P. A. d. l'E.
ix. Negot. B. 1638.
110. King Ferdinand The Catholic to the Knight Commander
Desires peace with France. Had the King of France consented
earlier to the truce, he might have prevented the
Emperor and the King of England from invading France.
If the King of France asks what the dower of the Infante
(Ferdinand) is to be, he is to answer that the Infante will
inherit one half of the patrimony of the Emperor. It may
be that the portion of his inheritance in Germany will be
exchanged for the kingdom of Naples.
Indorsed : "Muxica."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 3.
P. A. d. l'E.
Neg. P. d. S.
111. King Ferdinand The Catholic to the Ambassadors of
the King Of England.
The King of England asks him to send him succour in the
war he intends to make on France this summer, such succour
to consist of a fleet with at least 5,000 armed men on board.
The answer of King Ferdinand is as follows.
Has never thought or known that the King of England
intended to make war single handed on France. An enterprise
which is feasible and even easy, when undertaken by many
with united forces, might prove to be very difficult and dangerous
when undertaken by the King of England alone. Is
of opinion that the King of England should desist from it,
especially as he (King Ferdinand) and the King of England
are carrying on negotiations the subject of which is to undertake
conjointly a common war against France. Sent to
that end the Knight Commander Muxica to England. Muxica
returned in company of the English ambassador, Doctor
Knight, and brought him the answer of the King of
England. After having heard Doctor Knight and John Stile,
he sent a draft of a new treaty to the King of England, and
wrote his opinion about it to his ambassador Luis Caroz. The
draft of the treaty which he sent to England contained all
the conditions clearly stated under which the joint enterprise,
that is to say, the conquest of Guienne, might be undertaken
with well-founded hope of success.
Informed the English ambassadors at the same time that
the King of France had made overtures to him, and proposed
a truce of one year with him and all his allies, promising to
do justice to every one of them. Many reasons induced him
to think that the offers of the King of France ought not to
1. The late Pope Julius had set all the states of Italy one
against the other, had excluded the Venetians from the league,
and had weakened the duchy of Milan by forcibly occupying
some cities therein. He (Pope Julius) had rendered impossible
the conquest of the fortresses in the duchy of Milan which were
still occupied by the French. He had even attempted to carry
out some measures which were prejudicial to his (King Ferdinand's)
possessions in Italy. The consequence thereof was
that the Italians, in their troubled state, were not only unable
to succour the league, but that Venice, Ferrara, and other
Italian states made common cause with the French. Thus,
instead of being assisted by the Italians, he was obliged to
give up his war with France, in order to secure the Italians
as members of the league.
2. The peace between the Emperor and the Venetians could
not be concluded, and the Cardinal of Gurk wrote that the
Emperor, as the Venetians had refused to make peace with
him, intended to conclude an alliance with France, in order
to destroy Venice.
3. Supposing even that the Emperor had not concluded an
alliance with the King of France ; occupied as he was with
his war with Venice, he could not have aided much in a war
4. The King of England had delayed the final conclusion of
the treaty with him concerning their intended joint enterprise
on France. To settle all the details of the preparations for
the war would require a long continuation of negotiations, the
end of which could not be foreseen. Meanwhile the season
had advanced, and it was very doubtful whether war with
France could be undertaken that year. In the draft of the
treaty which the King of England sent to Spain, it was
said that the war was to begin at the end of June. The end of
June is the same thing as the 1st of July, and the two remaining
months of the summer, July and August, were too short
a time for carrying out so great an enterprise as war with
Thus, as it was impossible to begin war with France in the
current year, he thought the best he could do was to send
the Bishop of Catania to France, with his power to conclude
a truce of one year for himself and all his allies and friends.
During this truce the following things may be done :
1. The King of England and he ought to come to a final
understanding about all the measures and preparations for war.
2. They ought to pacify Italy.
3. They ought to do all they can to bring about peace
between the Emperor and the Venetians. From this peace
two great advantages will accrue. One of them is that the
Emperor, when he is no longer occupied with his war against
Venice, can employ all his power against the French. The
second advantage is that the Venetians will pay him (fn. 1)
700,000 ducats, send him 300 men-at-arms at their own cost,
and pay him a perpetual tribute, which he can employ in
a war with France.
4. When Italy is pacified, the army of the Italian league
can be employed against France.
If all this is done during the period of the truce, and the
King of France does not fully satisfy every one of the
allies, the whole league may next year, at the beginning
of April, attack France with their united forces, and continue
the war during the whole summer.
