11 Jan. (?)
S. E. A.
L. 635. f. 17.
80. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Urea,
his Ambassador at the Imperial Court. (fn. 1)
When it was known that the Cardinal of Gurk had concluded
the treaty with the Pope, and that he (Don Pedro)
and Vich had consented to it, and had signed a paper excluding
the Venetians from the league, the general opinion was that
they had undone all that God in his mercy had vouchsafed to
grant him. The French had been driven out of Italy. It
had cost much trouble, an immense expenditure of money, and
a great sacrifice of life to effect this object ; but the advantages
were evident, and it was every day better understood that the
peace of Christendom would thereby be secured for many
years. The treaty they have concluded at Rome has reversed
all. Nothing more favourable to the French and more detrimental
to those who have undertaken to oppose the tyranny
of France could have been devised than this treaty.
Not to mention other disadvantages, it was very ill advised
to deprive him of one of his instruments of action without
substituting another. It was, however, a much greater mistake
to exclude the Venetians by means of a special convention
signed by them. The respect due to the interests of the
Emperor had not rendered it necessary, since the Venetians
were already excluded from the alliance by the general
treaty. Thus, no new advantage could accrue to the Emperor
from the special treaty, whilst it placed him (King Ferdinand)
at great disadvantage. By excluding the Venetians from
the league, they released them from their obligation to assist
him, and especially from contributing to his expenses. Another
great error was the stipulation concerning Brescia. His captain-general
had taken possession of it in the name of the league.
All parties had entrusted it to his keeping, and now, if
he were to deliver the town to the Emperor, he would lose
his credit with all [paper gone]. It seems as if he had
thought (the special treaty) would render the conclusion of
peace with France more easy. But it would have been much
wiser, whilst the negotiations with France were in progress,
to have preserved him his allies, than to have forced the
Venetians to become the allies of France. The French have
already publicly declared that they have concluded an alliance
with Venice. Even should that not be the fact, still there is
no doubt that it only depends on France to enter into an
alliance with the Republic. The French will not make any
concessions unless they are forced to do so. It was, therefore,
a great mistake to make their position stronger than before.
The consequence resulting from the treaty which the Pope
and the Emperor have concluded will be that no peace can be
made with France, except on condition that the French recover
the duchy of Milan. If they should get possession of Milan,
they would again be the lords of Italy, and they would endanger
the very existence of all the other princes of Christendom.
Could not have believed that a man so prudent and so
faithful as he is could ever have committed so great a blunder.
He may perhaps say that the Emperor was bent on
excluding the Venetians, and that he (King Ferdinand) would
have lost the friendship of the Emperor, if he (Pedro de
Urea) had not yielded to his wishes. Cannot admit such an
excuse. Had the treaty been advantageous to the Emperor,
and had he tried to prevent it, the Emperor might then have
resented it. But the treaty was prejudicial to the Emperor,
as well as to all the other princes of Christendom. If a man
were to take it into his head to throw himself down from the
top of a tower, and if another man could prevent him from
doing so, he would be bound to hinder him. The road opened
by the treaty of Rome will lead the Emperor to ruin. He (Don
Pedro de Urea) has simply deprived him (King Ferdinand)
of the allies who have aided him in maintaining his army,
and has promised the Emperor things which he has it not in
his power to dispose of.
It is true that he (King Ferdinand) promised the Emperor
to assist him in conquering Venice, if the Republic
should not accept peace on reasonable conditions. But it
never entered into his mind to proceed in such an extravagant
manner as that now in contemplation. Is of opinion that,
even if he were able to maintain his army after the exclusion
of the Venetians from the league, he and the Emperor would
not be strong enough to carry out their enterprise against the
united forces of France and Venice. The Emperor is accustomed
on every occasion to ask his advice and his assistance,
but he never accepts either in such a manner as to
profit by them. Things would be in a much more prosperous
state now if his advice had been heartily followed. It would
not be surprising that the Emperor should not act according.
to his advice, if facts did not show that he (King Ferdinand)
was always in the right. It was due to him (King Ferdinand)
that the pride of France has been humbled, and it is due
to the Emperor that, by the exclusion of the Venetians from
the league, the King of France has obtained new allies and
new resources. The Emperor may believe him that the
Prince (Charles) has lost his duchy of Burgundy, Gueldres,
and his towns in Picardy.
