Rome
1563, July-September

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

J. M. Rigg (editor)

Year published

1916

Pages

136-152

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Rome: 1563, July-September', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Vatican Archives, Volume 1: 1558-1571 (1916), pp. 136-152. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92534 Date accessed: 30 July 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

1563, July–September

1563.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. xxx.
f. 117.
251. [Prospero Pubblicola] Santacroce, [Bishop of Chissamos, Nuncio in France] to the Legates at the Council.
…“His Most Christian Majesty has advanced towards Havre de Grace to fix his quarters either at Gaglion [Gaillon] or in some neighbouring place; and though it is expected that the town will be taken, it is known on the other hand that the English will do their uttermost to maintain their position, and that they have 6,000 foot and plenty of artillery and munitions.”
4 July, 1563. Paris. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. lxviii.
No. 69.
252. Charles Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan] to the Legates at the Council.
…“The reasons that determine the Emperor to advise that no proceedings be taken against the Queen of England seem to his Holiness wise and well considered; and so, notwithstanding what I last wrote to you, you must in this particular comply with his Imperial Majesty, giving him to understand either through the Nuncio or in whatever other way may seem best to you, that his sole judgment has counted for more with you than the views of a host of others and of the English themselves who were of the contrary opinion, to wit, that this method [i.e. that of deprivation] would be more speedily efficacious with that lady.”
6 July, 1563. Rome. Italian. (fn. 1)
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. lxi.
f. 307d.
Borgh. I.
vol. 184. f. 346.
253. [John,] Cardinal Moroni to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].
…“As to the affair of the Queen of England, you will have seen by this time what we wrote you as to the Emperor's mind, and you will also see from Mgr. of Granvelle's letter to us, which we send you herewith, what would be the feeling of the Catholic King.
“And so, unless we should receive, what we do not anticipate, his Holiness' command to the contrary, we shall let the business slide until it shall please God to indicate what, and how and when, action is to be taken.
“However, should his Holiness be of opinion that something should now be done in the matter, we deem he would be well advised to write not only to the Emperor but also to the said King, in regard of that whereon the Cardinal of Granvelle touches, and that action be taken in concert with their Majesties.”
7 July, 1563. Trent. Italian. (fn. 2)
Signed by all the Legates to the Council.
Copy in Conc. di Trento, vol. lviii. p. 334d.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt.
Germ.
vol. iv.
p. 354d.
254. Charles Borromeo, Cardinal Archbishop of Milan to Zacharias Delfino, Bishop of Lesina, [Nuncio at the Imperial Court].
“As to the letters, copies of which you have sent me with yours of the 17th, 23rd and 26th of last month, I am content to acquiesce in the answers that the Legates shall make to them.
“As to what you write to me, his Holiness bids you thank the Emperor a thousand times in his name for his promise ever and with all his might to promote the success of the Council. And though we trust that by God's grace this matter will not need perpetual attention on his Majesty's part, yet his Holiness accepts his Majesty's spontaneous pledge, that he may have the more reason to be obliged to him. A propos of this, you will say to him that the Pope, though counselled to cause rigorous proceedings to be taken by the Synod against the Queen of England, is nevertheless resolved to attach so much weight to his Majesty's judgment, that he has instructed the Legates to be guided by his Majesty's opinion, in regard not only to the particular business of England, but also to all other matters that concern the peace of Germany and the other States down there; as his Holiness is loath to take a single step without his Majesty's guidance, and desirous ever to act in conformity with his most sagacious judgment, that in all matters he may be as it were his Holiness' right hand and right eye.
“We shall await tidings of the safe arrival of his Majesty and you at Vienna, and also some information as to the business of the King of the Romans, keeping secret in the meantime what you have written and recorded in the cipher of the 26th.”
10 July, 1563. Rome. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. lxviii.
No. 75.
255. Charles Borromeo, Cardinal Archbishop of Milan to the Legates at the Council.
…“I wrote to you on the 7th (fn. 3) to the effect that his Holiness, giving more weight to the judgment of the Emperor than to that of any other person, was content that you should walk warily and take no proceedings as yet against the Queen of England. This I am now for the same reason bidden by his Holiness to repeat, with the addition that in regard to this and all other matters of policy that might affect the peace of Germany and other countries in which there is a danger of violent action being taken on account of religion, his Holiness will be well pleased that you should be guided by the advice and opinion of the Emperor, in whose judgment and goodness his Holiness has reason to confide, knowing him to be most prudent and abounding in Christian zeal.”
10 July, 1563. Rome. Italian. (fn. 4)
Vat. Arch.
Pio,
vol. cxxxiii.
f. 413.
