
20. The Same to Antony [Trivulzio], Cardinal[Bishop of Toulon], Legate in France.
Letter of recall.
15 May, 1559. Rome. Latin.
Vat. Arch.
Lett. di
Princ. eTitolat.
vol. xi. f. 312.
21. John Francis Canobio to Pope Paul IV.
Post beatorum pedum oscula… On the 15th the King [of Spain] made oath to observe the articles of the Peace, the oath being received by the Cardinal of Lorraine and Marshal St. André on the part of the King of France.
The Cardinal, who is now gone for Antwerp for two or three days, after which he will pass this way on his return to France, told me yesterday that he should depart well satisfied with the Bang of Spain, by whom he had been much honoured, and that everything was excellently arranged as well touching the restitutions as the marriages and the hostages, among whom at the express instance of the King of France is included the Count of Feria, who is to return in a hurry, the King of Spain being bound to do the King of France's bidding in this matter.
But since the Most Christian King has craved in a manner at once adroit and dignified, and with much insistence, a brief conference with the Catholic King before his return to Spain, representing to him the convenience of travel through France, and inviting him to take that way, and the Catholic King has, by what we learn, excused himself, alleging the convenience of the western route and the importance of speed, it is surmised that the satisfaction of the French ministers is not entirely perfect, as we have it on good authority that the Most Christian King founded upon this meeting much hope and certain designs, perchance to the disadvantage of the English, who, as we gather, are laying in great store of arms of all sorts; nor is aught else heard from that quarter.…
Two days ago there came hither an ambassador from his Majesty Ferdinand, (fn. 11) which ambassador is to start for England to-morrow or the day after. We have no particulars, but it is conjectured that his errand is the proposed match between his Majesty's son Ferdinand and the Queen [of England], which negotiation has been tried before, as your Holiness knows.
17 May, 1559. Brussels. Italian.
Vat. Lib.
Urb. Lat.
1039.
ff. 38, 41d.
22. News Letter.
“To-day, being Trinity Sunday, 21 May, 1559, there was holden in the Placa Mayor of this town of Valladolid the auto of the Holy and General Inquisition on the platforms and scaffolds set up for the purpose in front of the houses of the Consistory.
“The twentieth of the heretics was Antony Rason, an Englishman born in the neighbourhood of Calais, who was found guilty of being a Lutheran, but as he craved mercy, he was sentenced only to forfeiture of his goods, to wear the habit [sanbenito] on the way to the prison, to be confined there for a year, and to implore clemency and confess and communicate on pain of being treated as a relapsed impenitent with disabilities upon his descendants to the second generation.”
21 May, 1559. Valladolid. Spanish. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Lett. di
Princ. eTitolat.
vol. xi. f. 320.
23. John Fancis Canobio to Pope Paul IV.
… “Last night the Count of Feria arrived here from England, where he leaves the Bishop of Aquila in his sovereign's name. It is said that many Catholics, as well churchmen as laymen and people of consequence, will quit that country.
“The hostages will leave this place in three or four days, and it is said that when his daughter's nuptials (fn. 12) are solemnized, that is to say, the 15th of next month, as I wrote you before, the King of France will account the King of Spain's faith sufficient security for the restitution, and the said hostages will be liberated.
“The Constable's son departed to-day, and so far as we can discover, without negotiating aught that concerns us, as was supposed. His Majesty will not leave for Ghent before the end of next month, and it seems that his journey to Spain is beginning to be deemed questionable by reason of the confusions in England: but will counts for much and need for more.”
29 May, 1559. Brussels. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Cast.
St. Angel.
Arm. xiv.
caps. iii. no. 9.
24. Henry II, King of France to the Same.
Foreseeing long ago the incredible misfortune which has since befallen the realm of Scotland to our great grief, mortification and displeasure, We, with intent to obviate it, wrote on many and diverse occasions, making instant request to your Holiness, that you would be pleased to appoint some good, virtuous and notable personage from among the prelates of the said realm, to be chosen by our most dear and beloved sister and cousin, the Queen Dowager of Scotland, to introduce and establish a good, holy and devout reformation in the Church, to correct, restrain and moderate the corrupt manners and depraved and dissolute life of the prelates and ministers of the Church, who were then beginning to be seriously infected with these disorders, while the nobles and the third estate were manifesting a seditious and insolent and irreligious spirit. Wherefore it was resolved to petition your Holiness, as We do now, to allow such a sum of money to be levied upon the said prelates and beneficed clergy as the Queen Dowager of Scotland with the concurrence of your delegate should deem necessary for the establishment of a Court of Criminal Jurisdiction and the maintenance of its judges and ministers chosen from the most notable persons to be found in the realm for the correction of such people abandoned by God and possessed of the Devil.
