G. H. Arch.
120. Lupyan, Imperial Ambassador in Spain, to Maximilian,
King Of The Romans.
The King and Queen of Spain do not neglect the war with
France. They hope to influence the King of England to do
their will and the will of Maximilian. For this purpose it
would be well that he should send his power to the Spanish
ambassador in England nominating him as his ambassador.
Has often told the King and Queen of Spain what an
advantage it would be to engage the English to undertake
the conquest of Guienne. If that could be carried out, the
French and the English would be so much occupied with one
another, that the dominions of the Archduke would be in
security, and the King and Queen of Spain and he could do
what they liked, and Italy would be at their disposal.—
Burgos, 9th January. (fn. 1)
Addressed : "To the King, my dread Lord."
French. 4 pages, in print.
Printed in Bibliothek des Literarischen Vereins in Stuttgart,
vol. X. p. 166 seq.
S. E. T. c. I.
121. Ferdinand and Isabella to Doctor De Puebla.
Have received the letter of De Puebla dated the 21st of
November and sent by Salvador Duarte, who arrived at
St. Sebastian on the 20th of December. The letter reached
Tortosa on the 14th of January. Wrote to him on the 27th
of December, by Johan de Bermeo, courier, who was to go
by sea. Sent two more letters for him to Diego de Soria to
be forwarded viâ Flanders. Send by this courier a fourth
copy of the same despatches.
He says that he is astonished the Pope has sent neither
a legate nor a brief to England to solicit the assistance of
England, because the authority of the Pope is very great
in England, and his letter would have produced much effect.
Even the bull sent from Spain would have created a favourable
feeling if the copy had been in Latin instead of Spanish
(en Romance). To these observations they reply that the
Pope has now sent a brief to England. Have also ordered a
Latin copy of the bull to be inclosed, as it had by mistake been
sent in Spanish. He must persuade Henry to assist the Pope,
and tell him that all Christian Princes ought to be ashamed
to look quietly on whilst the King of France seizes upon the
property of the Church, and treats the Pope worse than do
Are glad that the justification of their conduct towards
the King of France had been well received in England. Can
assure him that they have said nothing but the truth. Henry
may judge by his own experience how the King of France
keeps his treaties.
Henry VII. and
the King of the
"We have seen the clause which you say the King of the
Romans sent, respecting the so-called Duke of York, and
which was so hurtful to the King of England. We have
also seen the letter of Rojas on the subject. The clause,
according to information received from there (the Court of
the King of the Romans), effects what you have so often
demanded in your letters, when you asked us to procure
that he of York should be kept in the hands of the King of
the Romans. It was inserted in the treaty in order to make
him (the so-called Duke of York) secure, and avert his suspicions.
All this, however, is no longer a matter of dispute,
as Fonseca and Albion have already sent Rojas the consent
given by the King of the Romans to conclude the alliance
without that clause, and Rojas has most probably sent it to
you. The King of England will be satisfied with it." (fn. 2)
The best thing for Henry to do would be to send a trusty
person to the King of the Romans to arrange the business
there. Wish to be informed in time, as they intend to write
to their ambassadors Rojas, Fonseca, and Albion, before the
English ambassador arrives.
(Marginal note : After this, Rojas wrote to say that the
Archduke had sent a personage of great weight to the King
of England. The ambassador was expected to arrive on
Christmas Day. De Puebla must assist him. Ferdinand
and Isabella wish that all their children and relations should
be friends with one another.)
|Entry of Hen. VII.
into the league.
Henry wishes to see the treaty of the league before he
declares his accession to it. A copy of it is sent by this
courier, and would have been sent earlier if it had been
asked for. Henry will see that there is not any clause in it
(as De Puebla suspected), relating to the so-called Duke of
York. If Henry enter the league, all the other members
will help him "against all in his kingdom who wish to do
him harm." In addition to this, he may count on their
assistance, and on the help of the Archduke, their son (in-law)
and his neighbour. It is to be hoped, that in this way
"many Christians will be induced to remain quiet, and that
war in his realms may be averted."
[On a separate paper there is a very confused paragraph
written by the Secretary of State, Fernand Alvarez, the meaning
of which seems to be the following :]—It may be that the
entry of Henry into the league will encounter some delay,
even if he declare his unconditional accession to it, and much
more if he make restrictions.
|War with the
King of France.
