2527. f. 233d.
|66. Extract from Commentaries of Michael Soriano, Venetian Ambassador at the Court of France.|
Considerations on the possibility of Foreign Intervention under pretext of Supporting or Suppressing the Huguenots.
“In the first place, as to those that are most interested. These are the King of Spain, in respect of propinquity, and the Pope, the Emperor, the Queen of England, and the Duke of Savoy, by reason of divers pretensions. The Pope's interest arises from the prejudicial effect of the new sects upon his authority and his conventions with France. The several interests of the Emperor, the Queen of England and the Duke of Savoy are connected with Metz, Calais, and the fortresses of Piedmont respectively.
“The dominions of the King of Spain, a most potent prince and arbiter of the world, march with France on so many sides that they may be said to surround that country; and were his father's spirit his, or had his father had the present opportunity, France would be France no more; for he excites in equal measure the suspicion of the ruler and the affection of all that detest the present régime, chief among whom are the prelates and the rest of the Catholics, who know not in whom, if not in the King of Spain, to place their hopes of safety; so that, if the King should make war, he would find so much support in the country that perchance he would encounter no resistance to balance it.
“It is also supposed that M. de Guise and all his friends and dependants would take the King of Spain's side, a matter of no small consequence, seeing that the Duke is not only a man of great authority and valour, but is followed by great part of the best people in the country. The signal favours for some time past shown him by the King of Spain have rendered him suspect at Court; and all his movements are watched, though none has the boldness to oppose him openly. He is also perhaps the more suspect because, when of late it was rumoured that the King of Spain was about to invade the country from many sides, there was also a report that the Duke had aimed at being made commander-in-chief of the Catholics against the Huguenots; and one of his officers, being asked by the Queen if this were true, replied that he had indeed been offered the post, but had not seen fit to accept it.
“Thus the King of Spain is much dreaded both by reason of his own might and because it is believed that he has a party within the kingdom.
“Accordingly during the last months there has been some thought of making a deposit of moneys, that they might be available whenever they were wanted; but it was perceived that this plan might produce a result the opposite of what was wanted by affording some adherent of the government an opportunity of laying hands upon the moneys, and using them in support of those against whom they were meant to be employed, and so the idea was given up, because no one knew how to ensure the safety of the deposit.
“Hence, though distrust of the King of Spain is engendered by his permitting people to persist in a heresy which he so much abhors, and from which he has so often sought to reclaim them, first by persuasion and then by menace, yet nothing of consequence has, so far, been done by way of preparing against emergencies.
“I am informed that the heretics have undertaken, if the King of Spain should move, to raise all Flanders in revolt in a single day, and that they are easily able to do so, because the country is full of people of their sect.
“So much in regard to the King of Spain.
“As for the Pope's forces, no account is made of them in France, because the weakness of the Church was proved in the late war, and the Papacy has lost all the prestige that it had with the French nation, which in former times thought that by means of a French Pope it might make itself master of all Italy.
“The Papal authority is also greatly lowered: this on account of the new sects, which, though of many sorts and all opposed one to another, yet all concur in the endeavour to abase it.
“Besides which, his Holiness is not a Prince by blood, and therefore has not authority by nature, and many of the Catholics account the House of Medici fatal to Christendom because in the time of Pope Leo [X] Germany was lost, in the time of Clement [VII] England was lost, and in the time of this Pius [IV] France is in manifest jeopardy; since, much as the authority of his Holiness is to be cherished, nevertheless to satisfy the heretics, they have not scrupled to discuss in the Estates the suspension of the preventions and annates and the annulment of the Pragmatic accorded now many years ago.”
[1561.] Italian. Copy.
|67. [Ptolemy Galli,] Bishop of Martirano to [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce [Bishop of Chissamos, Nuncio in Portugal].|
“The names of the legates appointed [to the Council] will be made known in the consistory following Ash Wednesday; and it will be found that choice has been made of most suitable persons, and in sufficient number. His Holiness will direct one or two of them to be at Trent on Palm Sunday; and already Mgr. della Cava (fn. 1) and Gambero, his Holiness' Master of the Horse, have set forth, the one as Commissary General, the other as avant courier, of the Council; whereby you may see how nearly it concerns you to speed the [Portuguese] prelates upon this holy duty.