Well knowing that war against France could not be carried
on if the Emperor were at war with Venice, and the political
state of Italy troubled, he sent to the Emperor, and begged
him to conclude peace with Venice, and at the same time to
persuade the other Italian powers to reconcile themselves with
one another. The Emperor answered, that he thought he
(King Ferdinand) should conclude the truce with France in
the names of all the allies, in order to give time to the allies
to make the necessary preparations for the war which was to
begin next year.
Two other circumstances contributed to induce him to conclude
Had caught a very severe cold during the winter, which
had ended in an attack on the chest and a complicated fever. (fn. 2)
When he was so ill that his life was in danger, his confessor had
told him that it was his duty to conclude the truce. Following
the precepts of his confessor, he had given commission to conclude
a truce of one year on equal conditions for all his
Another reason which had made him think the truce was
desirable was that his council had found it quite impossible to
procure the necessary pecuniary means for continuing the war.
The impossibility of obtaining money continues, and will continue
until the state of his health shall permit him to take an
active part in the despatch of business.
Pope Julius is dead. Although his successor is a good man,
and will most probably succour those who defend the Church,
it is necessary first to come to an understanding with him,
and to see what he does.
All these different reasons have rendered it necessary for
him to conclude a truce with France. Begs the King
of England, his son, to follow his advice and that of the
Emperor, and to ratify the truce. Meanwhile preparations
for a renewal of the war can be made. With regard to a
peace with France, protests that on no conditions whatever
would he consent to a peace, except with the full
knowledge and approval of the King of England. If peace
with France is to be concluded, he and the King of England
must conclude it together.
Indorsed : "Answer of the Catholic King to the ambassadors
of the King of England, who were sent to ask
the Catholic King to send a fleet with 5,000 men,
to be employed in the war of the King of England
with the King of France."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 5.
|M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar. K. 6.
112. King Ferdinand The Catholic to the Ambassadors
of the King Of England.
This document is a copy of the preceding, apparently in
the handwriting of the 17th century.
S. E. R. L. 847.
113. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Hieronymo De
Vich, his Ambassador in Rome.
Wrote to him on the 15th of May, and sent his letter by
Fernando Rodriguez by sea, and by Perote by land. Wrote
again on the 28th of May, and sent his letter by Francisco
Peyron by sea, and by Felipe de Battanar by land.
The King of France urges him quickly to conclude the league
between the Emperor, the King of France, and him (King
Ferdinand), the object of which is to destroy Venice. The
Emperor has also sent him a letter, dated Augsburg, the 12th of
May, in which he tells him that Pedro de Urea and an Imperial
ambassador are on their way to Spain, and are bringing with
them a full power of him (the Emperor) to conclude such a
treaty as he thinks convenient. The Pope, the Emperor, and he
(King Ferdinand) must always remain allies. The Pope must,
without delay, conclude a general Italian league against France.
Concessions may be made to the Venetians, in order to induce
them to become a party to the league. But, at all events, the
league must be concluded without delay, and the friendship
of the Emperor must be preserved.
The league must pay his infantry and 5,000 Swiss troops.
The league is to last 25 years.
It is said that the King of England has made up his mind
to begin war against France. Two things must be done by
the Pope ; firstly, he must form the league and reduce
the castles which the French still hold in the duchy of
Secondly, the Pope must preserve the friendship of the King
of England. He must see that if England make peace with
France, the whole of Italy, the Pope, and the Council of the
Lateran should be included in the peace.
He must answer directly.
Indorsed : "Rome. 1513. Written at Valladolid on the 2nd
of June 1513. By the courier Andrea Velati by land."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 2.
P. A. d. l'E.
Mon. Hist. K. 1639.
114. Louis, King Of France, to All Persons.
Odet de Foix, (fn. 3) in his quality as French ambassador, concluded
with Jacobus de Cuchillos, Bishop of Catania and
ambassador of King Ferdinand, a truce, dated Orthez the 1st
of April 1513, to which the following princes were parties : he
(King Louis), James, King of Scotland, and Charles, Duke of
Gueldres, on the one part ; and the Emperor, the King of
England, King Ferdinand the Catholic, Queen Juana of
Castile, and Charles, Prince of Spain, on the other part.
The Emperor and Henry, King of England, were, according
to this treaty, to ratify it within two months. As that time
has expired and the Emperor has not ratified it, he grants
him a further delay till the 1st of July for the acceptance
and ratification of the said truce.—Paris, the 3rd of June 1513.
