Spain
1511

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Institute of Historical Research

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G. A. Bergenroth (editor)

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1866

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54-61

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'Spain: 1511', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2: 1509-1525 (1866), pp. 54-61. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=93611 Date accessed: 17 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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1511

1511. 15 Sept.
B. Reg. 3672. f. 179.
54. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Henry Guildford.
Considering his prowess, exhibited in the African war, his old and noble family, and his other excellent qualities, he has created him a Spanish knight in the following manner : Ordered him into his presence, in the hall of his palace in Burgos, and, girded with a sword and his head covered with a helmet, he touched him with the drawn sword, pronouncing the following words in Spanish, "Dios vos faga buen cavallero y los bienaventurados Santiago y San Jorge." (fn. 1) His escutcheon is to contain a pale pomegranate on a white field. —Burgos, the 15th of September 1511.
(Signed)
Yo el Rey.
Almazan.
Latin. Original register, pp. 2.
15 Sept.
B. Reg. 3672. f. 179.
55. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Wistan, Englishman.
In consideration of his prowess exhibited in the African war, and of his other excellent qualities, he creates him a Spanish knight, with the same ceremonies as are described in the preceding document. His escutcheon is to contain a black eagle on a white field.
This document is annexed to the preceding.
Original register.
Latin. 5 lines.
4 Oct.
S. Pat. Re. Cap. c. Pont. L. 2. f. 8.
56. Treaty of Alliance and Confederacy between Pope Julius II., King Ferdinand The Catholic, and Leonardo Loredano, Doge of Venice.
Pope Julius, in his own person, Hieronymo de Vich, in his quality of ambassador of King Ferdinand, and Hieronymo Donato, doctor of law, and ambassador of the Doge of Venice, conclude the following articles of alliance.
As the city of Bologna and other towns, castles, &c., undoubtedly belonging to the Holy Father, are invaded by tyrants and oppressors of the people, it is the object of this league to reconquer those portions of the Papal States which are wrested from the See of St. Peter by force and intrigues. To this purpose the following articles are concluded :—
1. King Ferdinand binds himself to send his Viceroy of Naples, Ramon de Cardona, with an army of 10,000 foot, 1,200 heavy and 1,000 light cavalry, together with artillery and other necessary engines of war Ramon de Cardona is to be the captain-general of the whole combined army of the allies.
2. The Pope binds himself to send 600 heavy cavalry under the command of the Duke of [blank].
3. The Doge of Venice is to keep the whole Venetian army ready, in order to attack the enemy from the north as soon as the Spanish and Pontifical troops march towards Bologna from the south.
4. The allies bind themselves at the same time to arm their fleets.
5. The allies are to pay the captain-general for the maintenance of his army 40,000 ducats every month as long as the war lasts.
6. The Doge of Venice promises to pay the captain-general 80,000 ducats on the day of the publication of this treaty, which sum is to be the payment for the first two months.
7. The pay of the soldiers begins on the day on which the campaign is opened.
8. The allies are to give security to the captain-general for the punctual fulfilment of their obligations.
9. The captain-general is to review the Papal troops, and to see that they are well equipped and well armed.
10. Any prince or republic that offers resistance to the allies is to be excommunicated by the Pope.
11. The allies are bound to assist each other if attacked in their own dominions. The expedition of Bologna, however, is not to be postponed on account of such assistance.
12. If any king, prince, or republic attempts to hinder the re-occupation of Bologna by the allies, the allies will combine all their forces together in order to deprive the enemy of all their possessions in Italy.
13. If one of the allies undertakes to conquer any towns, castles, &c., belonging to the enemy, but situated out of Italy, the Pope is not bound to send assistance to help to conquer or to defend such places.
14. The Emperor elect and all other Christian princes are at liberty to become members of this league within forty days after the conclusion of it.
15. All treaties existing between King Ferdinand and the Emperor elect remain in full force, except in such portions of them as are contradictory to this league.
16. This alliance is to last until all the allies have concluded a general peace.
