P. A. d. l'E.
Neg. Pap. d. S.
144. Summary of the Proposals which Monsieur De Borne (fn. 1)
brought to Madrid in the month of December 1513.
The King of France leaves it to King Ferdinand the
Catholic to decide whether the Prince (Charles) or the Infante
(Ferdinand) is to marry Madame Renée of France.
The King of France promises to give Madame Renée the
duchy of Milan, the county of Pavia, and the signiory of
Genoa, which belong to him.
If either the Prince or the Infante marries Madame Renée,
the King of France binds himself to renounce his claims on
the kingdom of Naples, and on the arrears of the pension
due by the kingdom of Naples to him, in favour of the
As soon as the duchy of Milan is conquered, the King of
France binds himself to deliver it to the Catholic King, who
is to guard and govern it in the name of Madame Renée and
her future husband until the marriage is consummated.
The King of France binds himself to aid the Catholic King
in preserving and defending Milan, Pavia, and Genoa against
all enemies, without any exception.
King Ferdinand, as well as the King of France, are to give
their kingly parole that they will swear on the Holy Gospels, the
mass book, and the wood of the true cross, to conclude the
marriage, and to see that it be solemnized and consummated
as soon as Madame Renée and the Prince, or respectively
the Infante, attain a marriageable age.
The King of France is to deliver to King Ferdinand the
Castle of Godefa in Genoa, as security, as soon as the marriage
treaty is concluded.
The great men, cities, and towns of both kingdoms, France
as well as Spain, are to swear to this treaty.
As soon as the marriage is concluded the King of France
and King Ferdinand are to conclude a treaty of peace and
alliance, which is to be observed in Italy as well as in other
parts of Europe. The object of this treaty will be that the contracting
parties shall help each other in defending their states,
as well as in recovering those dominions which belong to
them by right, (fn. 2) according to the formula "enemy of the
enemy, and friend of the friend," without excepting any
The King of France and King Ferdinand bind themselves
to aid one another with all their power to reconquer the
dominions which belong to each of them by right, as soon
as the treaty of alliance is signed.
Free commerce between the subjects of the contracting
Neither of the contracting princes is to assist the enemies
or rebels of the other contracting prince.
Both parties are at liberty, within three months, to name
their allies whom they wish to include in this treaty.
The Pope is to be regarded as a principal party to this
treaty, and the Emperor and the King of England are at
liberty to accede at once to it, the King of England, however,
only on condition that he gives back Tournay to the King
The Pope is to be the conservator of this treaty, and both
contracting parties will submit to his censure if they break it.
—Blois, the 1st of December 1513.
Indorsed : "Summary of what Monsieur de Borne brought
to Madrid in the month of December 1513."
Spanish. pp. 2½.
S. E. R. L. 847.
145. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Hieronymo De Vich,
his Ambassador in Rome.
He is to communicate the contents of this despatch to no
one except the Pope. He may, however, speak with those
who have political influence, and say to them what he thinks
will be conducive to the conclusion of peace between the
Venetians and the Emperor.
Has received his letters of the 12th and 13th of November
last, and has learnt by them that the Venetians have given full
power to the Pope to conclude peace or a truce between them
and the Emperor on such conditions as the Pope thinks are
just. Has further learnt by his letters that the Pope has
promised not to pronounce judgment as umpire on the
conditions of the peace before he (King Ferdinand) has
Promises the Pope that the Emperor will accept him as
umpire, and begs him not to permit this opportunity to pass
away without putting in order the affairs of Italy. Is of
opinion that the Pope ought to pronounce the same judgment
as Pope Julius pronounced ; and the Venetians may be
told in secret that he and the Holy Father will assist them
against the French.
Supposing that the peace between the Emperor and the
Venetians will be concluded, he has entered into an alliance
with the Emperor and the King of England, the object of
which is to invade France next summer. Hopes to force
the French to give up their plans on Italy for ever.
What the Pope ought to do is to bring about without delay
a peace between the Emperor and the Venetians, and then to
form a general league of the Italians for the defence of their
country. At the same time, however, the Pope must continue
his negotiations with France, and try to persuade the King
to make a general peace with all Christian princes. The King
of France must not be made aware that he (King Ferdinand)
knows about the negotiations of the Pope with him. Promises
to persuade the Emperor and the King of England to accept
the general peace, if France is ready to conclude it. To
obtain security for the Italian states is the only reason why
he is disposed, conjointly with the Emperor and the King of
England, to invade France.