256. Prospero Publicola Santacroce, [Bishop of Chissamos,] Nuncio in France to the Same.
“Some days ago his Most Christian Majesty bade all the ambassadors to accompany the expedition against Havre de Grace, so that we have been travelling ever since, until our arrival here, where his Majesty will join us in two days' time with the intention of pushing forward 12 or 15 leagues. Meanwhile the army is encamped about Havre de Grace. Marshal Brisach [Brissac] is commander-in chief, and holds out good hope of taking the place within a month. The English have made many offers of terms of peace, and such as his Most Christian Majesty would have accepted, had he been content to leave intact the right of the English to claim restitution of Calais at the expiration of the eight years fixed by the Treaty of Peace [of Cateau Cambrésis]. But as all their right has lapsed by their appeal to arms against the said treaty, his Most Christian Majesty is rather disposed to recover Havre de Grace by force than by any composition. How ever, negotiation is not entirely excluded.”
12 July, 1563. Rouen. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. xxx.
f. 121.
257. [Zacharias] Delfino, Bishop [of Lesina, Nuncio at the Imperial Court] to the Legates at Trent.
“Pursuant to your instructions by your letter of the 25th of last month, I have had speech of his Imperial Majesty, and have fully informed him not only of what you tell me you did and did not write to Rome, but also as to the business of the Queen of England. In short I have done my office that he may for the future be slow to believe of you aught that may seem to him to fall short of the utmost discretion, prudence and piety, since in the end he must needs find that he had been deceived, as happened on this occasion.
“His Majesty replied that his ambassadors had also written from Trent in substantially the same sense as that in which I had spoken, so that as to the writing to Rome, and, much more, as to the business of England, he was satisfied, saying that you had not the least reason to doubt that he duly esteems your great prudence and piety.”
13 July, 1563. Vienna. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
Carte
Farnes.
vol. v.
p. 257.
258. [Germanicus Bandini,] Archbishop Elect of Siena to [Ranuccio,] Cardinal Farnese.
…“This morning we had, by God's grace, the most beautiful, peaceful, and unanimous session that we have had hitherto, and that, perchance, we shall have. The Bishop of Paris sung Mass, the Bishop of Alife said prayers. The briefs, or mandates in personam, of Cardinals Moroni and Navagero were read, as also the King of Poland's letter, the mandate to his ambassador, and the answer already made thereto in Congregation; the letter and the mandate of [the Duke of] Savoy and the answer to his ambassador; a letter of the Queen of Scotland with the answer to what [the Cardinal of] Lorraine said in her name; the mandate of [the King of] Spain, and the answer to his ambassador.”
15 July, 1563. Trent. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. lxviii.
No. 78d.
259. [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan] to THE Legates at the Council.
…“You will have seen by my other letters how that the Pope, revoking the first order touching the Queen of England, is content that you proceed according to the opinion and judgment of the Emperor; and so, now, by way of answer to what you write upon occasion of the Cardinal of Granvelle's letter, his Holiness replies in the same sense, nay, he deems it all the more necessary that the procedure be so regulated by reason of the influence which deference due to the Catholic King should have with us upon the grounds so wisely considered by the Cardinal and on several occasions set forth by the ministers of his Catholic Majesty here.”
17 July, 1563. Rome. Italian. (fn. 5)
Vat. Arch.
Pio, vol.
cxxxiii.
ff. 415d–16.
260. [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, [Bishop of Chissamos,] Nuncio in France to [Charles,] Cardinal Borromeo.
As to the affairs of Provence.—Postscript.—Since writing the annexed we have come to this place and his Majesty to Dernetal, a league hence, to satisfy the Prince of Condé, who would not enter the city for reasons which you will learn by and by.
“For two days the English ambassador has been in conference and seems in a sort averse and yet not averse to make some treaty, and that too without the restoration of Calais, being satisfied if only the rights which they have in regard thereto by the last treaty of peace be preserved. But on this side there is such confidence that the place [Havre de Grace] will be taken, and such a sense that by this war the English have forfeited all possible pretensions to Calais that it is resolved to accept no terms, though negotiation is not altogether excluded.
“A cannonade is maintained against the place, and trenches are meanwhile being made, that they may get to closer quarters, and Marshal de Brisach [Brissac] holds out ever greater hope of taking it within a month. His Majesty will advance some leagues yet to grace the enterprise with his presence.”
17 July, 1563. Rouen. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. xxx.
f. 124.
261. The Same to the Legates at the Council.
“His Most Christian Majesty some days ago bade all the ambassadors follow him on this enterprise of Havre de Grace, so that we have been travelling till now that we find ourselves in this place, where his Majesty will arrive in the course of two days with intent to go forward twelve or fifteen leagues. Meanwhile the army invests the said Havre de Grace, and Marshal Brisach [Brissac] has charge of all the operations, and gives good hope of taking the place within a month.
