S. E. Var. L. 1554.
168. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Don Ramiro Nuñez
De Guzman, his Ambassador In Genoa.
Informs him that he has concluded a truce for one year
between the Emperor, the King of England, himself, and the
Prince (Charles), on the one part ; and the Kings of France and
Scotland on the other part.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Ramiro Nuñez de Guzman."
Spanish. Draft. p. 1.
S. E. Fl. L. 496.
ff. 37, 38.
169. King Ferdinand The Catholic to the Knight Commander
Juan De Lanuza, his Ambassador in
Answered his last letters on the 9th of March, and instructed
him to tell Madame Margaret that the truce with
France having been concluded at the orders of the Emperor,
there was no choice left him but to observe it. The Emperor
told Quintana that he would take upon himself to persuade
the King of England to ratify the truce.
He is to tell Madame Margaret, in secret, that the principal
reason why the Emperor and he had accepted the offers of
France was because they had discovered a conspiracy of the
Italians to drive him and the Emperor out of Italy, and
to wrest from them their Italian states. Such being the case,
it would have been foolish of the Emperor and of him to have
left their own states defenceless for the sake of making war on
France. Hopes Madame Margaret will be of the same opinion
and help the Emperor to persuade the King of England not to
resist the conclusion of the truce, but to accept and ratify it.
It is very necessary that the Emperor, the King of England,
and he should be always united in friendship and brotherly
feeling, whether they have made a truce or a peace, or whether
they are at war with the King of France. Otherwise France
would soon break her engagements, in order to carry out
her ambitious plans. The more France strives to separate
them the more reason they have to remain united.
Madame Margaret is the person on whom, more than on
any one else on earth, peace or war depends. Beseeches
her to use her great influence in favour of peace. The
Emperor, the King of France, the King of England, and he
will send ambassadors to her, and she can conduct the
negotiations of peace, and the treaty can be concluded in her
The treaty of truce was concluded on the 13th of March. It
is to last one year. Hostilities are to cease on land and at
sea. The contracting parties are the Emperor, the Queen of
Castile, the King of England, he, and the Prince (Charles),
on the one part, and the King of France and the King of
Scotland, on the other part. The Duke and the duchy of Milan
are included in it. Quintana has sent a ratified copy of it to
the Emperor. He is to see that, if negotiations of peace are
begun, they are carried on in the most secret manner. There
are a great many persons who would oppose the peace.
Madame Margaret wishes to marry the King of France.
Tells him in secret, and only for his information, that the
King of France wishes to marry again because he wishes to have
children, and he believes that Madame Margaret would not
bear him children. That is the reason why he would not like
to marry her. Should, however, the King of France show
any inclination towards a marriage with Madame Margaret,
he would do all in his power to promote it.
Artieta and his (Juan de Lanuza's) brother have arrived.
Thanks Madame for all she has done concerning the arrest of
Juan Manuel. Begs her to continue her good services, and to
see that Juan Manuel is punished, and the other bad servants
who are bent on sowing discord between brothers and father
Sends his (Juan de Lanuza's) brother back to Flanders with
letters for him and Madame.
The Pope, on the 4th of March, pronounced judgment
as umpire, and declared peace between the Emperor and the
The Cardinal of Gurk is a faithful servant to him and to
the Emperor. Begs Madame Margaret to show him favour.—
No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "The Catholic King to the Knight Commander
Spanish. Draft. pp. 4.
S. E. I. L. 806.
170. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Luis Caroz De
Villaragut, his Ambassador in England.
Answered all his letters concerning the treaty of Lille in
the despatch which was sent on the 8th of December by the
courier Guadalupe. He and the other Spanish ambassadors
had not signed that treaty, but had sent a copy of it to
him (King Ferdinand), in order that he might sign it if he
liked. Changed different articles of the treaty, and sent a
copy of the altered treaty, signed and sealed, back to him,
ordering him to show it to the King of England, and to ask
him likewise to sign and seal it in its new form. The
changes related principally to the pay of the 6,000 German
troops and to the security the King of England was to give.
Wrote another despatch to him on the 20th of December,
and sent it by the same courier (Guadalupe), who received
it before embarking for England. Told him in the second
despatch not to speak to the King of England about the
alterations in the treaty until he had received more formal
instructions respecting the security which the King of England
was to give.
