S. E. A. L. 635.
189. King Ferdinand The Catholic to Pedro De Urea,
his Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
Sent him a despatch by Benito de Vereda on the 21st
of last month, and informed him of the state in which
affairs then were. Insisted much on the necessity of a speedy
peace between the Emperor and the Venetians, without which
a general league for the defence of their states would be impossible.
Taking into account the great danger in which they
are placed, and considering that the Venetians cannot be persuaded
to accept the peace proposed by the late Pope Julius,
or that proposed by the present Pope last year, he begged
the Emperor, without delay, to send power to Rome to conclude
peace with Venice on condition of his receiving only
Verona and its territory, and leaving all the other towns and
territories to the Venetians, who are ready to pay him a large
sum of money. As soon as the Emperor should have sent
his power, not only peace with Venice, but also the general
league, would be concluded, to which the Venetians are to be
parties. Such a league would render it impossible for the King
of France ever to invade Italy. Thus, their states, and the
Duke and duchy of Milan would be in safety, and the Emperor
might employ the money he is to receive from the
Venetians for the conquest of Burgundy.
Has since received letters from Rome, dated the 23rd of last
month, in which he is told that the Pope is very desirous of
the league for the defence of Italy in general, and of Milan in
particular. His Holiness says that he is quite resolved never to
separate himself from the Emperor and him (King Ferdinand).
But although the Pope is very firm in appearance, he is
secretly believed to be delaying the conclusion of the league,
until the Emperor has made peace with Venice. The Emperor
must not deceive himself. He will gain nothing by deferring
the conclusion of peace with Venice, for the Venetians are
very proud and hopeful now that they expect an invasion of
Italy by the French.
Has received his letters of the 23rd of last month. Learns by
them that the Emperor approves of his (King Ferdinand's) plan
of forming a general league with the Italians and the Swiss,
as the negotiations with France are broken off. Has likewise
observed that the Emperor has sent an ambassador to Rome,
and empowered him to conclude the general league on such conditions
as he (King Ferdinand) might think convenient, and
to make peace with Venice on condition that he retains Brescia,
Verona, and some of the passes of Friuli. It is to be hoped
that the Emperor, when he sees Cardinal Gurk at Inspruck,
will make more concessions. He is to write to the Emperor,
and tell him how necessary it is that the peace with Venice
and the general league should be immediately concluded. The
King of France has broken off all negotiations with him and the
Emperor, and is preparing to invade Italy. Not only Brescia,
Bergamo, and Verona are in danger of being wrested from the
Emperor, but Naples and Sicily are also in danger of being
lost to their heirs. It is not impossible that the King of France
should enter now into an alliance with the Pope and the Swiss.
His finances are in a bad state. It is impossible for him
to pay his army any longer than up to the end of October of
the present year ; after which time his infantry will disperse,
and he will be obliged to march his men-at-arms back to
He is to do his utmost to prevent the Emperor, whose
dilatory policy has already been the cause of the failure of
their negotiations with France, from causing the present
negotiations to be broken off by his procrastinations. That
would be their utter ruin.
Is informed that the Emperor wishes the league to be not
only defensive, but offensive also. It is his firm conviction
that the defensive league must be first concluded. An offensive
league can afterwards be easily made. Now to ask the
Pope and the Venetians to enter into an offensive league
against France would be to put into jeopardy even the defensive
league, and would, at all events, cause delay.
The Emperor says that the Swiss will not march into Italy
if they are not at least 8,000 or 10,000 men strong. If that
be so, all the confederates must contribute to pay the desired
number of Swiss. Although the number of Swiss will be
greater than that of either the Spanish or German troops,
the Spaniards and Germans united will be strong enough to
prevent them from doing any harm to the Germans, whom the
If Madame Margaret is disposed to marry the Duke of
Milan, the marriage is to be concluded as soon as possible.
Confides in Madame Margaret as much as in any of his
Is informed that the King of England has included the
Prince (Charles) in his treaty with France, and has left him
three months liberty to declare whether he will be a party
to that peace or not. The Emperor wishes his advice on
this subject. Is of opinion that the Prince (Charles) ought
to accept the offer of the King of England, and to become a
party to the peace between England and France. He thereby
secures his states in Flanders.
Has read the answer which the Emperor gave to the King
of England when he was informed of the peace between
England and France. Approves of the behaviour of the
Emperor. Nevertheless, he and the Emperor must not let
any opportunity pass of gaining over the King of England to
their side. An alliance between the Emperor, Spain, England,
and the Prince (Charles) is the most advantageous thing that
can be obtained for all of them.