“The English have made many offers of peace and such as his Majesty might have accepted, had he been content to leave intact the claims which the English have to the restitution of Calais after the eight years fixed by the Treaty of Peace; but as they have forfeited all such claims by renewing hostilities in breach of the said treaty, his Most Christian Majesty inclines rather to recover Havre de Grace by force than upon any terms whatever; however, negotiation is not utterly excluded.
“This city, which was the chief seat of the Huguenots, may now be said to be as Catholic as any other; and his Majesty having given orders that the Huguenots should be readmitted, almost all the city came to supplicate his Majesty to remember that when he himself came in person to demand entrance to the place, they would not receive him, and even opened a cannonade upon his quarters; and that his Majesty might himself have seen four companies of English in the place, which at last was reduced by these people to the position of a frontier town, wherefore it behoved them to use more than ordinary care to preserve it for his Majesty.…
“It has therefore been decided that for the peace of the realm the Huguenots shall re-enter without arms, and Marshal de Bourdillon is here to give effect to the order. They have already begun to return, and some go to Mass, and seem to repent them of their past errors. However, the city keeps watch and ward with the utmost vigilance, and should any of them stir a jot, he will be well punished.
“Her Majesty the Queen has so decreed because she deems it better thus to separate them than to leave them in such a plight that, besides their natural proclivities, desperation and the knowing not where to go would cause them to reunite once more.”
17 July, 1563. Rouen. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. xxx.
f. 125.
262. Antony [Perrenot,] Cardinal of Granvelle to the Legates at the Council.
…“The Queen of England blusters more than ever, and makes a show of great preparation, saying that she has a mind to go in person to Dover to be nearer to Havre de Grace, and that, were she not a woman, she would go to Havre itself: nevertheless she lets it be understood that it would not be displeasing to her if some one should interpose to mediate; and of this her demeanour towards our ambassador, and the greater consideration which she shows for the poor captive bishops are clear and manifest signs. The French, on their part, draw as near as they may to the walls of Havre, taking care, however, not to expose their men to risk, for they think the English grow daily more weary, and will readily be induced to accept such terms as may be offered them, the more particularly because they die miserably in the place of the pest, so that I am still of opinion that before long they will come to some arrangement.”
18 July, 1563. Brussels. Italian.
Ibid.
f. 130.
263. [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, [Bishop of Chissamos, Nuncio in France] to the same.
“By a gentleman in the service of Signor Ludovico Gonzaga, who was going to Italy, I wrote you on the 17th, and since then nothing has occurred worth reporting, as there has been no action of consequence in the neighbourhood of Havre de Grace. They are still busy making trenches, thereby to get to closer quarters, and they grow ever in better hope, the place being so small that concentration is inconvenient. The Constable went thither the other day, leaving the King and Queen at the Abbey of Fechan [Fécamp], which belongs to Mgr. of Lorraine, where his Most Christian Majesty purposes to stay until the end of this affair, which weighs so heavily on his Majesty and all the realm that nothing else can be discussed or thought of, it being the universal feeling that the honour as well as the interest of the kingdom is at stake.
“The English, on their part, make a stout defence, and their ambassador, who is here, affects to be confident that Havre de Grace will not be lost; however, in a month at the most we shall be no longer in doubt, as well because on our part the siege is pressed with all vigour, in such sort that there is little hope that what we cannot accomplish in that time can be effected afterwards, as because, when the rains come, the difficulty of the undertaking will be increased by reason of the marshy character of the district.”
24 July, 1563. Rouen. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Pio, vol.
cxxxiii.
f. 417.
264. [Prospero Publicola] Santacroce, [Bishop of Chissamos,] Nuncio in France to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].
To the same effect as the preceding letter.
24 July, 1563. Rouen. Italian, Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. xxx.
f. 134.
Pio, vol.
cxxxiii.
f. 419.
265. The Same to the Legates at the Council.
…“Yesterday those of Havre de Grace, being greatly harassed by our cannon, surrendered all but their persons and their property brought from England. This is a great gain for this kingdom, the place being of very great strength and of much importance; besides which it may be said to carry with it the acquisition of Calais, which, the victors say, they are no longer bound to restore, because, by having had recourse to arms, the English have broken the last treaty of peace.
“I must not omit to tell you that the Admiral [Châtillon] wrote to the Queen some days ago, strongly dissuading her from undertaking this siege both because it would cost the lives of many of the King's servants and in the end would not succeed, and also because it was an ill return to the Queen of England who by this means had delivered France from the tyrants, to wit, the House of Guise.”
