|21 May (?)
P. A. d. l'E.
Neg. K. 1638. 18.
104. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Quintana,
his Secretary and Envoy to the King Of
He is to deliver to the King of France his credentials, and
to speak to him as follows.
He and the King of France have already given "proofs to
God" that it is their earnest desire to reconcile the Emperor,
the King of France, the King of England, and himself (King
Ferdinand) with one another, and thus to restore peace and
tranquillity to the whole of Christendom. Thinks he should be
acting against the commandments of God, if he were not to do
all in his power not only to establish peace but also intimate
friendship between the King of France and himself. Is persuaded
that the best way to secure peace and friendship would
be for him and the King of France to settle all the questions
in dispute between themselves before they send their ambassadors
to the public and general conference of the envoys
from the different princes of Christendom. Sends him for
that purpose to the King of France. His mission, however,
must be kept strictly secret. Nobody, except the King and
the Queen of France, the Cardinal of [blank], and Robertet,
ought even to suspect that he is sent on such a mission.
When France and Spain are at peace with one another, the
whole of Christendom enjoys the blessings of peace. On the
other hand, when France and Spain are at war with one another,
the whole of Christendom is convulsed. It is therefore highly
important not only to conclude a common treaty of peace,
but such a one as will be sure to last for ever. Has, therefore,
received with pleasure the proposal of the Cardinal of Santa
Croce, that the Infante Ferdinand should contract marriage
with the Princess Renée, and that the duchy of Milan should
be given as dower to the Princess, to be enjoyed by her after
the death of the King of France. Promises the King of
France that, if the Princess Renée marries the Infante, he
and the Emperor will help him to recover Milan and will defend
it as long as they live. He is to tell the King of France that
the Infante is a very handsome, intelligent, and good boy.
He is already much more developed, both intellectually and
bodily, than from his years could be imagined.
If the King of France does not propose soon to deliver
the Princess Renée into his keeping as security for the fulfilment
of the treaty, he (Quintana) is to ask him to do so.
Until the King of France promises this security he is not to
enter into negotiations about any other question of detail.
One half of the whole patrimony of the Emperor is the
inheritance of the Infante, who, will besides inherit from him
(King Ferdinand) the portion due to him by law. He is,
therefore, a young prince who is well provided for.
If the King of France requires the kingdom of Naples to be
given to the Infante, he is to answer that he (King Ferdinand)
will do for the Infante all that can be done without injustice.
It may be that the Infante will receive Naples as equivalent
for his right of inheritance in Germany. But this point is
not yet settled.
Hopes he will be able to make the Infante Grand Master of
the three Orders in Spain. That is worth much more than
the kingdom of Naples.
Begs the King of France to renounce all his claims on the
kingdom of Naples.
If it is impossible to persuade the King of France to make
a renunciation of his rights on the kingdom of Naples in his
favour, he must try to obtain from him a renunciation of
his rights on Naples in favour of the Princess Renée and the
Infante, her future husband.
If the King of France asks him to pay the arrears of
50,000 ducats due to him as his pension out of the revenues of
Naples, he must answer that it is impossible for him (King
Ferdinand) to make any such payment, for he has spent more
than two millions of gold in the last war. If the King of
France, nevertheless, insists on the payment of the 50,000
ducats, he is to say that he (King Ferdinand) will employ
the money in the maintenance of the Princess Renée during
the first four years that she will be in his keeping.
It may be that the King of France will ask him to bind
himself to help him to defend his dominions against the
King of England. If that should be the case, he must tell the
King of France that he (King Ferdinand) is ready to conclude
a defensive alliance with him, in which he will bind himself
to help him to defend France, but that he does not wish the
King of England, or any other prince, to be mentioned by
name. Such mention would produce enmity.
Does not think that the proposal of the King of France to
conquer and destroy Venice is calculated to ensure peace.