Indorsed : "Prorogation of the King of France. 1513."
French. Written on a large sheet of parchment. Autograph.
S. E. Var. L. 1554.
115. King Ferdinand The Catholic to [blank]. (fn. 4)
He (?) is to tell him (?) that, according to news received from
England, the King of England is about to invade France with
a powerful army. Has not much confidence in the enterprises
of England. Nevertheless, in order to assist England as much
as he can, he has ordered his Viceroy to reinforce the Swiss,
and to attack the army of Monsieur de la Tremouille. If the
King of England will promise to undertake the conquest of
Guienne next year, and if he will give the securities asked
from him by Don Luis (Caroz), he (King Ferdinand) will
in the current year invade Bearn and conquer it, which
enterprise would occupy the French army in the south,
and thus render great services to the King of England.
Besides, the conquest of Bearn in the present year would
render the conquest of Guienne in the ensuing year much
Spanish. A fragment of a draft, written by (Almazan?).
S. E. I. L. 806. f. 17.
116. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
Has received his letters of the 30th of April and the 10th of
May, together with the documents enclosed in them. Sends
Don Pedro de Lanuza to the King of England. Don Pedro is
fully acquainted with his intentions, and he (Don Luis) is to
believe all that he will communicate to him.—Valladolid,
the 16th of June 1513.
Addressed : "By the King. To Don Luis Caroz de Villaragut,
his Councillor and Ambassador at the Court
of Rome." (fn. 5)
Spanish. Autograph. p. 1.
S. E. I. L. 806. f. 11.
117. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Katharine, Queen
Has received her letter of the month of April. Is very glad
to hear of her happiness and of the prosperity of the King
Sends Pedro de Lanuza to inform her of his concerns, and
begs her to give him full credit.—Valladolid, the 16th of
Addressed : "To the Queen of England."
Spanish. Draft or copy. p. 1.
|18 June (?)
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 5. f. 140.
118. King Ferdinand The Catholic to his Envoy (fn. 6) to the
King Of England.
He is to speak to the King of England as follows :—
Has concluded a truce with the King of France. The
reasons which induced him to do so are contained in the
answer he gave to the Doctor (fn. 7) and to John Stile in the convent
of Mejorada. Two considerations, however, had more
weight with him than all his other motives. The first and
most important of them was, that he was in immediate
danger of death. Men of tender consciences pressed upon
him that he should, for God's sake, conclude the truce before he
died. Gave the power to sign the truce, since all good Christians
are in the habit of reconciling themselves with their enemies
when they are dying. His other reason for concluding the
truce with France was that the King of England had not
formally bound himself to send the assistance which he had
promised in the first treaty ; and not even the smaller succour
which had been agreed upon in the second treaty had been
given, although it was to be employed in the enterprise on
Guienne which was to be undertaken in the sole interest of
the King of England himself. Even now, the King of England
neither sends, nor even offers to send, money or soldiers for the
conquest of Guienne. Had never expected that the King of
England would act otherwise. But if the King of England
does not like to spend anything on the conquest of Guienne,
he must not expect him (King Ferdinand) to undertake
it. Besides, even if the King of England had shown
more readiness to assist him, and if he had not been ill, it
is clear that Guienne could not have been conquered in the
present year. His doubts about the good will of the King of
England were confirmed by the circumstance that the King of
England, instead of concluding the treaty, had sent to tell him
that he intended to undertake alone the conquest of Guienne.
Another consideration which induced him to conclude the
truce with France was that Pope Julius had left the whole of
Italy in utter disorder when he died, and that the Emperor
had informed him of his purpose never to make peace with the
Venetians. The Emperor wanted to destroy them. Knew
that the Venetians had entered into negotiations about a
treaty of alliance with France. They were ready to conclude
it, and were waiting for nothing but the answer of the
Emperor. It was clear that the Emperor would reject the
offers of the Venetians, as he has done so since. When the
Venetians received the answer of the Emperor they signed, in
the month of March, a league with the King of France at
The object of this league is to subject and conquer Italy. The
Venetians concluded it without any respect to the league
which they had already concluded with him (King Ferdinand)
and the King of England. They behaved with ingratitude
towards him. It is true that Pope Julius had excluded the
Venetians from the new league, but he (King Ferdinand) and
the King of England had not done so. Foresaw all this
confusion a long time ago, and tried in vain to prevent it.
