Spain
December 1513, 1-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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G. A. Bergenroth (editor)

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1866

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172-185

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'Spain: December 1513, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 2: 1509-1525 (1866), pp. 172-185. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=93624 Date accessed: 23 November 2014.


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December 1513, 1-15

1 Dec.
P. A. d. l'E. Neg. Pap. d. S. K. 1639.
144. Summary of the Proposals which Monsieur De Borne (fn. 1) brought to Madrid in the month of December 1513.
The King of France leaves it to King Ferdinand the Catholic to decide whether the Prince (Charles) or the Infante (Ferdinand) is to marry Madame Renée of France. The King of France promises to give Madame Renée the duchy of Milan, the county of Pavia, and the signiory of Genoa, which belong to him.
If either the Prince or the Infante marries Madame Renée, the King of France binds himself to renounce his claims on the kingdom of Naples, and on the arrears of the pension due by the kingdom of Naples to him, in favour of the Catholic King.
As soon as the duchy of Milan is conquered, the King of France binds himself to deliver it to the Catholic King, who is to guard and govern it in the name of Madame Renée and her future husband until the marriage is consummated.
The King of France binds himself to aid the Catholic King in preserving and defending Milan, Pavia, and Genoa against all enemies, without any exception.
King Ferdinand, as well as the King of France, are to give their kingly parole that they will swear on the Holy Gospels, the mass book, and the wood of the true cross, to conclude the marriage, and to see that it be solemnized and consummated as soon as Madame Renée and the Prince, or respectively the Infante, attain a marriageable age.
The King of France is to deliver to King Ferdinand the Castle of Godefa in Genoa, as security, as soon as the marriage treaty is concluded.
The great men, cities, and towns of both kingdoms, France as well as Spain, are to swear to this treaty.
As soon as the marriage is concluded the King of France and King Ferdinand are to conclude a treaty of peace and alliance, which is to be observed in Italy as well as in other parts of Europe. The object of this treaty will be that the contracting parties shall help each other in defending their states, as well as in recovering those dominions which belong to them by right, (fn. 2) according to the formula "enemy of the enemy, and friend of the friend," without excepting any person whatever.
The King of France and King Ferdinand bind themselves to aid one another with all their power to reconquer the dominions which belong to each of them by right, as soon as the treaty of alliance is signed.
Free commerce between the subjects of the contracting parties.
Neither of the contracting princes is to assist the enemies or rebels of the other contracting prince.
Both parties are at liberty, within three months, to name their allies whom they wish to include in this treaty.
The Pope is to be regarded as a principal party to this treaty, and the Emperor and the King of England are at liberty to accede at once to it, the King of England, however, only on condition that he gives back Tournay to the King of France.
The Pope is to be the conservator of this treaty, and both contracting parties will submit to his censure if they break it. —Blois, the 1st of December 1513.
Indorsed : "Summary of what Monsieur de Borne brought to Madrid in the month of December 1513."
Spanish. pp. 2½.
Dec. (?)
S. E. R. L. 847. f. 96.
145. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Hieronymo De Vich, his Ambassador in Rome.
He is to communicate the contents of this despatch to no one except the Pope. He may, however, speak with those who have political influence, and say to them what he thinks will be conducive to the conclusion of peace between the Venetians and the Emperor.
Has received his letters of the 12th and 13th of November last, and has learnt by them that the Venetians have given full power to the Pope to conclude peace or a truce between them and the Emperor on such conditions as the Pope thinks are just. Has further learnt by his letters that the Pope has promised not to pronounce judgment as umpire on the conditions of the peace before he (King Ferdinand) has approved them.
Promises the Pope that the Emperor will accept him as umpire, and begs him not to permit this opportunity to pass away without putting in order the affairs of Italy. Is of opinion that the Pope ought to pronounce the same judgment as Pope Julius pronounced ; and the Venetians may be told in secret that he and the Holy Father will assist them against the French.
Supposing that the peace between the Emperor and the Venetians will be concluded, he has entered into an alliance with the Emperor and the King of England, the object of which is to invade France next summer. Hopes to force the French to give up their plans on Italy for ever.
