P. A. d. l'E. Mon.
Hist. K. 1639. 26.
91. Truce between Maximilian, Emperor Of The Romans,
Henry VIII., King Of England, King Ferdinand
The Catholic, and Charles, Prince Of Spain, on
the one part ; and Louis, King Of France, James,
King Of Scotland, and Charles, Duke Of Gueldres,
on the other part.
Odet de Foix, ambassador of the King of France, acting
in his own name and in the name of the King of Scotland,
and of the Duke of Gueldres ; and Jacobus de Cuchillos,
Bishop of Catania, authorized by the power of King Ferdinand,
given in his own name as well as in the name of the Emperor,
the King of England, Queen Juana (according to the public
instrument dated Medina del Campo, the 25th of February
1513), and Prince Charles conclude the following treaty of
truce and abstinence from hostilities for the space of one year,
beginning from the date of this treaty.
1. All hostilities between the contracting parties are to
cease on this side the Italian mountains.
2. Although the King of France declares that he is at peace
with the Emperor, the Emperor is nevertheless included in
this treaty, as King Ferdinand demands his inclusion.
3. All the subjects of the contracting parties are at liberty
to carry on commerce in such dominions of the other contracting
parties as are situated on this side the Italian mountains.
4. No subjects of the contracting princes shall be oppressed
or suffer injustice in the countries of the other contracting
5. The couriers and messengers of the contracting parties
are at liberty to travel through the dominions of all the other
6. This treaty is to be published in Bayonne, Fuentarabia,
Narbonne, and Perpignan, and in the seaports of the Atlantic
Ocean within ten days, and by the King of England and the
Duke of Gueldres as soon as possible.
7. King Ferdinand is to swear to this treaty within one
month, the Emperor, the King of France, the King of England,
and the Duke of Gueldres within two months. All hostilities
between the King of France, the King of England, and the
Duke of Gueldres are, however, to be immediately discontinued.
Power of the King of France to Odet de Foix, dated Blois,
the 8th of February 1512.
Power of King Ferdinand to Jacobus de Cuchillos, Bishop
of Catania, dated Medina del Campo, the 25th of February
Yo el Rey.
Miguel Perez Dalmazan.
The treaty is dated Castle of Orthez, parish of Urunhe, (fn. 1)
diocese of Bayonne, Friday, the 1st of April 1513.
Odet de Foix.
Jacobus Cuchillos, Episcopus Cataniensis.
Indorsed : "The original copy of the truce."
Indorsed in a modern hand : "Por esta scriptura parece
que los Franceses cuentan el nacimiento de Jesu
Cristo un ano monos que los Españoles." (fn. 2)
Latin, with the exception of the power of the King of
France, which is written in French. Autograph,
S. T. c. I. L. 6.
92. Treaty between Maximilian, Emperor Elect, Henry,
King Of England, Ferdinand, King Of Aragon
and Governor Of Castile, and Charles, Prince Of
Spain, on the one part ; and Louis, King Of
France, James, King Of Scotland, and Charles,
Duke Of Gueldres, on the other part.
Odet de Foix, Seigneur de Lautrec, in the name of the
King of France and his allies, and Jacobus de Cuchillos,
Bishop of Catania, in the name of King Ferdinand the
Catholic and his allies, conclude the following treaty.
A truce having been concluded between the contracting
parties, they bind themselves to permit the couriers of any
one of them to travel in their countries without arresting
or troubling them in any manner.
Orthez, diocese of Bayonne, the 1st of April 1513.
Latin. Autograph, pp. 2.
S. E. I.
L. 806. f. 22.
93. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
After having written the other letters which are sent by this
courier, it has seemed to him best to conclude the truce with
France in such a manner that on this side the mountains no
war should be carried on. Otherwise it might happen that one
of the allies might be at peace whilst another was involved in
war. The negotiations of peace will also be easier if all the
allies take part in them ; and if the Italians see that hostilities
cease in all other parts except in their own country, they will
be the readier to reconcile themselves with one another, to
make some efforts for the defence of their country, and to aid
their friends. Besides, the Venetians will raise fewer difficulties
about the conclusion of peace with the Emperor.