29 July, 1563. Rouen.
Postscript.—“The same day that Havre de Grace surrendered 50 English ships made their appearance with 6,000, or, as some say, 10,000 footsoldiers to reinforce the garrison, which would have rendered the enterprise not only more difficult but all but impracticable, but it pleased God that they should arrive three hours after the capitulation was made, so that they returned to England in no little disgust. Among other causes that contributed to bring about this capitulation was the pest which raged in the place in such sort that there died of it from 100 to 120 a day.”
Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. xxx.
f. 136.
266. Antony [Perrenot,] Cardinal of Granvelle, to the Legates at Trent.
“I wrote you last Sunday of the pains the French were taking in the investment of Havre: so much did they accomplish that the English garrison, seeing that they had occupied the trenches of their mills and drawn so close to the tower of the port that it was impossible to do them any damage, have, in fine, surrendered the place, to the most signal dishonour of their nation, that they should not have been able to hold so strong a fortress. Far better would it have been that the Queen had never got into such an imbroglio, but had given heed to the good advice given her at the outset by our Most Serene Governess not to declare herself against the King of France by showing favour to his rebellious subjects. Fragmarton [sic Throgmorton], whom she sent to arrange the capitulation, arrived too late, the place being already surrendered. Had he come sooner, perchance he would after his wont, have contrived fresh garboils by means of the understanding which he has with the Huguenots. These advices have just come in.”
4 August, 1563. Brussels. Italian.
Ibid.
f. 139.
267. The Same to the Same.
…“By my last letters you will have been apprised of the surrender of Havre de Grace. I am informed that the Admiral [Châtillon] did his best to persuade the Queen Mother not to essay the recovery of the place by force of arms, as well because he deemed it inexpugnable as also to avoid offending the Queen of England, who in the hour of extreme need and during the minority of the King had with such love and charity succoured her and her good people.
“Not only have they surrendered the place, but they have bound themselves to restore the ships that were in the haven when it was taken, and have given hostages for the restitution. Not only was Fragmarton [sic Throgmorton] not heard until the 4th, but there was talk of detaining him. It is deemed certain, however, that this will not be done, and that they will be content to send him back after a bootless errand. He is in the worst possible odour with all the good people of France, and reason enough too.”
8 August, 1563. Brussels. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. xxviii.
f. 120.
268. — to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].
…“Many Catholic youths have quitted England, leaving behind them all their substance, and retired to Louvain, where they occupy themselves with study, particularly of Catholic doctrine and some, being less wary than the rest, have been taken and done to death by hunger in the Queen's prison. I know that his Holiness was wont to afford such sufferers some relief in the way of alms with much and most exemplary charity. And so I beseech you to use good offices with his Holiness on behalf of these men as well as of the bishops imprisoned in the Tower of London, and to have this pious work much at heart, because it is these and such like works that avert the wrath of God, and sustain our cause against our enemies. What else I have to say is set down in the enclosed sheet.”
9 August, 1563. Trent. Italian. Copy.
Enclosure missing.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. lxi.
f. 355d.
269. [John] Cardinal Moroni to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].
…“We are besought warmly to recommend to the goodness of his Holiness those poor Englishmen who for adhering to the Catholic religion are in prison in England, and—so we are informed—suffer greatly by hunger, having no one to relieve them. Wherefore, as in a case so piteous and heartrending we may not be neglectful of such merit, we beseech his Holiness for the love of God to give ear to our entreaties, and direct that such relief be afforded them as he in his beneficence may deem meet, as, on other occasions I, Morone, know that he has graciously done. The Ambassador of the Catholic King at the Queen's court will be most helpful in regard of the trusty and most secret management of the business.”
9 August, 1563. Trent. Italian.
Signed
by all the Legates.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. lxviii.
No. 98d.
270. [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan] to the Legates at the Council.
…“The Cardinal of Ermland has mentioned the case of some poor Catholics imprisoned in England, who are in need of charitable relief on our part. This his Holiness is well pleased to afford from his own moneys. And so he bids you endeavour to ascertain the need of those poor people and the way by which the alms can be sent and distributed, and this being determined, you are to send of his Holiness' moneys what you deem should be remitted by his Holiness, who will approve all that you do.”
11 August, 1563. Rome. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Pio, vol.
cxxxiii.
f. 422d.
Nunt. Divers.
vol. xxxii bis.
f. 630.
271. Prospero Publicola Santacroce, [Bishop of Chissamos,] Nuncio in France to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].
“To what I wrote you two days ago, which you will see by the duplicate that accompanies this, I will only add that there are advices from England to the effect that the Queen dissembles in regard to the loss of Havre de Grace, saying that she has restored it by composition, and affecting to be hopeful, if not assured by express promise, of the restitution of Calais; and so, she being content, great indeed is the contentment of their Majesties of France, which may also owe something to a rumour which is current here that the match between the Prince of Spain and the Queen of Scotland is arranged. There is plenty of talk of it here, and it is thought to be true, in which case it may be supposed that the Queen of England will be mightily alarmed, and will be loath to quarrel with this kingdom.”