What the Pope ought to do is to bring about without delay a peace between the Emperor and the Venetians, and then to form a general league of the Italians for the defence of their country. At the same time, however, the Pope must continue his negotiations with France, and try to persuade the King to make a general peace with all Christian princes. The King of France must not be made aware that he (King Ferdinand) knows about the negotiations of the Pope with him. Promises to persuade the Emperor and the King of England to accept the general peace, if France is ready to conclude it. To obtain security for the Italian states is the only reason why he is disposed, conjointly with the Emperor and the King of England, to invade France.
The Pope must not think that the Emperor can induce the Swiss to assist him against Venice. The Swiss wish to preserve Milan, and not to disturb the peace in Italy. Has, moreover, written to the Emperor and to the Cardinal of Gurk, and has strongly advised them not to undertake anything in Italy.
He is to tell the Pope that it is well known that San Severino is inducing him (the Pope) to continue his negotiations with France in a manner which is prejudicial to the interests of all his friends.
He must write directly, and tell him the real intention of the Pope, and beg his Holiness to keep secret the new alliance between him, the Emperor, and the King of England.
Disapproves of the state of things in Genoa. His Holiness must remedy them.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Vich."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 6.
6 Dec. (?)
S. E. I. L. 806. f. 13.
146. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
On the 18th of June, sent Pedro de Lanuza with a mission to the King of England, who detained him almost six months. Pedro de Lanuza returned as late as the end of November. As his envoy had written to tell him that King Henry had declined to conclude any treaty, and as he had received by way of Italy news that the King of England had returned to his own country, with the intention of abandoning his enterprise in France, and of occupying himself only with the affairs of Scotland, he (King Ferdinand) had not made preparations for war. Is, nevertheless, still animated by the same feeling towards the King of England and the Emperor. The King of France has asked him to make a separate peace with him on whatever conditions he (King Ferdinand) likes, and the Queen of France has begged him to prolong the truce. Has, however, rejected all these offers, declaring that he would not make peace or war, except in conjunction with his allies viz., the Emperor and the King of England.
When such was the state of things Pedro de Lanuza arrived with the treaty which was concluded between the Emperor, the King of England, and him, by which war with France is to be resumed next summer. According to his instructions, the Spanish ambassador had not signed that treaty.
The disadvantages of a war with France are much felt in Spain. Both countries are neighbours. The frontier from Salsas to Fuentarabia is of great extent. War at sea entails heavy burdens. Besides, the Spaniards are fully aware that the war is not to be undertaken in the interest of their country. The public treasury is empty, for the continual wars with the Moors and those in Italy have absorbed all his resources. The expense of the sustenance of a large army amidst the mountains of the Pyrenees is excessive. All the provisions for it must be carried from Andalusia on carts, and the cost of their transport is more than thrice as much as they are worth. In Navarra there is a famine. Thus, having to carry on the war in the south of France by himself, his expenses and sacrifices will be much greater than those of the Emperor and the King of England put together.
But, considering on the other hand that the war is to be undertaken in the interest of Holy Church, of the King and Queen of England, and of Prince Charles, and wishing and hoping to live and die in the friendship of the Emperor and the King of England, he declares himself ready to undertake the war, and hopes that God will help him. He is to tell the Emperor and the King of England, in his (King Ferdinand's) name, that they must make sure of the assistance of God, by binding themselves to undertake a general war with the Infidels if He gives them victory in this enterprise. (fn. 3)
Has signed the treaty brought by Lanuza and ratified it. Sends the ratified copy together with this despatch. Has, however, altered some articles of the treaty. His alterations do not change the character of the alliance.
1. Has changed some portion of the preamble, and inserted the true reason which moves them to undertake the war with France. The principal reason for the war is that the King of France and his followers are schismatics. But, as he is informed that the King of France is about to reconcile himself with the Pope, and that the Pope is inclined to pardon him, it is necessary to add to their first reason all their other reasons for beginning war with France, in order that, if the King of France satisfies the Pope, he may be obliged to satisfy their demands likewise.
2. The King of England styles himself, in the treaty sent to him by Pedro de Lanuza, "King of France." Has suppressed those words. Did not himself assume the title of "King of Naples" and "King of Navarra" until he had entirely conquered those kingdoms. The King of England ought to follow his example. Is ready to assist the King of England in conquering France. But the title of "King of France," without the possession of France, is an empty phrase.