The Pope must not think that the Emperor can induce
the Swiss to assist him against Venice. The Swiss wish to
preserve Milan, and not to disturb the peace in Italy. Has,
moreover, written to the Emperor and to the Cardinal of Gurk,
and has strongly advised them not to undertake anything in
He is to tell the Pope that it is well known that San
Severino is inducing him (the Pope) to continue his negotiations
with France in a manner which is prejudicial to the
interests of all his friends.
He must write directly, and tell him the real intention of the
Pope, and beg his Holiness to keep secret the new alliance
between him, the Emperor, and the King of England.
Disapproves of the state of things in Genoa. His Holiness
must remedy them.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Vich."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 6.
|6 Dec. (?)
S. E. I. L. 806.
146. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
On the 18th of June, sent Pedro de Lanuza with a
mission to the King of England, who detained him almost
six months. Pedro de Lanuza returned as late as the end of
November. As his envoy had written to tell him that King
Henry had declined to conclude any treaty, and as he had
received by way of Italy news that the King of England had
returned to his own country, with the intention of abandoning
his enterprise in France, and of occupying himself only with the
affairs of Scotland, he (King Ferdinand) had not made preparations
for war. Is, nevertheless, still animated by the same
feeling towards the King of England and the Emperor. The
King of France has asked him to make a separate peace with
him on whatever conditions he (King Ferdinand) likes, and
the Queen of France has begged him to prolong the truce.
Has, however, rejected all these offers, declaring that he would
not make peace or war, except in conjunction with his allies
viz., the Emperor and the King of England.
When such was the state of things Pedro de Lanuza
arrived with the treaty which was concluded between the
Emperor, the King of England, and him, by which war
with France is to be resumed next summer. According to
his instructions, the Spanish ambassador had not signed that
The disadvantages of a war with France are much felt
in Spain. Both countries are neighbours. The frontier from
Salsas to Fuentarabia is of great extent. War at sea entails
heavy burdens. Besides, the Spaniards are fully aware that the
war is not to be undertaken in the interest of their country.
The public treasury is empty, for the continual wars with the
Moors and those in Italy have absorbed all his resources.
The expense of the sustenance of a large army amidst the
mountains of the Pyrenees is excessive. All the provisions for
it must be carried from Andalusia on carts, and the cost of their
transport is more than thrice as much as they are worth. In
Navarra there is a famine. Thus, having to carry on the war
in the south of France by himself, his expenses and sacrifices
will be much greater than those of the Emperor and the King
of England put together.
But, considering on the other hand that the war is to be
undertaken in the interest of Holy Church, of the King
and Queen of England, and of Prince Charles, and wishing
and hoping to live and die in the friendship of the Emperor
and the King of England, he declares himself ready
to undertake the war, and hopes that God will help him. He
is to tell the Emperor and the King of England, in his
(King Ferdinand's) name, that they must make sure of the
assistance of God, by binding themselves to undertake a
general war with the Infidels if He gives them victory in
this enterprise. (fn. 3)
Has signed the treaty brought by Lanuza and ratified it.
Sends the ratified copy together with this despatch. Has,
however, altered some articles of the treaty. His alterations
do not change the character of the alliance.
|1. Has changed some portion of the preamble, and inserted
the true reason which moves them to undertake the war
with France. The principal reason for the war is that the
King of France and his followers are schismatics. But, as
he is informed that the King of France is about to reconcile
himself with the Pope, and that the Pope is inclined to
pardon him, it is necessary to add to their first reason all
their other reasons for beginning war with France, in order
that, if the King of France satisfies the Pope, he may be
obliged to satisfy their demands likewise.
|2. The King of England styles himself, in the treaty sent
to him by Pedro de Lanuza, "King of France." Has suppressed
those words. Did not himself assume the title of "King
of Naples" and "King of Navarra" until he had entirely
conquered those kingdoms. The King of England ought to
follow his example. Is ready to assist the King of England
in conquering France. But the title of "King of France,"
without the possession of France, is an empty phrase.