Begs the King of France to content himself with as much of
the duchy of Milan as Duke Lodovico possessed ; that is
to say, with Cremona and the Gerrardada, leaving the other
towns to Venice. As for the Emperor, he thinks that the
Emperor ought to accept peace on the conditions which
the Venetians offered him through Count Cariati. Should,
however, the Venetians create new difficulties, he is ready to
make common cause with the Emperor and the King of
France, and to destroy Venice.
The Pope and he have taken under their protection Florence,
Siena, and Piombino, and the King of France has other Italian
states under his protection. In order to avoid all and every
cause of dispute between the King of France and him, he proposes
that henceforth the Pope, the King of France, and he
shall be joint protectors of the Italian states. Proposes to
the King of France to constitute themselves, in the first
article of the proposed treaty, perpetual defenders of Pope
Leo X. and the Holy Church.
Begs the King of France to conclude with him an article
by which each of them will bind himself always to observe
friendship, peace, and brotherhood with the Emperor and the
King of England. If any disputes should arise between the
Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, and himself,
or any two of them, the King of France and he, or either of
them, is to employ his good offices in order to reconcile the
disputing parties. Such an article is highly desirable, as
the Emperor and the King of England would learn from it by
what feelings towards them he and the King of France are
The peace and alliance which it is his intention to conclude
with the King of France must be a firm and durable alliance.
Pedro Navaro, the Marquis of Bitonto, and the Marquis of
Tela must be set at liberty as soon as the treaty is signed.
Is of opinion that the treaty ought at once to be signed in
secret by the King of France and him. The conference of
their ambassadors with the ambassadors of the Emperor and
the King of England must take place afterwards.
He must not permit himself to be deceived by the King of
France, and must see that the treaty is concluded without
Begs the King of France to permit him to inform the Pope,
the Emperor, and the King of England what has been concluded
between him and the King of France. It would not
be well that his allies should be first informed by the King of
France of the conclusion of the treaty in contemplation.
Knows the Pope, the Emperor, and the King of England
very well, and is well acquainted with the manner in which
they may be persuaded to enter into an alliance with France
and with him.
As soon as the treaty with the King of France is signed
he is to send the letter to Hieronymo de Vich, which he
has in charge, by a flying courier to Rome. In case the
Emperor and the King of England make difficulties and
refuse to conclude the general league with the King of France
and him, he and the King of France ought to send ambassadors
extraordinary to his Holiness, and beg the Pope to
promise him and the King of France that, if the King
of France should choose him as umpire between him and the
Emperor and the King of England, he will not pronounce
his verdict until it has been approved by the King of
France and him. As soon as the Pope has given such promise,
the King of France ought to choose him as umpire,
and beg him to pronounce on all or any of his disputes
with the Emperor and the King of England. The Emperor
and the King of England could not in such a case refuse to
accept the arbitration of the Pope. If they were obstinate,
the Pope and the General Council might pronounce ecclesiastical
censures against them, and take the necessary steps to
secure the peace of Christendom.
He is to tell the King of France that the King of England
and his councillors have almost forced his (King Ferdinand's)
ambassador in England to sign a new treaty of alliance
against France, although they knew that he had ordered
his ambassador not to conclude such alliance. Has not
ratified that treaty, because it has always been his desire to
be the most intimate friend of the King of France, his brother.
As soon as the treaty with France is signed the reformation
of the Church must be taken in hand, and a general war
with the Infidels must be undertaken.
Indorsed : "Instruction to Don Pedro de Quintana. What
he is to negotiate with the King of France concerning
the secret treaty and the marriage between Madame
Renée and the Infante."
Spanish. Draft, written by Miguel Perez Almazan. pp. 11.
P. A. d. l'E.
Mon. His. B, 1639.
