Spain
April 1513

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Institute of Historical Research

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G. A. Bergenroth (editor)

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1866

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104-117

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'Spain: April 1513', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2: 1509-1525 (1866), pp. 104-117. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=93616 Date accessed: 31 August 2014.


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April 1513

1 April.
P. A. d. l'E. Mon. Hist. K. 1639. 26.
91. Truce between Maximilian, Emperor Of The Romans, Henry VIII., King Of England, King Ferdinand The Catholic, and Charles, Prince Of Spain, on the one part ; and Louis, King Of France, James, King Of Scotland, and Charles, Duke Of Gueldres, on the other part.
Odet de Foix, ambassador of the King of France, acting in his own name and in the name of the King of Scotland, and of the Duke of Gueldres ; and Jacobus de Cuchillos, Bishop of Catania, authorized by the power of King Ferdinand, given in his own name as well as in the name of the Emperor, the King of England, Queen Juana (according to the public instrument dated Medina del Campo, the 25th of February 1513), and Prince Charles conclude the following treaty of truce and abstinence from hostilities for the space of one year, beginning from the date of this treaty.
1. All hostilities between the contracting parties are to cease on this side the Italian mountains.
2. Although the King of France declares that he is at peace with the Emperor, the Emperor is nevertheless included in this treaty, as King Ferdinand demands his inclusion.
3. All the subjects of the contracting parties are at liberty to carry on commerce in such dominions of the other contracting parties as are situated on this side the Italian mountains.
4. No subjects of the contracting princes shall be oppressed or suffer injustice in the countries of the other contracting princes.
5. The couriers and messengers of the contracting parties are at liberty to travel through the dominions of all the other contracting parties.
6. This treaty is to be published in Bayonne, Fuentarabia, Narbonne, and Perpignan, and in the seaports of the Atlantic Ocean within ten days, and by the King of England and the Duke of Gueldres as soon as possible.
7. King Ferdinand is to swear to this treaty within one month, the Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, and the Duke of Gueldres within two months. All hostilities between the King of France, the King of England, and the Duke of Gueldres are, however, to be immediately discontinued.
Power of the King of France to Odet de Foix, dated Blois, the 8th of February 1512.
(Signed)
Loys.
Robertet.
Power of King Ferdinand to Jacobus de Cuchillos, Bishop of Catania, dated Medina del Campo, the 25th of February 1513.
(Signed)
Yo el Rey.
Miguel Perez Dalmazan.
The treaty is dated Castle of Orthez, parish of Urunhe, (fn. 1) diocese of Bayonne, Friday, the 1st of April 1513.
Odet de Foix.
Jacobus Cuchillos, Episcopus Cataniensis.
Indorsed : "The original copy of the truce."
Indorsed in a modern hand : "Por esta scriptura parece que los Franceses cuentan el nacimiento de Jesu Cristo un ano monos que los Españoles." (fn. 2)
Latin, with the exception of the power of the King of France, which is written in French. Autograph, pp. 9.
1 April.
S. T. c. I. L. 6. f. 17.
92. Treaty between Maximilian, Emperor Elect, Henry, King Of England, Ferdinand, King Of Aragon and Governor Of Castile, and Charles, Prince Of Spain, on the one part ; and Louis, King Of France, James, King Of Scotland, and Charles, Duke Of Gueldres, on the other part.
Odet de Foix, Seigneur de Lautrec, in the name of the King of France and his allies, and Jacobus de Cuchillos, Bishop of Catania, in the name of King Ferdinand the Catholic and his allies, conclude the following treaty.
A truce having been concluded between the contracting parties, they bind themselves to permit the couriers of any one of them to travel in their countries without arresting or troubling them in any manner.
Orthez, diocese of Bayonne, the 1st of April 1513.
Latin. Autograph, pp. 2.
April.
S. E. I. L. 806. f. 22.
93. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
After having written the other letters which are sent by this courier, it has seemed to him best to conclude the truce with France in such a manner that on this side the mountains no war should be carried on. Otherwise it might happen that one of the allies might be at peace whilst another was involved in war. The negotiations of peace will also be easier if all the allies take part in them ; and if the Italians see that hostilities cease in all other parts except in their own country, they will be the readier to reconcile themselves with one another, to make some efforts for the defence of their country, and to aid their friends. Besides, the Venetians will raise fewer difficulties about the conclusion of peace with the Emperor.