|3. In the treaty sent by Lanuza the article in which he
binds himself to make war upon France was placed before
the article in which the Emperor and the King of England
take upon themselves the same obligation. As the King of
England and the Emperor are the chief parties interested in
this war, and he is only their auxiliary, he has reversed the
order of these articles. Has, besides, added that the King
of England is to take the field in person, because the war
is an English war. If the King of England, however, is
prevented from doing so, he can send a lieutenant.
|4. If fortresses in Guienne are to be demolished the King
of England is to bear the expense of the demolition ; but it
is hardly probable that such cases will occur.
|5. The treaty contains an article according to which the
King of England is to pay him 20,000 gold crowns a
month for the 6,000 German troops. This is the most important
article of the whole treaty. In order to understand
it properly, it is necessary to bear in mind that whenever the
King of France has sent an army against Spain that army
has contained a considerable number of German and Swiss
troops. It is, therefore, clear that the French army which is
to oppose his invasion of Guienne will likewise comprehend,
in addition to French troops, numerous contingents of Swiss
and German soldiers. If the Spanish army had only to defend
Spain against troops such as these, it would suffice, even if the
forces were composed of Spanish soldiers only. But, as the
Spaniards are to invade France, to besiege towns, to render
themselves masters of the open country, and to wage pitched
battles, it is more than desirable that they should be reinforced
by German troops. It is notorious that whenever Spanish,
united with German troops, have fought with French troops
they have been victorious ; but, on the other hand, whenever
Spaniards alone have been engaged in a battle with French
and German troops their victory has by no means been
certain. There is not a single experienced captain to be found, in
whatever country, who would advise the employment of purely
Spanish troops against an army which contains a considerable
number of German soldiers. It is therefore necessary that the
German auxiliary troops should arrive in Spain in the month
of May next.
Has no money. Will, however, in some way or other, find as
much money as will be necessary to defray his own expenses,
that is to say, for 1,500 men-at-arms, 1,500 light cavalry, an
army amounting altogether to 12,000 men, for the artillery,
ammunitions of war, provisions of the army, and the transport
of them, as well as for the fleet, and for extraordinary expenses.
These expenses are enormous. He is to tell the King of England
that never has one prince done for another as much as he is
ready to do, especially as he is obliged to procure the necessary
money by selling and pledging his property. The King of
England is therefore, in justice and equity, bound to pay the
6,000 Germans from the moment of their enlistment to the
end of their services, the cost of their transport included. The
Germans not only leave the service they have entered, but
often go over to the enemy, if they are not punctually paid.
To prevent this he has added a paragraph to the treaty, by
which the King of England binds himself to send the pay of the
Germans, calculated at 20,000 gold crowns, to Spain before the
month of June next. Has further added an article to the treaty
by which his ambassador, Don Pedro de Urea, is entrusted with
the enlistment of the 6,000, or at least 4,000 German troops,
and with their transport to Spain. Has done so in order that
no time should be lost. The Emperor is to select a colonel for
the Germans. Don Pedro de Urea is to take care that the
German troops be in Spain in the month of May. Is ready to
content himself with 4,000 German troops, instead of 6,000.
But the King of England is to pay the full amount of 20,000
gold crowns a month, because the deficiency of German troops
will have to be made up by Spaniards, or by other soldiers. The
only reason why he does not insist on having 6,000 Germans is
that he is afraid the enlistment of so many Germans might
delay the enterprise.
|6. The addition to the treaty by which the Emperor is
bound to favour the enlistment of the Germans does not
require any explanation.
|7. Has altered the articles of the treaty referring to the fleet
which he is bound to furnish. Does not like to promise more
than he is able to perform. His intention is to arm as powerful
a fleet as possible, and to give to Spanish subjects and to
subjects of other friendly nations commissions as privateers.
Hopes to be able to guard the Spanish seas.
He is to ask the King of England to sign and ratify the
articles of the treaty in the form in which he (King Ferdinand)
sends them. Will, without loss of time, begin preparations for
the war. Begs the King of England to send without delay
to Don Pedro the necessary money for the enlistment and
transport of the Germans to Spain. If the King of England
wishes, he may be styled in the treaty "King of France."