105. Treaty between Louis, King Of France, and King
Ferdinand The Catholic. (fn. 1)
The following articles have been covenanted, signed, and
sworn to by—
Louis, King of France, on the one part ; and
King Ferdinand the Catholic, in his name as well as in
the name of Juana, Queen of Castile, whose guardian he is,
on the other part :—
The intentions of the contracting parties are to render
peace to Christendom, to remove all causes of dispute between
Christian princes, and to make a joint expedition against the
1. The King of France and King Ferdinand bind themselves
to remain friends and allies all their lives long, in order
to be better prepared to defend Pope Leo X. and the Holy
Church against all aggressors. They intend, besides, to make
war upon the Infidels.
2. The King of France and King Ferdinand bind themselves
to do all in their power, and to combine their efforts,
through the remainder of their lives, to secure a perpetual and
general peace of Christendom.
3. The King of France and King Ferdinand bind themselves
to remain during all the remainder of their lives friends and
brotherly allies of the Emperor and of Henry, King of England.
Should, nevertheless, disputes and dissensions arise in future
between the contracting parties, or any one of them, and
the said Emperor or King of England ; the King of France
and King Ferdinand solemnly bind themselves to act in
common, or one of them, as mediators, or mediator, between
the disputing parties, and to do all in their power to preserve
4. Perpetual peace is to be observed between the contracting
parties and all the dominions they possess or in future
may possess. They are to assist one another in defending
5. In order to render this alliance more indissoluble, Don
Ferdinand, Infante of Castile and Aragon, and son of
the late King Philip and Queen Juana, is to marry Madame
Renée, second daughter of the King of France. The marriage,
per verba de prœsenti, is to be contracted as soon as Madame
Renée has attained the twelfth year of her age.
6. The King of France binds himself to give to Madame
Renée, to her future husband, Don Ferdinand, and to their
legitimate descendants, the duchy of Milan. The Emperor is
without delay to give the investiture of the duchy to Madame
7. Madame Renée is within the time of [blank] to be delivered
into the hands of Queen Germaine, wife of King
8. The King of France binds himself to deliver within the
space of 30 days after he has conquered the duchy of Milan a
public document to King Ferdinand, in which all the estates of
the duchy shall swear fealty to Madame Renée, her future
husband, Don Ferdinand, and their legitimate descendants.
9. Don Ferdinand is to have his full share of the inheritance
of the Emperor, of King Ferdinand, and of Queen Juana.
10. Monsieur d'Angoulême and Madame Claude are to
resign all their rights on the duchy of Milan in favour of
11. The King of France renounces all his rights on the
kingdom of Naples in favour of King Ferdinand.
12. As soon as Madame Renée is delivered into the hands
of Queen Germaine, King Ferdinand is bound to assist the
King of France to recover as much of the duchy of Milan
as was possessed by the late Duke Lodovico.
13. The Pope and King Ferdinand are protectors of Florence,
Siena, and Piombino, and other Italian states are under
the protection of France. Henceforth this protection of the
Italian states is to be exercised in common by the Pope, the
King of France, and King Ferdinand the Catholic.
14. The prisoners of war held by either of the contracting
parties are to be set at liberty.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed in a more modern hand : "Not executed."
Spanish. It seems to be the original draft of the projected
treaty. pp. 7.
S. E. R. L. 847.
106. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Hieronymo De Vich,
his Ambassador in Rome.
Has always desired peace, and much more so since the
election of the present Pope. Desires his pontificate to
be distinguished by peace among Christians and war with
Such being his feelings, he has constantly wished that the
Venetians should make peace with the Emperor, and that a
general league of the Italian princes should be concluded. A
general league of the Italian princes and republics alone can
prevent the French from invading Italy. The Venetians,
however, have never consented to an alliance with the Emperor,
the Pope, and him (King Ferdinand). They have, on
the contrary, concluded a treaty of alliance with the King of
France. (fn. 2)
The King of England has also behaved in no better manner.
He has concluded a truce or peace with the King of France,
without including in it either the Emperor or him (King
Ferdinand). He thereby enables the French to send an army
to Italy to conquer the duchy of Milan.
