Pii IV. Epp. ad
Princ. vol. xi.
|192. Pope Pius IV to [Alvaro della] Quadra, Bishop of Aquila, Spanish Ambassador in England.|
Empowering him to absolve heretics in England upon abjuration of their heresies and due performance of penance, and fully to reconcile them with the Catholic Church; which functions he may also delegate to such priests as he shall deem meet.
11 Oct., 1562. Rome. Latin. Copy.
Pio, vol. cxxxiii.
|193. [Prospero Publicola,] Santacroce, [Bishop of Chissamos,] Nuncio in France to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“This letter gives tidings of the capture of St. Catherine's Fort on the 6th inst. with much loss of life. The fort commands the city of Rouen in such sort that it is hoped that it will not be long before we have intelligence that the city is in his Most Christian Majesty's possession, as it seems almost impossible that it can hold out longer. In the said fort there were six companies of infantry, five of which were cut to pieces; the sixth made good its retreat to the city.
“Trustworthy intelligence is to hand that Andelot (fn. 1) is leading hither 6,000 German infantry and 3,000 cavalry. They ought by this time to be near Mes [Metz ?], thence to march hither through Champagne; and it is supposed that they intend to effect a junction with those of Orléans. Here their approach, which was at first discredited, causes great consternation, the more so as it is understood that after them comes another levy equally strong; so I am informed by Marshal de St. André, who has been for some days at Paris upon some business; and it may be that the Lords would do well to go forth to encounter and intercept them, though it would be no easy matter by reason of their great numbers, besides the risk which, in order to intercept them, must needs be run of losing all by the loss of a single engagement. However, this is now the most important question which the Lords have under consideration, and I know not how they will decide it; but the capture of Rouen will be very opportune, as the army will then be without occupation, and they will be able to lead it whither they will; and though it is constantly said that they will march upon Havre de Grace according to the order already given, I know not if this accident of the approach of these Germans may not cause them to change their mind, or whether they will not prefer to employ the people about Lyon, and in particular the 3,000 Italians, who are nearer to hand, and perhaps might be deemed more trustworthy in such a case than either the French or the Germans that are in the service of his Most Christian Majesty.
“A new ambassador (fn. 2) has come from England; he has not as yet had speech of her Highness, but by what we gather he says that he brings peace or war as his Most Christian Majesty shall please. This is here understood to mean that the English are bent upon recovering Calais, and mean seriously to try to get it; which seems hardly to the mind of the people here, who allege that they are released from the obligation because the English have taken up arms. The Huguenots in Havre de Grace would have the English that are about the port disembark and begin the campaign, in which case they offer them every assistance. The English, on the other hand, demand possession of the place, otherwise, they say, they will not disembark; and the Huguenots are in this dilemma, that they know that without the English they will find their task much more difficult, while, if they determine to purchase their aid by surrendering the place, they fear lest the English should forthwith turn them out, and thereafter consider but their own interest, whether it were better to settle in the city, or to hold it as a pawn for the recovery of Calais; besides which they reflect on the enmity and the infamy which they would incur throughout the realm as soon as it was known that they had alienated the royal lands of France and disposed of them to the English, the natural enemies of that nation. The issue cannot be forecasted, but if they lose Rouen, they must needs lose courage and counsel in no small measure.”
11 Oct., 1562. Ileri [Léry]. Italian. Copy.
Pio, vol. cxxxiii.
|194. [Prospero Publicola,] Santacroce, [Bishop of Chissamos,] Nuncio in France to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“That the English have possessed themselves of Havre de Grace, and forthwith turned out all the French, is most certainly true and a matter of much moment, inasmuch as the place is very strong and full of artillery, and is by many deemed an equivalent for Calais. There is much talk here, that as soon as Rouen is taken, the army will march upon Havre, but it is not believed that there is such a design, or that if there were, it could be successful. It is rather thought that the forces will be directed against the Germans, who are said to have mustered at St. Nicolas in Lorraine 5,000 foot and more than 2,000 horse, and many anticipate that this will be followed by a like levy. For the present Marshal St. André is sent thither with fifteen companies of men-at-arms, taking great part of those that were about Orléans; and it is thought that M. de Nemours will follow with the Italian infantry and the Swiss that are at Lyon, since it is deemed here that the issue of this war depends entirely upon barring the advance of these Germans. Though Rouen still holds out, it is deemed certain that it will be taken in a few days' time.”