17. King Ferdinand and the Doge of Venice are to ratify the treaty within forty days.
18. This treaty is concluded with the full knowledge and participation of the King of England, who, in conjunction with King Ferdinand, has tried by all pacific means to obtain the restoration of Bologna and of the other places belonging to the Apostolic See. Having failed in this his most christian attempt, the King of England has sent Christopher, Cardinal of England, to Rome, who, however, has not signed this treaty, for no other reason than that his commission has not yet arrived from England. All his rights as a member of this league are reserved to the King of England.
Given at Rome, in the palace of St. Peter, in the year 1511. Quarto non. Octobris, the 8th year of the Pontificate of Julius II.
Latin. Autograph. Written on parchment. pp. 15.
10 Nov.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 6. f. 4.
57. King Henry VIII. to Thomas, Earl of Surrey, and George, Earl Of Shrewsbury.
Pope Julius II. has written to tell him that certain enemies of the Christian faith have deprived the Church of Christ of the city and territory of Bologna, which from olden times have always belonged to the Apostolic See. These enemies, not satisfied with what they have stolen, intend to pursue their wicked plans, and to divide among them even the "tunic of our Lord."
Is, as a Christian prince, obliged to help the Church in her tribulations, and to obey as his faithful son the orders of the Pope, who by letters and memoirs, has asked him for aid. Empowers them, therefore, to conclude a league with King Ferdinand of Aragon and his daughter, the Queen of Castile, to defend the Church against any further aggression, and to reconquer for her Bologna and its territory. All former treaties of alliance and amity between him and the King of Aragon remain in full vigour.—Westminster, the 10th of November, 3rd Henry VIII.
Latin. Autograph, p. 1. On parchment.
13 Nov.
S. E. Pat. Re. Cap. c. Pont. 4. 2. f. 9.
58. Henry VIII. to All Persons.
Enters the league concluded by the Pope, King Ferdinand, and the Doge of Venice on the 4th of October 1511, and promises to fulfil all his obligations towards his allies, on condition, however, that none of the confederates make peace with France without his knowledge and consent.—Westminster, the 13th of November, 3rd Henry VIII.
Latin. Written on parchment. Autograph, p. 1.
Printed in Rymer among the documents of the year 1512.
17 Nov.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 6. f. 1.
59. Treaty between King Ferdinand The Catholic and King Henry VIII.
The Commissioners are—
On the part of the King of England :
Thomas, Earl of Surrey ; and
George, Earl of Shrewsbury.
On the part of King Ferdinand the Catholic :
Luis Caroz de Villaragut, his ambassador in England.
When King Ferdinand the Catholic and King Henry of England were preparing a great expedition against the Infidels, they received news that Louis, King of France, was besieging the Holy Father in Bologna. They begged the King of France to desist from his nefarious project of robbing the Church of her property ; and the Pope offered him, through the Scotch ambassador, forgiveness of all he had done, if he would only restore to the Holy See the towns which he had wrested from the Pope, and renounce the schismatic council. The Pope promised, further, to convoke a general council, which was to occupy itself with the reformation of the Church.
The King of France rejected all these offers of peace, conquered Bologna, and twice routed the Papal army.
His Highness again sent a legate to the King of France ; and King Ferdinand and King Henry asked him, through their ambassadors, to desist from all further persecutions of the Church. All was in vain.
King Ferdinand the Catholic, in his name and in the name of his daughter, Queen Juana of Castile, on the one part, and the King of England, on the other part, conclude, therefore, the following treaty :—
1. The contracting parties bind themselves to defend the Church against all aggressors, without any exception.
2. King Ferdinand the Catholic binds himself to succour Pope Julius II. in Italy.
3. As it would be difficult for the King of England to send an army to Italy, he promises to succour the Church by making war upon France from another side. Both contracting parties, therefore, bind themselves to attack France on the frontiers of their states, and especially in Aquitaine, which province belongs by right to the King of England. As soon as King Ferdinand begins war with France, the King of England promises also to declare war with France, and to commence hostilities. He binds himself to send, before or on the last day of April, an army of 6,000 men to Aquitaine, or into the neighbourhood of Aquitaine, provided with all the necessary engines of war. This army is to be employed in the conquest of Aquitaine for the crown of England ; and the King of England is not at liberty to recall his army or to conclude a treaty of peace or abstinence from war with the King of France, except with the knowledge and express consent of King Ferdinand.