The King of England and he (King Ferdinand) can carry
on their negotiations with the King of France and with the
states of Italy at the same time. If the King of France offers
acceptable conditions to the Emperor, the King of England,
and him, peace with France may be concluded, and if not,
they will be strong enough, with the assistance of the Italians,
to do what they like.
Has concluded on the 1st April a truce between the Emperor,
the King of England, and himself, in his name as well
as in the name of Queen Juana and of Prince Charles, on
the one part, and the King of France, the King of Scotland,
and the Duke of Gueldres, on the other part. A copy of the
treaty is enclosed.
He is to tell the King of England that the Italians, being
constantly divided among themselves by the influence of Pope
Julius, were not only of no advantage to their allies, but
were really obstacles in their path. As the Emperor was
inclined to make a separate peace with France, and as he
(King Ferdinand) had not yet come to an understanding with
the King of England on the measures to be taken (against
France), the best thing that could be done was to conclude a
general truce for all parts of Europe on this side the mountains.
During this truce the Emperor, the King of England, and
he (King Ferdinand) can conjointly conclude an advantageous
peace with France, if the King of France wishes it, or arrange
the affairs of Italy in such a manner that the King of
England and he may undertake a war with France with wellfounded
hope of an easy victory. Would never have consented
to conclude a truce for himself alone. Begs the King
of England to ratify it.
Is of opinion that there is no doubt France will conclude
peace and keep it. Has, however, determined not to enter
into negotiations of peace without the consent and co-operation
of England. Asks, therefore, the King of England to
have the commission or commissions for his ambassador or
ambassadors ready. Does not yet know where the ambassadors
of the Emperor, the King of France, the King of
England, and of him (King Ferdinand) are to meet.
The Cardinal de Medicis has been elected Pope. Thinks
he is a good man, and will always be their ally. Begs the
King of England to send an embassy to the new Pope,
making him great offers respecting the Church and the family
de Medicis, and asking him to reconcile all the states of Italy
with one another and with the Emperor, England, and Spain.
Wishes that the peace with France, as well as the league with
Italy, should be concluded, and that the forces of the whole of
Christendom should be directed against the Infidels.
He is to write to him without delay what the King of
England thinks of his proposals. Above all things, he is to
persuade the King of England to ratify the truce with
France. One of the principal reasons why it was concluded
was that the King of France promised to put an end to the
schismatic council.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Don Luis Caroz."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 4.
S. E. I.
L. 806. f. 20.
94. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
Is a copy or another draft of the preceding letter.
S. E. Var.
L. 1554. f. 49.
95. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Ramon De Cardona,
his Viceroy Of Naples and Captain-General of his
Army in Italy.
The Pope and the Venetians have never fulfilled their
obligations towards him, nor do they wish to see the French
entirely expelled from Italy. They even behaved in a
hostile manner when his army returned to Naples. Their
intention is to create bad feelings between him and the
King of France, in order to make use of the one prince against
On the other hand, the Pope and the Emperor have excluded
the Venetians from the league, and the Emperor will
content himself with nothing less than the utter destruction
of Venice. Thus war must continue.
Is fully persuaded that God is punishing the princes of
Christendom for the schism, and thinks it is their duty to
bring about a good and holy reformation of the Church.
The Cardinal Gurk and Don Pedro (de Urea) have written
to him that the Emperor is inclined to conclude peace with
France, in order to be at leisure to destroy Venice. Told
them that he thought very well of a peace with France, and
made proposals for compromising all the disputes which
existed between the King of France, on the one part, and
the Emperor, the King of England, and himself, on the other
part. Immediately after this reconciliation an alliance
between the Emperor, the King of France, the King of
England, and himself, he said, ought to be concluded, and the
four allied princes ought to occupy themselves seriously
with reforming the Church. If the alliance were concluded
and the Church reformed, the Emperor could afterwards, if
he had not changed his mind, destroy Venice with greater
safety to himself.
Summer is not far off, and it is time to decide whether
he will choose war or peace. If he chooses war, it must be
carried on with the utmost vigour in France itself, as the
object of it would be to conquer the provinces which the
King of England claims as his property. Such a war would
render all further negotiations of peace with France impossible,
and thus perpetuate war.
All these considerations have induced him to conclude a
truce with the King of France, not only in his own name,
but also in that of the Emperor and the King of England.