Nevertheless We have not been able to induce your Holiness to make any such provision; whereby things have gone from bad to worse. The clergy keep concubines, whom they treat as wives, following the example of the more part of the new sects, in which they are countenanced by almost all the greatest lords and gentlemen of the land, who support certain apostate preachers of the Genevan discipline, to induce the people to follow their damnable errors and heresies, whereby the greater part of the people is all corrupted and ruined. They have also taken up arms and gathered great companies with artillery to compel every one to follow their sect. They wreck the churches and monasteries, they profane things sacred, they publicly burn the images of the saints and their relics and bones; they have exhumed the bodies of the Kings of Scotland, and burned them also to ashes. They have stripped monks and nuns of their habits to make lay folk of them. They make it their boast to oppose the Queen and all others that stand in their way: insomuch that savage barbarians could not do worse.
Wherefore We are resolved to send presently to Scotland a sufficient force of French soldiers, as well horse as foot, to be soon followed, We hope, by another host, if need be, though We are but just at the close of a long war; hoping that with this succour our son and daughter the King and Queen Dauphiness, and the Queen Dowager, their mother, will get the better of the heretics and schismatics, and will be enabled to chastise their great temerity and arrogance.
But when our part is done, it is not all, for the first point is the intervention of your Holiness' authority by the prompt despatch of your commission or Rescript Apostolic to our trusty councillor and Master of Requests in ordinary, Master Nicholas de Pelevé, Bishop of Amiens, (fn. 13) of whom you had some knowledge at the beginning of your pontificate, and who has all the qualities needed for the execution of such a commission, which should invest him with authority, and enjoin him by special mandate, to examine into the life and morals of all prelates and ecclesiastics throughout Scotland, and to proceed against delinquents by censures, interdicts, deprivations and all other reasonable and canonical methods, and to commit the administration of their benefices to certain persons of sincere life, laudable example and good conversation, to be chosen by the said Bishop of Amiens in concert with the Queen Dowager. And as to the expense of establishing and maintaining the said Criminal Court, and of enlisting and keeping on foot the army, your Holiness will give, if it please you, authority to the Bishop of Amiens by your Rescript to raise as much money as in concert with the Queen and her Council he shall deem necessary, to the half of the revenues of the archbishoprics, bishoprics, abbacies, priories and other benefices, to be applied by those that have charge of the administration thereof to the purposes aforesaid. To which end the Bishop should have the assistance of the secular arm as wielded as well by those that command our forces as by the Queen Dowager. But above all, it is necessary to act with all possible promptitude, for not only does the peril grow daily with the great increase of the heretics, but a Parliament is appointed to meet on 20 August next, in which matters of religion are to be discussed, and between now and then the Bishop of Amiens ought to be furnished with your Rescript. The rest We leave to our ambassador, the Bishop of Angoulême, to whom We implore you to give credence as to Ourself. (fn. 14)
29 June, 1559. Paris. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Cast.
St. Angel.
Arm. xiv.
caps. iii. no. 8.
25. Francis and Mary, King and Queen Dauphiness of Scotland to the Same.
“The King, our most dear lord and father, writes you very fully and in much detail touching the distressful and scandalous machinations and attempts of certain seditious heretics, enemies and disturbers of the public weal and tranquillity of our realm of Scotland, whose great numbers daily increase by the accession of the principal prelates and other churchmen, as well as the greater lords temporal and gentlemen and most of the people of the realm, seduced by the preachments and artifices of some malignant spirits who preach the pernicious and damnable doctrine of Geneva, which occasions Us the last extremity of grief, chagrin and displeasure. Wherefore We solicit and supplicate you with all possible earnestness that you be pleased to have respect and regard to the appeals of our lord and father, and to despatch the commission and Rescript Apostolic to our dearly beloved Bishop of Amiens, M. Nicholas de Pelevé, Master of Requests in ordinary to our said lord and father, that he may with all speed betake himself to our said realm, there to introduce and establish the holy and devout reformation of the Church, to correct and refrain the morals and corrupt and depraved way of life of the prelates and ministers, take in hand the extirpation of heresy and the chastisement of the heretics, sectaries and their leaders in the way of false and condemned doctrines, constrain the said prelates and beneficed clergy to contribute of the revenues of their benefices to the maintenance of the soldiers whom it has been decided to raise and send thither in force to oppose the impious designs of the said heretics, and make war upon them, and restrain their temerity and audacity by so wholesome a lesson as may serve for an example to all the rest, thus giving full effect to the policy set forth in the letters of our lord and father, and all with authority granted to them by your Holiness according to our lord and father's petition. And besides that it will be worthy of your Holiness so to act, We shall deem it a singular grace, favour and boon on your part.”