“His Holiness has also resolved to send an envoy to England to invite the Queen to the Council; and the choice will fall upon Abbot Martinengo.”
28 Jan., 1561. Rome. Italian. Copy.
|Ibid. ff. 127–128d.||68. [Charles Borromeo,] Cardinal[Archbishop of Milan] to [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, Bishop [of Chissamos], Nuncio in Portugal.|
“You are to know that in consistory to-day the Pope has declared two legates to the Council, to wit, Mgr. Cardinal of Mantua and Mgr. Cardinal du Puy; and has already by express courier sent the Cardinal of Mantua his commission to start forthwith for Trent, that the world may have evidence of his Holiness' intention. Cardinal du Puy will also start as soon as he is recovered from a slight sickness. His Holiness will by and by make other three legates to the Council, who are to be theologians and canonists; but the two aforesaid will go forward presently. The two nuncios, Delfino and Commendone are at the Diet of Naumburg, [Saxony,] and we ought soon to have tidings of their negotiations with the Protestant princes. Abbot Martinengo will shortly leave for England; and his Holiness will also send someone to invite the Duke of Moscovy.”
14 Feb., 1561. Rome. Italian. Copy.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|69. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Charles Borromeo,] Cardinal[Archbishop of Milan].|
“I understand that the King of Sweden, albeit he has no definite promise of marriage from the Queen of England, is preparing to visit that country; and he is so desirous of winning the Queen's favour that solely for that cause and to facilitate the marriage he has made profession of Calvinism, recking nought of the resentment of the nobles and people of Sweden, insomuch that there are those who think that his departure may be followed by disturbances within the realm.
“As to the King of Denmark, it is understood that he will not return to Holstein as soon as was expected; and some of the councillors of the Elector of Saxony have asked me whether I mean to go direct to Denmark, which shows that they know that I have letters for the said King; nay, they have told me that one of the King's councillors took leave of the Elector of Saxony on the 15th, and went to apprise the King of my mission. To this I made no answer, neither affirming nor denying the mission, being minded to await as I do the expression of his Holiness' will.”
Decipher: “I also understand that before our arrival at Naumburg the Queen of England's ambassadors had an audience of the princes, at which audience the Landgrave [of Hesse], who had vainly endeavoured to induce the Queen to wed one of his sons, asked the said ambassadors when their Queen's accouchement would take place, whereat they were much offended, and departed very wroth; and by consequence the Calvinist party is not so strong as some of the princes had hoped to see it by the added weight of the Queen's authority; and they were vexed that the Landgrave, being of the same sect, should have disregarded this.”
17 Feb., 1561. Zeitz. Italian. Copy.
vol. 28. f. 287.
|70. Abbot Martinengo to [John,] Cardinal Moroni.|
Craving his directions as to his journey to England, where he is to lodge on his arrival there, how he is to proceed in the discharge of his mission, and what he is to do in the event of the Queen's death or some convulsion of the realm. The Cardinal's briefly minuted answers are to the following effect: Martinengo is to wear his ordinary habit, to travel by easy stages, to tarry in Flanders for a safe-conduct, and to communicate his commission to the Governess: on his arrival in England he is not to reside with the Spanish ambassador, but in a private lodging; in the Queen's presence he is to betray no offence though she should speak disrespectfully of the Pope, or evince reluctance to accept the Council because it is summoned by him; and if she should seem disposed to temporize, he is to write to Rome. If she should refuse him an answer, promising to write herself to the Pope, he is to be content that she do so. All other questions are left unanswered.