The truce is to have effect on this side the mountains of
Italy, but not in Italy. Has not extended it to Italy, in order
to have it in his power to succour the Italian states if attacked
Another reason why Italy has not been included in the
truce is that he wishes to have an instrument in his hand
wherewith to force the Venetians to grant better conditions of
peace to the Emperor, and to make all the Italian potentates
desirous of joining the alliance, if the Emperor, the King of
England, and he (King Ferdinand) decide on making war
Repeats that the reformation of the Church is the first
measure which must be executed before anything else can
be undertaken with good success.
He is to communicate all this to the Cardinal of Gurk, and
to beg him to employ his credit with the Emperor, in order
to persuade him to make peace. The ambassadors of the
Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, and of
himself ought to assemble in one place, and conduct their
negotiations in common. The result of separate negotiations
would probably be disunion, by which France alone would
Thinks the Cardinal of Gurk ought to be the ambassador
of the Emperor to the congress, or if he should be prevented
from going there, he ought to send a person whose fidelity
and zeal to reform the Church is beyond suspicion. The place
where the French, Spanish, and English ambassadors are to
meet him can be left to the choice of the cardinal.
To the Italians he is to say that he (King Ferdinand) has
concluded the truce with France because they have forsaken
him in the war, and have not fulfilled their obligations towards
him. If they will do their duty towards him, he will again
conclude an alliance with them, and help them to drive the
French out of Italy. Promises them more than this, viz., that
he will, jointly with the Emperor and the King of England,
invade France from all sides, and thus render it impossible for
her to attack Italy again.
It is very essential that both negotiations, that is to say,
those concerning a league of the Emperor, the King of
England, and himself with the King of France ; and those
concerning an alliance with the princes of Italy, be carried on
at the same time, as each of these negotiations will render
the other more easy to conclude.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 8.
S. E. A. l. 635.
96. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Urea, his
Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
By his letters, in which he tried to justify the exclusion of
the Venetians from the league, and by the letters which the
Cardinal of Gurk and the Emperor wrote to him afterwards,
it is clear that the Emperor is bent on destroying Venice ;
saying that there is no state in Christendom which is so
dangerous as Venice to the house of the Emperor, and to the
house of Spain.
From a great number of isolated facts, it is evident that
the Pope and the Venetians are working in secret to drive him
(King Ferdinand), as well as the Emperor, out of Italy. Has
discovered some negotiations relating to this subject.
Such being the state of things in Italy, and the Emperor
persisting in his plan of destroying Venice, it would be impossible
for him to continue war with France on the frontiers
He is to tell the Emperor that he (King Ferdinand) has
always desired to live on terms of intimate friendship with
him, and that his views have always been those of the
Emperor. Their principal aim is and must be to carry
out a thorough reformation of the Church. If Christian
princes do not do all in their power thoroughly and truly to
effect this measure, they will not serve God ; and if they do
not serve God, God will not help them in their worldly
concerns. But if the Emperor and he serve God, God will do
their business better even than they could desire.
He (Don Pedro de Urea) has written to him that the
Emperor wishes to be reconciled with the King of France, in
order to be at liberty to destroy the Venetians. Has answered
by Beltrian that he thinks well of this proposal, and that
negotiations may be opened with the King of France in order
to remove the differences existing between the Emperor and
France, between himself and France, and between the King
of England and France. That done, all four of them, namely,
the Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, and
he, ought to conclude a league, the principal object of which
should be to procure the reformation of the Church, and with
truly Christian willingness to serve God. Has written already
his opinion concerning the manner in which the differences with
France are to be removed and the league is to be concluded.
If these his plans are executed, the enterprise against the
Venetians may be undertaken without fear that any of the
dangers should occur which had beset the last enterprise.
Sends a duplicate of his last despatch, in which he explained
his intentions more fully.
Summer is approaching, and it is necessary to come to
a decision whether war with France is to be continued, or
negotiations of peace are to be opened. Should it be decided
to continue the war, their armies might soon invade France,
and the conquest of the French provinces which the King
of England claims as his property might be attempted. The
presence of their armies on French soil would, however,
be a great obstacle (to the conclusion of peace with France).
In order to avoid this difficulty and to render an alliance
with France possible, he has concluded a truce with France
in his name and in the name of the Emperor and of the
King of England. In doing so he has been animated by
a desire to consult the wishes of the Emperor, knowing
that he desired to be at peace with France. This truce
comprises all the Imperial, English, and Spanish dominions
on this side the Italian mountains. In Italy it has no force.