Revokes the powers given to him (Don Pedro Urea) and
to Hieronymo de Vich ; orders them henceforth to ask his
consent before they conclude any treaty or make any binding
The Emperor is as badly advised as the King of England.
If the English, when they came to Spain, had done as he
advised, the King of England would by this time be master
and lord of Guienne. The enterprise of Guienne was so well
planned that the French could not have offered any resistance,
and God alone could have prevented the conquest of that
duchy. Had Guienne been conquered, how different would
have been the position of France from that which she now
holds! But the English were so blind as not to believe him,
and thus they themselves have prevented what they most
The behaviour of the Emperor greatly resembles the conduct
of the English. It is the interest and the aim of the Emperor
to weaken France, in order to obtain the dominions of his
(grand) son, of which he has been deprived by her. When
the power of France, with the help of God, had been so much
lowered that she could no longer offer resistance, the Emperor
himself hindered the accomplishment of his wishes, and made
the King of France stronger than he had ever been before.
Such things could not have happened without the interference
of God. What God intended thereby is so clear that not to
do His will, would be the greatest sin. God has unmistakably
shown that all Christian princes must unite and
conclude a general peace, in order to effect the reformation
of the Church, of which it is so much in need. Has,
therefore, devised the measures which are more fully explained
in the instructions which he sends by Beltrian.
He (Pedro de Urea) can render him no greater service than
that of well conducting the negotiations respecting the reformation
of the Church. Begs the Emperor, for God's sake and
for his own, to help him in his undertaking. Is ready to
render him in return any service he desires.
He is to show the Cardinal of Gurk his instructions, but
not this letter. Since his aims are the same as those of the
Emperor and of the Cardinal, and since he only wishes to attain
them in a more reasonable way, it will not be difficult to
obtain their assent. Believes that the King of France, even
should he obtain what he desires, will not fulfil his promises.
The Emperor must, therefore, demand securities. If the French
should offer Madame Renée as security, he is to tell the Emperor
that she is no security at all, as she will inherit nothing, neither
from the King nor from the Queen of France, her parents. If
the French declare themselves ready to put certain fortresses in
trust of third persons, he is to declare that they did the same
thing with respect to Madame Claude, and afterwards broke
all their engagements. But the principal object he is to carry
out is that the marriage between the Prince (Charles) and
the sister of the King of England shall not be broken off.
For, if that were to happen, they would lose the King of England
as an ally, and France would gain him. Such a result
would be very detrimental to the interests of Spain and to the
house of Burgundy. All alliances which are to be concluded
must be based on the condition that the schismatical council,
and everything which has been done in it, be declared null
and void, and that all the allies join in one general council.
He must write soon.
Is glad to hear of the meeting between the Emperor and
the King of England. The Emperor must do all that is
possible to preserve the friendship of the King of England.
If the Emperor, the King of England, and he (King Ferdinand)
remain friends and allies, the French will fulfil their
promises, in case peace is concluded with them, for fear of
coming to a rupture with the King of England. If, on the
other hand, peace is not concluded, and if it is necessary to
go to war with France, the assistance of England will be
worth more than that of any other ally.
Spanish. Draft, written by Miguel Perez Almazan. pp. 9.
|11 Jan. (?)
S. E. Var. L. 1554.
2°. f. 276, 277.
81. King Ferdinand The Catholic to the Count Cariati,
his Ambassador in Venice.
Is very sorry to hear that the Pope and the Emperor have
concluded an alliance from which they have excluded the
Venetians. Has not ratified that treaty. Although the Italians
and especially the Venetians have behaved very badly towards
him, he is to tell the Signory that he will do everything for
them that he can. But they must make peace with the
Emperor, and give him back Vicenza, because unless they do
so the Emperor will absolutely refuse to listen to any proposal
of reconciliation. After the peace they may rest assured
that the Emperor will sell Vicenza to them for a sum of
Upon the conclusion of the peace between the Emperor and
Venice depends the war which the Emperor, the King of
England, and he intend to undertake against France. It is his
plan, and the plan of his allies, to invade France on all sides ;
that is to say, he will invade France in Guienne, the King of
England at Calais, and the Emperor in Gueldres and in Burgundy.
If Guienne, Normandy, and Burgundy are wrested
from France by force of arms, the French armies will always
find full employment at home, and it will be impossible to
send them to Italy.
