S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. l.
Cas. d. A. L. 2.
34. Maximilian, Emperor Elect, to All Persons.
Ratifies the treaty concluded with King Ferdinand at Blois
on the 12th of December 1509, in which the Pope and the
Kings of France and England are included.—Bolzano, the 1st
of January 1510.
Latin. Autograph. Written on parchment. p. 1.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 137.
35. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
Between him and the King of England, his son, there are
and ought to be no other feelings except those of true love, as
becomes a good father and a good son. Empowers him, therefore,
in his name and in the name of Queen Juana of Castile,
whose governor he is, to conclude with the King of England
a treaty of most intimate and everlasting friendship and
alliance.—Valladolid, the 6th of January 1510.
Latin. Autograph. pp. 3.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 136.
36. Henry VIII. Treaty with Louis, King Of France.
The commissioners of the King of England are Richard,
Bishop of Winchester ; Thomas, Bishop of Durham ; and
Thomas, Earl of Surrey.
The commissioners of the King of France are Anthony
Bothier, Abbot of St. Trinity, &c., in Rouen ; Randon Lanoy,
Chamberlain of the King of France ; and Anthony Danzolles,
Seneschal of the King of France.
1. The King of England and the King of France conclude
a treaty of peace and friendship between themselves, their
subjects, dominions, and confederates for the time of their
joint lives and one year longer.
2. All wars, fighting, quarrelling, &c., between the contracting
parties, their subjects, and confederates are henceforth
entirely to cease.
3. All subjects of one of the contracting parties are at
liberty to travel, stay, and carry on business in the dominions
of the other contracting party. If they are armed, they are
not to be permitted to assemble in greater numbers than 100
at a time.
4. All the duties, taxes, and other burdens laid within the
last 47 years on the merchants of one of the contracting parties
in the dominions of the other contracting party are abolished.
The privileges of towns and counties, however, remain in full
5. All merchants, whether subjects of the contracting
princes, or Venetians, Florentines, and Genoese, are at liberty
to import their own or foreign merchandise into France and
England in their own or foreign vessels.
6. Both contracting princes promise to undertake nothing
that could be detrimental to the other contracting party or
its confederates. Should one of the contracting parties, in
contravention of this treaty, undertake anything by which
the other contracting party could be injured, full reparation
must be given as soon as the injured party makes complaint.
7. The King of England binds himself not to suffer soldiers
and other armed persons to assemble in Calais, Ham, and
Guines, or in any other town or haven subject to his authority,
in order to perpetrate acts of robbery or piracy. The
King of France binds himself not to permit soldiers and other
armed men to assemble in Boulogne, Fiennes, or in any other
towns or havens of France, with the intention to perpetrate
acts of piracy or robbery. Should, nevertheless, subjects of
one of the contracting parties attack and rob subjects of the
other contracting prince, by sea or by land, full reparation is
to be given.
If a subject or subjects of one of the contracting princes is
or are arrested by armed subjects of the other prince, and the
case is not clear enough to be decided summarily, the conservators
of this treaty will inquire into it, and set the
arrested persons at liberty as soon as sufficient security is
given for them.
Neither of the contracting princes will grant letters of
marque and reprisal against the subjects of the other contracting
party, except against great and notorious criminals, or in
case of open denial of justice.
If the subjects of one of the contracting parties should act
in contravention to this treaty, the treaty itself will, nevertheless,
remain in full force, and only the guilty persons will
8. Included in this treaty are—
By England :
Pope Julius II. ; Maximilian, King of the Romans and
Emperor elect ; the Kings of Aragon, Hungary, Denmark,
Scotland, Bohemia, and Portugal ; Charles, Prince of Castile ;
the Dukes of Cleves and Juliers ; the Bishop of Utrecht ; and
the German Hanseatic towns :
By France :
Pope Julius II. ; the Emperor elect ; the Princes Electors
of the Empire ; the Kings of Aragon, Hungary, Bohemia,
Scotland, Portugal, and Denmark ; Charles, Prince of Castile ;
the Duke and the whole House of Bavaria ; the Dukes of
Savoy, Lorraine, Ferrara, and Gueldres ; the Bishops of Cleves
and Juliers ; the town of Liege, the old and new League of
Florence ; and all the inhabitants and subjects of Tournay,
Mortagne, and St. Amand.
9. Rebels and exiles of one of the contracting princes are
not to be permitted to stay and assemble in the dominions of
the other contracting prince. On the contrary, they will be
delivered up, if the prince whose subjects they are requires
10. The conservators of this treaty of peace are—
In England :
The Lord Chancellor, the Lord Treasurer, the Lord Keeper
of the Privy Seal, the Custos of the Cinq Ports, and the
Lieutenant of Calais.
In France :
The Cardinal of Amboise in Normandy ; the Cardinal of
Alby in Languedoc ; the Duke of Longueville in Guienne ;
the Seigneur de Montauban in Brittany ; the Seigneur de
Grutuze in Picardy ; the Seigneur de la Tremouille in Burgundy ;
and the Seigneurs Granville and Chaumont in the
There is an appeal open from the decisions of the conservators
to the decision of the king whose subjects they are.
11. The treaty is to be ratified and sworn to by both
parties, and to be confirmed by the Pope within six months.
—London, the 23rd of March 1509.
Indorsed : "Copy of the last treaty of peace concluded
between England and France."
Latin. Contemporary copy, written on English paper
and in an English handwriting. pp. 14.
S. E. Pat. Re.
Cap. c. l. Cas. d.
A. L. 2. f. 31.
37. Maximilian, Emperor Elect, to All Persons.
Has lately concluded a treaty of alliance with King Ferdinand
the Catholic, the King of France acting as mediator.