[March, ] 1561. Rome. (fn. 2)
|71. Charles Borromeo, Cardinal[Archbishop of Milan] to [John Francis]Commendone, Nuncio [in Lower Germany].|
Intimates the Pope's approval of the manner in which Commendone and Delfino have conducted the negotiations with the princes, and conveys his instructions to Commondone to continue his journey and be diligent in carrying the rest of his commission into effect.
“As to Denmark, his Holiness is of opinion that you must on no account fail to go thither; for though it is a long journey, and it is doubtful whether more will come of it than was accomplished at Naumburg, it is nevertheless expedient to intimate the bull, and to invite the King, that the Pope may do his office on all sides, and those that refuse to come may be convicted of contumacy. The like office will be discharged towards the Duke of Moscovy by express messenger, and towards the Queen of England, to whom it is already decided to send Abbot Martinengo, who will start to-morrow.
“For the rest, you must know that the Pope has created two legates of the Council, to wit, the Most Reverends du Puy and Mantua, and is instant with them and the bishops that they make all haste to Trent. He will also create two or three other legates out of the eighteen cardinals just promoted, of whom I send you herewith a list with a comment indicating the characteristics of each for your instruction in case of need; but if you should have occasion to furnish a copy, it will suffice to give the mere list of names.
“As to the number eighteen, I may tell you that no one need be surprised at it, considering that since Paul IV's last creation the Church has lost twenty-four cardinals; besides which, four are now in Castello, whereby the Church of God is deprived of their services, so that there was great need to fill the College, and more especially with men of the right sort for these most difficult times.”
4 March, 1561. Rome. Italian.
Postscript.—“As to the promotion of the cardinals, I may tell you that it commanded the fullest consent of all the College, and passed nemine discrepante. As to the results of the three negotiations, the Pope directs you to report them also to his Eminence of Mantua, legate of the Council, and the Cardinal of Ermland; to the one for the behoof of the Council, and to the other for his better instruction in his negotiation with the Emperor. You will therefore not fail to do so.
Kept back until the 7th.”
Further postscript.—“On Monday, the 3rd inst. the Pope caused the case of the Carafi to be reported to the Secret Consistory by the Governor of Rome. The process lasted from 16 o'clock to one o'clock at night, (fn. 3) and then his Holiness pronounced judgment prout in cedula. Yesterday his Holiness subscribed the sentence, which was to the effect that they should be delivered over to the Secular Court; and so last night they were executed, to wit, [Charles] Cardinal Carafa, the Duke of Paliano, the Count of Alife, and Don Leonardo di Cardine. (fn. 4) If the Pope could in this case have shown his wonted benignity and clemency, he would gladly have done so, but the magnitude of the offences has compelled him to act in a manner contrary to his nature.”
Arm. ii. vol. 14.
|72. Brief for Scotland.|
Admonishing the recipient [the Archbishop of St. Andrews] to do his utmost to secure the attendance of the bishops at the forthcoming Council at Trent. Note of sees to which no writs are sent subjoined, to wit: the sees of Brechin, Moray, Ross, Whithorn-Galloway, Caithness, Sodor, Lismore, otherwise the Isles, and the Orkneys.
6 March, 1561. Rome. Latin. Copy. (fn. 5)
2125 (xxxi. 10).
|73. Pope Pius IV to Mary, Queen of Scotland.|
Announcing that an Œcumenical Council is appointed to be opened at Trent on the day of the Resurrection, as will also appear by a copy of the letter of indiction brought by the nuncio Laurence, Bishop of Fermo; and exhorting her to cause the prelates of her kingdom to assemble at the Council, and also to send ambassadors thither.