The King of England and he (King Ferdinand) can carry on their negotiations with the King of France and with the states of Italy at the same time. If the King of France offers acceptable conditions to the Emperor, the King of England, and him, peace with France may be concluded, and if not, they will be strong enough, with the assistance of the Italians, to do what they like.
Has concluded on the 1st April a truce between the Emperor, the King of England, and himself, in his name as well as in the name of Queen Juana and of Prince Charles, on the one part, and the King of France, the King of Scotland, and the Duke of Gueldres, on the other part. A copy of the treaty is enclosed.
He is to tell the King of England that the Italians, being constantly divided among themselves by the influence of Pope Julius, were not only of no advantage to their allies, but were really obstacles in their path. As the Emperor was inclined to make a separate peace with France, and as he (King Ferdinand) had not yet come to an understanding with the King of England on the measures to be taken (against France), the best thing that could be done was to conclude a general truce for all parts of Europe on this side the mountains. During this truce the Emperor, the King of England, and he (King Ferdinand) can conjointly conclude an advantageous peace with France, if the King of France wishes it, or arrange the affairs of Italy in such a manner that the King of England and he may undertake a war with France with wellfounded hope of an easy victory. Would never have consented to conclude a truce for himself alone. Begs the King of England to ratify it.
Is of opinion that there is no doubt France will conclude peace and keep it. Has, however, determined not to enter into negotiations of peace without the consent and co-operation of England. Asks, therefore, the King of England to have the commission or commissions for his ambassador or ambassadors ready. Does not yet know where the ambassadors of the Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, and of him (King Ferdinand) are to meet.
The Cardinal de Medicis has been elected Pope. Thinks he is a good man, and will always be their ally. Begs the King of England to send an embassy to the new Pope, making him great offers respecting the Church and the family de Medicis, and asking him to reconcile all the states of Italy with one another and with the Emperor, England, and Spain. Wishes that the peace with France, as well as the league with Italy, should be concluded, and that the forces of the whole of Christendom should be directed against the Infidels.
He is to write to him without delay what the King of England thinks of his proposals. Above all things, he is to persuade the King of England to ratify the truce with France. One of the principal reasons why it was concluded was that the King of France promised to put an end to the schismatic council.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Don Luis Caroz."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 4.
April.
S. E. I. L. 806. f. 20.
94. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
Is a copy or another draft of the preceding letter.
April.
S. E. Var. L. 1554. f. 49.
95. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Ramon De Cardona, his Viceroy Of Naples and Captain-General of his Army in Italy.
The Pope and the Venetians have never fulfilled their obligations towards him, nor do they wish to see the French entirely expelled from Italy. They even behaved in a hostile manner when his army returned to Naples. Their intention is to create bad feelings between him and the King of France, in order to make use of the one prince against the other.
On the other hand, the Pope and the Emperor have excluded the Venetians from the league, and the Emperor will content himself with nothing less than the utter destruction of Venice. Thus war must continue.
Is fully persuaded that God is punishing the princes of Christendom for the schism, and thinks it is their duty to bring about a good and holy reformation of the Church.
The Cardinal Gurk and Don Pedro (de Urea) have written to him that the Emperor is inclined to conclude peace with France, in order to be at leisure to destroy Venice. Told them that he thought very well of a peace with France, and made proposals for compromising all the disputes which existed between the King of France, on the one part, and the Emperor, the King of England, and himself, on the other part. Immediately after this reconciliation an alliance between the Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, and himself, he said, ought to be concluded, and the four allied princes ought to occupy themselves seriously with reforming the Church. If the alliance were concluded and the Church reformed, the Emperor could afterwards, if he had not changed his mind, destroy Venice with greater safety to himself.
Summer is not far off, and it is time to decide whether he will choose war or peace. If he chooses war, it must be carried on with the utmost vigour in France itself, as the object of it would be to conquer the provinces which the King of England claims as his property. Such a war would render all further negotiations of peace with France impossible, and thus perpetuate war.
All these considerations have induced him to conclude a truce with the King of France, not only in his own name, but also in that of the Emperor and the King of England. The truce is to have effect on this side the mountains of Italy, but not in Italy. Has not extended it to Italy, in order to have it in his power to succour the Italian states if attacked by France.