The Pope, the King of France, the King of England, and the
King of Portugal are expressly included in the said treaty,
being the friends of both contracting parties. Confirms this
treaty, and nominates his other allies.—Augsburg, the 28th
of April 1510.
Latin. Autograph. Written on parchment. p. 1.
S. E. Pat Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 137.
38. King Henry VIII. to Dr. Thomas Ruthall, Bishop
Considers King Ferdinand as his true father. Empowers
him to conclude, in his name with King Ferdinand of Aragon,
&c., and with Queen Juana of Castile, &c., a treaty of everlasting
and most intimate friendship and alliance.—Westminster,
the 20th of May 1510, 2nd Henry VIII.
Latin. Original copy on parchment. pp. 3.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 138.
39. Treaty Of Alliance between King Henry VIII. and
King Ferdinand The Catholic, in his name and in
the name of Queen Juana Of Castile.
Commissioners : on the part of England, Thomas, Bishop of
Durham ; on the part of Spain, Don Luis Caroz de Villaragut.
1. The treaties of peace and alliance between King Ferdinand
and the late Queen Isabella, on the one part, and the
late King Henry of England, on the other part, remain in full
force, except so far as they are in contradiction with this
treaty, the object of which is to form a more intimate friendship
between the sovereigns who, by the marriage of Queen
Katharine with the King of England, have become so nearly
2. True friendship, alliance, and peace, on land as well as
on the sea, are to be strictly observed between the contracting
parties, their successors, dominions, and subjects of whatever
rank or position they may be, archbishops and dukes not
excepted. This friendship and peace is to last for all time to
3. Each of the contracting parties binds itself and heirs not
to do, or attempt to do, or to permit others to do, anything
prejudicial to the other contracting party and its heirs.
4. Each of the contracting kings binds himself not to assist
or to give advice or show favour to any one, without exception,
who undertakes to do injury to the other contracting
king, or to his heirs and successors. In case one of the
contracting kings be attacked or injured by another prince or
republic, the injured king is to warn the aggressor to desist
from his attacks and to give full satisfaction. If this warning
is not complied with, the injured party may openly declare
war with his adversary. If actual war has begun, the
contracting party which is at war has the right to summon
the other contracting party openly to denounce war
upon and to begin hostilities with the prince who has injured
his ally. The party thus requested is bound without delay
to require the enemy of his ally to desist from his aggressions
and to give full satisfaction. If his request remains without
effect, he is bound to declare war upon the enemy of his
ally, and to begin actual hostilities within the space of six
months after he has been required to do so. If the aggressor
is the King of France, the contracting king who has been
requested by his ally to make war upon him is bound to go
to war in person ; if the aggressor is any other prince, the army
or the fleet may be commanded by a captain or a lieutenant.
Each contracting party is bound to pay its own share of the
expenses of the war. When war has begun, neither of the contracting
parties is at liberty to desist from it totally or
partially without the knowledge and consent of his ally, nor
is he permitted to conclude truce or peace with the common
In case one of the contracting kings is prevented by illness
or any other reasonable obstacle from making war in person
when it is obligatory on him to do so, he is bound to
send a captain with such an army as he would have commanded
in person, and the war is to be carried on in the same
manner as though both kings took part in it personally.
If, in the war with the common enemy, one of the contracting
princes should conquer or get into his possession
towns, cities, fortresses, provinces, or dominions which by
right belong to the other contracting party, he is bound
to deliver them, without making difficulties and without
delay, to his ally.
Both contracting kings are bound to swear to this treaty
when they are requested to do so.
Both contracting kings bind themselves to ratify this
treaty within one year after its date. King Ferdinand is
bound to ratify the treaty in his own name as well as in the
name of his daughter the Queen of Castile. The ratified
treaties are to be exchanged.
The power of Henry VIII. is annexed.
The power of King Ferdinand is annexed.
London, the 24th of May 1510.
Thomas, Bishop of Durham.
Latin. Written on parchment. Autograph. pp. 11.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 137.
40. Treaty Of Alliance between King Henry VIII.
and King Ferdinand The Catholic, in his name
and in the name of Queen Juana Of Castile.
This document is a duplicate of the preceding treaty,
signed by the Bishop of Durham. Written on a very large
sheet of parchment.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 142.
41. Treaty between King Henry VIII. and King Ferdinand
The Catholic, in his name and in the name
of his daughter Juana, Queen Of Castile.
This document is a Spanish translation of the preceding
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 143.
42. King Henry VIII. to King Ferdinand The Catholic.
Has not written to him of late, because nothing has happened
worth telling. Has for some time past received no news from
him. As, however, the Spanish ambassador is returning to
Spain, he cannot let this occasion pass without telling him
that he and his Queen are perfectly happy, and that his
kingdom enjoys undisturbed tranquillity, Wishes, like a good
son, to have news from him, his good father. Has heard with
pleasure all that the newly appointed Spanish ambassador has
told him in his (King Ferdinand's) name. Has expressed to
the ambassador the high esteem in which he holds him (King
Ferdinand.) Has commissioned some of his chief councillors
to enter into negotiations at once with the new ambassador
on the subject of his mission. The negotiations have already
led to a satisfactory result, as his ambassador will, no doubt,
Regards him as his true father, and promises to be a dutiful
and obedient son.—Greenwich, the 27th of May.
"Your good brother and son Henry."
Addressed : "To the most serene and excellent Lord
Ferdinand, by the grace of God, King of Aragon,
&c., our dearest father."
Indorsed by Almazan : "To his Highness, from the King
of England, the 27th of March 1510."