4. King Ferdinand the Catholic binds himself, before or on the last day of April, to send to Aquitaine, or into the neighbourhood of Aquitaine, 500 heavy horse, 1,500 light horse, and 4,000 foot, provided with all the necessary engines of war.
Both armies are to carry on a common war with France, and to defend the Church by conquering Aquitaine for the King of England.
The Catholic King binds himself not to recall his army from Aquitaine, or to make peace or to conclude a truce with the King of France, except with the knowledge and express consent of the King of England.
5. Four commissioners of war are to be elected—two Spanish ones, whose duty it will be once a month to review the English troops ; and two English ones, whose duty it will be once a month to review the Spanish troops.
6. Both contracting parties bind themselves to repair all the losses of their respective armies, so that the number of their troops in Aquitaine shall never be less than is expressed in this treaty. Should the King of France increase his army, the contracting parties bind themselves also to increase pro rata their armies in Aquitaine.
7. King Ferdinand the Catholic binds himself to provide the English army in Aquitaine with provisions, with beasts of burden, and with the necessary animals for the ordnance, the King of England paying a reasonable price, which is to be fixed by commissioners, for the provisions and beasts.
8. Each of the contracting parties is bound to send a fleet to sea, before the end of March, with at least 3,000 armed men on board.
The Spanish, as well as the English fleet, is to remain six months at sea, and the number of armed men ought never to be less than 3,000 on board either of the fleets.
Neither of the contracting parties is at liberty to recall his fleet before the end of the six months without the express consent of the other contracting party.
9. King Ferdinand the Catholic binds himself to send 40 ships to Southampton or some other English port, before the end of April next, on board which ships the 6,000 English troops are to embark and to sail to Aquitaine. The King of England promises to pay the expenses occasioned thereby to King Ferdinand.
10. If King Ferdinand should conquer any places in Aquitaine or in other parts of the world which formerly belonged to the crown of England, he binds himself to restore them without delay to the King of England.
11. Should the King of France, during the war in Aquitaine, attack either of the contracting princes in their own states, the contracting prince who is not attacked is bound to succour the attacked prince with all the forces he can dispose of, without interrupting, however, the war in Aquitaine.
12. The Pope has convoked a general council in the Vatican, the object of which is to suppress heresy and schism, and to reform the Catholic Church. The French have convoked another schismatical council at Pisa. The contracting parties bind themselves to favour the Council of the Vatican, and to oppose with all their might the Council of Pisa.
13. Neither of the contracting parties is at liberty to conclude treaties of peace or of truce with the King of France without the consent of the other contracting party.
14. All former treaties of peace and friendship between Spain and England remain in full force.
15. Both contracting princes are to ratify this treaty, and the ratifications are to be exchanged.
The power of the King of England, dated Westminster, the 10th of November, 3rd Henry VIII., follows here.
The power of King Ferdinand the Catholic, dated Valladolid, the 31st of July 1511, follows here.
The treaty is dated Westminster, the 17th of November of the year 1511, according to the English style.
(Signed)
T. Surrey.
G. Shrewsbury.
Latin. Autograph. On one very large sheet of parchment.
Printed in Rymer.
17 Nov.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 6. f. 4.
60. Treaty between King Ferdinand The Catholic and King Henry of England.
This document is a contemporay copy of the preceding treaty, written on paper, and filling 16 pages.
End of the year. M. Re. Ac. d. Hist. Salazar. A. 48. f. 325. 61. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz, his Ambassador in England.
He is to speak in his name to the King of England as follows.
Four nations represented the whole of Christendom in the old church councils, viz., the Italians, the Germans, the French, and the Spaniards. In the Council of Constance, however, the number of nations was increased by one, the English being then recognized as a separate and independent nation. Is of opinion that the King of England ought not to permit the pre-eminence gained in the Council of Constance to be lost in the Council of the Lateran which the Pope has convoked. (fn. 2) Offers his assistance to defend the English nationality.