Another reason why Italy has not been included in the truce is that he wishes to have an instrument in his hand wherewith to force the Venetians to grant better conditions of peace to the Emperor, and to make all the Italian potentates desirous of joining the alliance, if the Emperor, the King of England, and he (King Ferdinand) decide on making war with France.
Repeats that the reformation of the Church is the first measure which must be executed before anything else can be undertaken with good success.
He is to communicate all this to the Cardinal of Gurk, and to beg him to employ his credit with the Emperor, in order to persuade him to make peace. The ambassadors of the Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, and of himself ought to assemble in one place, and conduct their negotiations in common. The result of separate negotiations would probably be disunion, by which France alone would profit.
Thinks the Cardinal of Gurk ought to be the ambassador of the Emperor to the congress, or if he should be prevented from going there, he ought to send a person whose fidelity and zeal to reform the Church is beyond suspicion. The place where the French, Spanish, and English ambassadors are to meet him can be left to the choice of the cardinal.
To the Italians he is to say that he (King Ferdinand) has concluded the truce with France because they have forsaken him in the war, and have not fulfilled their obligations towards him. If they will do their duty towards him, he will again conclude an alliance with them, and help them to drive the French out of Italy. Promises them more than this, viz., that he will, jointly with the Emperor and the King of England, invade France from all sides, and thus render it impossible for her to attack Italy again.
It is very essential that both negotiations, that is to say, those concerning a league of the Emperor, the King of England, and himself with the King of France ; and those concerning an alliance with the princes of Italy, be carried on at the same time, as each of these negotiations will render the other more easy to conclude.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 8.
April (?)
S. E. A. l. 635. f. 10.
96. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Urea, his Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
By his letters, in which he tried to justify the exclusion of the Venetians from the league, and by the letters which the Cardinal of Gurk and the Emperor wrote to him afterwards, it is clear that the Emperor is bent on destroying Venice ; saying that there is no state in Christendom which is so dangerous as Venice to the house of the Emperor, and to the house of Spain.
From a great number of isolated facts, it is evident that the Pope and the Venetians are working in secret to drive him (King Ferdinand), as well as the Emperor, out of Italy. Has discovered some negotiations relating to this subject.
Such being the state of things in Italy, and the Emperor persisting in his plan of destroying Venice, it would be impossible for him to continue war with France on the frontiers of Spain.
He is to tell the Emperor that he (King Ferdinand) has always desired to live on terms of intimate friendship with him, and that his views have always been those of the Emperor. Their principal aim is and must be to carry out a thorough reformation of the Church. If Christian princes do not do all in their power thoroughly and truly to effect this measure, they will not serve God ; and if they do not serve God, God will not help them in their worldly concerns. But if the Emperor and he serve God, God will do their business better even than they could desire.
He (Don Pedro de Urea) has written to him that the Emperor wishes to be reconciled with the King of France, in order to be at liberty to destroy the Venetians. Has answered by Beltrian that he thinks well of this proposal, and that negotiations may be opened with the King of France in order to remove the differences existing between the Emperor and France, between himself and France, and between the King of England and France. That done, all four of them, namely, the Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, and he, ought to conclude a league, the principal object of which should be to procure the reformation of the Church, and with truly Christian willingness to serve God. Has written already his opinion concerning the manner in which the differences with France are to be removed and the league is to be concluded. If these his plans are executed, the enterprise against the Venetians may be undertaken without fear that any of the dangers should occur which had beset the last enterprise. Sends a duplicate of his last despatch, in which he explained his intentions more fully.