Latin. Autograph. p. 1.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 62.
43. Queen Katharine to King Ferdinand The Catholic.
Is persuaded that he wishes to hear of her. Some days
before was delivered of a daughter. That her child was stillborn
is considered to be a misfortune in England. Has,
therefore, not written sooner, or permitted any other person
to send the news of her confinement. Begs him not to be
angry with her, for it has been the will of God. She and the
King her husband are cheerful. Thanks God and him that
he has given her such a husband as the King of England.
When in labour vowed to present to St. Peter the Martyr,
of the order of the Franciscan Friars, one of her richest head-dresses.
Sent it by one of her maids, the niece of the treasurer
Morales, who wishes to become a nun of the same order. But
the father of that lady retained her letter to the Prioress, as
well as the head-dress, declaring before a public notary that
it belonged to his daughter. Begs he will reprimand the
father of the niece of Morales for such a want of respect.
Considers all favours done to her confessor as done to herself.
—Greenwich, the 27th of May.
Addressed : "To the very high and very mighty Lord the
King, my Lord."
Indorsed by Almazan : "To his Highness, from the Queen
of England, the 27th of May 1510."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 147.
44. Luis Caroz De Villaragut, Spanish Ambassador in
England, to King Ferdinand The Catholic.
The last courier arrived on the 5th of May, at break of
day, and delivered to him his letters.
As the Privy Council remained in London until Tuesday,
the 7th of May, he did not think it convenient to go earlier
to the place where the court resided. Could not well begin
negotiations with the King before his councillors had arrived.
Told the King, according to his instructions, that he (King
Ferdinand) perfectly approved the manner in which the
English treaty of alliance with France had been concluded.
His conversation with the King afforded him an opportunity
of telling him how much he (King Ferdinand) was satisfied
with his filial obedience, (fn. 1) how well he loved him, and how he
regarded him as his true son. Does not permit any occasion
to pass without making use of it to increase mutual affection
between him (King Ferdinand) and the King of England.
Said to the King, "Sire, why do not we conclude the
closer union and alliance? In your own mind it is
already concluded. Let us therefore set to work and
reduce the treaty to writing." The King answered that he
wished for nothing better, and that he was willing to conclude
the treaty of stricter alliance at once. Said, "I am ready
to conclude it in whatever manner your Highness may
direct." The King replied, "Conclude it without asking for
further instructions." Declared that, since he (King Henry)
wished it, he would conclude the treaty without delay,
adding that he was ordered to assent to and to sign whatever
he (the King of England) wished. The King showed great
joy, and became visibly excited in his desire to show his
great readiness to serve him (King Ferdinand). Told the
King to order some of his privy councillors to take the matter
in hand at once, and to conclude and sign the treaty.
The King called for his secretary, the Bishop of Durham,
who was present. As neither the Bishop of Winchester, (fn. 2)
who is Privy Seal, nor the treasurer, were at court, the King
sent for three or four other councillors, and ordered them to
attend to the negotiations, in addition to the Bishop of Durham.
Heard from them that the matter had already been discussed
and decided upon in the council. Asked them without delay
to conclude the treaty. The next Saturday the Bishops of
Winchester and of Durham came to his house and brought
him a draft of the treaty. Looked over the different heads
of it only, and asked them to leave him the copy, as he
wished to examine it more closely. They did so.
Negotiated and concluded the treaty in such a manner
as, in his estimation, will best secure his (King Ferdinand's)
interests and purposes. Thinks the treaty is in accordance
with his first instructions and with the instructions the last
courier brought him. Is of opinion that the alliance is very
intimate. Protests that at all events he has had the best
intentions, and begs him to inform him in what respect he
has erred, if he has erred, in order that he may amend his
fault. Had he not been persuaded that this treaty is advantageous
to him, and had it not been dangerous to delay the
conclusion of it, he would certainly not have concluded it
without first consulting him.
The King of England behaved in this and in all the other
affairs on which he spoke with him in his (King Ferdinand's)
name as a most obedient son. He does not like
to occupy himself much with business. All was, therefore,
very soon concluded with the King, who told him to arrange
the details with his councillors. The councillors are very
different from the King. They are slow in concluding anything.
They caused him much disgust, and made him
suspect a thousand things. Did not get rid of his suspicions
until the treaty was really concluded.
All business affairs are in the hands of the Bishop of
Durham and the Bishop of Winchester. Endeavoured to gain
their good will by stratagem, and told each of them separately
that they ought to be made cardinals. They answered at
first with great duplicity, but at the end of his communications
with them, they each asked him separately to speak with
the King about this matter, without, however, mentioning
their names. Afterwards they each came to him and begged
him not to permit the matter to drop.
Managed the business in the following manner. (fn. 3) They
had told him that the Pope was in great fear of the French,
and that he had even distrusted the English, in consequence of
the last treaty of peace with the King of France. Since, however,
his Holiness had seen the treaty, he had been somewhat
comforted. Moreover, they said, the Pope was afraid lest after
his death a French Pope should be elected, since the cardinals
who adhered to the French cause were so very numerous. In
order to obviate this danger as much as possible the Pope
intended to create, in addition to the English archbishop
who is ambassador in Rome, some new Spanish and Italian
cardinals, who are hostile to France.
Answered that in order to obviate this danger it would be
much better to create more English cardinals.
They replied that the English did not solicit favours. If they
did so, they would, they thought, be oftener made cardinals.
Broached the matter in this way with the English prelates,
and added that the Church and all the kingdoms of Christendom
would be placed in the greatest danger if the French had
command over the Pope. On this account, he said, it
was necessary to create Spanish and English cardinals.