The Venetian ambassador has asked him to deliver Brescia
to the Signory. Would be glad to do so, had not the Pope,
who is the head of the league, ordered him in a brief to deliver
Brescia to the Emperor.—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 7.
|11 Jan. (?)
S. E. Var. L. 1554.
82. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Ramon De Cardona,
his Viceroy Of Naples, and Captain-General of
his Army in Italy.
Has received letters from the Cardinal of Gurk, Pedro de
Urea, and Hieronymo de Vich, by which he has been informed
that the Cardinal of Gurk has concluded an alliance between
the Pope and the Emperor, from which the Venetians are
excluded. Nothing could be more favourable to the French
and more detrimental to the allies than such a treaty. The
league loses a powerful ally, whom France gains. His
ambassadors say they have concluded this treaty in order not
to lose the Emperor, but that is no excuse. Has revoked the
unlimited powers he had given to his ambassadors, and ordered
them henceforth to ask for his special orders respecting everything.
Affairs on which the destinies of Christendom depend
cannot be left to the decision of ambassadors.
Has told the Cardinal of Gurk and Pedro de Urea that
the present treaty has no other object than that of preventing
the Pope from making a separate peace with France, and
obliging his Holiness to assist the allies if they decide on a war
with Venice. It had been his plan, on the one hand, to conclude
a very intimate alliance between all the princes who
possess states in Italy, and to expel the French from that
country ; and, on the other hand, to concert an invasion
of France with the King of England and the Emperor, the
King of England attacking her from the side of Calais, he
(King Ferdinand) in Guienne, and the Emperor in Burgundy.
The treaty with England had been then already nearly concluded.
As all the attacks on France were to have been made
at the same time, the King of France would have been obliged
to divide his forces, and it was certain that he would have been
beaten on all sides. The King of England and he ought, in his
opinion, to have paid all the expenses of their enterprises, whilst
the Pope, the Venetians, and the Duke of Milan would have
had to pay 7,000 or 8,000 German troops for the Emperor. In
about six months the King of England would have conquered
Guienne and Normandy ; the Prince (fn. 2) Burgundy, Gueldres,
and the towns in Picardy of which the King of France has
robbed him. The King of France would also have been
forced to conclude whatever treaty the allies might have chosen
to dictate to him. If the King of England had reconquered
Guienne and Normandy, the King of France would never
have thought of attacking Italy, as he would have always had
the enemy in his own country. No greater security for Italy
could have been found than this.
When all was ready for execution the Emperor made everything
impossible by his uncontrollable hatred against the
Venetians. If the Emperor thinks he can conquer Venice
with the help of the King of France, he must not forget that
in order to gain the assistance of the French he must first
give them Milan. The French, once masters of Milan, would
soon have the whole of Italy.
God is punishing the princes of Christendom for their neglect
of the Church, which stands so much in need of thorough
reformation. Is of opinion that as long as the Church is not
thoroughly reformed wars will never cease, and that the
Emperor and he ought to do all in their power to bring about
a perfect understanding between the princes of Christendom
in as far as the reformation of the Church is concerned. If
the King of France and the King of England will only agree
on that point, the other princes will not be able, from respect
to their private interests, to oppose the reformation of the
All this he has told the Cardinal of Gurk ; supposes, however,
that the Emperor will soon make peace with Venice.
Is ready to reconcile himself with the King of France on
the following conditions : namely, that,—
1. The King of France shall unconditionally renounce
his claims on the kingdom of Naples in favour of the crown of
Aragon, whilst he (King Ferdinand) and the Queen his wife
will renounce all their rights on Bearn, Foix, and the other
dominions of King Juan d'Albret and Queen Katharine, his
2. The King of France must promise never to aid the King
and Queen of Navarra against Spain, whilst he (King Ferdinand)
and the Queen his wife will promise never to assist the
King and Queen of Navarra against France.
The King of England will make peace with the King of
France on condition that the King of France pay the
King of England the pensions he used to pay him, and that
the former treaties concluded between them be revived.
The Emperor ought to make as good a bargain with France
in respect to Gueldres and Milan as may be possible for him.
It will, at all events, be necessary to give Milan back to
France. As for the war with Venice, it will be best to
persuade the King of France to aid with money instead
of sending troops. If the Emperor can obtain money, good
German troops will not be wanting to him.
The war with Venice, however, ought not to begin before
the reformation of the Church is carried out.