Insists, however, on all the other additions and alterations of
the treaty. The King of England must get ready his army
and his fleet, and not cause delay.
He is to insist upon the King of England using all his
influence with the Emperor and with Madame Margaret,
in order to persuade them to preserve by all possible
means the alliance of the Swiss. If the King of France
should succeed in gaining the Swiss over to his cause their
enterprise on France would possibly have very different results
from what the King of England expects. The Emperor must
further, conclude peace with the Venetians. If the Emperor
were not to make peace with Venice, the Turks might in that
case profit by the war with France, or the Venetians might
conclude an alliance which might render the whole enterprise
Learns by letters from Rome that the Pope, through the interference
of San Severino, is entertaining intimate intelligence
with the King of France. The King of France has renounced
the schismatic council and adheres to the Council of the Lateran,
and seven prelates of the Gallican Church are to go and
beg pardon of the Pope, who is to grant pardon to France.
Begs the Emperor and the King of England to send an embassy
to the Pope, and to ask him to assist them in their war
with France. He (King Ferdinand), the Emperor, and the
King of England have begun the war with France in order to
suppress the schism and to defend the states of the Pope. It
is, therefore, only just that the Pope, who, in consequence of
the war has obtained what he demanded, should at this
juncture assist the King of England and Prince Charles, at
least with his spiritual weapons, to recover the provinces
of which France has robbed them. If the Pope has already
absolved or is about to absolve the King of France, and if
the schism is at an end, the Apostolic censures against the
King of France must last until he gives back that of which
he has unjustly deprived his neighbours.
He is to take care that all the servants of the Prince
(Charles) who are partisans of France be sent away. He is
likewise to see that the Princess Mary (fn. 4) be surrounded by
persons who are in his interest. Thinks that Francisca de
Caceres is devoted to him.—No date. (fn. 5) No signature.
Written on the margin of this document : "Fiat."
Indorsed : "Don Luis Caroz."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 19.
|6 Dec. (?)
S. E. A. L. 635.
147. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Urea,
his Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
The contents of this despatch are in all essential points
identical with those of the preceding one—No date. No
On the margin : "Fiat."
Indorsed : "Don Pedro de Urea."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 19.
|6 Dec. (?)
S. E. Pat. Re.
T. c. I. L. 6. f. 8.
148. Treaty between Henry VIII., King Of England
Maximilian, Emperor Elect, and King Ferdinand
The Catholic. (fn. 6)
The Commissioners are—
On the part of King Ferdinand :
Pedro de Urea,
Luis Caroz de Villaragut, and
Juan de Lanuza.
On the part of Maximilian, Emperor elect :
Johannes de Berghes, First Chamberlain and
Governor of Namur ;
Gérard de Plaine, Siegneur de Magny.
On the part of the King of England :
Richard, Bishop of Winchester ; and
Thomas Grey, Marquis of Dorset.
When Louis, King of France, waged war openly on Holy
Church, robbing her of her states and favouring the schism, the
Emperor elect, the King of England, and King Ferdinand the
Catholic, concluded a league, the object of which was to defend
the Pope and Holy Church, to extirpate the schism, and to
wrest from the King of France all the provinces and territories
which he had unjustly acquired. They had thought
it necessary to reduce the power of the King of France, lest he
should render himself sole arbiter and lord of Christendom,
which had always been the aim of the Kings of France. They
projected, at the same time, a common war against the Infidels.
Although our Lord evidently favoured their enterprise, they
have not yet entirely executed it.
|They renew, therefore, their league, and bind themselves to
begin war with the King of France on the following conditions :—
1. None of the contracting parties is at liberty to conclude or
to renew a treaty of peace or truce with the King of France.
2. The Emperor elect and the King of England bind themselves
to begin war with France in Normandy and Picardy,
or wherever they can cause the greatest losses to the enemy.
The invasion is to take place before the 1st of June next.
Any one of the armies is to be strong enough to resist the
attacks of the French troops, to besiege or to defend towns,
and to carry on all necessary warlike operations. The Emperor
and the King of England are to take the field in person.
Should, however, the King of England be prevented from
taking the field in person, he is to send an able captain, with
16,000 foot, 4,000 horse, and the necessary artillery, &c.