12 Oct., 1562. Ileri [Léry], Italian. Copy.
Pio, vol. cxxxiii.
|195. [Prospero Publicola,] SANTACROCE, [Bishop of Chissamos,] Nuncio in France to [Charles Borromeo,] Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“Though we are now in immediate expectation of taking Rouen, our men being already in the fosses and the trenches, and busy with the spade, it seems the garrison make a spirited defence: and from without it is apparent that they have made new defences within, and very courageous is the reply they make to some assaults delivered rather tentatively than by way of final effort. Our cannonade is incessant, and has breached the walls in many places; nevertheless they repair them by means of gabions, and make good by night great part of the loss they sustain by day.
“On Wednesday, the 14th, some three hundred horse made a sally from the place and attacked our camp, taking us almost by surprise, and slaying more than a hundred of our men.
“On Thursday there was a great skirmish, in which many fell on both sides. The King of Navarre was wounded in the shoulder by an arquebus shot, which remains where it lodged; and though it may be hoped from the character of the place where the wound is that it will not prove serious, he is nevertheless in great pain. Likewise M. d'Umale [sic Aumale] received two arquebus shots in his body, but is not much hurt.
“Friday and Saturday were spent in parleying. The garrison demand in scriptis not only a general pardon guaranteeing them their lives and goods, but liberty to practise their religion both in preaching and in the performance of their ceremonies, saying that this should be granted if only that they may not become atheists. They also crave that the city be not garrisoned by his Majesty's forces, and that the Guises be banished from Court. Furthermore they entreat that Montgomery be allowed to remain their Governor; and, by way of security for the observance of these terms, they demand hostages with quarters in Havre de Grace.
“The Queen's answer is: that, as to the pardon, she is content to give them their lives and their goods; that, as to religion, she will allow no sign of any but the ancient Catholic religion; but that there shall be no scrutiny of any man's conscience; that she is resolved to garrison the city, and that as for the Guises, who are such good servants of the King, she will not dismiss them, neither will she allow Montgomery to remain Governor, nor yet will she give hostages.
“The Constable, who was present at the parley, protested with the utmost vehemence that her Majesty ought to hang men who had the audacity to presume to hold such language to their sovereign; but the Queen is nevertheless pleased to practise her wonted clemency.
“His Excellency, with all his sons, and M. de Guise, with all his brothers, are all day long in the trenches.
“The Germans that Andelot is bringing are not, by the last advices, as yet in the realm, and someone is sent with money to see if he can bribe them not to go forward.
“The Queen of England, who hitherto has said that the English who took part in this war did so against her will, has at last sent a declaration in scriptis in which she says that she was induced to send these people by seeing the King and Queen of France prisoners and the country under the tyranny of the Guises, her open enemies in regard to the affairs of Scotland. Wherefore, seeing that, if this government should continue, it would mean war with her kingdom, she has resolved to oppose it, though, as soon as the King shall be of age, she pledges herself to do his pleasure by restoring Havre de Grace.
“The declaration also sets forth how that it is owing to the Queen's good offices that her realm has borne for some years the postponement of the restitution of Calais, notwithstanding the justice of the claim.”
18 Oct., 1562. Roviglia [Rouville], a league from the camp.
Pio, vol. cxxxiii.
|196. [Prospero Publicola,] Santacroce, [Bishop of Chissamos,] Nuncio in France to [Charles Borromeo.] Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“During the negotiation with the people of Rouen there came with intent to enter the city, four hundred or, as some say, a thousand English, and they were already close to the walls when they were encountered and routed by our cavalry, or part thereof, who took about seventy of them prisoners, and left most of their comrades dead on the field. This action took place at a somewhat late hour yesterday, and it is hoped that in consequence the city will surrender to her Majesty on such terms as she, in her clemency, may be pleased to grant.