Summer is approaching, and it is necessary to come to a decision whether war with France is to be continued, or negotiations of peace are to be opened. Should it be decided to continue the war, their armies might soon invade France, and the conquest of the French provinces which the King of England claims as his property might be attempted. The presence of their armies on French soil would, however, be a great obstacle (to the conclusion of peace with France). In order to avoid this difficulty and to render an alliance with France possible, he has concluded a truce with France in his name and in the name of the Emperor and of the King of England. In doing so he has been animated by a desire to consult the wishes of the Emperor, knowing that he desired to be at peace with France. This truce comprises all the Imperial, English, and Spanish dominions on this side the Italian mountains. In Italy it has no force. His reason for excluding Italy from the truce was that he and his allies might be at liberty to assist the Italians if the French should make difficulties about offering reasonable conditions of peace. If the Italians were left unassisted, France would probably conquer the Italian cities which she has lost, and perhaps, much more. Elated by these conquests, she would not grant acceptable conditions of peace. Another reason for excluding the Italians from the truce was to force the Venetians to grant more advantageous conditions to the Emperor, in case he should wish to make peace with them. Lastly, it is a great advantage in the arrangements he has made that the Pope and the Venetians, in consequence of their exclusion from the truce with France, would readily assist them (the Emperor, King Ferdinand, and the King of England) should they think fit to attack France. Thus, the truce is advantageous to them whatever may be decided upon hereafter.
At all events, his opinion is that peace with France is most desirable. Repeats once more that if they (the Emperor, King Ferdinand, and the King of England) dedicate their energies to the service of God, and obtain the reformation of the Church, God will help them afterwards and favour them in their enterprise on Venice.
As he has concluded the truce with France principally with a view of serving the interests of the Emperor, he hopes the Emperor will raise no difficulties about ratifying it as soon as the King of France sends him his ratification. The Emperor may perhaps think that a truce between him and the King of France is superfluous. But even if that be the case, he must beg the Emperor not to withhold his ratification of the treaty with France, since, if he did so, it would be believed that he (King Ferdinand) and he (the Emperor) entertained different views about the pending affairs of state. As for a peace with France, he would not, for any consideration in the world, have concluded it without first consulting the Emperor and the King of England. If the Emperor and the King of England, instead of ratifying the treaty he has concluded, were to open separate negotiations with France, France would most probably make them great promises, but as certainly not keep her promises to any of them. But if the Emperor, the King of England, and he (King Ferdinand), either in person or through their ambassadors, negotiate conjointly with the King of France, he will not dare to break his word.
What the Emperor ought to do is to nominate as his ambassador the Cardinal of Gurk, or if the Cardinal is prevented, another person who is very faithful to him and a zealous servant of the Church. The Emperor ought to provide his ambassador with ample powers, and send him to the place where the other ambassadors are to meet. The Imperial, the French, the English, and the Spanish ambassadors can then adjust all particular differences between their sovereigns, and, that done, conclude a general peace and a league between them. The object of the league would be to secure a good and holy reformation of the Church, and afterwards to carry out the designs of the Emperor against the Venetians, with respect to which enterprise he has already more fully explained his intentions in his letter sent by Beltrian. If he and Monseigneur de Gurk should not be with the Emperor, they must go and see him immediately. They must tell him that, in order to obtain favourable conditions from France, it would be well to enter into two different negotiations, one with France and the other with the Italian states. Such a double negotiation would act as a pressure. The King of England is at all events to be a party to the treaty of peace with France. The object in view in the negotiations with the Italians is to force the Venetians first to make peace with the Emperor, and then to enter with the other Italian states into a league with the Emperor, the King of England, and him (King Ferdinand). By means of this league the safety of Italy and the extinction of the schism will be secured. The members of the league will have to bind themselves, and to give security that they will punctually pay their quota for the maintenance of a common army. On the Italian states there might, besides this, be imposed the obligation to pay the Emperor the money necessary for 8,000 foot, which troops would have to be employed in the conquest of Gueldres and Burgundy.
Sends this despatch by a flying courier by land. Expects likewise by a flying courier by land the answer of the Emperor. Will send another courier and inform him of the place where the ambassadors are to meet. If France grants conditions which are advantageous to the Emperor, to him (King Ferdinand), and to the Prince, their common son, (fn. 3) the peace with France is to be concluded without delay. It would render the reformation of the Church and the enterprise against the Venetians an easy work for them.
If, on the contrary, France refuses favourable conditions, he, the Emperor, and the King of England can conclude the league with the Italians. Begs the Emperor to write to the Italians that he (King Ferdinand) has been induced to conclude the truce with France principally by the obstinate refusal of the Venetians to make peace with the Emperor on reasonable conditions, and by the unfriendly behaviour of the Venetians and the Pope towards the Emperor and him (King Ferdinand). As soon as the league between the Pope, the Emperor, the King of England, him (King Ferdinand), and the Italian states is concluded, Italy and the whole of Christendom will be safe. He and the Emperor might then seriously think of reforming the Church. This reformation has always been the principal object of his ambition. If the Emperor will help him in this his holy enterprise, he will assist the Emperor with all his forces in whatever he thinks fit to undertake. He is to write what the Emperor and the Cardinal of Gurk think of the reformation of the Church. This matter, however, must be kept very secret until the time appointed has come.