3. King Ferdinand binds himself to invade the duchy of
Guienne before the 1st of June next. His army is to consist of
15,000 foot, 1,500 light cavalry, and 1,500 heavy cavalry, with
25 pieces of artillery, and the other necessary engines of war.
The King of England is to give a commission to the Spanish
captain-general who is at the head of the invading army in
Guienne, empowering him to carry out the enterprise, to
receive the homage of the prelates, nobles, &c., to confirm the
privileges, &c., in the name of the King of England. King
Ferdinand is to deliver to the King of England all such territories,
cities, towns, &c., as have formerly belonged to the
crown of England ; whilst the King of England is to cede
to King Ferdinand all such territories, cities, &c., as were
formerly the property of the crowns of Castile or Aragon.
4. The King of England is to pay the expenses of the war
5. King Ferdinand is to enlist 6,000 Germans. The King
of England binds himself to pay at the end of each month
20,000 gold crowns, each crown being worth 4 shillings, for
the Spanish troops, consisting altogether of 18,000 men, and to
bear the expenses of the enlistment, transport, and regular pay
of the 6,000 German troops. If 6,000 Germans are not to be
had, the deficiency is to be made up by Spaniards.
6. German troops are in the habit of revolting, if they do
not receive their pay regularly. The King of England is,
therefore, to send to Spain, before the 1st of June next, the
pay for the German troops for one year, or at least for eight
months. The pay of the German troops is valued at 20,000
gold crowns a month. The King of England is, also, to pay
the expenses of the transport of the Germans to Spain.
7. The Emperor elect promises to permit the enlistment of
the 6,000 Germans, and to give them an able colonel.
8. The King of England and King Ferdinand bind themselves
to keep, each of them, a strong fleet at sea during six
months after the 1st of April or as long as the war lasts.
9. None of the contracting parties is to negotiate separately,
or to conclude a separate peace or truce with France.
10. The contracting parties are to ratify this treaty within
five months. The ratified copies are to be exchanged in the
month of May next.
11. The former treaties between the contracting parties
remain in force.
13. The Pope, Charles, Prince of Spain, the Duke of Milan,
and the Florentines are included in this league.
Lille, the 17th of October 1513.
Petrus de Urea.
Johannes de Lanuza.
The ratification of this league by King Ferdinand follows,
dated Majorete, the 6th of December 1513.
Latin. Copy, written by Miguel Perez Almazan. pp. 16.
|6 Dec. (?)
S. E. L. 635. f. 18.
149. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
He is to see that the King of England sends Don Pedro
de Urea the money necessary for the enlistment of 4,000
Germans and their transport by sea to Spain. He is to inform
Don Pedro, without loss of time, of the manner in which the
money is to be paid.
He is to write without delay.—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Draft. p. ½
|6 Dec (?)
S. E. A. L. 635.
150. King Ferdinand Of Spain to Don Pedro De Urea,
his Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
From his other letter, which is sent by the same courier, he
will see that he is entrusted with the enlistment of 4,000
Germans. The reason why he entrusts this task to him is that
the article respecting the 4,000 Germans is the most important
of the whole treaty, and that its execution cannot be
committed to any less trustworthy person.
Has also another reason. He has sometimes written
that the Emperor has made secret communications to him,
respecting his own and the Emperor's personal affairs and
those of their common children, which he has not dared
to communicate in a letter. When he brings the 4,000
Germans to Spain, he can tell him what the Emperor has
said to him.
The King of England is to pay the whole expenses of
the enlistment of the 6,000 Germans and of their transport to
Spain. Has written to Luis Caroz to tell the King of
England to provide him (Pedro de Urea) with the necessary
money. He is to embark the troops at such time as the
Emperor and the King of England may think convenient ;
but, at all events, the troops must be in Spain before the end
He is to beg the Emperor to select good troops and to
give them an experienced and trusty colonel.
Gilaberte is, during his absence, to remain with the
Emperor.—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Draft. p. 1.
|S. Guer. Mary
Tier. L. 1.
151. Memoir On The Formation of a Good Army, to serve
in the War With France which Spain and England
are about to undertake.