Moreover, the barons and the people of the duchy of Milan
are not contented with their Duke. They are dissatisfied
because the Duke is unable to defend them, and has not even
conquered the castles of Milan and of Cremona, which are
held by the French. They are ready to rise against their Duke
as soon as only a small body of French troops enters Italy.
Thus, there is not only no league to repel the French invaders,
but all the princes of Christendom are doing what
they can to assist them.
[The following paragraph, concerning the King of England,
is blotted out in the original document.]
The King of England does not like the French. He even
says that it is his intention to invade France with a powerful
army ; yet he (King Ferdinand) has always found it impossible
to come to any definite conclusion with the English. It has not
been possible for him to induce the King of England to conclude
a treaty with him respecting the intended invasion of France.
If no treaty is concluded, he is not sure that the English would
not forsake him, nor could the English count on him. The King
of England has even done worse. He has obstinately refused
to fulfil his old treaty with him (King Ferdinand), and has
forced his ambassador to sign a treaty which he well knew
was against the instructions he (King Ferdinand) had given
to his ambassador. The King of England is not in earnest
with respect to the war with France. His intention is only
to frighten the King of France, and to make a profitable peace
with him. If the King of England really intended to make
war upon France, he would either have renewed his old treaty
with Spain, or would have concluded a new one on such conditions
as would have made it easy to undertake the war.
Such being the disposition of all Christian princes in and
out of Italy, he has thought it advisable that the Pope, the
Emperor, and he (King Ferdinand) should come to an understanding
with the King of France, obliging him at the same
time to make peace with all the other states of Christendom.
The King of France must renounce his rights on Milan,
Genoa, and Piacenza, in favour of his daughter Renée, who is
to marry the Infante Ferdinand. Milan, Genoa, and Piacenza
must at once to be delivered to him (King Ferdinand),
who will hold them as governor or administrator, in the
name of the King of France, until Madame Renée and the
Infante Ferdinand are of age to consummate their marriage.
The duchy of Milan is to be limited to those cities and
territories which belonged to it in the time of the late Duke
Lodovico. For, although the Venetians have forsaken the
Pope and him, it would not be wise for the Pope and him to
be hard upon the Venetians who in future may have an
opportunity of rendering good services in a war with France.
As England leaves France at liberty to invade Italy, and as
the Milanese are not contented with their Duke, there is no
other remedy left to him (King Ferdinand) but to make
Madame Renée and the Infante Ferdinand Duchess and Duke
of Milan. The Milanese will like them. This plan will be
profitable to all parties, to the Pope, the Emperor, the King
of England, and him, as well as to the King of France. The
King of England, in especial, as he has already consented to
a separate peace or truce with France, will be placed in a
position to conclude even a more profitable peace, as he (King
Ferdinand) and the Emperor have made it a condition of their
reconciliation with the King of France that he should satisfy
the demands of the King of England.
The King of France has promised to pay the King of
England the usual pensions, and to assist him in giving to
Scotland any government he likes.
All these reasons have induced him to conclude a treaty of
peace between the Holy Father, the Emperor, the King of
France, the King of England, if he likes to accept it, the
Queen of Castile, the Prince (Charles), and himself. Encloses
a copy of the treaty.
The treaty is most profitable to the Pope and the Church.
Would rather sacrifice his life than ever refuse his assistance
to the Holy Father. Begs the Pope to send him a power to
sign the treaty in his name, and to write to the King of France
and to him expressing his satisfaction that the treaty has been
Is of opinion that the Pope ought immediately to bring
about a league of all the Italian states to prevent the French
from returning to Italy.
The Pope must likewise write to the Emperor and to the
King of England, exhorting them to make peace. He must
beg them to send ambassadors with sufficient power to Rome,
where the treaty is to be signed by all parties.
He may communicate to the Florentines, to the Sienese and
to the Siegneur of Piombino as much of the contents of this
despatch as he thinks convenient. That done, he is to go to
Naples, and there to disband the infantry of his army.