Sent special ambassadors to the Emperor, and besought him
to make such a peace with the Venetians as would have reflected
honour on him, and have enabled him to carry out his
designs against France. Could never prevail on the Emperor.
The league between the Venetians and France is concluded
with the intention of depriving the Emperor of his Italian
dominions. If the Emperor were to offer peace to the Venetians
now, they would not accept it on the same conditions as
formerly. Thus, the obstinacy of the Emperor has rendered
the French masters of Italy. It is under such circumstances
impossible to form an Italian league against France. Both
his plans are thereby destroyed.
Such being the state of things in Italy, both his allies (the
Emperor and the King of England) forsook him last year, and
left him exposed to the whole power of France. It would
have been against all reason if he had continued to make
war against France in Italy and on the frontier of Spain.
Is even now left alone to oppose the whole power of France
in Italy. It would be surprising if his resources sufficed to
carry on that war, especially as the whole of Italy is at
present allied with France. The Emperor has to answer for all
this. Had he (King Ferdinand) not been the ally of the Emperor,
all the Italian states would have sought his (King
Ferdinand's) friendship. With the Italian princes for his allies
he would have been able to render great services in the other
enterprise (the conquest of Guienne and Normandy) against
France. But the Emperor would never believe him, and the
consequence is the loss of Italy. His own Italian states are
now in danger, and he (King Ferdinand) has been obliged to
spend enormous sums of money for his army in Italy. He is
forsaken by all. The Pope is at heart his friend, but he does
not dare openly to declare himself an enemy of France, and is
therefore neutral. Has no money. Has always been implicated
in wars, and thus he has spent all his revenues. If, therefore,
the King of England does not give him the subsidies which
he promised for the undertaking in Guienne, it is impossible
for him to do anything in this enterprise.
Has learnt from Luis Caroz, his ambassador, that he concluded
on the 30th of April, (fn. 8) in his name, a treaty with the
King of England. When the English departed from Spain,
and left him in a position which was notorious to the whole
world, he sent the Knight Commander Muxica, in order to
plan with the King of England a new enterprise against
France. The answer which the Knight Commander brought
back from England was insufficient. As soon as Muxica, the
Doctor, and John Stile, had arrived at his court, he sent his
reply to the King of England. The substance of it was that
the new treaty was inadequate to the enterprise in contemplation,
and that he, therefore, would not sign it. Sent, at
the same time, another project of a treaty to the King of
England. His ambassador informed the King of England
and the councillors of the King of all those proceedings before
the treaty was signed which, as he learns, is now signed by
his ambassador. That was not all. He himself told the
English ambassadors in Spain before he fell ill, that he could
not sign the treaty sent to him from England, as it contained
a stipulation according to which he was to receive the insufficient
sum of 100,000 crowns from the King of England. The
English ambassadors, it is true, promised him by word of
mouth that he should have another 100,000 crowns out of the
revenues of Guienne as soon as that province was conquered.
Did not attach much value to verbal promises.
Besides, the proposals of the King of England were, on the
whole, unsatisfactory. Did not like to take money from the
King of England, who is his son. It was, therefore, his wish
that the King of England should pay the auxiliary troops employed
in the enterprise of Guienne through his own paymaster.
It had always been his intention to bear alone all the
expenses of the Spanish troops, as is stated in the treaty
which he has sent to England. Intended to assist his
son out of paternal love. Thus, the King of England was
fully aware that the Spanish ambassador, although he had
the power, was not ordered to sign the treaty. On the contrary,
he was instructed to sign no other treaty than the
draft which was sent to him from Spain. It is clear that, as
the Spanish ambassador was not even at liberty to sign the
treaty in which he (King Ferdinand) was promised a subsidy,
he was much less authorized to sign the treaty which he is
now said to have signed, and which does not contain a single
word about assistance in the enterprise on Guienne, although
that is entirely an English affair.
The whole treaty seems to be concluded rather for the sake
of appearances than to be calculated for real execution. It
would be wrong to make the King of England promises
which cannot be fulfilled. It is therefore impossible for him
to ratify the treaty which, as the King of England well knows,
was concluded against his orders. Besides, the treaty does
not contain any arrangement which makes the enterprise on
Guienne possible. The treaty is a demonstration, and nothing
else. If the King of England is in earnest with respect to
the conquest of Guienne, he must see that the enterprise is
to be undertaken solely in his interest, and that it would be
unjust to ask him (King Ferdinand) to pay all the expenses
of it. Even if he were willing to pay all the expenses,
he could not do so, as he has no money. Is, nevertheless,
ready to undertake the conquest of Guienne, if the King of
England will pay him as much money as an army of 6,000
Germans would cost during such period as the war may last.