6 March, 1561. Rome. Latin. Copy. (fn. 6)
ff. 137d- 138.
|74. [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan] to [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, Bishop [of Chissamos], Nuncio in Portugal.|
“The nuncios Delfino and Commendone have been at the Diet of Naumburg, but have done nothing to speak of, unless perchance it was owing to them that the Diet was dissolved of a sudden and without having come to any decision. The nuncios have since parted company, according to their orders, i.e. Delfino for Upper Germany, and Commendone for the Northern. and Low Countries, whence he will proceed to Denmark, the Pope, not to leave aught that pertains to his pious office unattempted, having bidden him on no account to omit to go thither. And though it is apprehended that he will achieve no such good result as could be desired with that King, seeing that he has failed with the princes of Germany at Naumburg, his Holiness would at least have the consolation of having satisfied his conscience and the claim of duty, besides that there will be juster reason to censure the contumacy of those who do not attend. In discharge of the same fatherly office, the Pope has resolved to send an invitation by express messenger to the Duke of Moscovy, as for the like purpose he is sending to the Queen of England Abbot Martinengo, who is now ready to depart.”
7 March, 1561. Rome. Italian. Copy.
vol. 117. f. 383.
|75. Instruction to Canon Ortunno: of which a Copy was sent to [John Campeggi,] Bishop of Bologna, Nuncio [in Spain].|
“His Excellency may also be informed that the Pope, not to neglect aught that pertains to his office in the matter of the Council, has resolved to send Abbot Martinengo, his domestic prelate, to England, to invite the Queen, and to present to her the bull of the Council: but he also gives the abbot a commission to communicate all matters to Madam of Austria in Flanders and Mgr. d'Arras, and also to his Catholic Majesty's ambassador in England, that he may take counsel with them.”
8 March, 1561. [Rome.] Italian. Copy.
vol. 28. f. 102.
|76. [Charles Borromeo,] Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan] to Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Parma.|
Abbot Martinengo leaves Rome by the Pope's orders, and in passing through Flanders is to greet the Duchess and to crave her good offices, which she is entreated to accord him, especially in regard to his safe conduct to and from England, so that he may successfully accomplish his mission.
9 March, 1561. Rome. Italian. Draft.
vol. x. f. 167d.
|77. [The Same] to [Zacharias] Delfino, Bishop [of Lesina (fn. 7) ], Nuncio to the Emperor.|
Acknowledging receipt of a letter from Delfino dated at Seiz [Zeitz] on 12 Feb., and apprising him that he is now appointed nuncio in ordinary at the Imperial Court. Pending the residence there of the Cardinal of Ermland, he is to act in concert with, and take his instructions from, the Cardinal; afterwards he is to use his own discretion.
“As to the affair of the Scotsman Alexander Aless, (fn. 8) his Holiness is willing that you should do all that may rightly be done to win him over. Fail not therefore to use all means that may seem meet, and spare no expense that may serve the end. The same instruction applies to all others that with good intent, not in guile and for interested motives, may crave assistance. And be assured that these gains will ever be most gratifying to his Holiness, and that whatever disbursements you shall make for this purpose in God's service and consistently with his Holiness' dignity shall be repaid you. Nay, in regard to such current expenses, the Pope has authorized the Cardinal of Mantua to disburse as much as he may think proper; and so you may have recourse to him whenever you have occasion in such cases; nor will he fail to furnish the needful. I am writing to him about it in his Holiness' name.
“To certify your friend Mordaisen of the submission made to the Pope by the King and Queen of Navarre in public consistory, I send you herewith the speech then made and shortly afterwards printed, which, for further confirmation, I have caused to be authenticated.
“As to the progress of the Council, so good a beginning has now been made on our side that nothing more is to be desired. Five Cardinal legates are appointed, to wit, du Puy, Mantua, Seripando, Ermland and Simoneta, all five for goodness, learning, experience, and authority such that I think they will satisfy everybody. Last Monday they received the cross in consistory. Mantua should already be on the road or about to set forth; and Trent being so near, he will be there in a few hours' time. Seripando starts the day after to-morrow without fail. Simoneta will follow him after Easter, if need be. Du Puy will also go as soon as he is restored to health. And Ermland, as you will learn from his own mouth, has orders to repair thither as soon as he is apprised of the Emperor's intention to send his ambassadors and prelates. For the rest, besides the Commissary General and the avant courier, who have now been many days at Trent, and have made their arrangements for the convenient and hospitable entertainment of the Council in the city, the Secretary Mgr. Massarello, the Master of the Ceremonies, and the Master of the Chapel, with the singers, and the officials and pensionaries of his Holiness ought likewise by this time to have arrived there. Moreover, many bishops of the kingdom of Naples, of Lombardy, and of other parts of Italy have received orders by express briefs to betake them thither; many have offered to go; and many are already on the way. Here in Rome on Monday last his Holiness in consistory addressed to them a loving and urgent exhortation to get ready and set forth. Martinengo left for England on the 10th inst. All which will serve to shew you that on our side great way is being made.