These two nations alone would suffice to counterbalance
French influence. Told them moreover that he believed
that he (King Ferdinand) had already taken some steps in
The bishops declared to him that they were entirely of his
opinion, and begged him to speak with the King about the
matter, but not to mention his conversation with them, and
not to name the persons who were to be selected, in order
that the King might not know that the demand came from
Spoke with the King about the creation of English cardinals.
The King declared himself ready to enter into
negotiations with the Pope on the subject, and said that he
thought it was a very necessary thing.
Communicated his conversation with the King to the
bishops, who begged him to write to him (King Ferdinand),
and ask his intercession in their behalf with the King of
England, under the form of advice. The King, they said,
is young, and does not care to occupy himself with anything
but the pleasures of his age. All other affairs he
neglects. If, therefore, he (King Ferdinand) would write to
him and spur him on, the affair would soon be concluded,
with his (the ambassador's) assistance. (fn. 4) Begs him to write
to the King of England in behalf of the bishops. Nothing
but advantage could result from such a letter. The bishops
would be more diligent and solicitous to serve him. Is
persuaded that had he not excited in the breasts of the
bishops the desire of being created cardinals this treaty
would not have been concluded until at least a month later,
and it would never have been concluded in such a form and
in such a courteous manner as it had been. The English
commissioners came seven or eight times to his house only in
order to speak with him on this subject. Moreover, they
begged that he (King Ferdinand) would always advise the
King of England what he ought to do. He (King Henry)
likes it, and profits much by it.
Spoke with the King about the Emperor, the King of
France, and the Venetians. The King of England says that
the Emperor does not like to make peace with the Venetians,
and that in his opinion the fault lies with the council of the
Emperor, most of the Imperial councillors being in the
interest of France. The King of England has sent a gentleman
to the Emperor, who is to negotiate with him respecting
the affairs of Venice, and the general treaty of alliance and
confederacy between the Emperor, Prince Charles, Spain,
and England. They (the English) wish that the general
treaty of alliance should be kept separate from the more
intimate treaty between Spain and England. The English
have, furthermore, begged him to write to the Spanish ambassador
in Germany, and to ask him to act in conformity with
the English ambassador. (fn. 5) Has promised and is about to
Whilst having a conversation with the King (fn. 6) about the
councillors of the Emperor who are bribed by France, said
to the King, "In affairs which concern the French one
scarcely knows to whom to speak, for they get to know it
directly ; and then they countermine all one's designs. I
beg, therefore, your Highness to tell me which of them (the
English councillors) are the most trustworthy, because suspicions
are rife in all quarters." The King answered, "Do
not speak with any one except with the Bishop of Winchester
about French affairs." Asked him, "Do you confide
in him?" The King replied, "Yes, at my risk. Here in
England they think he is a fox, and such is his name."
Writes this in order that he (King Ferdinand) may tell
the King of England that many of his privy councillors are
believed to be Frenchmen at heart, and that he may tell him
with which of them it will be safe to negotiate on matters
which concern the King of France. Thinks the manner in
which he spoke with the King of England was the mildest
form (fn. 7) in which he could treat the subject. Did not like to
push the matter further, as in his opinion what he said was
The councillors of the King of England told him that
Madame Margaret already knew of the way in which the
treaty with France was concluded. Writes this to him, as
he (Luiz Caroz) was ordered, in the last despatch he received
from him, to show the treaty to Madame Margaret, and
to urge on her to act with more energy in all that concerns
the general alliance.
When the English learnt by letters from France and from
Rome how arrogantly the French had behaved themselves,
and how they had threatened and boasted on account
of the treaty they had concluded with England, they were
somewhat offended, and said that he (King Ferdinand) had
been right in his predictions. They declared, however, that
no other choice had been left them than to conclude the treaty
of peace with France, because the King being young and not
having a son, it would have been dangerous to engage in a
war with France. Besides, they said, he (King Henry) had
not yet concluded any alliances with his friends and relations.
As soon as he had concluded such alliances and God had given
him a son, he would be more at liberty to do what he
wished. Approved greatly of what they told him, and did
not like to be more explicit on the bad manner in which the
treaty (with France) had been concluded. The English admit
that the manner was bad in which the alliance (with France)
was concluded, although the treaty itself, they say, is good.
Told them that he (King Ferdinand) had approved greatly
of the treaty, and considered it to be good, holy, and well
Asked, in the most courteous manner possible, for a copy of
the treaty with France. They gave him one, and at the
same time showed him the original, signed by the English
and French commissioners. Read the original treaty. When
they brought him the copy which is enclosed in this letter,
it was already late, and the Bishop of Durham asked him
whether he wished to collate it with the original. To have
done so would have seemed to him to be very impolite. Asked
the Bishop, therefore, whether he had collated it. The Bishop
said yes. Told him that that was sufficient.
The Bishop of Winchester is Privy Seal. On speaking the
first time to the King about the affairs of the King of France,
and asking him what his intentions were in case the King
of France should entirely destroy the Venetians, the King
told him to confer on that subject with the Bishop (of
Winchester). The Bishop, on his part, declared that the affair
was a difficult one, and that he would give his answer after
the Feast of Easter. Easter has passed away, but the Bishop
has not given his answer, nor has he spoken a single word
more to him about Venice. In the last despatch he has
received has been instructed not to mention this affair if
the English do not speak first about it. Promises he will
He writes him that, according to letters from France, the
treaty between the King of France and the King of England
was concluded on the 14th of March. The fact is that the
treaty was concluded the beginning of March, and that then
a courier was sent to the King of France, in order to obtain
his signature. When the courier returned, the treaty was
signed by all the parties interested in it on the 23rd of March.