The other members of the league must first be consulted on
the subject ; but what is wanted is his immediate declaration
of war with the King of France. For this reason De
Puebla must, without delay, procure the marriage, and the
alliance between Henry and them, and between Henry and
the Archduke ; that is to say, if the alliance with the King
of the Romans cannot be concluded without some loss of time,
also if any difficulties should arise in the alliance with the
Archduke, the treaty between them and Henry may be
concluded separately, but the rights of the King of the
Romans and the Archduke must be reserved in it. This
alliance must contain the obligations of Henry to make war
upon France without loss of time.
He has written that he could have concluded the marriage
and the alliance with Henry if he had had the necessary
powers. Have not sent the powers before, because the roads
are so insecure, but send them now. He must try to get
the best possible conditions, and at all events not conclude
the marriage between the Princess Katharine and Prince
Arthur, if the alliance between Henry and them be not
concluded at the same time, in which alliance the King of
the Romans and the Archduke must be included.
[The following paragraphs are added by Almazan, Secretary
of State :]—The war against France is undertaken from
no selfish interest, but only in order to assist the Pope and
to defend the patrimony of the Church. The kingdom of
Naples is a fee of the Popes, and all Christian Princes are,
therefore, obliged to defend it against the French. De Puebla
must, by round-about ways (rodeas), and with all the subtlety
at his command (maña), manage the King of England, and induce
him, step by step, to participate in the war against
France. If Henry lend his assistance against France, they
will assist him against him of York (el de Ayorque). The
participation of Henry in the war against France is the
principal thing which he has to procure. Next to it comes
the clause that, in case of one of the allies being attacked, the
other will send him assistance.
If it be not possible to persuade Henry to make common
war with France, the war may be considered as a Spanish
war only. Henry, however, must at all events assist Spain.
Promise, in case there should be an English war with France,
to lend Henry the same assistance as he lends them in their
present war. Will also succour him against him of York (el
de Ayorque). If either of the allies should be invaded by
an enemy, the other party must send over aid for the defence
of the invaded country.
Nothing can be of greater advantage to Henry as regards
the pacification of England, than a war with France,
and nothing more dangerous than a French alliance. How
untrustworthy the friendship of the King of France is has
been sufficiently proved. Moreover, there is an ancient enmity
between the royal houses of France and England. Henry
himself acknowledged, on a former occasion, that it would
be a great error on his side to permit the power of his enemy
to increase. Whatever the King of France might promise, he
would turn his power against England as soon as ever he was
not occupied with other affairs. Henry is not bound to
fulfil his engagements, since France has not fulfilled hers. Of
the consequences (de lo otro) he need not be afraid, being
their ally, the ally also of the King of the Romans, and of
of the Infantas of
The marriage portion of the Infantas of Castile is
100,000 doubloons. He must try whether Henry will
be content with it. If not, the smallest marriage portion
possible beyond that sum must be agreed upon. It must
on no condition exceed the sum which was stipulated with
the English ambassadors in Spain. A crown is worth 328
maravedis in Spain. That ought to suffice. If Henry, however,
should not be content, the crown may be calculated at
350 maravedis, but that must be the utmost.
The ornaments of gold and silver and precious stones, and
the pearls of the Princess, are to be deducted from her marriage
portion, to the amount of at least one quarter of it, as
was settled with the English ambassadors.
As to the rest of the marriage portion, the time of its
payment, and the going of the Princess to England, the
conditions of the former treaty may remain unaltered, if
better ones cannot be obtained.
|Alliance with the
the King of the
Are unable to give circumstantial instructions respecting
the alliance of Henry with the King of the Romans and the
Archduke, as they have not been informed of the particulars
of the pending negotiations ; "but we order and charge you to
procure, by all the means in your power, conditions such
as will best satisfy the King of the Romans and the Archduke."
Rojas is ordered to write continually to him respecting
all that passes at the court of the King of the Romans,
and he must inform Rojas of all that is going on in England.