13 Aug., 1563. Rouen. Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. lxix.
f. 63.
272. [Muzio Calini,] Archbishop of Zara to [Aloisius] Cardinal Cornaro, [Commendator of Cyprus].
… “On Friday morning there arrived from France one of the King's gentlemen despatched post-haste by the Queen to the Cardinal of Lorraine with the tidings of the recovery of Havre de Grace, which, they say, was effected on this wise: to wit, that the English that held the place, finding themselves reduced to great straits, not only because the French had by means of their trenches pushed forward their attack with great vigour, but also—what was more serious—because the garrison suffered so sorely by the pest that daily they lost between a hundred and fifty and two hundred men, surrendered on terms, which was the more fortunate because four or five hours later there arrived some ships from England bringing a great reinforcement of soldiers and supplies for the garrison, which succour, though they had intelligence of its approach, they could not, for the reasons aforesaid, await.”
16 August, 1563. Trent. Italian.
Printed
in Baluze, Misc. ed Mansi, vol. iv. p. 328.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. xxvii.
No. 44.
273. Charles Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan] to [John,] Cardinal Moroni, Legate at Trent.
“With the despatch of the 9th I have received your three letters, the first and second of which I will answer by this; the third, which relates to your Cassinensian Congregation, I will answer by a separate letter. And first as to the collation of beneficed curates, and the relief of those poor Englishmen, knowing that you will be fully satisfied with what I say in the joint letters, I will not go further into particulars than to say that his Holiness is the more zealous to relieve those poor people because he remembers that you have ever been their Protector; and as you will see by a letter of the Abbot of San Saluto that in his opinion the relief ought not to be less than 1,000 crowns, his Holiness says that he will be well pleased that it should be 1,000 and more to boot, and that you are to draw upon the funds that you have in hand, and the amount shall not fail to be made good.”
17 August, 1563. Rome. Italian.
Vat. Lib.
Vat. Lat.
6409.
f. 326.
274. Father Luigi Fedeli to the same.
… “I have not yet found an opportunity of speaking with Cardinal Borromeo in regard to the English. I will do so to-morrow, for it is my purpose to inform him that I have learned that the Auditor of the Chamber has sent orders to Sutri that the secular arm be set in motion against M. Ruggiero, without saying a word to me of the matter. This seems to me to evince a lack of respect for you, and I mean to make a vehement protest, for so I am commanded by Cardinal San Clemente: the authority that this man assumes strikes me as extravagant. I have not yet seen the Abbot of San Saluto: as soon as I do so, I will show him the list of the English, and execute your commands.
“I have told the Vice-Warden of the English Hospital that I think they should entertain that Mr. Geoffrey until his return. They have brought me the enclosed answer, and so far as I can make out, I think they do not acknowledge your authority, but hold that their sole Superior is the Bishop of St. Asaph. You have but to lay your commands upon me, and I will execute them. Mr. Geoffrey, being unwilling to trouble you, writes to M. Mariano and another for information on the whole matter.”
18 August, 1563. Rome. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. xlii.
vol. 19.
p. 147.
275. Pope Pius IV to David Wolf, Nuncio of the Apostolic See in Ireland.
The Pope is informed by Odo Icearballan [O'Cervellan], Bishop of Clogher, that, whereas he had been appointed by Apostolic authority to the then in a certain manner vacant see of Clogher and been duly consecrated thereto, and had gotten possession, or what was tantamount to possession, of the governance and administration of the said church, and had continued to hold the same in peace for the space of twenty-eight years, one Remund Mamathunian [MacMahuna], who passed for a clerk, addressed himself to the Apostolic See, and alleging the said church to be void, and omitting all mention of him Odo, the bishop in possession, did by suggestion of falsehood and suppression of the truth procure of the same authority his appointment, or at least a commission, by Letters Apostolic to the Archbishop of Armagh, for his appointment to the said see, which Letters he presented to the said Archbishop, who because they omitted all mention of the said Bishop Odo, pronounced them to be surreptitious, against which pronouncement the said Remund, having, it is said, appealed, died pending the appeal, and thereafter Cornelius Macardile, who likewise passed as a clerk, procured of the same authority his appointment to the said church as void by the death of the said Remund, still without mention made of him Bishop Odo, though he was still living and in possession; or at least the said Cornelius procured a commission for his appointment by Letters Apostolic to the said Archbishop, which Letters were presented to the then living Archbishop of Armagh Donat Otayg, who being unable to pronounce for, would yet not pronounce against, his intimate friend the said Cornelius, and therefore bade the said Bishop Odo and Cornelius to address themselves to the said Court for the decision of their claims, but the said Cornelius, rather than come to Rome for the investigation of his pretended right, did not scruple to use the temporal power forcibly to oust and despoil the said Bishop Odo of his church and his long occupancy thereof.