His reason for excluding Italy from the truce was that he
and his allies might be at liberty to assist the Italians if the
French should make difficulties about offering reasonable conditions
of peace. If the Italians were left unassisted, France
would probably conquer the Italian cities which she has lost,
and perhaps, much more. Elated by these conquests, she
would not grant acceptable conditions of peace. Another
reason for excluding the Italians from the truce was to force
the Venetians to grant more advantageous conditions to the
Emperor, in case he should wish to make peace with them.
Lastly, it is a great advantage in the arrangements he has
made that the Pope and the Venetians, in consequence of their
exclusion from the truce with France, would readily assist
them (the Emperor, King Ferdinand, and the King of
England) should they think fit to attack France. Thus, the
truce is advantageous to them whatever may be decided upon
At all events, his opinion is that peace with France is
most desirable. Repeats once more that if they (the Emperor,
King Ferdinand, and the King of England) dedicate their
energies to the service of God, and obtain the reformation
of the Church, God will help them afterwards and favour
them in their enterprise on Venice.
As he has concluded the truce with France principally
with a view of serving the interests of the Emperor, he hopes
the Emperor will raise no difficulties about ratifying it as soon
as the King of France sends him his ratification. The Emperor
may perhaps think that a truce between him and the King
of France is superfluous. But even if that be the case, he
must beg the Emperor not to withhold his ratification of the
treaty with France, since, if he did so, it would be believed
that he (King Ferdinand) and he (the Emperor) entertained
different views about the pending affairs of state. As for a
peace with France, he would not, for any consideration in the
world, have concluded it without first consulting the Emperor
and the King of England. If the Emperor and the King of
England, instead of ratifying the treaty he has concluded,
were to open separate negotiations with France, France would
most probably make them great promises, but as certainly
not keep her promises to any of them. But if the Emperor, the
King of England, and he (King Ferdinand), either in person
or through their ambassadors, negotiate conjointly with the
King of France, he will not dare to break his word.
What the Emperor ought to do is to nominate as his
ambassador the Cardinal of Gurk, or if the Cardinal is prevented,
another person who is very faithful to him and a zealous
servant of the Church. The Emperor ought to provide his
ambassador with ample powers, and send him to the place
where the other ambassadors are to meet. The Imperial, the
French, the English, and the Spanish ambassadors can then
adjust all particular differences between their sovereigns, and,
that done, conclude a general peace and a league between them.
The object of the league would be to secure a good and holy
reformation of the Church, and afterwards to carry out the
designs of the Emperor against the Venetians, with respect to
which enterprise he has already more fully explained his intentions
in his letter sent by Beltrian. If he and Monseigneur
de Gurk should not be with the Emperor, they must go and
see him immediately. They must tell him that, in order to
obtain favourable conditions from France, it would be well
to enter into two different negotiations, one with France and
the other with the Italian states. Such a double negotiation
would act as a pressure. The King of England is at all events
to be a party to the treaty of peace with France. The object
in view in the negotiations with the Italians is to force
the Venetians first to make peace with the Emperor, and then
to enter with the other Italian states into a league with the
Emperor, the King of England, and him (King Ferdinand). By
means of this league the safety of Italy and the extinction
of the schism will be secured. The members of the league
will have to bind themselves, and to give security that they
will punctually pay their quota for the maintenance of a
common army. On the Italian states there might, besides
this, be imposed the obligation to pay the Emperor the
money necessary for 8,000 foot, which troops would have to
be employed in the conquest of Gueldres and Burgundy.
Sends this despatch by a flying courier by land. Expects
likewise by a flying courier by land the answer of the
Emperor. Will send another courier and inform him of the
place where the ambassadors are to meet. If France grants
conditions which are advantageous to the Emperor, to him
(King Ferdinand), and to the Prince, their common son, (fn. 3) the
peace with France is to be concluded without delay. It would
render the reformation of the Church and the enterprise
against the Venetians an easy work for them.