3. In the treaty sent by Lanuza the article in which he binds himself to make war upon France was placed before the article in which the Emperor and the King of England take upon themselves the same obligation. As the King of England and the Emperor are the chief parties interested in this war, and he is only their auxiliary, he has reversed the order of these articles. Has, besides, added that the King of England is to take the field in person, because the war is an English war. If the King of England, however, is prevented from doing so, he can send a lieutenant.
4. If fortresses in Guienne are to be demolished the King of England is to bear the expense of the demolition ; but it is hardly probable that such cases will occur.
5. The treaty contains an article according to which the King of England is to pay him 20,000 gold crowns a month for the 6,000 German troops. This is the most important article of the whole treaty. In order to understand it properly, it is necessary to bear in mind that whenever the King of France has sent an army against Spain that army has contained a considerable number of German and Swiss troops. It is, therefore, clear that the French army which is to oppose his invasion of Guienne will likewise comprehend, in addition to French troops, numerous contingents of Swiss and German soldiers. If the Spanish army had only to defend Spain against troops such as these, it would suffice, even if the forces were composed of Spanish soldiers only. But, as the Spaniards are to invade France, to besiege towns, to render themselves masters of the open country, and to wage pitched battles, it is more than desirable that they should be reinforced by German troops. It is notorious that whenever Spanish, united with German troops, have fought with French troops they have been victorious ; but, on the other hand, whenever Spaniards alone have been engaged in a battle with French and German troops their victory has by no means been certain. There is not a single experienced captain to be found, in whatever country, who would advise the employment of purely Spanish troops against an army which contains a considerable number of German soldiers. It is therefore necessary that the German auxiliary troops should arrive in Spain in the month of May next.
Has no money. Will, however, in some way or other, find as much money as will be necessary to defray his own expenses, that is to say, for 1,500 men-at-arms, 1,500 light cavalry, an army amounting altogether to 12,000 men, for the artillery, ammunitions of war, provisions of the army, and the transport of them, as well as for the fleet, and for extraordinary expenses. These expenses are enormous. He is to tell the King of England that never has one prince done for another as much as he is ready to do, especially as he is obliged to procure the necessary money by selling and pledging his property. The King of England is therefore, in justice and equity, bound to pay the 6,000 Germans from the moment of their enlistment to the end of their services, the cost of their transport included. The Germans not only leave the service they have entered, but often go over to the enemy, if they are not punctually paid. To prevent this he has added a paragraph to the treaty, by which the King of England binds himself to send the pay of the Germans, calculated at 20,000 gold crowns, to Spain before the month of June next. Has further added an article to the treaty by which his ambassador, Don Pedro de Urea, is entrusted with the enlistment of the 6,000, or at least 4,000 German troops, and with their transport to Spain. Has done so in order that no time should be lost. The Emperor is to select a colonel for the Germans. Don Pedro de Urea is to take care that the German troops be in Spain in the month of May. Is ready to content himself with 4,000 German troops, instead of 6,000. But the King of England is to pay the full amount of 20,000 gold crowns a month, because the deficiency of German troops will have to be made up by Spaniards, or by other soldiers. The only reason why he does not insist on having 6,000 Germans is that he is afraid the enlistment of so many Germans might delay the enterprise.
6. The addition to the treaty by which the Emperor is bound to favour the enlistment of the Germans does not require any explanation.
7. Has altered the articles of the treaty referring to the fleet which he is bound to furnish. Does not like to promise more than he is able to perform. His intention is to arm as powerful a fleet as possible, and to give to Spanish subjects and to subjects of other friendly nations commissions as privateers. Hopes to be able to guard the Spanish seas.
He is to ask the King of England to sign and ratify the articles of the treaty in the form in which he (King Ferdinand) sends them. Will, without loss of time, begin preparations for the war. Begs the King of England to send without delay to Don Pedro the necessary money for the enlistment and transport of the Germans to Spain. If the King of England wishes, he may be styled in the treaty "King of France." Insists, however, on all the other additions and alterations of the treaty. The King of England must get ready his army and his fleet, and not cause delay.