Being so intimately united with the King of England by affection, relationship, and alliances, it is but natural that he and the King of England should act as though they were one with regard to all affairs destined to be treated of in the council, and should see that such measures be taken as will be beneficial to the real interests of God, of the Church, and of the Christian community. The Spanish and English ambassadors attending the council ought, therefore, to receive identical instructions.
At former councils there were disputes between the ambassadors of Castile and of England about precedence. These disputes were decided in favour of Castile, as the protocols of the councils show. Such disputes could only have taken place on account of England and Castile being on bad terms with one another at that time, but must be avoided now that both countries are on terms of the most perfect amity. Intends to send two ambassadors to the council, one to represent him (as King of Aragon), and the other to represent the Queen of Castile, his daughter. The ambassador who represents him is to give precedence to the ambassador of England. But as he is only the governor and administrator of Castile, he cannot well renounce any pre-eminence belonging to that kingdom. In order, therefore, to avoid all occasion of dispute, he proposes that the ambassador of the King of England and the ambassador of Castile should be one and the same person, who will receive his instructions from Castile, as well as from England. If it should be decided that the ambassador of Castile shall take precedence of the ambassador of England, the English would have no ground of offence, because the ambassador of Castile would be also their ambassador. If, on the contrary, the ambassador of England should be called upon to take precedence of the ambassador of Castile, the Spaniards would not resent it, for the same reason.
If the King of England should not approve of this proposal, he is to ask him not to send any ambassador from England, but to give his power to the first ambassador of the embassy which will go from Spain. The Cardinal of England being in Rome, the King of England does not require a special ambassador, and it can be arranged that the ambassadors sent by Spain shall do nothing without the approval of the Cardinal. All disputes would be avoided if this measure were adopted, because the first ambassador, who would be the representative of Castile and England, would take precedence of the other ambassador who would merely be the representative of Aragon.
Should the King of England reject this second proposal as well as the first, he is to beg him to nominate the Cardinal of England as his ambassador, and to send no one else. As the Cardinal of England would take his seat among the other cardinals, and the Spanish ambassador among the other ambassadors, the question whether Castile or England has the precedence would be avoided.
He is to speak with the King of England on this subject with much "sweetness," and to see that the question of precedence be decided before the ambassadors assemble in the council. It would be a bad thing if the ambassadors, instead of uniting their forces to carry out useful measures, were to quarrel with one another about matters of ceremony.
Another way of arranging this affair would be that the ambassadors of Castile and of England should never go on the same day to the sittings of the council, but that the ambassador of Castile should be present one day, and the ambassador of England the next day, and so on until the conclusion of the sittings. This arrangement, however, would have many inconveniences. The King of France having declared himself to be an enemy of the Church, and he (King Ferdinand) and the King of England being friends and defenders of the Church, it is necessary for them not only to be closely united on the field of battle, but also in the deliberations of the council.
He is to bring about either of the arrangements mentioned in this letter, or any other which will not endanger the pre-eminence of Castile. He can tell the King of England that, if he were not the guardian of his daughter the Queen of Castile, he would make no difficulty in surrendering the pre-eminence of Castile in like manner as he surrenders that of Aragon, but being only the Governor and not the King of Castile, it is difficult for him to renounce any right which that kingdom claims.
He is to write how he has arranged this affair.
Superscribed : "Don Luis Caroz."
Spanish. Draft. Written by the Secretary Almazan. pp. 5.

Footnotes

1 God and the blessed Santiago and St. George make you a good knight.
2 The bull by which the Council of the Lateran was convened is dated the 18th of July 1511. The council assembled the 3rd of May 1512.


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