He has asked them to write something more to Henry
besides simple credentials. Enclose, therefore, a letter to
Henry, and promise to write more in future. He is to
speak much in detail about all the matters contained in the
of the son of
He has written that some ecclesiastics have gone to
England in order secretly to conclude a marriage between
the son of the King of England and the daughter of the Duke
of Bourbon, the King of France making great offers, and
promising to execute them at once. Think that such a marriage
would prove nothing else than "a spark to kindle a fire,
"which would burn up Henry and his whole kingdom." In
addition to the other differences between the Spanish and the
French marriage there is this, that they keep their engagements,
and the King of France does not keep his. No security
which the latter could give would be sufficient.
Letters from France to England state that peace has been
concluded between France, Venice, and Milan, in consequence
of which the King of France is to keep Genoa. The peace
with Milan, however, is only a feint. The French had besieged
the town of Novara, and would have taken it, within
six days, had not peace been concluded. The Duke of Milan,
having regained his town by this contrivance, remains as
good a member of the league as Ferdinand himself. The
Venetians have not concluded peace at all ; on the contrary,
they are continuing the war. With respect to Genoa nothing
has been agreed, except that the fortresses (castillos) should
be delivered to the father-in-law of the Duke of Milan. The
King of France wished this, in order that he might make
a proclamation that Genoa had been delivered into his hands.
He possesses no more power in that city now than he did six
months ago. Some Frenchmen, for instance, had gone to Genoa
to freight vessels there for the King of France. Though
they were entitled to do so according to the treaty of Novara,
they went away, leaving behind them their vessels as well
as the provisions and stores destined to be shipped in them.
The Genoese had taken all, so that the French had not been
able to equip a fleet there.
Are informed that Henry has complained, in a long conversation,
of the slowness of his negotiations with Spain,
pointing out that no alliance has as yet been concluded, and
that the difficulties with the King of the Romans and the
Archduke do not come to an end, while danger still threatens
from Scotland. Under these circumstances, Henry thinks
it would be a very ill-advised act to begin war with France.
On the contrary, he regrets having denied Charles some
things which he had asked.
|Delay in the
Their answer is :—With regard to the delay in the first
negotiations, all that is necessary has already been said. As
to the second negotiations, their friendship with England
would be more valuable and more secure if the marriage of
their daughter with the Archduke were first concluded. Henry
has acknowledged this himself. The marriage has now been
agreed upon, and the friendship of the King of the Romans
and the Archduke thereby secured. Are therefore ready to
conclude the treaty of marriage between Katharine and
Arthur. Send their powers. He may bring the whole matter
to a speedy conclusion. Wish, however, when Henry
has signed the treaties, and proclaimed war with France,
to be once more consulted before the treaties are signed
in their name. In case, however, that Henry can in nowise
be persuaded to declare war against France without
the treaty with Spain being first signed, it may be done
without consulting them.
|News from France.
Henry has complained to De Puebla that Ferdinand
was not a stranger to the affair of him of York. Declare
this suspicion to be unfounded. All tidings which come from
France are pure inventions. He is ordered to assure him, and
to swear that they have known nothing of the doings of him
(so-called Duke of York). Are not pleased with what has
happened. Consider the concerns of Henry as their own,
and are persuaded that he is an impostor (burla), as they had
already told him when he was in Spain.
|King of Scotland.
Henry wishes they should "keep in their hands" (tobiesemos
a nuestra mano) the King of Scotland, by means of a
marriage, as they keep the Archduke Philip. Henry has
informed De Puebla of all that has passed between himself and
the King of Scotland, respecting a marriage between the latter
and a daughter of his (Henry). Answer to this point that
they have done all in their power to reconcile the King of
Scotland with Henry, wishing to bring to an end the
continual robberies and murders on the borders, to assist
Henry in the pacification of his realms, and to weaken
the cause of France. Have sent instructions, precisely to
this effect, to their ambassadors in Scotland. Can do nothing
|Duke of York.
It is said in England that he of York has sailed from
Ireland, and gone either to Scotland or to Spain. He has not
come to Spain ; and if he has gone to Scotland, the Spanish
ambassadors will prevent the King of Scots from assisting
or favouring him.
|King of France.