And whereas it is stated at the close of the said information that a matter of this nature may more readily be investigated in those parts of Ireland where a sufficiency of witnesses to the facts may be found than in that Court at which, as above set forth, the said Cornelius is not disposed to present himself, for which cause the said Bishop Odo has made humble supplication to the Pope, that of his Apostolic benignity he would deign to remit the trial and decision of the case to some just men in the said parts: the Pope therefore, assuming that the state of the case is substantially as herein set forth, hereby refers the cause or causes that are or may be between Bishop Odo and the said Cornelius and all others, jointly or severally, to the said David Wolf or his deputy or deputies, to be decided summarily, quietly and without judicial forms, with full powers of summary and extrajudicial citation by public edict, as often as it may be necessary, of all persons, including even judges, of whatever dignity, rank, degree, order or condition, and subject to all sentences, censures, pains and penalties, as well ecclesiastical as pecuniary, imposable, mitigable and applicable at the said David Wolf's discretion, with power also by a similar edict to issue the stricter inhibition and, the spoliation aforesaid being first legally ascertained, to remove the said Cornelius and reinstate Bishop Odo in his ancient, real and actual possession of his Church, and to demand due execution of decrees and judgments, and declare all gainsayers and contumacious and rebellious persons to have incurred the censures, pains and penalties aforesaid, with power, also, to reinforce the said censures, pains and penalties, and add thereto an interdict ecclesiastical, and invoke, if need be, the aid of the secular arm, and to do whatever else may be necessary or convenient in the premises, all constitutions and ordinances whether Apostolic or Conciliar, and all statutes and customs confirmed by Apostolic or other authority, notwithstanding.
1 September, 1563. St. Mark's, Rome. Latin.
Endorsed.
—For Odo, Bishop of Clogher. Commission to the Nuncio in Ireland against the Bishop's adversaries setting up a claim to his church. Seen by Cardinal Reomanus and certified by the Datarius for dispatch by command of his Holiness. (fn. 6)
Vat. Arch.
Arm. xlii.
vol. 19.
p. 151.
276. Pope Pius IV to David Wolf, Nuncio Apostolic in Ireland.
Being apprised that the canonry held by Nigel Margeargail in the church of Derry yields him nothing, and being desirous to make provision by some subvention for his better maintenance, the Pope, of his own accord, and unsolicited by the said Nigel, or any on his behalf, directs the Nuncio to select a benefice with or without cure, no matter in what city or diocese of Ireland it may be, or to whom, whether archbishops, bishops or chapters of cathedrals, even metropolitan, or collegiate churches, or abbots, priors, convents, canons or parsons, or other collators, male or female, secular or regular, in any city or diocese of the said island, shall belong the collation, appointment, presentation, institution, election to or dealing in any manner jointly or severally with the said benefice; the fruits, rents and profits of which shall not according to the usual computation exceed 100 golden ducats of the Chamber per annum; and, all reservations general or special by the Apostolic See notwithstanding, the said Nuncio is to confer the said benefice upon the said Nigel, provided he, within a month after the said benefice shall have been notified to him as vacant, shall, being competent and not disqualified by any canonical impediment, provided only that as regards the ordinaries their express consent be obtained, see fit to accept the same, which the Pope by anticipation hereby confers upon him, annulling at the same time all other dealings with the same except by ordinaries, and ordaining that the grant shall be irrevocable notwithstanding revocations general or special made or hereafter to be made of similar grants; the said Nigel or his proctor to be inducted into the said benefice by Papal authority and defended therein by ecclesiastical censures with the aid, if need be, of the secular arm, all constitutions and ordinances Apostolic, statutes and customs confirmed by Apostolic or other authority to the contrary, as also all indults and indulgences, general or special, of the Apostolic See by which the grant might be in any wise hampered or hindered, notwithstanding.
1 September, 1563. St. Mark's, Rome. Latin.
Endorsed.
—For Nigel Margeargail, Irishman. Mandate for his appointment to a benefice as soon as void in Ireland. Seen by Cardinal Reomanus and certified by the Datarius for dispatch by command of his Holiness.
Vat. Arch.
Nunt. di
Spagna,
vol. xxxix.
f. 139d.
277. [Charles Borromeo, Cardinal Archbishop of Milan] to [Alexander] Crivelli, [Bishop of Cariati,] Nuncio in Spain.