“I have seen fit to add the following four lines to what I wrote yesterday, to let you know that at the very time that we gained this great victory a trifling circumstance exposed us to the risk of a very grave misfortune.
“It so happened, then, that a Frenchman and a German had words over their play, and, the German having slain the Frenchman, some Frenchmen retaliated by slaying the German; whereupon both nations armed, and there was much ado to pacify them, an affair which, at so perilous a juncture, occasioned no little anxiety. The King of Navarre is better.”
19 Oct., 1562. Roviglia [Rouville]. Italian. Copy.
|197. The Same to the Same.|
“It is now the 22nd and the treaty is not yet concluded, though hour by hour, nay, moment by moment we are in hopes that it will be so. This has delayed the departure of [Abbot] Niquet, and relying, as I do, upon his superior diligence I have made no other arrangement for forwarding the letters. The reason of so much delay is twofold; on the one hand, the great obstinacy of those within, and on the other hand the great reluctance of those without to ruin a city like this, one of the most important in France, and no less hope that the citizens will recognize their danger and the ruin which evidently threatens them if they be not wise in time.
“M. de Guise's last offer was that, if they would send to him four of their most experienced strategists, he would explain to them his plan for taking the place, and if they should say that they could in any wise hold out, he would grant them all their terms; but if they should say that it was nowise possible so to do, he advised them not to put him to the necessity of ruining the city, which would certainly expose all to loss of goods and life, seeing that it would not be in his power to restrain the soldiery. The parley continues, messengers come and go, and though I think that Niquet will not depart before some agreement is come to, I have nevertheless seen fit to apprise you of these particulars.
“[Guy] du Faur, who quitted the Council, has not since appeared at Court; and I understand that he has gone home to Toulouse upon some private business, and that thence he will return to Trent.
“M. d'Ossell [Oysel], knight of the Order, who was lieutenant of the King of Scotland, has been appointed ambassador to Rome, in place of M. de Lille, and is soon, I believe, to set forth.
“The treaty is finally ruptured, the reason, I understand, being the refusal to give hostages, for in other respects, methinks, enough was conceded on our side. To-day artillery has been heard firing with great fury.
“Meanwhile it is known that 1,500 English are marching to the relief of Rouen, and M. de Sipier (sic Cipierre) is ordered to intercept them with all the cavalry and five companies of German foot.”
22 Oct., 1562. Roviglia [Rouville]. Italian. Copy.
1039. ff. 382–3.
|198. News from the French camp before Rouen.|
“On the 13th [Oct.] about 300 horse made a sudden sally from Rouen, and somewhat mishandled our camp.
“On the 15th there was a great skirmish on both sides, in which were many wounded and killed; among others the King of Navarre was wounded by a shot from an arquebus in the left shoulder, but not dangerously. Two arquebus shots struck M. d'Umale [sic Aumale], but the wounds were slight. Many French gentlemen were slain. Of the besieged more than 700 are said to have fallen; and they have sent to Havre de Grace for reinforcements.
“On the 16th and 17th there was a parley, the besieged demanding not only pardon but security for the exercise of their religion, and moreover, that her Majesty should not garrison the city, that the Guises should be banished from Court, that Montgomery should continue to be their Governor, and that by way of security hostages should be sent to Havre de Grace.
“The Queen answered that she would grant them their lives and goods and pardon, but that she was minded the Catholic religion should prevail, though she would search no man's conscience; all the rest she refused. They say that the Constable, being present at the parley, took a high tone, and averred that those who put forward such demands deserved to be hanged to a man.
“His Excellency with all his sons and M. de Guise with his brothers stood all day long in the trenches to their great peril, and could not be persuaded to retire, saying that they did but as their devoir demanded.
“It is the general opinion that the city cannot hold out long, as it is exposed to fire on twelve sides, but the garrison still make a most obstinate defence, deeming that they can make terms when they choose: they number 2,000 foreigners and 6,000 of the place itself.
“During the parley there came 400, or, as others say, 1,000 English to the relief of the city, but hard by the walls they were encountered and routed by part of our cavalry, who slew most of them, and took 70, the flower of them, prisoners.