These despatches show how desirous he was to carry out the
wishes of the Emperor and the King of England, and how much
he wished and still wishes to remain their close ally. When,
however, he was about to send formal instructions respecting
the security to be given by the King of England, he discovered
a great conspiracy of the Italian princes to deprive him and
the Emperor of their Italian dominions. The conspirators were
only waiting for the moment when war with France should
begin, in order to execute their treason. They were persuaded
that they could conquer in one month all that he and the Emperor
possessed in Italy. Obtained, by a miracle, the very
letters of the conspirators. Informed the Emperor, who
was of opinion that they ought to conclude a truce of one
year with the King of France, and to suppress, during that
time, the Italian conspiracy.
The truce is concluded between the Emperor, the King of
England, himself (King Ferdinand), and the Prince (Charles)
on the one part, and the Kings of France and of Scotland on
the other part. The danger arising from the Italian conspiracy
would not only have affected the Emperor and him (King
Ferdinand), but the detrimental consequences of it would also
have been felt by the King of England and his sister, the
Princess of Castile. (fn. 1) Was of the same opinion as the Emperor,
that is to say, that it was necessary first to defend
their own states.
His interests are inseparably united with those of the
Emperor and the King of England. Refused, therefore, to
conclude the truce with France before King Louis had given
him sufficient security that he would satisfy the demands of
the King of England with respect to the government of Scotland
and the peace between the English and Scotch. Besides,
the King of France has declared himself ready to pay annually
to the King of England the usual pensions.
He is to ask the King of England to keep secret what he
has told him about the conspiracy of the Italians. Intends,
in common with the Emperor, to punish the Italians before
they know that he has discovered their perfidy. He is not to
tell the King of England that he (King Ferdinand) has sent
him a signed and sealed copy of the treaty of Lille ; on the
contrary, he is to declare that he (King Ferdinand) intended
to deliver the copy of the modified treaty to the English
ambassador in Spain.
He is further to communicate to the King of England that
the Emperor, when he proposed the truce with France, took
upon himself to persuade the King of England to ratify it,
and authorized Quintana to sign it in his (the Emperor's)
name, and in the name of all his allies. Could not believe
but that the Emperor, who is not staying far from England,
had first consulted with the King of England on this matter.
He is to tell the King of England anything he thinks expedient.
He must do all in his power to obtain from the
King of England the ratification of the truce with France ;
but he must not ask the King of England to deliver him a
ratified copy of the truce, as the Emperor has taken upon
himself to procure it. He is only to assist the ambassador of
the Emperor in his efforts. Has incorporated in the treaty
of truce with France the article respecting Scotland, in order
to avoid the appearance of leaving the King to carry on the
Scotch war by himself, especially as the Regent of Scotland is
the sister, and the King the nephew, of the King of England.
The Queen of France had offered, shortly before she died, to
bring about a general peace of Christendom. Rejected all such
offers until he discovered the Italian conspiracy. Entered afterwards
into negotiations on this subject with the Emperor, who
was to inform the King of England of what was going on.
When the Queen of France died the Emperor proposed to
him to marry Madame Eleanor to King Louis, and at the
same time to open negotiations with France respecting the
general peace proposed by the late Queen of France. The
Emperor expressed his opinion that it would be advisable to
conclude the peace if the King of France satisfied all the demands
of the King of England and of the other confederates.
If the King of France, he said, were to marry the sister of
the Prince (Charles), who, on his part, is married to the sister
of the King of England, the great princes of Christendom
would be united together by such close bonds of relationship
that a general peace would be secured, and a treaty of alliance
between him (the Emperor), the King of England, him (Ferdinand),
and the Prince (Charles), on the one part, and the King
of France on the other part, might be concluded, especially as
the reasons for which he (King Ferdinand) and the King of
England undertook the war with France no longer exist.
They began the war in order to defend the Holy Church and
to uproot the schism. But the King and the Church of France
have renounced the schismatic council ; they have also submitted
to the demands of the Pope, and done penance.
Is of opinion that he and the King of England ought not
to neglect the advice of the Emperor. A general peace and
great advantages would be obtained by concluding peace with
Should the King of France not satisfy the reasonable
demands of England, or afterwards not fulfil his promises,
two things could be done during the time of the truce ; he
and the Emperor could remove the danger with which their
Italian states are threatened, and he, the Emperor, and the
King of England could conclude a league between themselves.