4 July, 1559. Paris. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Lett. di
Princ. eTitolat.
vol. xi. f. 501.
26. Laurence [Lenzi], Bishop of Fermo to [Alfonso Carafa,] Cardinal[Archbishop] of Naples.
“The day before yesterday began the obsequies of King Henry, of happy memory, whose corpse was then borne to the Cathedral. Yesterday it was taken to S. Denis, where this morning, after the Cardinal of Lorraine had sung Mass, it was interred with all the wonted solemnities.
“Yesterday morning we learned with the utmost delight that the Queen Regent of Scotland had possessed herself not only of the port of Leith, whereby the French can no longer be prevented from making a descent upon that island, but also of Edinburgh Castle, in which many Lutherans were slain. All this was done by the Queen in concert with the Earl of Arran, (fn. 15) who is as staunch a Catholic as his son, who some days ago fled from this realm on hearing that his Most Christian Majesty was bent on imprisoning him, is a Lutheran. (fn. 16)
“All fear of a misadventure is now wellnigh removed, as it is known that the Queen had so much the advantage that the more part of those miscreants have surrendered at discretion, and others have craved leave to begone elsewhere, so that the safety of that kingdom is assured. His Majesty is sending thither M. de la Broche [Brosse] with some soldiers. God grant they may arrive safely, so that the Queen with these forces may be able to prosecute so holy an enterprise.”
13 August, 1559. Paris. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. lxiv.
vol. 28. f. 299.
27. Scheme for supplying the Pope with regular Intelligence as to English Affairs.
“Considering the present condition of the kingdom of England, lately relapsed into schism and heresy at the mere behest of the Queen and to the disgust of many of the chief lords and of the majority of the people, who are on the side of the Catholic religion and the unity of the Church; considering also that the Queen, notwithstanding her perversity in religion, has not as yet shown any disposition to deal rigorously with the persons of those lay lords and churchmen who have refused to take the oath of obedience or deny the Catholic religion, but has merely deprived them of their offices and benefices, still suffering them to abide in the realm, and in some cases to live abroad in the enjoyment of their revenues: there is therefore reason to hope that in the course of time, and the chapter of accidents, the Queen will be compelled, or perchance inspired by God, to restore the obedience of the realm to the Apostolic See, and to return to the Catholic religion.
“All this his Holiness is accordingly prayed to consider, piously and prudently cherishing, as far as may be, this hope, and not suffering Princes to induce him to make war upon the Queen, as he may well be solicited and besought to do; and if he shall see fit to let it be understood by some intermediary that, if the Queen shall be minded to return to the Church, she will be more gladly, nay, lovingly received than vi et armis, this pious and paternal office may be accomplished by means of an English gentleman ‘Inghilfeildt’ [Englefield] by name, one of the most trusted and beloved counsellors of the late Queen, who has quitted the realm in order that he may live as a Catholic, and is granted the enjoyment of his revenues, provided he do not reside at Rome. His present quarters are at Padua, (fn. 17) and at his invitation they are to be shared by another English gentleman, one Nevel, who might be commissioned to impart the Pope's good intention to the said ‘Inghilfeildt,’ for his encouragement to persevere in the true religion, and that he may keep up the spirits of the Catholics that are still in the kingdom. And likewise he might be authorized to tell ‘Inghilfeildt,’ that, if he should be minded to apprise his Holiness, by writing or messenger, of the course of affairs, there is a person at this Court with whom he may communicate without risk of being discovered and incurring the displeasure of the Queen.