Has been told that the King of France is trying to sow discord between him and the Emperor, evidently from the expectation of obtaining thereby advantages for himself. The King of France speaks of a certain marriage which is in contemplation, and says that the former Cardinal (fn. 4) of Santa Croce is busy arranging it. News is insiduously spread that the Prince (fn. 5) his son is to come to Spain, but not in a manner befitting a good son. The King of France thinks that, if he succeeds in disuniting him from the Emperor, there will be no power on earth strong enough to resist him (King of France). He must be on the look-out, and, if possible, find out the French intrigues.—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 18.
5 April.
S. E. Pat. Re. Cap. c. 1. Cas. d. A. L. 2.
97. Treaty between the Pope, the Emperor Elect, King Ferdinand The Catholic, and King Henry VIII.
The Commissioners are—
On the part of the King of England :
Edward Poynings,
Thomas Boleyn,
Richard Wingfield ;
On the part of the Emperor elect :
The Archduchess Margaret of Austria.
No commissioners or ambassadors of the Pope and King Ferdinand are present.
The Pope, the Emperor elect, King Ferdinand the Catholic, and the King of England conclude the following articles :
1. All the former treaties between the contracting parties remain in full force.
2. Peace and friendship are to be observed by the contracting parties and their subjects towards one another.
The contracting princes bind themselves to defend the Holy Church and their own possessions, that is to say, those which they at present possess, as well as those which they hereafter may acquire, against the attacks of Louis, "King of the French." and his successors. The treaties which King Ferdinand the Catholic has concluded with France are, however, to remain in force.
3. As the "King of the French" withholds some provinces, cities, towns, &c., which by right belong to the contracting parties, the contracting parties bind themselves to declare war with the "King of the French" within 30 days after the date of this treaty, and within two months after the same date to invade France.
The Pope is to invade Provence and the Dauphinate, or any other French territories out of Italy.
The Emperor is to attack France in any territory not belonging to Italy which he may choose.
The King of England is to attack France in Aquitaine, Picardy, and Normandy.
King Ferdinand the Catholic is to attack France in Bearn, Languedoc, and Aquitaine.
Each of the invading armies is to be strong enough successfully to carry on the war and to withstand an attack of the French. None of the contracting parties is at liberty to conclude peace, truce, &c., with France without the knowledge and consent of all the other contracting parties.
4. None of the contracting princes is to permit any of his subjects to take service in the armies of the "King of the French."
5. The Emperor elect promises to recall the prelates who are his subjects from the schismatic council.
6. The Pope binds himself to excommunicate all the enemies of this league.
7. The King of England binds himself to pay the Emperor elect 100,000 gold crowns, viz :—
35,000 gold crowns, payable in Gravelingen within one month after the Emperor has declared war with France ;
35,000 gold crowns, payable as soon as the Emperor really begins hostilities ;
30,000 gold crowns within three months after the Emperor has begun war.
8. The treaties which the Emperor has concluded in his quality as guardian of Prince Charles are not abrogated by this treaty.
9. The Pope and King Ferdinand the Catholic are to ratify this treaty within two months. The ratification of King Ferdinand is to be given in his own name and in the name of Queen Juana of Castile.
The Emperor and the King of England are to ratify this treaty within one month.
The contracting parties are to swear to this treaty.
10. The Pope and King Ferdinand the Catholic are at liberty to nominate their friends and allies whom they wish to include in this treaty within two months time.
The Emperor includes in this treaty the Kings of Hungary, Portugal, Scotland, Denmark, Poland, the Princes Electors of the Holy Empire, the Dukes of Cleves and Juliers, and the Bishop of Utrecht.
The King of England includes in this treaty the Kings of Scotland, Denmark, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, the Duke of Saxony, the Hanse Towns, and the Swiss.
Other princes and republics may be included afterwards.
Power of the King of England.
Power of the King of the Romans and Emperor elect.