The preparations for war with France might be made during
the time of truce, and actual war might begin as soon as the
truce was at an end.
His wish is to bring about a general peace of Christendom.
The Emperor desires the same thing. He (Don Luis) is to
do all in his power to induce the King of England to adopt
his and the Emperor's policy of peace. The Emperor will
begin negotiations with the King of England on this subject.
He is to join the Imperial ambassador in his efforts
as soon as a favourable opportunity occurs. He is to
tell the King of England that the King of France will
probably have a son by Madame Eleanor, who will be his
successor on the throne of France. It would be no small
advantage if the King of France, being married to the sister
of Prince Charles, were the brother of the Prince ; and the
Prince, being married to the sister of the King of England,
were the brother of the King. All three of them, the King of
France, the King of England, and Prince Charles, would thus
be united in brotherly love. The future King of France,
though not a brother, would still be the nephew of the Prince,
and consequently of the King of England. But the principal
security of peace is and always will be that the Emperor,
the King of England, he (King Ferdinand), and the Prince
(Charles) would remain friends and allies in peace and war.
He is to burn the treaty of Lille, and only to keep a copy
The Pope has sent a nuncio to England, who is ordered by
his Holiness to do all he can to reconcile the King of England
with the King of France. He is to tell the nuncio that the
Pope wishes soon to see the general peace concluded, towards
which the late truce is the first indispensable step. The
interests of Italy are taken care of in the truce, as the King
of France has bound himself not to attack the Duke or the
duchy of Milan.
Leaves him at liberty to communicate to the King of
England all the contents of this despatch, or only a portion
of them, according to his judgment. At all events, he is to
preserve the friendship of the King of England.
The Pope intends to dissolve the Council of the Lateran at
the next sitting. Thinks it is very wrong to dismiss the council
before it has come to a conclusion on the subjects for which
it was convoked, viz., a general war with the Infidels and the
reformation of the Church. The King of England ought to
remonstrate with the Pope. Is willing to do the same.—No
date. No signature.
On the margin is written : "Fiat."
Indorsed : "Don Luis Caroz."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 10.
S. E. A. L. 635.
171. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Urea, his
Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
Has received his letter dated the 20th of February, in which
he writes that the Emperor was very glad to learn from him
what the Pope intended to do. Has since received letters
from Rome of the 5th of March, by which he is informed
that the Holy Father, in accordance with the arbitration
made by him, pronounced, on the 4th of March, peace between
the Emperor and the Venetians. Encloses a transcript of the
articles of that peace. The Pope has delivered a bull to the
Cardinal of Gurk, in which he promises not to give judgment
on the reserved points without having first obtained his (King
Ferdinand's) express approval.
Quintana has sent him a copy of the truce which he had concluded
with the King of France in virtue of the power that
the Emperor had given him. Is informed by Quintana that
another copy of the truce, ratified by the King of France, has
been sent to him (Pedro de Urea), in order that he might
exchange it with the ratification of the Emperor. The truce
with France does not make any difference as to the truce
of the Emperor with Venice. Promises not to permit the
Pope to give any judgment on the reserved points of the
quarrel of the Emperor with Venice, excepting such as shall
entirely satisfy the Emperor. Thus, the peace of the Emperor
with Venice is equivalent to a truce for one year. Begs the
Emperor to ratify it. His ratification will serve to conceal
the secret negotiatons which he and the Emperor are carrying
on with France. If the Emperor should refuse to ratify the
treaty of peace with Venice, he would thereby render the Pope
and the Italians suspicious. For the same reason it seems
advisable to continue the negotiations about the general
league with the Italians.