That is much less than he (King Ferdinand) will be obliged
to add from his own means. If any other prince would make
him (King Ferdinand) such an offer in his wars, he should
consider himself obliged to him for his whole lifetime.
If he (King Ferdinand) undertakes the conquest of Guienne,
he will not be acting against the truce concluded with France ;
for Bearn is not included in the truce. If he attacks Bearn
the French will certainly oppose him, and thereby liberate
him from the obligations he has assumed in the truce. Will
then be at full liberty to invade Guienne or any other province
of France. Although the treaty to be concluded with
the King of England must contain the phrase "after the expiration
of one year, or earlier, if the French break the truce
earlier," the King of England may rest assured that the
enterprise on Guienne will begin immediately after the signature
of the treaty.
He is to tell Don Luis Caroz to enter at once into negotiations
respecting the new treaty. Although the articles of it
may be concerted in England, the treaty must be signed in
Spain. Fears that otherwise a new error might be committed.
It would be best to bring the treaty with him on
his return from England, together with an order of the King
of England to his ambassadors in Spain to sign it.
He is to tell the Spanish ambassador in England that he
is henceforth to sign no paper without having received orders
to do so. He (the ambassador) could not have committed a
greater error and shown greater blindness than he showed
in concluding the last treaty, when he knew two things, viz.,
that he (King Ferdinand) had concluded the truce with
France from pure necessity, and that he had rejected the
more advantageous treaty by which the King of England
offered him a subsidy. If he breaks the treaties which he
has signed and sworn to, nobody will in future believe him.
The enterprise on Guienne is impossible. Fears that this last
treaty which has been concluded, and which cannot be executed,
will alienate King Henry from him for ever. Has
hitherto always fulfilled his engagements with the King of
England. But now the King of England will say that he
(King Ferdinand) refuses to fulfil what his ambassador
has concluded, and will become his enemy. However that
may be, no choice is left him. He can ratify no treaty
with the King of England excepting one concluded on the
conditions which are contained in the draft sent from Spain
to England. The King of England, if he is reasonable, must
see that he (King Ferdinand) is always ready to assist him.
If the King of England is not in earnest with respect to the
conquest of Guienne—a thing which many suspect—and if he
is inclined to make peace with France, the peace must be a
general one. It is necessary that he (King Ferdinand), the
Emperor, and the King of England should remain intimately
united, in order to resist the further designs of France.
He is to do his utmost to return with a definitive answer
as soon as possible.
He is to tell the King of England that the Queen of France
has sent a messenger to tell him that the King of France is
inclined to satisfy the King of England and the other princes
with whom he has disputes. The Queen of France added,
that if he (King Ferdinand) would send a trustworthy person
the King of France would give orders to conclude a general
peace. Sent Quintana, in order to learn particulars respecting
this proposal. The King and Queen of France told
Quintana that they would make peace with him (King
Ferdinand), and offered him great advantages. As soon, however,
as it was clear that the King of France was not
desirous to conclude a general peace, he ordered Quintana to
return Quintana has come back to Spain. Tells the King
of England this, only in order that he may not believe those
who will perhaps represent the mission of Quintana in a
different light.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Instruction concerning what is to be said
to the King of England about the truce concluded
between the Catholic King and the King of France."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 11.
S. E. Fl. L. 496.
f. 47 e. 48.
119. King Ferdinand The Catholic to the Knight Commander
Juan De Lanuza, his Ambassador in
He is to tell Madame Margaret, in virtue of the letter of
credence enclosed in this despatch, that before and after he
concluded the truce with France in his own name as well as in
the name of the Emperor, the King of England, and Prince
Charles, he wrote to his ambassador, Don Pedro de Urea, and
ordered him to explain all his reasons to the Emperor. Does
not doubt that the Emperor has told her so.
Two reasons, which sprung from nothing less than absolute
necessity, induced him to conclude the truce. Being so ill
that his life was despaired of, he was bound as a Christian to
reconcile himself, before his death, with all his enemies. This
reason had the more force with him, because he considered
that, even if he escaped this time from the danger of death,
he should for a long while remain too weak to be able to
provide for a war with France.
His second reason for concluding the truce with France was
that the King of England had not sent him the succour for
his (the King of England's) own enterprise in Guienne, which
he had promised in a formal treaty.