“Nevel, who is just about to join ‘Inghilfeildt’ is a worthy gentleman and a kinsman in some degree of Cardinal Pole.
“He would wish to set out in two days' time; and his Holiness is therefore prayed to give him his instructions.
“There are likewise in exile certain Catholic prelates and priests, who have been deprived of their churches and benefices for refusing to follow the new religion, and if his Holiness so please, he may order the revenues of the English Hospital here in Rome to be set apart and administered for these prelates and priests, and not for laymen, in order to provide subsistence for those young Englishmen who desire to learn Christian doctrine and ritual, that in due time, please God, they may serve churches in England.
“Dr. Karn [Carne], an Englishman, who is here and was the late Queen's ambassador, will be bound in duty to return to his country, where he has left a wife and children, and some considerable revenues. It seems that he has been forbidden to quit Rome, which will be enough so to irritate the Queen against him that she may deprive him and his wife and children of his revenues. His Holiness will therefore do him a service by suffering him to go whither he please, provided he do not return to England, in which case the Queen will readily allow him to retain his revenues, so long as he live elsewhere than at Rome, a concession that she has made to many others.
“All this is said by way of suggestion, and in submission to his Holiness' better judgment.”
[Rome, 1559.] Italian. (fn. 18)
Vat. Lib.
Barb. Lat.
2125 (xxxi.
10). f. 6.
28. Pope Pius IV to Mary, Queen of the French.
Announcing that he is sending Julian de' Medici to convey his salutations to her husband the Most Christian King and herself, and to acquaint her with his fatherly intentions, which he would most gladly, and upon occasion will, confirm by deeds rather tha by words.
3 Dec., 15[59–]60. Rome. Latin. Copy.

Footnotes

1 28 Dec., 1558. Strype, Annals (8o), I. i. p. 59.
2 François de Vendôme.
3 Sebastian de l'Aubespine, Bishop of Limoges.
4 Cf. Cal. State Papers, Foreign, 1558–9, p. 116.
5 St. André had been liberated, Dec. 1558, by King Philip pending the negotiation. Vat. Arch. Borgh. I. vol. 633. f. 270d.
6 Intelligencers in most of the capital cities of Europe kept great houses well informed of current events. Hence the abundance of despatches of this sort in the Urbino MSS.
7 Described as familiaris noster in a letter (dated 23 March, 1561,) of Pope Pius IV to Mary, Queen [of Bohemia ?], announcing that he is the bearer of a golden rose which is to be presented to her. Vat. Arch. Arm. xliv. vol. 26. f. 211, no. 111. For this letter, which is inconsistently dated 23 March, 1561 ‘in the first year of our pontificate,’ and has been supposed to be addressed to Mary Queen of Scots, see Appendix.
8 Cf. Cal. State Papers, Foreign, 1558–59, p. 170, and Cal. State Papers, Venetian, 1558–80, pp. 47–50.
9 I.e. the Royal Supremacy.
10 I.e. of bastardy. Cf. Cal. State Papers, Spanish, 1558–67, pp. 60–63. The italicized words were added in cipher.
11 I.e. the Emperor, whom the Pope refused to recognize as such.
12 Elizabeth, daughter of France, was married to Philip II pursuant to the Treaty of Cateau Cambrésis on 22 June, 1559.
13 Cf. Cal. State Papers, Scotland, 1547–63, pp. 263, 296, 344, 394.
14 Printed in Papal Negotiations with Mary Queen of Scots, ed. J. H. Pollen, S.J. (Scott. Hist. Soc., 1901), pp. 13–17.
15 James Hamilton, Duke of Châtelherault.
16 Cf. Cal. State Papers, Scotland, 1547–63, pp. 231–37.
17 Sir Francis Englefield spent the winters of 1559–60, and 1560–1 at Padua. See Cal. State Papers, Foreign, 1560–1, pp. 307, 530, and 1561–2, pp. 3, 27. As to his prior and subsequent movements see Cal. State Papers, Foreign, 1558–9, p. 587; 1561–2, pp. 106, 293, 363; 1562, p. 65, and Cal. State Papers, Spanish, 1558–67, p. 162. The Nevel mentioned in the text is apparently George, brother of Sir Henry Nevell, referred to in Cal. State Papers, Foreign, 1562, p. 203.
18 Printed by Meyer, England und die Katolische Kirche (1911), vol. i. pp. 403–5.


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