Begs the Emperor to ratify the treaty with France without
delay, and to use his influence with the King of England to
persuade him likewise to ratify the French treaty. The
Emperor can tell the King of England, in secret, that he (King
Ferdinand) has discovered a conspiracy of the Italians to
drive them (the Emperor and King Ferdinand) out of Italy
as soon as war with France had begun. In order to prevent
the Italians from carrying out this plan, he can say, it
has seemed to him (King Ferdinand) and to the Emperor
necessary to make a truce with France. The Emperor may
further represent to the King of England that it was incumbent
on them first to save their (the Emperor's and King
Ferdinand's) own states, especially as their losses would
be likewise a loss to the King of England and to his sister,
the Princess of Castile. (fn. 2) Begs, further, the Emperor to
remind the King of England that he (King Ferdinand)
and the Emperor had not concluded any kind of treaty with
France without including in it all their allies. The King of
France has even promised to use his influence in Scotland in
such a way that the government of that country and the
peace with England shall be settled to the entire satisfaction
of the King of England. (fn. 3) He has further bound himself
to pay the King of England the same pension which he paid
him formerly. Thinks it will not be difficult for the Emperor
to persuade the King of England to ratify the truce with
France if he offer to marry Prince Charles to his sister, and
promises to make him King of the Romans. The consummation
of the marriage of Prince Charles can be postponed
until his bodily strength is sufficient to fulfil the duties of a
The King of England must likewise be given to understand
that, in case he should not ratify the treaty with France, it
would then appear as if he were not on friendly terms with the
Emperor and with him (King Ferdinand), an appearance that
ought to be avoided by all means ; for the King of France
desires nothing more than to disunite them, only because he
hopes to profit by their disunion.
Is of opinion that it would be very expedient that the
Cardinal of Gurk should be sent to the Emperor. He is the very
person who could best induce the Emperor to ratify the treaty
with France. He (Pedro de Urea) is to ask the Emperor to
beg as a favour from the Pope that the Cardinal of Gurk
may be sent as Papal Legate to Germany. It is evident
why the Pope must not know for what purpose the presence
of the Cardinal at the Imperial Court is desired. The
Emperor can tell the Pope that he wishes to arrange with
the Cardinal the reserved points of his treaty of peace
with the Venetians. The Cardinal of Gurk has asked him
(King Ferdinand) to procure for him from the King of France
the bishopric of Bourges. (fn. 4) He (Don Pedro) is to tell him
that he is already in possession of a rent of 5,000 ducats a
year in Milan, and that this rent might be increased. Is
using his influence with the Emperor in order to procure
for the Cardinal of Gurk the bishopric of Salzburg. Thinks
that the bishopric of Salzburg is worth much more than
that of Bourges, and is of opinion that it would be difficult
to obtain the Papal dispensation to hold three bishoprics.
Advises the Cardinal, therefore, to accept the bishopric of
Salzburg, and not to think of that of Bourges. The true
reason why he does not wish to see the bishopric of Bourges
conferred on the Cardinal of Gurk is that that prelate would
thereby become dependent on the King of France.
The Emperor has changed his mind respecting the article
of the treaty which relates to Milan. A war with France
would now be unjust, since the King of France has renounced
his adhesion to the schismatic council, and adheres to the
Council of the Lateran. Besides, the war would be very
expensive and dangerous to them (the Emperor and King
Ferdinand) and to their successors. It would be unreasonable
to carry on continual war with France only for the Duke
Maximilian, and, in addition, to give up their conquest of
Venice. If the King of France were to marry his daughter
to the Duke of Milan, as the Emperor seems to wish, the
consequences would be detrimental to them (the Emperor
and King Ferdinand) ; for the Duke Maximilian would by
such a marriage become a stout partisan of France. On the
other hand, a marriage of the Duke Maximilian with one of
their grandchildren would be impossible, as the King of
France, although he might readily renounce his rights on
Milan in favour of his daughter, could scarcely be expected
to renounce the same rights in favour of the Duke Maximilian.
All these reasons induce him to wish that the Emperor may,
as soon as possible, ratify the treaty of peace with France,
especially as there is some danger lest the King of France
should conclude a separate treaty with the King of England.
The Emperor must treat this subject with the greatest
secrecy. He must not send formal embassies, but some confidential
gentleman of his palace. The Pope and the Italians
suspect that they are negotiating with France, and if they
knew the nature of the negotiations they would oppose them
with all their power. The treaty must be concluded before
the world knows that it is in contemplation.
Is informed that Madame Margaret wishes to become
Queen of France, and thinks that the marriage of Madame
Eleanor is injurious to herself. For this reason, and because
she thinks her (Eleanor?) an enemy of France, and partly
because she wishes to give satisfaction to the King of England,
she secretly opposes the treaty. (fn. 5) He is to beg the Emperor
to speak to Madame Margaret, and to make her understand
that the peace, as it is projected, is a most advantageous one
for them, and the only means whereby all difficulties can be
overcome. He is, however, not to speak in direct terms of the
marriage (of Madame Margaret with the King of France).