He is to insist upon the King of England using all his influence with the Emperor and with Madame Margaret, in order to persuade them to preserve by all possible means the alliance of the Swiss. If the King of France should succeed in gaining the Swiss over to his cause their enterprise on France would possibly have very different results from what the King of England expects. The Emperor must further, conclude peace with the Venetians. If the Emperor were not to make peace with Venice, the Turks might in that case profit by the war with France, or the Venetians might conclude an alliance which might render the whole enterprise impossible.
Learns by letters from Rome that the Pope, through the interference of San Severino, is entertaining intimate intelligence with the King of France. The King of France has renounced the schismatic council and adheres to the Council of the Lateran, and seven prelates of the Gallican Church are to go and beg pardon of the Pope, who is to grant pardon to France. Begs the Emperor and the King of England to send an embassy to the Pope, and to ask him to assist them in their war with France. He (King Ferdinand), the Emperor, and the King of England have begun the war with France in order to suppress the schism and to defend the states of the Pope. It is, therefore, only just that the Pope, who, in consequence of the war has obtained what he demanded, should at this juncture assist the King of England and Prince Charles, at least with his spiritual weapons, to recover the provinces of which France has robbed them. If the Pope has already absolved or is about to absolve the King of France, and if the schism is at an end, the Apostolic censures against the King of France must last until he gives back that of which he has unjustly deprived his neighbours.
He is to take care that all the servants of the Prince (Charles) who are partisans of France be sent away. He is likewise to see that the Princess Mary (fn. 4) be surrounded by persons who are in his interest. Thinks that Francisca de Caceres is devoted to him.—No date. (fn. 5) No signature.
Written on the margin of this document : "Fiat."
Indorsed : "Don Luis Caroz."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 19.
6 Dec. (?)
S. E. A. L. 635. f. 10.
147. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Urea, his Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
The contents of this despatch are in all essential points identical with those of the preceding one—No date. No signature.
On the margin : "Fiat."
Indorsed : "Don Pedro de Urea."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 19.
6 Dec. (?)
S. E. Pat. Re. T. c. I. L. 6. f. 8.
148. Treaty between Henry VIII., King Of England Maximilian, Emperor Elect, and King Ferdinand The Catholic. (fn. 6)
The Commissioners are—
On the part of King Ferdinand :
Pedro de Urea,
Luis Caroz de Villaragut, and
Juan de Lanuza.
On the part of Maximilian, Emperor elect :
Johannes de Berghes, First Chamberlain and Governor of Namur ;
Gérard de Plaine, Siegneur de Magny.
On the part of the King of England :
Richard, Bishop of Winchester ; and
Thomas Grey, Marquis of Dorset.
When Louis, King of France, waged war openly on Holy Church, robbing her of her states and favouring the schism, the Emperor elect, the King of England, and King Ferdinand the Catholic, concluded a league, the object of which was to defend the Pope and Holy Church, to extirpate the schism, and to wrest from the King of France all the provinces and territories which he had unjustly acquired. They had thought it necessary to reduce the power of the King of France, lest he should render himself sole arbiter and lord of Christendom, which had always been the aim of the Kings of France. They projected, at the same time, a common war against the Infidels. Although our Lord evidently favoured their enterprise, they have not yet entirely executed it.
They renew, therefore, their league, and bind themselves to begin war with the King of France on the following conditions :—
1. None of the contracting parties is at liberty to conclude or to renew a treaty of peace or truce with the King of France.
2. The Emperor elect and the King of England bind themselves to begin war with France in Normandy and Picardy, or wherever they can cause the greatest losses to the enemy. The invasion is to take place before the 1st of June next. Any one of the armies is to be strong enough to resist the attacks of the French troops, to besiege or to defend towns, and to carry on all necessary warlike operations. The Emperor and the King of England are to take the field in person. Should, however, the King of England be prevented from taking the field in person, he is to send an able captain, with 16,000 foot, 4,000 horse, and the necessary artillery, &c.
3. King Ferdinand binds himself to invade the duchy of Guienne before the 1st of June next. His army is to consist of 15,000 foot, 1,500 light cavalry, and 1,500 heavy cavalry, with 25 pieces of artillery, and the other necessary engines of war. The King of England is to give a commission to the Spanish captain-general who is at the head of the invading army in Guienne, empowering him to carry out the enterprise, to receive the homage of the prelates, nobles, &c., to confirm the privileges, &c., in the name of the King of England. King Ferdinand is to deliver to the King of England all such territories, cities, towns, &c., as have formerly belonged to the crown of England ; whilst the King of England is to cede to King Ferdinand all such territories, cities, &c., as were formerly the property of the crowns of Castile or Aragon.