An additional reason for concluding the truce was, that
Pope Julius at his death had left the whole of Italy in a most
unsettled and perilous state, and that the Emperor wrote to
him, and asked Luis Gilaberte to write to him, saying that it
would be best to make peace with France and war with the
Venetians. Knew that the Venetians were entertaining close
negotiations with the King of France. They were only waiting
for the answer of the Emperor to conclude an alliance with
France, in case they were excluded from the general league.
The Emperor excluded them, and the Venetians signed the
treaty of alliance with France at Blois in the month of
March, long before he concluded the truce with King Louis.
The Republic has since then ratified the treaty with France at
Venice on the 6th of April. The object of the alliance between
France and Venice was to divide among themselves the whole
of Italy. Had a long time ago foreseen all this, and had
asked and besought the Emperor to make peace with Venice,
telling him that no Emperor ever had a better opportunity
to earn such glory as he would earn by reconciling himself
with the Republic. The Emperor did not lend a willing ear to
his exhortations, and has thereby placed the whole of Italy and
the kingdom of Naples in so dangerous a position, that it is
impossible for him (King Ferdinand) to enter into any alliance
against the King of France. Even if the above mentioned
principal reasons, which, as already stated, flow from absolute
necessity, had not existed, how could he, in the current year,
make war upon France, since it would be almost a miracle if he
alone were able to provide for the security of Italy? A great
portion of the Italian princes are allied with France, and no
Italian state whatever is allied with him. Had the Emperor
followed his advice, or had he (King Ferdinand) abandoned
the Emperor and carried out his own plans, the affairs of Italy
would be in a very different state from what they are now.
The whole of Italy would be in his favour, instead of which
he is, in fact, forsaken by all Italy, and obliged to maintain
a large and expensive army to keep down the Italians. And
though the Pope is at heart his friend, he dares not declare
himself openly. Thus, having exhausted all his previous resources,
it is impossible for him to undertake anything of
importance, if the King of England will not pay the money
which he has bound himself by the treaty to pay for the
enterprise of Guienne.
Having concluded the truce from pure necessity, he is forced
to observe it this year. During that time he and the Emperor
can make alliances with all the states of Italy, if the
Emperor accepts the peace which the Venetians have offered
him through Count Cariati. Allied with Italy, they can
next year return to the enterprise against France. He is to
beg Madame to use her influence with the Emperor, and to
show him that the policy he has hitherto adopted can have
only one result, viz., that of making the King of France master
of the world ; whilst, if the Emperor follows his (King Ferdinand's)
advice, nothing will be lost.
Seeing how difficult it is to conclude a league against
France, he has urgently advised the Emperor to see that, at
least, the states of the Prince (Charles) remain at peace with
When the English troops which had come to Spain had returned
to England, he sent the Knight Commander Muxica to
the King of England, with instructions to concert another
treaty instead of that which the English had broken. The
King of England answered, that if he (King Ferdinand) were
willing to undertake the conquest of Guienne, he would pay
him 100,000 crowns at once, and afterwards as much more as
his ambassadors in Spain should think necessary. The King
of England sent him together with this answer the draft of a
treaty. Found it, however, impossible to come to an understanding
with the English ambassadors in Spain about the
quantity of money which was to be paid to him. Wrote,
therefore, to Don Luis Caroz not to sign the treaty the draft
of which had been sent to him (King Ferdinand), and which
contained the stipulation respecting the 100,000 crowns. That
sum was utterly insufficient to carry out the enterprise on
Guienne. Authorized, however, his ambassador to sign another
treaty, the draft of which was enclosed in his (King Ferdinand's)
despatch. Offered in this draft to undertake the conquest of
Guienne the following year, and to spend on that enterprise more
money than the King of England. Don Luis Caroz, after having
received the despatch in which it was expressly forbidden him
to sign any other treaty than the draft enclosed in it, signed
another new treaty, according to which he (King Ferdinand)
was bound at once to declare war with France, and to conquer
Guienne at his own expense, to which enterprise the King of
England was to contribute nothing at all, though the conquest
was to be his. That was done not only without his instruction
and authorization, but directly against his instructions and
orders. The King of England and his ambassadors in Spain
knew that perfectly well. He had written his will to the King,
and had told it by word of mouth to the English ambassadors.
Did not, therefore, ratify the treaty. The enterprise on Guienne,
as its particulars were concerted in that treaty, was more a
semblance than a thing that could be carried out in reality.