Has been told so by the privy councillors themselves. They
told him, moreover, that the King of England did not wish
to conclude the treaty with France, but that some of his most
intimate councillors insisted so much on it that he at last
gave way. The Duke of Buckingham and many others are
mortal enemies of the French. It is due to their influence
that the treaty was not concerted in a more offensive manner.
Thinks that the conclusion of the treaty may be excused.
Expects new powers authorizing him to witness the King of
England swear to the treaty (with King Ferdinand), and to
receive a copy of it. Asked the King whether John Stile
was to see him (King Ferdinand) swear to the treaty, and
was told that another person would be sent expressly for that
purpose. The English wish this treaty to remain secret
until the treaty with the Emperor is concluded. Tells them
to induce the Emperor, through Prince Charles, to enter the
alliance.—London, the 29th of May 1510.
Spanish. Autograph, pp. 9.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c.I.L. 5. f. 149.
45. Luis Caroz De Villaragut, to King Ferdinand the
The courier whom he despatched on the 22nd of April from
Zaragoza arrived early in the morning of the 5th of May,
and delivered his letters. Has done all in his power to
despatch the business which he was ordered to transact in
the shortest time possible, but it has been impossible to conclude
it earlier, and to send the courier back sooner. Begs
him, if he does not receive any letters from England for some
time, to be persuaded that nothing has happened worth
The King and Queen rejoice much at the good tidings they
have received respecting the victory in Africa. The English
believe it to be the beginning of very great things, they pray
for him, and hope that in his lifetime all the Infidels will be
conquered. Begs him to communicate all his successes to the
King and Queen of England.
The King of England amuses himself almost every day of
the week with running the ring, and with jousts and tournaments
on foot, in which one single person fights with an
appointed adversary. Two days in the week are consecrated
to this kind of tournament, which is to continue till the Feast
of St. John, and which is instituted in imitation of Amadis
and Lanzilote, and other knights of olden times, of whom so
much is written in books. The combatants are clad in breast
plates, and wear a particular kind of helmet. They use lances
of fourteen hands breadth long, with blunt iron points.
They throw these lances at one another, and fight afterwards
with two-handed swords, each of the combatants
dealing twelve strokes. They are separated from one another
by a barrier which reaches up to the girdle, in order to
prevent them from seizing one another and wrestling. There
are many young men who excel in this kind of warfare, but the
most conspicuous amongst them all, the most assiduous, and
the most interested in the combats is the King himself, who
never omits being present at them.
Letters from the King and the Queen are enclosed in this
despatch. Has not written the news concerning the Queen,
as she wished to write with her own hand, and forbade him
to speak of her.—London, the 29th of May 1510.
Addressed : "To the very high and very mighty Prince
and King, the Catholic King our Lord."
Spanish. Autograph, pp. 3.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 148.
46. Luis Caroz De Villaragut to Miguel Perez Almazan,
First Secretary Of State.
Has written to the King in common writing and in cipher.
Fears he has committed many errors and blunders in his
negotiations with the English, as he is quite new in his
office. Begs him to tell him wherein he has failed, and promises
to do all in his power to become an efficient ambassador.
This courier would have left a week ago had he not waited
for the letters of the Queen, who had forbidden him to write
about the news which she intended to communicate to her
father in a letter written with her own hand.
To-morrow, Robert Wingfield, who is nominated ambassador
to the Emperor, takes his leave. (fn. 8) He goes first to
Flanders, to see Madame Margaret. Has written to the
Spanish ambassador (at the Imperial court), in accordance
with what he has concerted with the Privy Council (of the
King of England).
Has been ordered to put down the exact dates when he left
the court of Spain, when he arrived at Valencia, when he
left Valencia, and when he landed in England. Supposes
that these dates are required in order to calculate his expenses
and his salary. The expenses of an ambassador in England
are enormous. His house costs him 40 ducats a year. Has
been obliged to have it repaired. Every kind of furniture is
excessively dear in England. Nothing is cheap. Has ten
beds, and yet is unable to receive a guest in his house.
Besides his town house, he has taken a house in the place
where the King holds his court. That is indispensable.
Although the expenses of all the other ambassadors are
great, his are incomparably greater. Thinks it is not just
to pay him less than the sum given to other ambassadors.
Both the King and Queen are young and lately married, and
he is, as Spanish ambassador, obliged to appear at all kinds
of festivities in a style befitting his high position. Has been
obliged to borrow money, and to give bills of exchange for
six months salary, amounting to four ducats a day. Begs his
bills may be paid.
Sends two copies of the treaty, signed by the Bishop of
Durham, one on parchment and the other on paper. The
servant of the Bishop, who acts as his secretary, begs a
gratification. It has, he says, been hard work to write out
the copies of the treaty. English officers are not ashamed to
take money on such occasions.
Has in his keeping the power of the King of England for
the Bishop of Durham to sign the treaty, whilst he (Luis
Caroz) has delivered his power to the Bishop.
The Count de Camarata has arrived in England, and has
been much courted. He travels for purposes of education.
In a week he intends to go to Flanders and Germany.—
London, the 29th of May 1510.
Addressed : "To the very magnificent and virtuous Lord,
the Secretary Miguel Perez Almazan."
Indorsed : "To me, from Don Luis Caroz."
Spanish. Autograph, pp. 4.
P. A. d. l'E.
Mon. Hist. K. 1482.
47. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Ramon De Cardona,
his Viceroy of Naples.