If, on the contrary, France refuses favourable conditions,
he, the Emperor, and the King of England can conclude the
league with the Italians. Begs the Emperor to write to the
Italians that he (King Ferdinand) has been induced to
conclude the truce with France principally by the obstinate
refusal of the Venetians to make peace with the Emperor on
reasonable conditions, and by the unfriendly behaviour of
the Venetians and the Pope towards the Emperor and him
(King Ferdinand). As soon as the league between the Pope,
the Emperor, the King of England, him (King Ferdinand),
and the Italian states is concluded, Italy and the whole of
Christendom will be safe. He and the Emperor might then
seriously think of reforming the Church. This reformation
has always been the principal object of his ambition. If the
Emperor will help him in this his holy enterprise, he will
assist the Emperor with all his forces in whatever he thinks
fit to undertake. He is to write what the Emperor and the
Cardinal of Gurk think of the reformation of the Church.
This matter, however, must be kept very secret until the time
appointed has come.
Has been told that the King of France is trying to sow discord
between him and the Emperor, evidently from the expectation
of obtaining thereby advantages for himself. The King of
France speaks of a certain marriage which is in contemplation,
and says that the former Cardinal (fn. 4) of Santa Croce is busy
arranging it. News is insiduously spread that the Prince (fn. 5)
his son is to come to Spain, but not in a manner befitting
a good son. The King of France thinks that, if he succeeds
in disuniting him from the Emperor, there will be no power
on earth strong enough to resist him (King of France). He
must be on the look-out, and, if possible, find out the French
intrigues.—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 18.
S. E. Pat. Re.
Cap. c. 1. Cas. d. A.
97. Treaty between the Pope, the Emperor Elect, King
Ferdinand The Catholic, and King Henry VIII.
The Commissioners are—
On the part of the King of England :
Richard Wingfield ;
On the part of the Emperor elect :
The Archduchess Margaret of Austria.
No commissioners or ambassadors of the Pope and King
Ferdinand are present.
The Pope, the Emperor elect, King Ferdinand the Catholic,
and the King of England conclude the following articles :
1. All the former treaties between the contracting parties
remain in full force.
2. Peace and friendship are to be observed by the contracting
parties and their subjects towards one another.
The contracting princes bind themselves to defend the Holy
Church and their own possessions, that is to say, those which
they at present possess, as well as those which they hereafter
may acquire, against the attacks of Louis, "King of the
French." and his successors. The treaties which King Ferdinand
the Catholic has concluded with France are, however,
to remain in force.
3. As the "King of the French" withholds some provinces,
cities, towns, &c., which by right belong to the contracting
parties, the contracting parties bind themselves to declare
war with the "King of the French" within 30 days after the
date of this treaty, and within two months after the same
date to invade France.
The Pope is to invade Provence and the Dauphinate, or any
other French territories out of Italy.
The Emperor is to attack France in any territory not
belonging to Italy which he may choose.
The King of England is to attack France in Aquitaine,
Picardy, and Normandy.
King Ferdinand the Catholic is to attack France in
Bearn, Languedoc, and Aquitaine.
Each of the invading armies is to be strong enough
successfully to carry on the war and to withstand an attack
of the French. None of the contracting parties is at liberty
to conclude peace, truce, &c., with France without the
knowledge and consent of all the other contracting parties.
4. None of the contracting princes is to permit any of
his subjects to take service in the armies of the "King of
5. The Emperor elect promises to recall the prelates who
are his subjects from the schismatic council.
6. The Pope binds himself to excommunicate all the enemies
of this league.
7. The King of England binds himself to pay the Emperor
elect 100,000 gold crowns, viz :—
35,000 gold crowns, payable in Gravelingen within one
month after the Emperor has declared war with France ;
35,000 gold crowns, payable as soon as the Emperor really
begins hostilities ;
30,000 gold crowns within three months after the Emperor
has begun war.
8. The treaties which the Emperor has concluded in his
quality as guardian of Prince Charles are not abrogated by
9. The Pope and King Ferdinand the Catholic are to
ratify this treaty within two months. The ratification of
King Ferdinand is to be given in his own name and in
the name of Queen Juana of Castile.
The Emperor and the King of England are to ratify
this treaty within one month.
The contracting parties are to swear to this treaty.
10. The Pope and King Ferdinand the Catholic are at
liberty to nominate their friends and allies whom they wish
to include in this treaty within two months time.