Besides, the English knew very well that he had already concluded
the truce with France which he was bound to observe,
since otherwise nobody would in future trust him. Wrote
nevertheless to Don Luis Caroz that, if the King of England
was in reality willing to undertake the conquest of Guienne, he
would condescend to concert a new treaty for the next year
with clauses that could be executed. He is to tell all this to
the Princess Margaret in secret.
[Written on the margin :] "Not to be overlooked. To be
read with attention."
He writes that Madame is willing to deliver Don Juan
Manuel up to him as a prisoner. He is to tell her that Don Juan
has not only rendered bad services to him (King Ferdinand),
but also speaks so ill of her that for this alone he deserves
punishment. Sends Artieta, who is the bearer of this despatch,
with a ship, which ostensibly sails with merchandise, but
which, in fact, is sent for no other purpose than to convey Don
Juan as a prisoner to the place of which Artieta is informed.
If Madame has not changed her mind, he is, with the greatest
dexterity, and in such a manner that nobody may be aware
of it, to transport Don Juan on board ship, and to deliver
him to Artieta. To carry away Don Juan Manuel seems
to be a small thing, but, in fact, it is very important. If it
were done, his relations with the Emperor and with the
Prince (Charles) would at once be much improved. Is willing
to pay the desired pensions to the four persons he has
named in case Don Juan be delivered to him. If not
the pensions will not be paid, as they would be of little
advantage. Encloses letters of exchange for the sum of 4,000
ducats, which is the amount of the pensions for the first year
to the four persons whom he (Lanuza) has named. Adds other
letters of credit, by which the payment of the pensions is
secured for the future.
Has written to Don Juan of Aragon that he has not precedence
of the ambassadors, and has told him that he would
commit a great error if he were to enter ecclesiastical orders.
Approves of the arrangements he has made with the host
of the couriers, and promises to pay him (the host) a pension
of fifty ducats a year if he continues to render him services.
After having written this despatch, letters from Don Pedro
de Urea arrived, dated Augsburg, the 12th of May. He writes
that he and an ambassador of the Emperor will soon be in
Spain, and there arrange with him all the differences between
him and the Emperor. Is glad of it. The affairs mentioned
in this despatch must not, however, suffer any delay.
Thanks him for the minute information concerning the
persons who are near the person of the Prince (Charles). Sends
him a letter of credit drawn on the house of Diego Flores
for the sum of 100,000 maravedis, the payment of which will
be repeated every year. The money is to be paid to those
persons near the person of the Prince who render him good
services. Will soon find a profitable employment for Luys
Written on the margin : "Fiat."
Indorsed : "The Catholic King to Mosen Juan de Lanuza."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 10.
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c.
Pont. L. 1. f. 81.
120. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Hieronymo De Vich
and [blank], his Ambassadors in Rome. (fn. 9)
Has shown by his deeds his devotedness to the Pope. As
soon as the Pope was elevated to his high station he sent an
embassy to assure him of his obedience. Sent him afterwards
seven despatches by seven couriers, by land and by sea,
begging him to reconcile himself with the Venetians, and to
conclude a general league for the defence of Italy. Gave
orders to his Viceroy of Naples and to his ambassador in
Rome to do all that might be necessary in order to conclude
the league within the shortest time possible. Has received
no answer, either from the Pope, or from his viceroy and
Has received news from France that, whilst the King of
France was afraid of the invasion of his kingdom with
which he was threatened by the King of England, the French
had conquered the duchy of Milan and Genoa without any
If the Italian princes are willing to deliver their country
from French tyranny, they must not lose time, but avail
themselves of the present opportunity. The English army
has invaded France, and the King of England is about to
take the command of his troops in person. Thus, the King of
France will be under the necessity of recalling a portion of his
troops from Italy. If the Italian princes should enter into an
alliance with him (King Ferdinand), they could render great
services to the King of England, and do much harm to the
King of France. Should the Italian princes declare themselves
against France, he and the King of England would be able to
humble France, and force her to leave the other Christian
princes in peace for the future. Begs the Pope to persuade the
Venetians and the Florentines to conclude an alliance with
him (King Ferdinand), and to enter likewise into the alliance
It may be that the Venetians will refuse to enter into a league
against France, as they have so lately concluded an alliance
with that country. If that should be the case, the Pope ought
to explain to them that it was the late Pope Julius II. and the
Emperor who had forced them to seek the friendship of France,
not he (King Ferdinand) and the present Pope. But, however
that may be, the presence of the French in Italy is fraught
with imminent danger to all the Italian princes and to the
Venetians in particular. The French have already occupied
Milan. Their intentions concerning Venice may be guessed
from the fact that they have offered the Emperor and him
an alliance, the object of which is to conquer Venice. Has
rejected the offers of the French, and will never accept them.