4. The King of England is to pay the expenses of the war in Guienne.
5. King Ferdinand is to enlist 6,000 Germans. The King of England binds himself to pay at the end of each month 20,000 gold crowns, each crown being worth 4 shillings, for the Spanish troops, consisting altogether of 18,000 men, and to bear the expenses of the enlistment, transport, and regular pay of the 6,000 German troops. If 6,000 Germans are not to be had, the deficiency is to be made up by Spaniards.
6. German troops are in the habit of revolting, if they do not receive their pay regularly. The King of England is, therefore, to send to Spain, before the 1st of June next, the pay for the German troops for one year, or at least for eight months. The pay of the German troops is valued at 20,000 gold crowns a month. The King of England is, also, to pay the expenses of the transport of the Germans to Spain.
7. The Emperor elect promises to permit the enlistment of the 6,000 Germans, and to give them an able colonel.
8. The King of England and King Ferdinand bind themselves to keep, each of them, a strong fleet at sea during six months after the 1st of April or as long as the war lasts.
9. None of the contracting parties is to negotiate separately, or to conclude a separate peace or truce with France.
10. The contracting parties are to ratify this treaty within five months. The ratified copies are to be exchanged in the month of May next.
11. The former treaties between the contracting parties remain in force.
13. The Pope, Charles, Prince of Spain, the Duke of Milan, and the Florentines are included in this league.
Lille, the 17th of October 1513.
(Signed)
Petrus de Urea.
Ludovicus Carocins.
Johannes de Lanuza.
The ratification of this league by King Ferdinand follows, dated Majorete, the 6th of December 1513.
Latin. Copy, written by Miguel Perez Almazan. pp. 16.
6 Dec. (?)
S. E. L. 635. f. 18.
149. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
He is to see that the King of England sends Don Pedro de Urea the money necessary for the enlistment of 4,000 Germans and their transport by sea to Spain. He is to inform Don Pedro, without loss of time, of the manner in which the money is to be paid.
He is to write without delay.—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Draft. p. ½
6 Dec (?)
S. E. A. L. 635. f. 18.
150. King Ferdinand Of Spain to Don Pedro De Urea, his Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
From his other letter, which is sent by the same courier, he will see that he is entrusted with the enlistment of 4,000 Germans. The reason why he entrusts this task to him is that the article respecting the 4,000 Germans is the most important of the whole treaty, and that its execution cannot be committed to any less trustworthy person.
Has also another reason. He has sometimes written that the Emperor has made secret communications to him, respecting his own and the Emperor's personal affairs and those of their common children, which he has not dared to communicate in a letter. When he brings the 4,000 Germans to Spain, he can tell him what the Emperor has said to him.
The King of England is to pay the whole expenses of the enlistment of the 6,000 Germans and of their transport to Spain. Has written to Luis Caroz to tell the King of England to provide him (Pedro de Urea) with the necessary money. He is to embark the troops at such time as the Emperor and the King of England may think convenient ; but, at all events, the troops must be in Spain before the end of May.
He is to beg the Emperor to select good troops and to give them an experienced and trusty colonel.
Gilaberte is, during his absence, to remain with the Emperor.—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Draft. p. 1.
S. Guer. Mary Tier. L. 1. 151. Memoir On The Formation of a Good Army, to serve in the War With France which Spain and England are about to undertake.
A good army cannot be formed at the very moment it is wanted. Soldiers enlisted when hostilities begin are extremely dear, as their want of warlike habits must be supplied by their greater numbers. It is therefore an advantage without loss of time, to form a standing corps of guards, horse guards as well as foot guards.
Cavalry.
There are at present 1,200 men-at-arms in Spain. The light horse must be reinforced, so that there may be, at least, 500 lances. They must be well armed.
Infantry.
His (the author's) advice is to increase the infantry of Villalba until their number reaches 2,000 men. Is of opinion that 2,000 men, experienced soldiers and commanded by good captains, should be sent from Naples. Proposes further to enlist 3,000 Spaniards and 1,000 newly converted Moors from the kingdom of Granada. They are good soldiers.