“The Pope is so affected by the pitiable plight of the Catholics of England that the greater are the persecutions which they suffer, the more he is moved to compassionate them, and desire to succour and aid them by all possible means. And as his best chance of accomplishing this purpose is by means of the Catholic King, his Holiness bids you in his name to solicit his Majesty's intervention to induce the Queen of England to allow the Catholics in that kingdom the use of churches in which they may celebrate and hear the Divine offices and the Mass, and further to release those poor bishops and other Catholics whom she has now for so long a time kept in prison on the score of religion. The cause is so good that the service would be signal and very meritorious in the sight of God; and likewise it would afford his Holiness the greatest possible consolation. However, I leave it to your discretion to enlarge on this part of the matter; and if you should desire to avail yourself of the aid of the Count of Feria, who, his Holiness knows, is very kindly disposed towards, and in the confidence of, the Catholics of that kingdom, as intermediary, you may do so, taking such advice as he may see fit to offer, and also using his good offices with his Majesty, if he approve. In a word I commend this matter to your attention by his Holiness' express command, and with all the stress I can lay upon it.”
2 Sept., 1563. [Rome.] Italian. Copy.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. xxx.
f. 148.
278. The Emperor Ferdinand I to the Legates at the Council.
Advising them that he has read their letter of 23 August soliciting him to intercede with the Queen of England on behalf of her Catholic subjects for a partial toleration of Catholic worship, that he has not been slow to embrace an opportunity of doing an office so worthy of a Catholic Emperor, as they will see by the enclosed copy of his letter to the Queen, and that, if at any future time it shall be in his power to succour those good and afflicted men, he will gladly and diligently do so.
24 Sept., 1563. Pressburg. Latin.
Ibid.
f. 148b.
279. The Same to Elizabeth, Queen of England.
Gratefully acknowledging the clemency which in deference to his previous letters she has shown to the imprisoned prelates, and craving for the Catholics at large the indulgence suggested by the Legates to the Council, to wit, the use of at least one church in every city in which without molestation or hindrance to celebrate the Divine offices and sacraments.
24 Sept., 1563. Pressburg. Latin. Copy. Printed by Strype, Annals (8o) I. ii. 572.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. xliv.
Pii. iv. Epp. ad
Princ. vol. xi.
No. 419.
280. Pope Pius IV to John, Lord of Hume.
The report which the Queen of Scotland's ambassador, the Bishop of Dunblane, has given of the steadfastness of Hume and some other Scottish nobles in defence of the Catholic religion, as also of their loyalty to their Queen, is very gratifying to the Pope, who felicitates them on the renown they have won among men, and much more upon the reward they may expect from God. He exhorts them still to persevere, more especially as there is now no little hope of better things.
25 Sept., 1563. St. Mark's, Rome. Latin. Copy.
Similar letters were sent to William, Lord of Seton, John, Lord of Sempill, and William, Lord of Ruthven.
Vat. Arch.
Conc. di
Trento,
vol. lxi.
f. 427.
281. [Stanislaus Hosius, Cardinal] Bishop of Ermland to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].
Announcing that the Legates have granted to Bishop Commendone, who has just started for Venice on his way to Poland, 1,000 crowns for his initial expenses and the charges of the journey, and a further allowance of 200 crowns a month for three months from 1 Nov. next, that 300 crowns have to be paid to the Bishop of Chiusi, and 1,000 crowns to be sent to England for the behoof of the poor English Catholics that are in prison for the faith in that country, so that, though the account cannot at present be precisely made out, it is believed that of the late remittance of 6,000 crowns more than 4,000 are already disbursed, so that a further supply is desired lest the Legates should find themselves without funds to meet emergencies.
26 September, 1563. Trent. Italian.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. xliv.
Pii. iv. Epp. ad.
Princ. vol. xi.
No. 418.
282. Pope Pius IV to Malcolm Earl of Lennox.
To the like effect as the letter of 25 Sept., 1563. 27 Sept., 1563. St. Mark's, Rome. Latin. Copy. (fn. 7)
Similar letters were sent to John, Earl of Athol, James, Earl of Huntly, William, Earl of Montrose, David, Earl of Eglinton, James, Earl of Cassilis, John, Earl of Caeness (sic,) William, Earl of Erroll, and John, Earl of Mar.
Vat. Arch.
Arm. lxii.
Vol. 9. f. 14.
283. Council of Trent.
As to closing the Council: exhibited by D.F.
“It is certain that the Council of Trent, long since begun, must now be either continued, or ended or suspended. But which of these alternatives is most expedient for the Church and most speedily and easily to be accomplished to the satisfaction of Kings and Princes is matter of doubt.