Thinks it would be expedient to show great honour to
Madame Margaret, and to admit her as a contracting party
to the treaty, if it be certain that she approves of it, and will
keep it secret.
The King of France will perhaps not be inclined to assist
with his army in an enterprise on Venice. It would therefore
be best to ask for money only from him. The Emperor ought
to pay a portion of the Spanish infantry with the money he is to
receive from the Venetians. Their armies are to remain where
they are. The Emperor can tell the Italians that he (King
Ferdinand) keeps a portion of the Venetian territory until
the Pope has pronounced on the reserved points, in order to
secure the execution of that judgment.
If the Emperor should refuse to conclude peace with France,
he (King Ferdinand) will disband his army in Italy. The
Emperor must then accept the conditions pronounced by
Pope Julius, that is to say, he must leave Verona and Vicenza
to Venice, and content himself with Padua and Treviso, with a
payment of 250,000 ducats, and with a tribute of 30,000
ducats. All the other territories in dispute will remain in
the possession of the Venetians, who will pay a considerable
sum of money for them to the Emperor, who, at all events,
must himself decide without delay which of the two lines of
policy he will adopt.
The Emperor consents to his request that a great state should
be formed in Italy, and given to the Infante Ferdinand. Is of
opinion that, as the Infante Ferdinand is to have Milan and
Venice, he may renounce his inheritance in Germany. Spain,
Germany, and the two Sicilies will then form the inheritance
of the Prince (Charles). Postpones his decision on the fate
of Genoa until peace is concluded, and Milan is in their
power. If Genoa behave well, she may be spared ; if not,
they can afterwards do what they like with her.
It is important that the Swiss should not believe what
Juan Jacobo has told them. They must, therefore, be assured
that the Emperor, the King of England, and he (King Ferdinand)
intend to conclude a league with them for no other
purpose than the defence of their states. As soon as the time
appointed for the conquest of Milan arrives, the Emperor, the
King of France, and he can send an embassy to the Swiss, and
tell them that Milan belongs by right to the King of France,
and not to the Duke Maximilian. They can promise the Swiss
that they will remain their friends, and pay them the pension
which the Duke Maximilian has granted them.
Begs the Emperor to order his servants in Italy not to
conduct themselves with so much arrogance as they do.
Is informed that the Pope is resolved to dissolve the Council
of the Lateran without deciding any of the questions for
which it was convoked, and especially those concerning the
reformation of the Church and the war with the Infidels.
Begs the Emperor to tell the Pope that he has no right to do
so. There are decretals of councils which state expressly
that the Pope cannot dissolve a council until it has concluded
the business for which it was convoked. Will do the same.
He is to burn the original copy of the treaty of Lille, which he
(King Ferdinand) has signed and sealed, and sent by Heredia.
He is, however, to retain a copy of it.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Don Pedro de Urea."
On the margin is written by Almazan : (fn. 6) "Fiat."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 12.
S. E. Cor. d. Ar.
L. 267. f. 32.
172. King Ferdinand The Catholic to his Viceroy Of
In order to pacify Christendom and to undertake a war
with the Infidels, he has concluded a truce of one year between
the Emperor, Queen Juana, his daughter, the King of England,
himself, and the Prince (Charles), his grandson, on the
one part, and the King of France and King of Scotland on the
other part. The Duke and duchy of Milan is included in this
treaty. Orders him to publish it in Pamplona, &c.
Similar orders to the Warden of the Castle of Amposta,
Governor of Valentia, Viceroy of Majorca, &c. &c.
Spanish. Draft. pp. 2.
S. E. Var. L. 1554.
173. King Ferdinand Of Spain to Diego Del Aguila, his
Ambassador in Milan.
As it seems impossible to obtain at once from France all that
he desires, he has tried whether he cannot obtain it in two
instalments. Has therefore concluded a truce of one year
between the Emperor, the King of England, himself, and the
Prince, on the one part, and the King of France and the King
of Scotland on the other part. It is his intention afterwards
to convert this truce into a definitive peace. The Duke and
duchy of Milan will, during the time of this truce, be in perfect
security from any attack of the King of France. Orders him
to make this known to the Duke. Wishes to know whether
the Pope is intriguing against him.—No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "Diego del Aguila."
Spanish. Draft. p. 1.