Experience has shown that it is very useful to have 2,000 or 2,500 German troops with the Spaniards. They render excellent services on a day of battle, or when the camp is to be pitched near the enemy, or when the army is in retreat, as they are well disciplined and obey their officers. But "such is their beastliness and arrogance" that, unless they are commanded by a captain of their own nation whom they know to be generous and courageous and who holds a commission from the Emperor, they are rather a "fire-brand" and a source of trouble than any real advantage.
Such an army will be found sufficient to defend Navarra.
It may, however, be, and it is the more probable supposition, that the King will not be disposed to ask any other succour from the King of England, but that he will invade France from the side of Calais with all his forces. In Picardy and Normandy the English would scarcely find any resistance. Thinks it would not be well if English troops were to be again sent to Spain, as they were last year. It is rare for two commanders-in-chief to agree well together, even when they belong to the same nation. When however, they are of different nationalities, speak different languages, and have different habits, the division of the commandership-in-chief is the most dangerous thing that can be imagined. Is of opinion that it would be much better if the King of England were to invade France on the north, whilst the Emperor attacked Burgundy, and if the Spanish army of which he has spoken, reinforced by 5,000 men from Guipuzcoa and Alava and the artillery from San Juan de Pie del Puerto, were to march at once to Pamplona and Salvatierra, from which latter place it could in a short time conquer the whole of Guienne and Bearn. Pamplona, Sanguesa and Lumbier must be well fortified.
Spies must be sent to France.
The money necessary for the payment of the troops must be kept in readiness.
The captains must be chosen.
The best arms can be got in Milan and Brescia. Those sent by way of Flanders are also very good.
The Venetians, the King of France, and the Duke of Ferrara have concluded a league, to which the other league concluded by the Pope, the Emperor, and the Duke of Milan is opposed. Has been asked which party is likely to be the strongest of the two, and has answered the one which has the Swiss on its side. Adds now, that if the Pope does not commit great blunders, the Swiss will side with him, for they cannot wish that so powerful a prince as the King of France should be lord of the duchy of Milan. They would lose thereby all their importance.—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Apparently the original copy. pp. 10.
Dec. (?)
S. E. A. L. 635. f. 15.
152. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Urea, his Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
Has received letters from Italy, dated the 14th of November.
The Pope is entertaining very intimate relations with the King of France. The King of France has renounced his adherence to the schismatic council, and adheres to the Council of the Lateran. The Gallican Church sends seven prelates to ask the pardon of the Pope, and the Pope absolves the King and the kingdom of France. The Pope has always been a lukewarm friend of the Emperor and of him. Swiss and Milanese troops are, under the instigation of France, on their march to Genoa, with the intention of changing the government of that city. The Venetians have sent unlimited powers to the Pope, and wish to be reconciled to the Emperor. The Pope is inclined to give a favourable verdict to the Emperor, but neither the Pope, nor the other Italians, nor the Swiss, wish to see Venice destroyed. The Swiss are not disinclined to conclude an alliance with the Italians, in order to drive the Emperor and him (King Ferdinand) out of Italy, if the Emperor refuses to make peace with Venice.
His ambassadors in Italy and the Cardinal of Gurk have asked him what they ought to do if the Pope and the other Italians cannot be persuaded to consent to, and to take part in, a war with Venice. The Venetians, they say, might perhaps be persuaded to accept the verdict given by the late Pope Julius II. ; that is to say, that Padua and Treviso should remain in possession of the Venetians, who would then pay tribute for them to the Emperor. Verona and Vicenza might be given to the Emperor. The Pope, they write, might be persuaded to give security that he will not pronounce his verdict before it is approved by him (King Ferdinand). The ambassadors are of opinion that such a verdict may be accepted, with the secret reservation that Venice is to be destroyed as soon as the Emperor and he (King Ferdinand) have settled their differences with France.