“As for Mgr. Commendone, I neither know where to address him, nor have I aught to say to him but what I have said to you; and this you will be able to report to him, that he may see more clearly and tread more surely in negotiation.”
22 March, 1561. Rome. Italian. Copy. (fn. 9)
vol. 28. f. 78.
|78. Philip II, King of Spain to [John,] Cardinal Moroni.|
“The bearer of this, Richard Shelley, is an English gentleman, of a very great family, my Taster, and Turcopolier (fn. 10) of the Order of St. John, and of such good parts and proclivities that it is meet that we all unite in assisting him to give effect to them, append seeing that, for that steadfast adhesion to our true faith and religion which those of his house have ever shown, not only has he gladly suffered banishment from his native land and loss of the estates that he had and the rank that he might have had there, but now he is going to adventure his person in the service of God and his religion; and as in regard to certain matters, which he will more particularly describe to you than I do, he has suit to make to his Holiness, I very affectionately entreat you to forward and favour him therein in such sort that he may have speedy success, and all possible consideration and compliance on the part of his Holiness. Should you show yourself to this end as good an advocate as you may and I trust you will, I shall be exceedingly gratified. And so, most reverend Cardinal and our very dear friend, may our Lord be constant in your protection.”
24 April, 1561. Toledo. Spanish. Signed, Yo El Rey. Countersigned, Go. Perez.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|79. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany,] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“The negotiation for the marriage of the King of Sweden with the Queen of England is broken off altogether, and the minister of the said King that was in England for that purpose has made public proclamation that whoso has aught to claim of the King or other Swedes must get payment within a certain time, as he is about to take his departure. The reasons alleged are many. As to the King (which is what concerns me), it seems that he gave up his announced intention of going to England for several reasons, and especially because, seeing the King of Denmark (fn. 11) gathering together his captains and soldiers, he is alarmed lest he design to recover and reunite to the crown of Denmark Sweden and Finland and other countries acquired not long since by the late King (fn. 12) of Sweden at the expense of the Crown of Denmark. So I see that the mere foreboding, not to say the actual outbreak of war, may entirely prevent me from getting the passport through Sweden.” (fn. 13)
10 May, 1561. Antwerp. Italian. Copy.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|80. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“Levies are being made in the confines of Bremen for the Dukes of Holstein, uncles of the King of Denmark. The common report is that they are meant for Livonia against the Muscovite. Others believe that they are for the attack upon Sweden, and this is deemed the more likely because, before the King of Sweden's exclusion from England by the Queen, there was a negotiation on foot for a marriage between the King of Sweden and the sister of the King of Denmark, and the King of Denmark preferred to give her to the Duke of Lüneburg. (fn. 14)
18 May, 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy.
5798 (lxii. 58).
vol. 150. f. 38.
|81. The Same to [Hercules Gonzaga,] Cardinal of Mantua.|
… “As to the resolution of the Queen of England not to admit the nuncio Mgr. Martinengo, you will be more fully advised by other letters. After such a precedent I am more than ever inclined to suspect that the King of Denmark will likewise refuse to admit me. The Queen, I understand, alleges three principal grounds for Martinengo's exclusion: 1, that unlike other princes, she was not consulted as to the summoning of the Council; 2, that the Council is not free, pious and Christian, and that, had it been so, she would have sent to it men learned and pious in the name of the Anglican Church; 3, that the Pope likewise seeks to stir up the Catholics in her kingdom and raise sedition, and in that regard she complains that an Irishman (fn. 15) was sent from Rome to Ireland for such a purpose. She adds that it is no new thing for the agents of the Pope to be refused admission to the kingdom, and that her sister Queen Mary so treated the agent of Pope Paul IV, who brought the hat for Father Peto.