The Emperor includes in this treaty the Kings of Hungary,
Portugal, Scotland, Denmark, Poland, the Princes Electors of
the Holy Empire, the Dukes of Cleves and Juliers, and the
Bishop of Utrecht.
The King of England includes in this treaty the Kings
of Scotland, Denmark, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, the Duke
of Saxony, the Hanse Towns, and the Swiss.
Other princes and republics may be included afterwards.
Power of the King of England.
Power of the King of the Romans and Emperor elect.
Malines, the 5th of April 1513, after Easter.
Latin. Contemporary copy or draft. pp. 9.
Printed in Rymer.
S. E. Var. L. 1554.
98. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Ramon De Cardona,
his Viceroy Of Naples and Captain-General of
his Army in Italy.
The election of the Cardinal de Medicis as Vicar of
Christ is the most holy election that could be made.
Has written to Hieronymo de Vich to speak to the Pope as
He and his daughter, the Queen of Castile, will always
be the obedient son and daughter of the Pope.
The Pope ought to gain over the Duke of Ferrara.
The Pope ought to restore Parma and Piacenza to the
Duke of Milan.
The Pope ought to take good care of Bologna.
The Pope ought to content himself with defending what
belongs to him, and not covet the property of other princes.
The Pope ought to conclude an Italian defensive league.
The Pope ought to preserve the friendship of the Swiss.
He ought to reconcile the Emperor with Venice.
He ought to try whether he cannot conclude a general
For that purpose he must send briefs to the Emperor, to
the King of France, the King of England, and him (King
Ferdinand), and tell them how much he regrets all the blood
and money wasted in wars between Christian princes, since
with the same sacrifice of life and money great conquests
might have been made over the Turks. He ought to convoke
a congress of ambassadors from the Emperor, France,
England, and Spain in Rome, and to be the mediator of
a general peace of Christendom. In no case, however,
ought his Holiness to conclude a peace with France without
including in it the Emperor, the King of England, and him
Churches in Spain.
Obedience to be given to the Pope, &c.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 11.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 6. f. 6.
99. Henry VIII., King Of England, to Thomas, Earl Of
Commissions him to conclude a league and alliance with
the ambassador of King Ferdinand the Catholic and of
Queen Juana of Castile, and in general with the ambassador
of any prince who wishes to be a member of this league.—
Westminster, the 12th of April, 4th Henry VIII.
Latin. Autograph. Written on parchment. p. 1.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 6. f. 7.
100. Henry VIII., King Of England, to Thomas, Earl Of
Is a copy of the preceding power.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 6. f. 10.
101. Treaty between Henry VIII., King Of England, and
King Ferdinand The Catholic.
Thomas, Earl of Surrey, commissioned by the King of
England, and Luis Caroz de Villaragut, ambassador of King
Ferdinand (who acts for himself, for the Emperor elect, and
for Queen Juana of Castile) conclude the following treaty,
the principal object of which is to defend Holy Church against
1. All treaties of peace, commerce, and intercourse between
England and Spain remain in full force, except in as far as
they are expressly abrogated by this treaty.
2. Perpetual peace and friendship between the contracting
parties and all their subjects are to last henceforth for all time.
The contracting princes bind themselves to assist one another
in defending the Holy Church, and their own present as well
as future states, dominions, and territories, &c., against all
and every aggression of the King of France and his allies.
3. They bind themselves to declare war on France within
thirty days, and to begin actual hostilities, at the latest, within
two months. The King of England is to carry on war
with France in Aquitaine, Picardy, and Normandy ; King
Ferdinand in Bearn, Languedoc, and Aquitaine, and wherever
French subjects are to be found out of Italy. The English
forces, as well as the Spanish troops, are to be composed of
infantry, cavalry, and artillery, and to be strong enough
to resist or to attack the French single-handed.
4. Each of the contracting parties binds himself to forbid
his subjects to enter into the service of the King of France,
or to accept pensions from him, under pain of death and confiscation
of their property. Each of the contracting parties,
however, is at liberty to take into his service subjects of the
other contracting party.
5. The Emperor elect is within one year to revoke the
letters patent by which he has allowed his cardinals to take
part in the schismatic council.
6. The contracting parties bind themselves to use their
influence with the Pope in order to persuade him to excommunicate
all the abettors and subjects of the King of France,
whenever and as often as he is requested by the contracting
parties, or any of them, to do so.