Has learnt by letters from Rome, dated the 6th, and by
letters from France, dated the 9th of the current month of
May, that the King of France is marching to Italy by way
of Lyons, Grenoble, and Milan, with so powerful an army
that there is no doubt he intends to conquer the whole of
Venice, Siena, and in fact as much of the rest of Italy as
he can, to depose the present Pope, and to set up another
of his own making. Is resolved to remain at peace with
the King of France, who shows him greater friendship than
ever ; but if he offends the whole of Christendom by
trampling under foot the Pope, or if he attacks his (King
Ferdinand's) dominions, he (King Ferdinand) and his son,
the King of England, are firmly resolved to declare war with
France. Has, under the pretext of a war with the Moors,
provided every thing that is necessary for a war with France.
Count Pedro Navaro is at the head of 8,000 Spanish infantry,
who at a moment's notice can be sent wherever they are
He is to keep this letter secret, and to behave as though
the greatest friendship prevailed between him (King Ferdinand)
and the King of France. He must, however, send
trusty agents to the frontiers of Naples, who, under pretext
of seeing that no gold or prohibited merchandise be exported,
shall search all travellers for letters of which they may
be bearers. All ciphered letters, without any exception, are
to be detained. Wishes to know whether the Neapolitans
are entertaining secret intelligence with the French.—No
date. No signature.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 2½.
P. A. d. l'E.
M. H. K. 1482.
48. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Hieronymo De
Vich, his Ambassador in Rome. (fn. 9)
Has learnt by his letters of the 6th of May that the King
of France refuses to ratify two clauses of the treaty with the
Pope. The clause concerning Ferrara shows that the Pope
likes to take the property of his neighbour. His Holiness
will soon learn by experience that he has reckoned without
his host. From another clause of the treaty it is clear that
the King of France intends to march this summer to Rome.
Wishes to know whether the Pope has contented himself with
the ratification by the King of France of the other clauses of
the treaty, or has broken off all negotiations with France.
The Emperor, it must be confessed, does not behave in a
very friendly manner towards the Pope, but it is very unwise
of the Holy Father to repay the Emperor in kind, for by
offending the Emperor he will cause him to become the ally
of the King of France, who is the only dangerous enemy of
Cabanillas has written on the 9th of May. He says that
the King of France intends to lead in person to Italy next
summer a larger army than that of last year. He is making
his preparations in secret, and has entered into a close alliance
with the Florentines, who have promised to help him to
conquer Siena, and to carry out his other plans on Italy. He
has tried to introduce a French garrison into Mantua, and the
French army is not to march in conjunction with the Imperial
troops, but to advance through the states of the Duke
of Ferrara, and to take up a position between the Venetian
army and Padua. The French say that they will deliver to
the Emperor the places they conquer. Does not believe it.
The King of France is said to be determined to depose the
Pope and to create another. The French, therefore, would
be glad if the Pope were to fly from Rome.
The manner in which the French intend to execute their
plans is the following : If the Pope remains in Rome they
will take him prisoner, and have him deposed by a mock
council which they will convoke. That done, the King of
France will tell the cardinals to elect another Pope. As soon
as the new Pope is elected, the King of France will give him
his obedience. Most of the cardinals are won by him, and
those who are not corrupted will obey him from fear. If the
Pope flies from Rome, he will be tried and deposed as absent ;
which done, the election of a new Pope will be proceeded with.
The King of France is endeavouring to bring the Emperor
over to his party. In order to bring about this result he has
told him that the Pope has declared himself ready to enter
into an alliance with France against the Emperor.
From the whole conduct of the King of France it is clear
that he is striving to get both the spiritual and temporal
power into his hands, and that he wishes to be the master of
the world. (fn. 10)
The worst is, that both the Pope and the Emperor are doing
the work of their enemy. He is to do all in his power to
reconcile the Pope with the Emperor, and to persuade the Pope
to make peace between the Emperor and the Venetians. That
is the only means whereby to prevent the French from carrying
out their designs.
The King of France has bought two Venetian captains,
Lucio Malvesio and Dionisio Brisaghella, who have promised
to go over to him with 400 men-at-arms and 4,000 foot.
He pays them 50,000 ducats, and has promised to
maintain them as captains for three years. He is to communicate
this piece of news to the Venetian ambassador, but
he is to take the greatest care that the French do not even
suspect that he has betrayed them.
The Pope is said to be inconsistent. Does not care much
about his inconsistency, as he values him very little, and
makes use of him only as his instrument, to be thrown away
when no longer wanted. He is to procure from the Pope
three things, namely, the investiture of Naples, his assistance
in the war with the Moors, and his promise to reconcile himself
with the Emperor. Should the French accuse him of
opposing their policy, he can assure them to the contrary, and
in public he must speak as though he were assisting the
He has been right in preventing the Cardinal of Auch from
going to Naples.
Wishes to know whether the Pope intends to flee, and
whether he will take the cardinals with him. It is also
of importance to him to know which cardinals are to be
relied upon, and which not.
He must write directly.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "His Highness to Don Hieronymo de Vich."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 4.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 145.
49. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
It is a very long time since he has received letters from
the King and Queen of England or from him. As he had
written a long time ago, saying that the Queen had, according
to English custom, taken to her apartments, in expectation
of her delivery, it is probable that she was confined in the
month of May. Orders him to write immediately and say
whether the Queen is confined, and to send his letter by the
present courier, who goes to England for this sole purpose.
From [blank.]—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Draft. p. 1.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 146.
50. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
Has answered all his letters by Arnao Dascote, courier,
who left Zaragoza on the 22nd of April. Has told him to conclude,
without delay and without further consulting him, the
treaty of alliance with the King of England on terms of
equality for both parties. Has also ordered him to act
with much circumspection, and not to show any great desire
to conclude the treaty. It must appear as though he entered
this alliance only in order to comply with the wishes of the
King of England. The fact is, however, that the speedy conclusion
of it is of the greatest importance to him ; for, if
the King of France should really undertake something
against Spain, the principal remedy, after God and his good
right, would be an alliance with the King of England, and
war with France vigorously carried on by both Kings with
all their forces. Such being the case, it is most desirable that
the treaty of alliance with England should be concluded
and England and Spain well prepared for war, before open
hostilities with France break out.
He is to be careful that the English do not suspect that he
fears a war with France. If they were to do so, they would
make difficulties, and delay the conclusion of the alliance. As
soon as the treaty is signed, he is to send a copy of it by a
According to letters received from France and Rome, the
King of France intends this summer to send a very powerful
army to Italy. The army is to be as numerous, or more
numerous even, than that of last year, and the greater part of
it has already entered Italy. Not a day passes without new
troops passing the Italian frontiers, accompanied by the first
personages of the French court and of the kingdom of France.
It is even said that the King intends to take the field in
person. He is already on his way to Lyons, whence he
intends to go by way of Grenoble to Italy. It is said that the
objects he has in view are plainly recognisable, namely, to
conquer and subjugate all that is remaining to the Venetians,
to appropriate to himself Siena, and to obtain, by indirect
means, possession of Ferrara and Mantua. The King of France
has no right, and does not even pretend to have a right, to do
any of these things, but he expects that it will be easy to
carry out his plans, because there is no prince in Christendom
prepared to resist him. When the King of France has carried
out these his first objects he intends to march to Rome,
to dethrone the Pope, and to have another Pope of his own
making elected. The plan of the King of France concerning
the Pope is the following : If the Pope remains in Rome, the
King of France will seize on his person, for appearance sake
convoke a council, although not a legal one, and have it decreed
that the Pope is to be detained in prison and deprived of his
dignity. When all that is done, the cardinals will be asked
to elect another Pope. Some of the cardinals are already
gained over by the French, and others, who are intimidated,
will not dare to oppose them. As soon as the new Pope
is elected the King of France will swear obedience to him,
in order to give him greater authority. If, on the contrary,
the Pope leaves Rome and takes flight, the King of France
will proceed in the same manner as though he had taken him
prisoner. Although some of the cardinals may accompany
the Pope, the French are persuaded that the greater part
of them will come to Rome when the King of France calls
Such Frenchmen as take part in the government of
their country do not conceal their opinion that, if the King
of France renders himself spiritual and temporal lord of Italy
in the manner described, no resistance to him will be possible
in Christendom. The same spirit is visible in all other
public affairs. The King of France, a very short time
ago, concluded a new treaty of friendship with the Pope, in
which it is stipulated that the French shall not advance
in Italy further than Reggio. Lately, however, the King of
France sent to tell the Pope that he will not observe this
stipulation, and that he intends to march his army to Siena,
a city which is near Rome. Thus the intention of the French
to go to Rome is quite clear. The Pope is in despair. The
King of France, who has already recovered every inch of
land in Italy to which he has any pretension, says that he is
going with his powerful army to assist the Emperor, to whom
he will deliver all the places that he conquers. But the King
of France also says that he does not intend to carry on the
war in the same way as the Emperor ; his army is to act
quite independently and separately from that of the Emperor.
The King of France has entered into negotiations with the
wife of the Marquis of Mantua, and has asked her permission
to garrison Mantua, telling her that the city would not be
safe without a French garrison. He is likewise negotiating
with the Florentines. The King of France has asked them
for assistance in his Siena enterprise, promising in return to
restore to them one or two castles in the Sienese territory on
which the Florentines pretend to have some lawful claims.
The French are treating, at the same time, more briskly
than ever with certain cardinals, in order to gain their votes
for the intended election of the new Pope. They are trying
to create enmity between the Emperor and the Pope, with
the object of making the Emperor assist the King of France in
making a new Pope. The measures which the French employ
for this purpose are to promise the Emperor to recover for him
all the imperial cities which are held by the Venetians. They
also tell him they will help him to go to Rome, to be crowned
there. It is said the French are persuaded that the Emperor
will be forced by sheer necessity to do their bidding,
as, without their assistance, he cannot recover his cities from
the Venetians, or go to Rome for his coronation. Even if the
Emperor should not do the bidding of the King of France,
the French say they will carry out their plans without and
All this is clearly very prejudicial to all Christian princes,
and places them in a most dangerous position. It is therefore
necessary that they should concert together the measures they
intend to take against the French. The French are already
beginning to execute their plans. As they are always very
quick in the execution of what they undertake, it is of the
greatest importance that the resistance to be offered to them
should be speedily organised. The principal means of resistance
to the French is the intimate alliance between him
(King Ferdinand) and the King of England, his son. If,
when this despatch arrives, the new treaty of a more intimate
alliance with England is not concluded, he is not to mention
a word of the French designs either to the King or to his
advisers, for if they knew them they would think that he
(King Ferdinand) is in great want of their assistance, and so
would defer the conclusion of the alliance. Nevertheless he
is to employ all the means in his power to conclude the treaty
of alliance as soon as possible.