“She desired to give a written memorial of this resolution to the ambassador resident of the Catholic King, through whom the safe-conduct was negotiated, but he declined to receive it. Moreover, to make the affair yet more unfortunate, it fell out that, at the very time that the matter was being discussed, a poor priest was arrested in the neighbourhood of London for carrying a breviary, and for fear of torture informed against a great number of Catholics, which discovery has greatly incensed the Queen.”
20 May, 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|82. The Same to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal Archbishop of Milan].|
“in London on the vigil of Corpus Christi a thunderbolt ignited the tower and roof of St. Paul's; and the English here, instead of recognising the warning voice of the Almighty, say that He is destroying the temples of effete idolatry, as likewise the theologians of Saxony interpret the fiery sign that was seen in the heavens throughout all those provinces on Innocents' Day as threatening God's vengeance upon them for not keeping the purity of the Gospel, and say that, if they mend not their ways, the Pope and the Turk and the Moscovite will be the ministers of His vengeance upon them; and this they have also written and printed with a depiction of the said fiery sign. And this I write that you may know the perversity of these men, who are not content to refer such signs to natural causes and leave God out of the question, but misuse them in the same manner as they do the Scriptures against the Author of the signs and the Scriptures, if by any means they may confirm the unhappy people in their heresies.”
Postscript.—“We have now news from London that the Queen has sent the Earl of Sussex to Ireland as Viceroy with soldiers and artillery, to coerce those gentlemen that deny her supremacy in matters of religion and will not forsake the Mass and the other Catholic rites.”
14 June, 1561. Antwerp. Italian. Copy.
vol. cl. f. 32.
6691. f. 11.
|83. Hercules [Gonzaga,] Cardinal of Mantua, and Jerome, Cardinal Seripando, Legates at Trent to Charles Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“Yesterday the English Bishop of St. Asaph (fn. 16) arrived here, and gave us your letter. We received him as it befitted us to receive the bearer of a letter from you, and one that for other reasons merits all loving and honourable welcome on our part; nor shall we fail to afford him such entertainment as you require of us, if you will let us know from whom he is to receive it.”
16 June, 1561. Trent. Italian. Copy.
1039. f. 283.
|84. News Letter.|
It is reported on the authority of the Bishop of Terracina, nuncio in Spain, “that in Seville religious affairs are going very badly; that heresy gains ground daily, and that all that realm is now infected; that the remedies, though of the severest kind and continually applied, do not suffice, all the coasts being full of French, English and other Northern folk, who are all tainted with heresy. It seems, however, that the rest of the realms of Spain are untouched thereby.”
28 June, 1561. Rome. Italian. Copy.
|85. The Legates at Trent to [Charles Borromeo, Cardinal Archbishop of Milan].|
“The Cardinal of Ermland has sent us of late a most pernicious and diabolical book written for the express purpose of destroying the authority of Councils by a certain Bollinghiere [Bullinger]. We cannot at present exactly describe the contents, because we have not been able to read the whole work, but by what we have read we see that such is its subject and such the purpose of the author. (fn. 17) We must needs make a careful study of it.
“And, as touching this matter we know that Cardinal Pole, of good memory, composed some little tractates entitled Quaestiunculae de Concilio, which we should profit much by seeing, we therefore pray you to let us have them. They, with the rest of the writings of that good man, are in the hands of Cardinal Morone, to whom, if by way of precaution it should be necessary, you can get the Pope to say a word, that the opuscule may be sent us. If it be such that a copy can be forthwith made, it shall be speedily returned; if otherwise, we will send it back as soon as we have done with it, without fail.”
[June–July, 1561. Trent.] Italian. Copy.