“As to the continuation of the Council, it will be admitted by all who are endowed with piety and judgment in even a moderate degree, that it would be harmful, hazardous and needless: harmful by reason of the prolonged absence of the bishops from their sees, where their residence, aforetime and everywhere and always necessary, is to-day, and particularly in those provinces where the heretics rage and ravage, more necessary than ever; hazardous by reason of the empty and futile questions and altercations to which the expression of opinions frequently gives rise, and the many things done and said by which Catholics are scandalized and the heretics, whom nothing escapes, moved to derision; superfluous not only in regard of dogma but also of reformation, since all the questions in controversy with the heretics touching religion have now been concluded and defined in the Council, or if perchance some remain touching purgatory, indulgences, invocation of saints, images and such like matters, they have either been decided by earlier Councils or are deducible of necessity from the decree touching justification and other decrees of this Council.
“In regard to reformation, general heads have been proposed, as to which the Synod will be able to formulate compendious decrees, and remit particulars which concern the usages and needs of the several provinces to archbishops and their provincial councils, or to legates to be sent by the Supreme Pontiff into the kingdoms and provinces. All Catholics desire the end and close of the Council, and that for many reasons, but chiefly in order that greater authority may attach to the decisions of the Council. But there are many and weighty reasons which may induce the Emperor and the Most Christian King to dissent.
“For if the Council is closed, two consequences are by custom inevitable, consequences fraught in these most sad times with grave perils and embarrassments, and by which great Kings and Princes, however Catholic, may be dismayed. In the first place, not only all folk in general that shall not approve the decrees of the Council, but among them individually and by name Kings and Princes will be condemned, excommunicated and anathematized; and unless they recant, their realms and dominions will be delivered over as a prey to the spoiler.
“In the second place, the Emperor, Kings and Princes whose ambassadors have subscribed the decrees will be thereby bound not only to profess the religion therein comprised, but also to constrain their subjects to profess it, to punish the reluctant and refractory and make war upon all that are of the opposite opinion.
“But if these which are the usual consequences of the close of a Council should ensue, the Protestant Princes will be incensed, and will appeal to arms, the empire, which now in Germany is in the enjoyment of peace and tranquillity, will be ablaze with war; and the Queen of England and the Princes of Switzerland will make common cause with the German Protestants, and others that have fallen away from the Roman Church.
“The Most Christian King, being a minor, however willing he might be, yet would not, without great hazard of his crown, be able to induce great part of his subjects to approve the Council, and the Queen, the King's mother, and the Princes and nobles of the kingdom, now that peace has been restored, would not dare to rekindle civil strife for the same cause of religion, much less to wage war for that cause against their neighbours of Britain, the Swiss and other enemies of the Roman Church.
“Suspension seems to be a mean between the two extremes aforesaid, being less hazardous and more expedient.
“For it takes place without express condemnation of heretics or subscription by ambassadors, and therefore will add not a jot either to the irritation caused to the heretics or the obligations laid upon Catholic Princes by the past sessions.
“At the command of the Pontiff and Council the bishops will forthwith return to their churches, and doing their office will confirm the people in their duty and in their obedience to Princes.
“Each bishop will publish and interpret in his diocese the canons and decrees of the Council, whereby the Catholics may be kept steadfast in the ancient religion and the heretics be conciliated.
“The clergy will be reformed according to the decrees of the Council and such other decrees as may be made by provincial councils, and the occasion, the fons et origo of such great evils will be done away.
“The Supreme Pontiff will abstain, especially in France, from dispensations, except for reasons weighty and cogent, so that they may seem rather to interpret than to invalidate decrees and canons.
“Meanwhile, as regards the kingdom of France, which the Roman Church has ever held in great esteem, the Most Christian King is a youth, who, when he is of age, will by his mere word accomplish more for the restoration or preservation of the ancient religion of his realm than may to-day be effected by any exertion of force.
“Lastly there are other instances from which a danger is inferable in our case; for if we call to mind the tumults, seditions, and most grievous wars, which followed the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople and almost every other Council convened for the correction of heresies alike in modern as in ancient times, we shall conclude that, necessary though Councils of the Church have ever been for the censure of heresies, yet heresies cannot be eradicated from the minds of men save by lapse of time, the witness of good lives, and much and long continued preaching of the word of God.”
[September, 1563.] Latin. Copy.

Footnotes

1 Printed by Meyer. England und die Katholische Kirche (1911), vol. i. p. 410.
2 Printed by Meyer, ibid.
3 Sic: in error for 6th. Cf. p. 137 supra.
4 Printed by Meyer, England und die Katholische Kirche, vol. i. p. 411.
5 Printed by Meyer, England und die Katholische Kirche (1911), vol. i. p. 411.
6 Cf. Brady, Episcopal Succession, vol. i. pp. 252–3.
7 Printed in part by Raynaldus, Ann. Eccles., 1563, § 113.