A good army cannot be formed at the very moment it is
wanted. Soldiers enlisted when hostilities begin are extremely
dear, as their want of warlike habits must be supplied
by their greater numbers. It is therefore an advantage
without loss of time, to form a standing corps of guards,
horse guards as well as foot guards.
There are at present 1,200 men-at-arms in Spain. The
light horse must be reinforced, so that there may be, at least,
500 lances. They must be well armed.
His (the author's) advice is to increase the infantry of
Villalba until their number reaches 2,000 men. Is of opinion
that 2,000 men, experienced soldiers and commanded by good
captains, should be sent from Naples. Proposes further to
enlist 3,000 Spaniards and 1,000 newly converted Moors from
the kingdom of Granada. They are good soldiers.
Experience has shown that it is very useful to have 2,000
or 2,500 German troops with the Spaniards. They render
excellent services on a day of battle, or when the camp is to
be pitched near the enemy, or when the army is in retreat, as
they are well disciplined and obey their officers. But "such is
their beastliness and arrogance" that, unless they are commanded
by a captain of their own nation whom they know
to be generous and courageous and who holds a commission
from the Emperor, they are rather a "fire-brand" and a
source of trouble than any real advantage.
Such an army will be found sufficient to defend Navarra.
It may, however, be, and it is the more probable supposition,
that the King will not be disposed to ask any other
succour from the King of England, but that he will invade
France from the side of Calais with all his forces. In Picardy
and Normandy the English would scarcely find any resistance.
Thinks it would not be well if English troops were to be again
sent to Spain, as they were last year. It is rare for two
commanders-in-chief to agree well together, even when they
belong to the same nation. When however, they are of
different nationalities, speak different languages, and have
different habits, the division of the commandership-in-chief
is the most dangerous thing that can be imagined. Is of
opinion that it would be much better if the King of England
were to invade France on the north, whilst the Emperor
attacked Burgundy, and if the Spanish army of which he
has spoken, reinforced by 5,000 men from Guipuzcoa and
Alava and the artillery from San Juan de Pie del Puerto,
were to march at once to Pamplona and Salvatierra, from
which latter place it could in a short time conquer the whole
of Guienne and Bearn. Pamplona, Sanguesa and Lumbier
must be well fortified.
Spies must be sent to France.
The money necessary for the payment of the troops must
be kept in readiness.
The captains must be chosen.
The best arms can be got in Milan and Brescia. Those
sent by way of Flanders are also very good.
The Venetians, the King of France, and the Duke of Ferrara
have concluded a league, to which the other league concluded
by the Pope, the Emperor, and the Duke of Milan
is opposed. Has been asked which party is likely to be
the strongest of the two, and has answered the one which
has the Swiss on its side. Adds now, that if the Pope does
not commit great blunders, the Swiss will side with him,
for they cannot wish that so powerful a prince as the King of
France should be lord of the duchy of Milan. They would
lose thereby all their importance.—No date. No signature.
Spanish. Apparently the original copy. pp. 10.
S. E. A. L. 635.
152. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Urea,
his Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
Has received letters from Italy, dated the 14th of November.
The Pope is entertaining very intimate relations with the King
of France. The King of France has renounced his adherence
to the schismatic council, and adheres to the Council of the
Lateran. The Gallican Church sends seven prelates to ask the
pardon of the Pope, and the Pope absolves the King and the
kingdom of France. The Pope has always been a lukewarm
friend of the Emperor and of him. Swiss and Milanese
troops are, under the instigation of France, on their march
to Genoa, with the intention of changing the government
of that city. The Venetians have sent unlimited powers
to the Pope, and wish to be reconciled to the Emperor.
The Pope is inclined to give a favourable verdict to the Emperor,
but neither the Pope, nor the other Italians, nor the
Swiss, wish to see Venice destroyed. The Swiss are not disinclined
to conclude an alliance with the Italians, in order to
drive the Emperor and him (King Ferdinand) out of Italy, if
the Emperor refuses to make peace with Venice.