[This despatch is followed by a note, stating that a similar
despatch was sent to the Viceroy of Naples and to the Pope
himself. At the end of this note stand the words :
The whole of this note is crossed.]
No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "France. Valladolid, the 21st of May 1513.
Quintana took this despatch in cipher with him, in
order to send it as soon as the treaty of peace was
Spanish. Draft. pp. 8.
P. A. d. l'E. Mon.
Hist. K. 1482.
107. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Gabriel De Orti,
his Envoy to the King Of France and to the King
After his departure Jaques, one of the valets de chambre
of the Queen of France, arrived, and brought two letters
written by herself, and addressed, one to himself and the
other to the Queen his wife. The Queen of France inquired
after his health and begged him to enter into negotiations of
peace with France, as the truce had already been concluded.
In order to render peace more secure, she proposed to marry her
daughter, Madame Renée, with the Infante Ferdinand. The
duchy of Milan, she said, would after the death of the King of
France be given to the Infante and to Madame Renée as dower.
Answered that he entertained the same wishes for peace as
the Queen of France, and begged her to give orders that the
treaty of peace and of marriage should be committed to paper.
Jaques will return to France with this answer in two days. (fn. 3)
It will take him about twenty days to travel to Blois. It is not
only the Cardinal of Santa Croce, but also the Queen of France,
who proposes the marriage, and he (King Ferdinand) is inclined
not to reject their proposals. Wishes the whole subject
to be kept strictly secret, and hopes the treaty will be signed
before it becomes known. He is to speak first with the Queen
He is to tell the King and Queen of France that, although
the King of England has declared that he is not willing to
observe the truce, he (King Ferdinand) is fully determined to
abide by it. Hopes still to prevail upon the King of England
to accept the truce and to conclude a good and amicable peace.
He must try to bring the negotiations of peace to a conclusion
whilst the English are making preparations to invade France.
The King of France has written to Queen Germaine, and
asked her to lend him her good offices, in order that a general
peace of Christendom may be concluded.—No date. No
Indorsed : "Valladolid, 23rd May 1513."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 2.
P. A. d. l'E.
K. B. 1. 48/61.
108. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Gabriel De Orti,
his Envoy to France.
The Queen of France has sent to him Jaques, a gentleman
of her bed chamber. The King of France proposes to marry
his second daughter Madame Renée, to the Infante Ferdinand,
and to give them the duchy of Milan after his death.
He is to speak about this affair with the Queen of France
in secret. If the King of France had made these offers earlier
it would have been much better.
Indorsed : "23rd May. Gabriel de Orti."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 2.
P. A. d. l'E.
Mon. Hist. K. 1482.
109. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Don Pedro De
Quintana, his Secretary and Ambassador. (fn. 4)
Wrote to him two days ago, and sent his letter by Peti
Juan. Received on the day of the date of this despatch a
letter from Pedro de Urea, dated Augsburgh the 12th of May,
by which he is informed that Don Pedro and an ambassador of
the Emperor are on their way to Spain, bringing with them
a full power of the Emperor to ratify the truce.
He is to tell the King and Queen of France this, and
to beg the King to prorogue the time which has been fixed for
the ratification of the treaty of truce.
Is of opinion that a peace between France, Spain, and the
Emperor would be attended with great advantages. Is determined
to conclude a separate peace with France if the Emperor
refuses to become a party to it.
He is to ask the Queen and even the King of France
whether they are willing to deliver Madame Renée to him as
security for the fulfilment of the treaty.
He is immediately to write the answer of the King of
France and all that he is able to learn respecting England.
Has learnt that in Germany, in Italy, and in other parts he
is suspected of entertaining an ambassador in France, and it
seems that Gabriel de Orti is generally believed to be that
ambassador. Empowers him to send Gabriel de Orti back
to Spain, if he thinks it advisable.— No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Valladolid, 27th May 1513."
Spanish : Draft. pp. 1½.