“At this very time our camp was in great jeopardy, owing to a rising of the Germans against the French upon occasion of a quarrel over their play between private soldiers, who came to blows about it.
“Finally the Duke of Guise proposed to the garrison that they should send to him four most experienced strategists, to whom he would explain his plan for taking the city; and if they should say that they could anyhow contrive to hold out, he would grant them all their terms. Otherwise he bade them think of their lives and their goods, and not put him to the necessity of ruining the city.
“Nevertheless it seems that all idea of capitulation is laid aside, tidings having come of the advance to the relief of the garrison of 1,500 English, against whom M. de Sipier (sic Cipierre) is sent, with all the cavalry and 5 companies of German foot. The Germans, whom Andelot is bringing, have not yet entered France.
“The Queen of England has just sent a declaration in writing, alleging that she was induced to send troops to France by seeing the King and Queen prisoners, and the realm under the tyranny of her enemies the Guises: she offers to restore Havre de Grace when the King is of age: she also says something about the restitution of Calais.”
23 Oct., 1562. Camp before Rouen. Italian. Copy.
xliv. vol. iii.
|199. Charles IX, King of France to [Philibert Babou de la Bourdaisière, Cardinal Bishop of Angoulême,] Ambassador at Rome.|
“Having learned that the rebels had brought the English into Normandy to their aid, I resolved to lead my forces thither, and made such good speed that on the 19th of last month my camp arrived before this city of Rouen, being already fully provided with means of assaulting it; and my uncle, the King of Navarre, having also arrived, he, with all the gentlemen that are in this camp, made the very same day a reconnaissance of the city and also of St. Catherine's Fort, which they had built on the summit of the hill which dominates the city; and all agreed that the fort must be attacked, though the approach was in the last degree difficult and troublesome; in which operation they exerted themselves to such purpose that, after a few days' firing upon the defences the trenches were far enough advanced to enable them to gain the fosse in front of a bastion, where it was determined to make the assault; and so at midday our men, having made a beginning by entering the fosse, rushed with all their might upon the bastion, which was somewhat dismantled, and engaged the defenders hand to hand on the edge of the terreplein before they were aware: nevertheless the garrison failed not to make an obstinate defence, but, as the number of their assailants increased, they began to lose heart, and, overborne by the fury of the onset, were pursued to the gates of the city, where more than twenty of our men entered with them. The fort gained, an attempt was made to win the people over by suasion, and make them sensible of their perversity, but to no effect: on the contrary, being apprised that the English had disembarked at Havre and Dieppe, they sent to them by the river, of which they were masters, craving succour, and it was accorded them by a galliot and a galley, in which there might be from four to five hundred English; and a larger number would have been sent, but that my cousin Marshal de Montmorency, whom I had despatched to Caudebec, to close the passage, took their two ships, in which were about three hundred men, five pieces of artillery, six thousand rounds of powder, and three or four hundred balls, and caused the passage to be closed in such a manner that they have never sent anything since.
“Meanwhile I caused the trenches to be made and the batteries to be opened on the defences, which done, the King of Navarre and the gentlemen had a trench driven unto and into the fosse, which was not effected save amid a storm of arquebus shot. But at length, on the 15th of this month, our people, having by a heavy cannonade begun to breach the wall, captured the fosse at noon after a hard combat, and posted themselves upon a gate commanding the breach, whence the garrison could never dislodge them; and the fosse thus captured, on the following day they advanced to the foot of the terreplein with the intention of sapping the foot of the wall, when a great misfortune befell me; to wit, my uncle, the King of Navarre, being within the fosse, directing the dispositions for the convenience of the soldiery, received an arquebus shot in the shoulder, whereby he is much hurt, albeit I hope that, God helping us, the wound will not prove dangerous. The sight so infuriated the soldiers that they rushed to the wall, which was not yet quite breached, with intent to scale it. There they fought for an hour, discharging a thousand arquebus shots, and plying the pick persistently; and then my cousin, the Duke of Guise, seeing that it was quite bootless, and their going there at all was ill judged, with no small difficulty drew them off and quartered them on the terreplein, making the best of the position that he could for that day.