Has given the following answer to his ambassadors and to the Cardinal of Gurk. It is clear, he has said, that the Pope, the other Italians, and the Swiss do not like to see Venice destroyed. Further, it is clear that, if the Emperor, the King of England, and he (King Ferdinand) do what they have bound themselves to perform, viz., to begin war with France next summer, the Emperor and he (King Ferdinand) unaided cannot carry on a successful war with Venice against the will of the Swiss and the Italians. The war with Venice is therefore impossible, especially as neither he nor the Emperor has money in abundance. It is even dangerous to let the unsettled state of things which prevails in Italy continue any longer. The Swiss and the Italians, it is to be feared, would conclude an alliance with France, which has already shown her real intentions in the enterprise on Genoa, a city which is placed under his and the Emperor's protection.
On the other hand, if the Emperor concludes peace with Venice, the Pope would remain their friend, and would do all in his power to preserve the friendship of the Emperor, of the King of England, and of him (King Ferdinand). The Venetians would, by the very fact of their being friends of the Emperor, become the enemies of France. Thus, the Emperor, the King of England, and he (King Ferdinand) would be aided by the Italians in their war with France.
Begs the Emperor to make peace with Venice in one way or another, but not to delay the conclusion of it any longer. As soon as the Emperor has concluded peace with Venice the general Italian defensive league must be concluded. Hopes the Italians will pay him some money for the maintenance of his army until the league is concluded.
When Italy is thus gained and rendered safe, the Emperor, the King of England, and he (King Ferdinand) can begin the war with France, and invade her provinces. Hopes France will be so much humbled and weakened that she will never afterwards be able to oppose his and the Emperor's plans in Italy. The King of France must renounce all his rights on the duchy of Milan in favour of the Infante Ferdinand.
When that is done the Emperor can propose to the Venetians to release them from the payment of the tribute if they help him to conquer and to defend Milan. It is not probable that the Venetians will resist such a temptation.
Has written all this to his ambassadors (in Italy), and has ordered them to arrange as speedily as possible the following four points :—
1. The conclusion of peace between the Emperor and Venice.
2. The conclusion of the general Italian league against France.
3. The unconditional friendship of the Pope. In order to accomplish this, he consents to marry the brother of the Pope with the daughter of the Duke of Gardona.
4. The preservation of the friendship of the Swiss, not only with him (King Ferdinand), but also with the Pope and the Emperor.
The Emperor must, "for God's sake," avoid a rupture with the Swiss ; for if the French should gain over the Swiss to their cause, they would be able not only to defend France, but also to invade Italy.
He must persuade the Emperor to order Monseigneur de Gurk to assist his ambassadors.
The Emperor wishes the Infante Ferdinand to renounce his inheritance in Germany, and to receive, instead of it, the kingdom of Aragon, with the exception of Naples and Navarra. He is to tell the Emperor that the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon cannot be divided. They are the undivided inheritance of Prince Charles. Thinks that the inheritance of their children (Prince Charles and the Infante Ferdinand) can be settled better when the results of their enterprise on France, Milan, and Venice are known to them. If the Infante Ferdinand is to renounce his inheritance in Germany, a new state must be formed for him. Repeats once more, that Castile and Aragon are to remain the undivided inheritance of Prince Charles. Begs the Emperor, for a short time, to postpone the negotiations respecting the inheritance of their children.
He is to make his communications to the Emperor with the greatest secrecy. Has touched on all these delicate questions, because he wishes him (Pedro de Urea) to be well informed of the intentions of the Emperor when he returns to Spain.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Don Pedro de Urea."
On the margin is written by Almazan : "Fiat."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 9.

Footnotes

1 Monsieur de Borne was Chamberlain of the Queen of France and Envoy Extraordinary of King Ferdinand the Catholic.
2 Tournay had been conquered by the English.
3 ... "y rogad desde agora de mi parte al Emperador y al Rey de Inglaterra que para mas obligar a Dios Nuestro Señor para que nos sea favorable en la dicha empresa propongan desde agora con irrevocable deliberacion que dandonos Dios victoria en la dicha empresa y terminada aquella todos nos juntamente entenderemos despues en la empresa contra los infieles enemigos de nuestra fe."
4 Sister of Prince Charles.
5 It seems that this despatch was written on the 6th of December, and sent by the courier, Alonzo de Guadalupe, on the 8th of December. Cf. E. I. L. 806, f. 16.
6 It is scarcely necessary to state that this treaty is not the treaty of Lille (p. 162), but the altered form of it which King Ferdinand sent back, retaining, however, the original date of the 17th of October.