Malines, the 5th of April 1513, after Easter.
Latin. Contemporary copy or draft. pp. 9.
Printed in Rymer.
April.
S. E. Var. L. 1554. f. 200.
98. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Ramon De Cardona, his Viceroy Of Naples and Captain-General of his Army in Italy.
The election of the Cardinal de Medicis as Vicar of Christ is the most holy election that could be made.
Has written to Hieronymo de Vich to speak to the Pope as follows.
He and his daughter, the Queen of Castile, will always be the obedient son and daughter of the Pope.
The Pope ought to gain over the Duke of Ferrara.
The Pope ought to restore Parma and Piacenza to the Duke of Milan.
The Pope ought to take good care of Bologna.
The Pope ought to content himself with defending what belongs to him, and not covet the property of other princes.
The Pope ought to conclude an Italian defensive league.
The Pope ought to preserve the friendship of the Swiss.
He ought to reconcile the Emperor with Venice.
He ought to try whether he cannot conclude a general peace.
For that purpose he must send briefs to the Emperor, to the King of France, the King of England, and him (King Ferdinand), and tell them how much he regrets all the blood and money wasted in wars between Christian princes, since with the same sacrifice of life and money great conquests might have been made over the Turks. He ought to convoke a congress of ambassadors from the Emperor, France, England, and Spain in Rome, and to be the mediator of a general peace of Christendom. In no case, however, ought his Holiness to conclude a peace with France without including in it the Emperor, the King of England, and him (King Ferdinand).
Churches in Spain.
Obedience to be given to the Pope, &c.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 11.
12 April.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 6. f. 6.
99. Henry VIII., King Of England, to Thomas, Earl Of Surrey.
Commissions him to conclude a league and alliance with the ambassador of King Ferdinand the Catholic and of Queen Juana of Castile, and in general with the ambassador of any prince who wishes to be a member of this league.— Westminster, the 12th of April, 4th Henry VIII.
(Signed)
Henry Rex.
Latin. Autograph. Written on parchment. p. 1.
12 April.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 6. f. 7.
100. Henry VIII., King Of England, to Thomas, Earl Of Surrey.
Is a copy of the preceding power.
18 April.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 6. f. 10.
101. Treaty between Henry VIII., King Of England, and King Ferdinand The Catholic.
Thomas, Earl of Surrey, commissioned by the King of England, and Luis Caroz de Villaragut, ambassador of King Ferdinand (who acts for himself, for the Emperor elect, and for Queen Juana of Castile) conclude the following treaty, the principal object of which is to defend Holy Church against her enemies.
1. All treaties of peace, commerce, and intercourse between England and Spain remain in full force, except in as far as they are expressly abrogated by this treaty.
2. Perpetual peace and friendship between the contracting parties and all their subjects are to last henceforth for all time. The contracting princes bind themselves to assist one another in defending the Holy Church, and their own present as well as future states, dominions, and territories, &c., against all and every aggression of the King of France and his allies.
3. They bind themselves to declare war on France within thirty days, and to begin actual hostilities, at the latest, within two months. The King of England is to carry on war with France in Aquitaine, Picardy, and Normandy ; King Ferdinand in Bearn, Languedoc, and Aquitaine, and wherever French subjects are to be found out of Italy. The English forces, as well as the Spanish troops, are to be composed of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, and to be strong enough to resist or to attack the French single-handed.
4. Each of the contracting parties binds himself to forbid his subjects to enter into the service of the King of France, or to accept pensions from him, under pain of death and confiscation of their property. Each of the contracting parties, however, is at liberty to take into his service subjects of the other contracting party.
5. The Emperor elect is within one year to revoke the letters patent by which he has allowed his cardinals to take part in the schismatic council.
6. The contracting parties bind themselves to use their influence with the Pope in order to persuade him to excommunicate all the abettors and subjects of the King of France, whenever and as often as he is requested by the contracting parties, or any of them, to do so.
7. The Emperor elect does not intend and is not to be forced to alter, in his quality of guardian of his grandson Prince Charles, any treaties which that prince has concluded with other princes, or to begin war in the name of Prince Charles with any power whatsoever.
8. The King of England and the Emperor are to ratify this treaty within one month ; King Ferdinand, for himself and Queen Juana, within two months.