“This battle was not, however, so small an affair but that the garrison confess to have lost in the preceding day more than 800 of their best men; and their loss would have been yet heavier had there been so much as a single hole by which to get in. However, it was so far from God's will that this fair city should be ruined and sacked, as it would have been, and so many people, innocent of all that was done there, put to the sword, that, seeing the imminent peril and manifest ruin that threatened them, they came to me to crave my forgiveness and mercy, which I am minded to grant them on the surrender of the city into my hands rather than to chastise them according to their deserts at the cost of so much damage and loss as I should be put to by the sack of the city; purposing, as soon as it is reduced to my obedience, to harry the aforesaid English, nor cease until, with God's help, I have chased them out of my realm, and hoping that, as they entered it in total defiance of right and reason, and as their Queen upon so slight an occasion has violated and broken the treaty of peace, I shall not be left without the Pope's aid and influence to enable me to repel their attack, and safeguard that of which they would wrongfully dispossess me.” (fn. 3)
24 Oct., 1562. Camp before Rouen. Italian. Copy.
Pio, vol. cxxxiii.
ff. 266, 268d.
|200. Prospero Publicola Santacroce, [Bishop of Chissamos,] Nuncio in France to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal Archbishop of Milan.|
“On Monday the 26th after 3 p.m. Rouen was taken by assault. It began at dinner time by a cannonade and the firing of a mine, which had no great effect. The combat lasted two or three hours, and at length the garrison were unable to hold out by reason of the penetration of the city by the fire of our cannon, for although they had made traverses and new defences by means of gabions, yet the soldiers engaged were sheltered only by some houses, which, being very weak, were, as soon as our cannon played upon them, all but laid low. and so shattered that the soldiers could keep their ranks no more, but took to flight, leaving many of their comrades and also some of our men dead. The city was sacked, much blood being shed by our soldiers after they had entered it, and had not the King and Queen suddenly made their appearance, much more mischief had been done. To such a miserable plight had this poor city been reduced by the obstinacy of the heretics.
“Many fled by the river, some in a galley, some in other barks, which, it is believed, had been left there for the purpose. However, to-day it is said that the galley and two other barks have been taken by some of our men that were in pursuit, and were aided by an outwork of beams fixed across the stream to obstruct the passage. In this galley it was hoped to find Montgomery, but it is reported that he escaped on horseback, and is likely to have gone to Dieppe. Not many men were found in Rouen, as well by reason of the flight as because many had already withdrawn from the city before the capture: much booty, however, was found, so that it is deemed a very notable sack. The Queen, to prevent further mischief, has this morning, the 26th [sic 29th], sent all the army towards Dieppe….
“The Germans led by Andelot, some 4,000 foot, and little fewer than 3,000 horse, are already at Oserre [Auxerre], and it is believed will go straight to Orléans to join the Prince of Condé, who, it is thought, will take the field.”
29 Oct., 1562. Rouen. Italian. Copy.
|201. Cardinals Mantua, Seripando, Ermland and Simoneta to Charles Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“Your letter of the 25th of last month received to-day and perused by us with the Cardinal of Lorraine and the French Ambassadors.
“The three Irish bishops that are here with nothing to live on but the trifling allowance of 20 crowns a month a-piece, granted by his Holiness, make great complaint, that, living being so dear, they cannot subsist, and crave and supplicate that their allowance be raised to 25 crowns a month, since many less needy than they have as much. Should it seem good to you to speak to his Holiness on this matter, we are of opinion that you will do that which is well pleasing to God.”
3 Dec., 1562. Trent. Italian. Copy.
vol. iv. f. 182.
|202. Charles Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan] to [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, Bishop of Chissamos, Nuncio in France.|
“As to the conference which you have had with the English Ambassador, there is nothing more to be said than that the Pope trusts that in all matters you will pursue the course dictated by your characteristic zeal and prudence, directing your efforts to promote not only the weal of this realm, but also the cause of religion and of this Holy See, to which all Christian kingdoms owe obedience.”