His ambassadors in Italy and the Cardinal of Gurk have
asked him what they ought to do if the Pope and the other
Italians cannot be persuaded to consent to, and to take part
in, a war with Venice. The Venetians, they say, might perhaps
be persuaded to accept the verdict given by the late Pope
Julius II. ; that is to say, that Padua and Treviso should
remain in possession of the Venetians, who would then pay
tribute for them to the Emperor. Verona and Vicenza might
be given to the Emperor. The Pope, they write, might be persuaded
to give security that he will not pronounce his verdict
before it is approved by him (King Ferdinand). The ambassadors
are of opinion that such a verdict may be accepted,
with the secret reservation that Venice is to be destroyed as
soon as the Emperor and he (King Ferdinand) have settled
their differences with France.
Has given the following answer to his ambassadors and to
the Cardinal of Gurk. It is clear, he has said, that the Pope,
the other Italians, and the Swiss do not like to see Venice
destroyed. Further, it is clear that, if the Emperor, the King
of England, and he (King Ferdinand) do what they have
bound themselves to perform, viz., to begin war with France
next summer, the Emperor and he (King Ferdinand) unaided
cannot carry on a successful war with Venice against the will
of the Swiss and the Italians. The war with Venice is
therefore impossible, especially as neither he nor the Emperor
has money in abundance. It is even dangerous to let the
unsettled state of things which prevails in Italy continue any
longer. The Swiss and the Italians, it is to be feared, would
conclude an alliance with France, which has already shown her
real intentions in the enterprise on Genoa, a city which is
placed under his and the Emperor's protection.
On the other hand, if the Emperor concludes peace with
Venice, the Pope would remain their friend, and would do all
in his power to preserve the friendship of the Emperor, of
the King of England, and of him (King Ferdinand). The
Venetians would, by the very fact of their being friends of the
Emperor, become the enemies of France. Thus, the Emperor,
the King of England, and he (King Ferdinand) would be
aided by the Italians in their war with France.
Begs the Emperor to make peace with Venice in one way
or another, but not to delay the conclusion of it any longer.
As soon as the Emperor has concluded peace with Venice the
general Italian defensive league must be concluded. Hopes
the Italians will pay him some money for the maintenance
of his army until the league is concluded.
When Italy is thus gained and rendered safe, the Emperor, the
King of England, and he (King Ferdinand) can begin the war
with France, and invade her provinces. Hopes France will be
so much humbled and weakened that she will never afterwards
be able to oppose his and the Emperor's plans in Italy. The
King of France must renounce all his rights on the duchy of
Milan in favour of the Infante Ferdinand.
When that is done the Emperor can propose to the Venetians
to release them from the payment of the tribute if they
help him to conquer and to defend Milan. It is not probable
that the Venetians will resist such a temptation.
Has written all this to his ambassadors (in Italy), and has
ordered them to arrange as speedily as possible the following
four points :—
1. The conclusion of peace between the Emperor and Venice.
2. The conclusion of the general Italian league against
3. The unconditional friendship of the Pope. In order
to accomplish this, he consents to marry the brother of the
Pope with the daughter of the Duke of Gardona.
4. The preservation of the friendship of the Swiss, not only
with him (King Ferdinand), but also with the Pope and the
The Emperor must, "for God's sake," avoid a rupture with
the Swiss ; for if the French should gain over the Swiss
to their cause, they would be able not only to defend France,
but also to invade Italy.
He must persuade the Emperor to order Monseigneur de
Gurk to assist his ambassadors.
The Emperor wishes the Infante Ferdinand to renounce his
inheritance in Germany, and to receive, instead of it, the kingdom
of Aragon, with the exception of Naples and Navarra. He
is to tell the Emperor that the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon
cannot be divided. They are the undivided inheritance of
Prince Charles. Thinks that the inheritance of their children
(Prince Charles and the Infante Ferdinand) can be settled
better when the results of their enterprise on France, Milan,
and Venice are known to them. If the Infante Ferdinand is
to renounce his inheritance in Germany, a new state must be
formed for him. Repeats once more, that Castile and Aragon
are to remain the undivided inheritance of Prince Charles.
Begs the Emperor, for a short time, to postpone the negotiations
respecting the inheritance of their children.
He is to make his communications to the Emperor with
the greatest secrecy. Has touched on all these delicate questions,
because he wishes him (Pedro de Urea) to be well
informed of the intentions of the Emperor when he returns
to Spain.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Don Pedro de Urea."
On the margin is written by Almazan : "Fiat."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 9.