9. In case the Pope should enter into this league, he is at liberty to name his friends and confederates till the month of August, or within eight days after this treaty has been communicated to him.
The King of England includes the Kings of Scotland, Denmark, Hungary, Poland, and the Hanse Towns.
The Emperor elect includes the Kings of Portugal, Scotland, Denmark, Poland, the Prince Electors of the Holy Empire, the Dukes of Cleves and Juliers, and the Bishop of Utrecht.
King Ferdinand is at liberty afterwards to name his friends whom he wishes to have included in this treaty.
10. All other princes who wish to be members of this league can be admitted to it.
Power of the King of England for Thomas, Earl of Surrey. —Dated Westminster, the 12th of April, 4th Henry VIII.
Power of King Ferdinand.—Dated Burgos, the 20th of July 1512.
The treaty is dated London, St. Bernard's Castle, the 18th of April 1513.
(Signed)
T. Surrey.
Indorsed : "League between the Catholic King and King Henry of England, concluded in April, 1513."
Latin. Autograph.
April (?)
S. E. R. L 847. f. 103.
102. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Hieronymo De Vich, his Ambassador in Rome.
Wrote to him on the 11th January, and gave him his opinion about the league between the Pope and the Emperor, disapproving the exclusion of the Venetians from it. Sent him afterwards another courier, and informed him that he and the King of England were preparing to invade France with great forces on two sides. Asked at the same time that the peace between the Emperor and the Venetians should be concluded, and a general league of the Italian states formed for the defence of Italy and the suppression of the schism. But, in spite of his demands, the Venetians remain excluded, peace between them, and the Emperor is not made, the Pope and the Venetians have never paid the money they are under obligations to pay him for his troops in Italy, his army has been insulted and obstacles have been thrown in its way, the castles of Milan and Cremona still remain in the power of the French, and the Italians have shown on different occasions that their only wish is that he and the King of France should destroy one another, that so they might get rid of both of them.
Does not think that the Italians will amend if pressure be not put on them. Has therefore concluded a truce with France for all the territories of his allies on this side the mountains. The truce is concluded in his name and in the names of the Emperor and the King of England. Italy is excluded from this truce. Is at liberty to assist the Italians if he likes to do so.
He is to tell the Pope, that, if the Italians have decided to conclude a general league for the defence of Italy and the expulsion of the French from that country, they will find him (King Ferdinand) ready to be the first to enter the league. When the French army was encamped on the borders of the Gariglano, that is to say, in the midst of his own country, he made a truce with France, from which he excluded Italy. Did so in order to be able to employ all his forces in Italy. Although he was left alone, he had then defeated the French. The truce he has now concluded has exactly the same meaning as the other one had. It is not his intention to leave his other allies much work to do. But although he is prepared to do all the work, the Italians must not think that he alone will bear all the expenses of the war. They must fulfil their obligations towards him. The peace between the Venetians and the Emperor must be concluded soon. The Pope and the Venetians must pay the Emperor the expenses of 8,000 foot for his conquest of Burgundy. He must promise the Italians in his (King Ferdinand's) name that if they do their duty be (King Ferdinand), the Emperor, and the King of England will invade France with three powerful armies, and weaken her so much that she will never again think of conquests in Italy.
The general Italian league must be concluded without delay. He must, however, communicate to him the articles of the treaty, and ask his orders, before he signs the league.
If the Italians conclude the league, his army and the army of the King of England will invade France. If, on the contrary, the league is not soon concluded, neither he nor the King of England will attack France.
He must send him an answer without delay.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Vich."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 6.
25 April.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 1.
103. Luis Caroz, Ambassador of King Ferdinand The Catholic in England, to All Persons.
Swears, in the name of King Ferdinand the Catholic and of Queen Juana of Castile, to the treaty concluded with the King of England on the 18th of April 1513.
Latin. Copy. p. 1.

Footnotes

1 Irun (?)
2 It is scarcely necessary to remark that this note is superfluous, and even false. The French counted the year from Easter-day to Easter-day, but did not count "one year less since the birth of Jesus Christ," or believe that Christ was born one year later.
3 Prince Charles.
4 Bernard de Carbajal, who, having taken part in the Council of Pisa, had been deprived by the Pope of his dignity of a cardinal.
5 Charles.


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