8 Dec., 1562. Rome. Italian. Copy.
|203. The Legates at Trent to Charles Borromeo Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“His Holiness is pleased that the allowance to the three Irish bishops be raised to 25 crowns a month, and that you give such assistance to the Bishop of Lesina, in augmentation of his ordinary allowance, as you may deem meet.”
12 Dec., 1562. Rome. Italian. Copy.
|204. [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan] to [Alexander] Crivelli, [Bishop of Cariati,] Nuncio in Spain.|
“The Pope has recently received an advice from England in the handwriting of a great personage; and as it seems to be of no small importance, his Holiness, besides communicating it to the Cardinal of Granvelle in Flanders, has resolved that through you it be imparted to his Catholic Majesty also, in order that, if he think fit, he may be able to take some step in the matter.
“His Majesty will readily believe that apart from the interests of religion his Holiness has his Majesty's affairs as much at heart as his own. The advice is to the following effect:
“‘I notify your Holiness that all Flanders, Brabant and Hainault will revolt, if measures be not taken to prevent it, and all because of the Lutheran sect. There are in this country [England] more than 30,000 persons—incredible as it may seem— who have privily craved of the Queen a general, to effect by force of arms their return to their own country. She has promised them Milord of Bedford, who gladly accepts the office of leader, because they aver that three-fifths of the people are on their side. The whole affair is managed for them by a M. Huttenove, of the city of Gand, one of their greatest and best reputed nobles.’”
15 Dec., 1562. Rome. Italian. Copy.
|205. [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan] to the Legates at Trent.|
“The enclose letter to the Cardinal of Lorraine is written by me at the Pope's command. It concerns the Queen of Scotland, who, we understand, though steadfastly resolved to live and die in the true Catholic religion, is on that account so illtreated by her councillors and other heretic ministers that his Holiness would gladly know how he might succour her; to which end he craves the advice of the said Cardinal, who, being the Queen's uncle and especially well versed in the affairs of that kingdom, we doubt not will be able and willing to advise us.”
30 Dec., 1562. Rome. Italian. Copy.
|Enclosure. To [Charles,] Cardinal of Lorraine.|
“Though in writing to you it does not become me to enlarge upon the many considerations that induce the Pope to make, as he does, the Queen of Scotland the object of his especial solicitude and protection, yet I will not omit to say that, were his Holiness able as amply by force as by his desires and prayers to second the good intention which the Queen manifests towards the service of God and the Catholic religion, I am very sure there would be an end of those pernicious practices which we daily learn to be more and more prevalent in that kingdom. And as our last advices tell us that the Governors, being to a man infected with heresies, strive by all means in their power to corrupt the mind of the Queen, as they have already corrupted the mind of nearly all the kingdom, his Holiness is so incensed that there is nothing that could satisfy and gratify him more than the suggestion of means whereby he might duly obviate such evils. And so he has bidden me to write to you asking you to think the matter over, and, as the Queen's uncle and well versed in the affairs of that realm, to furnish him with some scheme for remedying such disorders and reinforcing the Queen's good intentions, assuring you, that thereby you will do a thing most pleasing to his Holiness, who, as Universal Father, will neglect nought that you shall advise, and that he on his part may be able to do for so good and holy a purpose. It remains therefore for you to add this to the load of care for the service of God and the Catholic religion, which is ever on your mind, and to be pleased to let us know the result of your reflections.”
Postscript.—“This letter being kept back till to-day, the last inst., this morning the Pope received by Abbot Niquet intelligence of the victory (fn. 4) gained by his Most Christian Majesty over the Huguenots, which is the occasion of vast rejoicing to his Holiness and all of us, in regard of the general well-being of the kingdom and all Christendom, and in particular of the renown and glory that thereby redounds to the Duke of Guise and your other brothers; and as we give God thanks for so great a boon, so his Holiness, and we with him, rejoice with all our heart at these new laurels won by your illustrious house, trusting that the Divine Majesty will one day so far favour us as that we may see the Queen of Scotland delivered from the embarrassments in which as I have already said, his Holiness is sore distressed to see her involved.”
30[–31] Dec. . Rome. Italian. Copy. (fn. 5)