When that is done, he is to speak to the King of
England in secret, and to communicate to him all the
designs of the French mentioned in this despatch. He is to
explain to him how much the French are endangering and
injuring all the princes of Christendom, and how necessary it
is to concert measures of resistance against them. If the King
of England proposes of his own free will measures which
will be effectual to stop the encroachments of the French, he
is to do nothing but to praise the King and to encourage
him. If, however, the King of England does not propose
such measures, he is to speak to him about them, and to
tell him that the intimate alliance between them, although
very necessary, is not all that ought to be done. It is
also, he is to say, their indispensable duty to gain over
the Emperor to their cause. In this way alone can the
princes of Christendom, and especially the King of England,
be preserved from the serious dangers with which the
French threaten all of them. He is to enlarge much on the
precarious state in which England would be placed if the
French were to carry out their plans. A further measure,
which must be taken by him (King Ferdinand) and the King
of England without delay, consists in persuading the Pope
to reconcile himself with the Emperor, and to enter their
alliance. When England, Spain, the Emperor, and the Pope
are all united in this way against France, they will be better
enabled to find means for putting down the arrogance and
the tyranny of the French. The most necessary thing of all
is, however, for the Pope to spare no efforts to reconcile the
Emperor at once with the Venetians. If such reconciliation
is effected, all the pretexts of the French for their plans fall
to the ground.
He is to inform him without delay of the intentions of
the King of England, and to tell him what he thinks the
King of England will do. Before knowing that, it is impossible
for him to take his measures. Speaks here only of the
general policy of France, which it is the duty of all the
princes of Christendom effectually to oppose. Should, however,
the King of France attack Spain or England, the
resources of these two countries alone would suffice to repel
him, and to force on him whatever conditions of peace they
like. It is possible that the King of France may not attack
either him or the King of England at present ; but, if he
do not, the King of England may be sure that the French
are only delaying hostilities until they have brought their
other enterprises to a conclusion.
Should the King of France really depose the Pope, such
an insult to the common church of all Christian people and
to all the princes of Christendom would be even a greater
offence to them than an attack on their dominions, and they
would be bound to oppose France with all their might. If a
general council, convoked according to established law, should
undertake to reform the Papal court and the Church, his
duty, and the duty of the King of England, his son, would be
to see that the measure was justly carried out for the benefit
of Christendom. But to allow a reformation of the Church to
be undertaken by force and against all law would be in contradiction
with the duties of any Christian prince.
He is to consider well how, and with whom, to speak on
this matter. At all events, the French must know nothing
Should the King of England be disinclined to undertake
anything against France, he is to make use of the Queen of
England, and ask her to persuade her husband to do what he
is desired to perform. Should, however, the Queen refuse
to persuade the King to break with France, and prefer to see
him at peace, although all the world go to pieces, he is
to make use of the friar her confessor, and through him
persuade her to use her influence with the King. Orders him
to make use of any means he can to persuade the King
of England to do what he begs of him.—No date. No
Spanish. Draft, written by Almazan. pp. 9.
S. E. L. 635. f. 1.
51. Maximilian, King of the Romans and Emperor Elect,
to Mercurino De Gattinara.
Empowers him to conclude, in his name and in the name of
his son (fn. 11) Prince Charles, a most strict and intimate alliance
with Ferdinand, King of Aragon, &c, and Henry, King of
England.—Inspruck, the 14th of August 1510.
Indorsed : "Copy of the power which the Emperor has
sent for the more intimate alliance of the three."
Latin. Copy, written by Almazan. pp. 4.
M. D. Pas. d. G.
52. Mosen Hieronymo De Cabanillas to King Ferdinand
Sent the courier Miguel Roig on the 6th of August, with a
letter of the Emperor and other letters.
The Pope, continuing his war with Ferrara, has taken
Cudignola, Lugo, and Modena. The King of France has sent
a succour of 300 or 400 lances to the Duke of Ferrara,
besides the 200 lances and two or three thousand foot he has
The Swiss have assembled an army on the frontiers of
Savoy. The King of France having occupied the mountain
passes, it is believed that the Swiss will not be able to march
into Italy, but will remain under arms in order to obtain
The King of France, suspecting that the Pope was entertaining
a secret correspondence with Genoa and Milan, intercepted
various couriers with a great number of letters, among
which it is said are several briefs of the Pope. Has seen a
letter taken from an English courier. It is from the English
ambassador in Rome to the nuncio of the Pope in England.
In it the English ambassador asks the nuncio to speak very
boldly (fn. 12) to the King of England, and to beg him to avail
himself of the opportunity he has of increasing his honour
and of obtaining great advantages. The right moment has
come, he writes to the nuncio, for the King of England to
recover all that belongs to him, and to render it possible to
the Archduke, his kinsman, to reconquer Burgundy. He
begs the nuncio to make use of very forcible language. (fn. 13) The
King of France has shown him also a brief of the Pope in
which his Holiness tells his nuncio to place entire faith in
what the English ambassador writes to him, and to do what
he bids him. The King of France has told him that similar
briefs to Germany and Switzerland were intercepted.
One circumstance seems to him very extraordinary, viz.,
that the English ambassador should write to the nuncio and
not to the King of England direct. The French could not
explain this circumstance.
Begged the King of France not to intercept his (King
Inheritance of the Queen (Germaine), &c.
Robertet says he will do all in his power to preserve
friendship between France and Spain, &c, &c.—Tours, the
10th of September 1510. Sealed the 14th of September.
Addressed : "To the very high and very mighty Prince,
King, and Lord, the Catholic King of Spain, our
Indorsed by Almazan "To his Highness, from Mosen
Cabanillas,the 10th of September 1510."
Spanish. Autograph. pp. 7.
S. E. T. c. I.
L. 5. f. 137.
53. King Henry VIII. to All Persons.
Ratifies the treaty with King Ferdinand the Catholic, concluded
by their ambassadors, Luis Caroz and Thomas, Bishop
of Durham, on the 24th of May 1510.—London the 20th
of November 1510.
Latin. Written on parchment. Autograph, p. 1.