The King of France must deliver to the Emperor, Dijon
and other places in Burgundy, and the fortresses of Milan and
Cremona, as security for his good faith.
The Emperor ought to take care not to break off the
marriage engagement between Prince Charles and the sister
of the King of England. If that match were to be broken off,
the King of England would be lost for ever to them, and
the King of France would gain him. Should, however, the
King of England propose another marriage for his sister,
that proposal might be accepted, and the prince might be
married to a French princess. Even if a peace with France
is concluded, the Emperor, the King of England, and he ought
to preserve their more intimate alliance. The Emperor
ought on no condition to conclude the treaty with France
without first consulting the King of England and him, and
English as well as Spanish ambassadors must be present at
its conclusion. The reformation of the Church and the
conquest of Venice are to be kept strictly secret.
Knows perfectly well the dangers which will follow from
the possession of Milan by the French, but hopes that God
will help them to overcome every obstacle as soon as they
have thoroughly reformed the Church.
Neither the Pope nor the Venetians are to know anything
of the contents of this letter, and he is to do all in his power
to persuade the Venetians to give back Vicenza to the
Emperor and to make peace with him.
It would be a good thing if he could maintain his army and
avoid the necessity of disbanding it.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 13.
|18 Jan. (?)
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I.
L. 5. f. 135.
83. Miguel Perez Almazan (?), First Secretary to King
Ferdinand The Catholic, to Juan Dalbion and
Cabanillas, Spanish Ambassadors in France.
Letters from Rome state that the French are trying to sow
dissension between his master and the Emperor. If that be
true, all the negotiations of the French there (in Spain?) are
This courier is going to England. If they think that the
French will not permit the courier to accomplish his journey,
they are to put the letter in another envelope, and to direct
it to Madame Margaret in Flanders. As soon, however, as
the courier has passed the French guards on the frontier, he is
to change his route and to go to Calais, tearing off from the
letter the false envelope.
After having read these lines they must burn them.—No
date. No signature.
Spanish. Enclosure in the foregoing letter. p. 1.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar. A. 9.
84. The Clauses of a Projected Treaty which were
Settled between Margaret, Archduchess Of Austria,
in the name of the Emperor Elect, and the
English Ambassadors in Flanders. (fn. 3)
Madame Margaret, in the name of the Emperor her father,
and the Ambassadors of the King of England conclude the
following treaty :—
1. All former treaties between the Emperor and the King
of England remain in full force, in as far as they are not
expressly abrogated by this treaty.
2. The contracting parties bind themselves to assist one
another in defending the Church and their own present
dominions, as well as those which they may conquer in future,
against any aggressor whatever, and especially against the
King of France.
3. The contracting parties bind themselves to declare war
on the King of France within [blank] after the conclusion of
this treaty, and to begin actual hostilities within [blank]
after the declaration of war.
The Pope is to make war on France in Dauphiné, Provence,
The Emperor binds himself to make war upon the King of
France in France and in all parts out of Italy.
The King of England is to carry on hostilities with France in
Aquitaine, Picardy, Normandy, and other provinces of France.
4. The allies bind themselves to forbid their subjects, under
pain of death, to take service with the King of France, or to
5. The Emperor binds himself to recall the prelates of the
Empire and of his other dominions who are in Pisa, and
who are taking part in the schismatical council.
6. The Pope binds himself to excommunicate all the enemies
of this league.
7. The King of England binds himself to pay the Emperor
125,000 gold scudos, of which 25,000 are to be paid as
soon as the treaty is signed and ratified by the Emperor. The
remaining 100,000 gold scudos are, at the same time, to be
deposited by the King of England in the hands of some third
trustworthy person, and are to be employed to pay the army
of the Emperor.
8. Prince Charles is not to form a party to this treaty, but
the allies are bound to defend him if his dominions are invaded
by the French.
9. The Pope and the King of Aragon are to ratify this
treaty within two months ; the Emperor and the King of
England are to do the same within one month.
[Added in another handwriting :]
10. The article respecting the woad (?) merchants is to be
left out. (fn. 4)
11. A more important place is to be assigned to the King
of Aragon, the common friend of the Emperor and the King
Indorsed : "The clauses which Madame has concluded with
the English ambassadors in Flanders."
Latin. Draft. pp. 5.
This document is the rough draft of the treaty of the 5th
of April, 1513. It seems to have been sent to King
Ferdinand for his approval.