The King of England fully occupies the King of France in the
north. There has never been a better opportunity of expelling
the French from Italy. It would be a great error if the Italian
princes were to permit such an opportunity to pass without
making use of it. If the Venetians have scruples of conscience
about entering into a league avowedly concluded against France,
the league can be concluded without mentioning the name of
France, and without stating against whom it is concluded.
The members of it must be the Pope, he (King Ferdinand),
Venice, Florence, and the other states of Italy, with the sole
exception of Milan and Genoa. Although the alliance is to be
only a defensive one, there is no doubt that the King of France
will soon offer them a good pretext or reason for beginning
war with him. If the King of England should carry on the
war vigorously, the King of France will, perhaps, be under
the necessity of recalling all his troops from Italy. In such a
case, he (King Ferdinand) would promise to invade France
The Pope must try to preserve the friendship of the Swiss.
He must find means for paying them the usual pensions ; for,
as they no longer receive their pensions from the Duke of
Milan, it is to be feared that they will reconcile themselves
The Pope must further win over to their cause the Duke
of Ferrara and the Marquis of Mantua.
The Pope would do well to entertain a secret understanding
with the party of the Adorni who command at present in
Genoa, as well as with the party of the Fregosi, who have
been expelled from that city.
Whatever be done, the Pope must at all events maintain
a constant correspondence with the King of England,
and animate him to continue his war with France. The Pope
must not forget that in the time of the late Pope Julius he
(King Ferdinand) and the King of England made war upon
France principally in order to force the French to recall
their troops from Italy. But seeing that the Italians did not
avail themselves of that opportunity, they concluded a truce
with France. It is probable that the King of England, if he
see that the Italians remain inactive, will act in this conjuncture
in the same way, and he will perhaps even conclude
a perpetual peace with France. But, on the other hand, if the
Italians profit by this opportunity and help themselves, the
King of England will surely continue his enterprise on France,
and he (King Ferdinand) will invade France from Spain,
without, however, breaking his treaties with her. If the
Italians let the opportunity, offered to them by the King of
England, pass away, they will perhaps have to wait a long
time before they will find any one who will free their country
from the dominion of the French.
The Pope must, at all events, act without delay and without
further asking his (King Ferdinand's) advice. Is determined
never to forsake the Pope. Begs him to have courage.
They are to tell the Pope that the King of France has made
proposals to him and to the Emperor to destroy Venice, asking
nothing more of them than the towns which formerly belonged
to him, and offering to pay the Emperor 1,000 men-at-arms
and 8,000 foot. The King of France left it to the pleasure of
the Emperor to enlist with the money he offered him either
German, Spanish, or Italian troops. When the King of France
saw that neither he nor the Emperor accepted his proposals,
the Queen of France sent a messenger to him, and told him
that the King of France was willing to conclude a general peace
between all Christian princes. Sent Quintana to the King of
France, hoping that a general peace might be concluded in Rome
in presence of the Holy Father. But when Quintana came to
the French court he learnt that the King and Queen of France
desired to conclude with him (King Ferdinand) a separate
peace. They offered to marry their second daughter, Renée,
to his grandson Ferdinand, and to give her the duchy of
Milan and Genoa as dower. Quintana was of opinion that
the King of France hoped to catch him with that "bait."
The King of France imagined that he would not refuse to
make war with the Venetians, because all the conquered towns
were to be given to his grandson Ferdinand. The Queen of
France even told him that the general peace was only a
pretence. Was indignant at such proposals, and recalled
Don Pedro de Urea and an Imperial ambassador are on
their way to Spain by way of France. Expects that the
Emperor and the Germans will try to persuade him (King
Ferdinand) to enter into a league against the Venetians.
Promises the Pope not to accept any such offer.
Has opened his heart to the Pope and told him all his
secrets. Hopes the Pope will not betray him, and will only
make such use of his communications as may induce the
Italians to conclude the league.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "What you [blank], jointly with Don Jeronimo
de Vich, our ambassador, are, in our name, to say to
the Pope our Holy Father, in accordance with the
credentials you take to Rome."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 10.