Merchants have written from France to England that
Charles has proclaimed war against Spain in Toulouse. That
is true. Have begun war with France. Have collected a
numerous army on the frontiers, and have made daily incursions
into France. Fernand Alvarez will write the particulars.
|Duties levied on
Henry has promised to come to an understanding with
them respecting the duties levied on Spanish merchants,
as soon as the alliance and marriage have been concluded. Notwithstanding
this promise, the former reasons of Henry for
continuing these duties are once more repeated. The conclusions
regarding the customs must be agreed upon at the
same time as the conclusions of the alliance and marriage. For
it would not be becoming in Ferdinand and Isabella to have
disputes afterwards with Henry on this subject, or even
to retaliate on English merchants in Spain. If Henry
declare war with France, and think that higher duties on
Spanish merchandize are necessary to meet the expenses
of the war, he may continue them as long as hostilities
against France last. But they must be taken off as soon
as peace is restored, and Henry must give security that he
will do this.
He must continually correspond with Rojas.
He has asked for money. If he execute all that he is
ordered to do, his remuneration will be very liberal.—Tortosa,
30th January 1496.
Indorsed : "Draft of the letter of their Highnesses to
Doctor De Puebla which went with Salvador de
Ugarte, who left Tortosa on the 30th of January."
Spanish. pp. 20.
S. E. T. c. I.
122. Ferdinand and Isabella to Henry VII.
De Puebla has informed them of his good will towards
Spain, and of his wish to conclude the alliance and the
marriage between their children. Entertain the same sentiments
towards England. De Puebla is instructed to speak
more circumstantially with him in their names, about the
affairs now pending.—Tortosa, 30th January 1496.
Indorsed : "Draft of a letter sent to Doctor de Puebla for
the King of England, which Salvador de Ugarte took
out when leaving Tortosa on the 30th of January 1496."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 1½.
S. E. T. c. I.
Power sent to
123. Ferdinand and Isabella to Doctor De Puebla.
De Puebla is empowered to conclude—
1. A league and confederation between Spain and England,
excepting, however, from it the Pope, the Church, Maximilian,
the King of the Romans, and Philip, Archduke of Austria,
and Duke of Burgundy.
2. A treaty of matrimony between Arthur, Prince of Wales,
and the Princess Katharine, their fourth daughter.
3. To settle the amount of the marriage portion, dowry, &c.
—Tortosa, 30th January.
Indorsed by Secretary Almazan : "Power for the alliance
Latin. pp. 5.
S. E. I. L. 806.
124. Draught of the aforesaid, written by Almazan, Secretary
Latin. p. 1.
S. E. T. c. I.
Letters for the
125. Ferdinand and Isabella to Doctor De Puebla.
Send him a bundle of letters for the Spanish ambassadors
in Scotland, by which the said ambassadors are ordered to
procure an alliance between Scotland and England, or at
any rate a long truce. The bundle must be sent with the
greatest care, because it likewise contains a brief of the Pope
to the King of Scotland, similar to that written to the King
He is to try to do his best to reconcile Henry to the King
of Scotland. The ambassadors in Scotland are instructed to
inform him of all their proceedings, and he must inform them
of what he is doing.
A copy of the brief of the Pope for Henry is enclosed for
his information.—Tortosa, 31st January 1496.
Indorsed : "To Doctor De Puebla, of our Council, and
Spanish. pp. 1½.
S. E. T. c. I.
Henry VII. asked
to succour the
126. Ferdinand and Isabella to Henry VII.
The Holy Father has made communications to them, on
several occasions, respecting the war which the King of France
is carrying on in Italy, especially since the taking of Ostia.
His Holiness has asked succour from them, not in one, but
in many letters, and has desired them, at the same time, to
require similar aid from the other Christian Princes. The
Pope has now written in a similar way to Henry, and has
sent his brief by land. As he has not been informed whether
this brief has reached England, he has sent another copy of
it to them, in order that it might be sent from Spain to
England. The brief is enclosed. Ask Henry to succour his
Holiness in his present great difficulties. It is evident that
Henry, as a most Christian Prince, needs scarcely to be
asked in such a case as this. Nevertheless, are obliged to
do so, in order to fulfil the demands of his Holiness.
De Puebla will make him further and more circumstantial
statements in this matter.—No date.
Indorsed : "Copy of the other letter sent to De Puebla for
the King of England by Salvador de Ugarte, which
is to be given, together with the other letter, to the
Draft. Spanish. pp. 2.