7. The Emperor elect does not intend and is not to be
forced to alter, in his quality of guardian of his grandson
Prince Charles, any treaties which that prince has concluded
with other princes, or to begin war in the name of Prince
Charles with any power whatsoever.
8. The King of England and the Emperor are to ratify this
treaty within one month ; King Ferdinand, for himself and
Queen Juana, within two months.
9. In case the Pope should enter into this league, he is
at liberty to name his friends and confederates till the month
of August, or within eight days after this treaty has been
communicated to him.
The King of England includes the Kings of Scotland,
Denmark, Hungary, Poland, and the Hanse Towns.
The Emperor elect includes the Kings of Portugal,
Scotland, Denmark, Poland, the Prince Electors of the
Holy Empire, the Dukes of Cleves and Juliers, and the
Bishop of Utrecht.
King Ferdinand is at liberty afterwards to name his
friends whom he wishes to have included in this treaty.
10. All other princes who wish to be members of this
league can be admitted to it.
Power of the King of England for Thomas, Earl of Surrey.
—Dated Westminster, the 12th of April, 4th Henry
Power of King Ferdinand.—Dated Burgos, the 20th of
The treaty is dated London, St. Bernard's Castle, the
18th of April 1513.
Indorsed : "League between the Catholic King and King
Henry of England, concluded in April, 1513."
S. E. R.
L 847. f. 103.
102. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Hieronymo De Vich,
his Ambassador in Rome.
Wrote to him on the 11th January, and gave him his
opinion about the league between the Pope and the Emperor,
disapproving the exclusion of the Venetians from it. Sent him
afterwards another courier, and informed him that he and the
King of England were preparing to invade France with great
forces on two sides. Asked at the same time that the peace
between the Emperor and the Venetians should be concluded,
and a general league of the Italian states formed for the defence
of Italy and the suppression of the schism. But, in spite of his
demands, the Venetians remain excluded, peace between them,
and the Emperor is not made, the Pope and the Venetians
have never paid the money they are under obligations to pay
him for his troops in Italy, his army has been insulted and
obstacles have been thrown in its way, the castles of Milan
and Cremona still remain in the power of the French, and
the Italians have shown on different occasions that their
only wish is that he and the King of France should destroy
one another, that so they might get rid of both of them.
Does not think that the Italians will amend if pressure be
not put on them. Has therefore concluded a truce with France
for all the territories of his allies on this side the mountains.
The truce is concluded in his name and in the names of the
Emperor and the King of England. Italy is excluded from this
truce. Is at liberty to assist the Italians if he likes to do so.
He is to tell the Pope, that, if the Italians have decided to
conclude a general league for the defence of Italy and the
expulsion of the French from that country, they will find him
(King Ferdinand) ready to be the first to enter the league.
When the French army was encamped on the borders of the
Gariglano, that is to say, in the midst of his own country, he
made a truce with France, from which he excluded Italy.
Did so in order to be able to employ all his forces in Italy.
Although he was left alone, he had then defeated the French.
The truce he has now concluded has exactly the same meaning
as the other one had. It is not his intention to leave his other
allies much work to do. But although he is prepared to do
all the work, the Italians must not think that he alone will
bear all the expenses of the war. They must fulfil their
obligations towards him. The peace between the Venetians
and the Emperor must be concluded soon. The Pope and the
Venetians must pay the Emperor the expenses of 8,000 foot
for his conquest of Burgundy. He must promise the Italians in
his (King Ferdinand's) name that if they do their duty be
(King Ferdinand), the Emperor, and the King of England will
invade France with three powerful armies, and weaken her
so much that she will never again think of conquests in Italy.
The general Italian league must be concluded without
delay. He must, however, communicate to him the articles of
the treaty, and ask his orders, before he signs the league.
If the Italians conclude the league, his army and the army
of the King of England will invade France. If, on the
contrary, the league is not soon concluded, neither he nor the
King of England will attack France.
He must send him an answer without delay.—No date.
Indorsed : "Vich."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 6.
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 1.
103. Luis Caroz, Ambassador of King Ferdinand The
Catholic in England, to All Persons.
Swears, in the name of King Ferdinand the Catholic and of
Queen Juana of Castile, to the treaty concluded with the
King of England on the 18th of April 1513.
Latin. Copy. p. 1.