The Knight Commander Gilaberte must be sent back to
him, and the sooner the better.
The Cardinal of Gurk must go as legate to Germany.
Sends a letter in favour of Micer Jacobus de Bannisis, who
wishes to have the deanery of Antwerp.
Sends a letter for Count Cariati, and 600 florins for Master
Thinks that the marriage of the Prince (Charles) with the
daughter of the King of Hungary would be attended with
Should the marriage between Madame Margaret and the
Duke of Milan come to a conclusion, he is to procure
[The despatch breaks off at this point.]—No date. No
Indorsed : "Don Pedro Urea."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 20.
The despatch is extremely diffuse, the same phrases being
repeated over and over again.
S. E. Fl. L. 496.
ff. 30, 31, 32.
190. Ferdinand The Catholic to the Knight Commander
Juan De Lanuza, his Ambassador in Flanders.
Has received his letters of the 30th of September, and has
read with great pleasure that Madame Margaret is so well disposed
towards him, and has so earnestly asked the Emperor
immediately to send a power to Rome to conclude peace with
the Venetians on condition that the Emperor retains Verona
and the Veronese territories only, receiving for his other
claims a goodly sum of money from the Venetians.
Has received letters from Rome, dated the 23rd of September.
Learns by them that the Pope entertains the best intentions
towards the Emperor and him, and says he wishes much that the
peace between the Emperor and Venice, as well as the general
league for defending the Duke and duchy of Milan and the
whole of Italy, should be soon concluded. His Holiness is
desirous that the French should be prevented from returning to
Italy. Although the Pope openly declares that he would like
to see the general league concluded soon, it is known that in
secret he wishes to postpone its conclusion until the Emperor
has made peace with the Venetians ; for he thinks that until
this peace is made the general league would be of no use
whatever, since the Venetians could not be a party to it.
Is informed by the same letters that the Venetians, hoping
that the French will soon be in Italy, are haughty, and refuse
to accept any peace on conditions less advantageous than
those proposed to them. The Pope, he is told, has declared
himself ready, directly after peace is made with Venice, to
conclude the general league, to remain under all circumstances
united with the Emperor and him, and to declare war with
France. It is the firm intention of his Holiness to reduce
the King of France to the necessity of abandoning all his
plans on Italy and making peace with all the members of
If the Emperor does not make peace with the Venetians,
the general league cannot be concluded. If the general league
is not concluded, the French will have it in their power to
invade Italy. If the French invade Italy, the Venetians will
be able not only to conquer Brescia and Verona, but as many
more cities as they like, and the Emperor would lose not only
Brescia and Verona, but also the money which the Venetians
offer him at present ; the whole of Italy would be in danger,
and the kingdom of Naples, which is the inheritance of the
Prince (Charles), the grandson of the Emperor, could scarcely
On the other hand, if the Emperor concludes peace
with the Venetians, the general league would soon follow
the Pope, the Duke of Milan, the Swiss, the Venetians, Florence,
and all the other Italian states would be their allies ;
Naples would be out of danger ; France would be forced to
renounce for ever her claims on Milan and the other states
of Italy ; the general peace of the Christian world would be
secured, and a war with the Infidels could be undertaken.
The Emperor must choose between the losses and the dishonour
of the first alternative and the invaluable advantages
to him and to Christendom in general of the second alternative,
the adoption of which would crown him with immortal
glory. He is to tell Madame Margaret this, and to beseech
her to persuade the Emperor to the utmost of her ability to
send his power to Rome without delay, and to order his ambassador
to conclude peace with Venice in his name, on condition
that he is to have Verona and the Veronese territories
only, the Venetians paying him money in consideration of
his waiving his other claims. If the Emperor delays the conclusion
of the peace, and the French invade Italy, it will be
too late. The Venetians will be still more haughty, and will
refuse to accept the conditions they now offer. If the Emperor
repeats the errors he committed during the negotiations with
France, he will ruin himself and him (King Ferdinand).
He writes to him (King Ferdinand) that Monsieur de
Ravastans (fn. 1) and Monsieur de Vendôme say that he (King Ferdinand)
has resumed his negotiations with France concerning
the marriage between the Infante (Ferdinand) and Madame
Renée. It is clear that this is quite the contrary of what he
intends. It is, however, an old habit of the French to invent
stories, and to render those who are friends and allies suspicious
of one another. Their intention is to separate him
from the Emperor and Madame Margaret. They give him also
very unfavourable reports about the Emperor and Madame.
Knows the French, and their calumnies produce no effect upon
him. Begs the Emperor and Madame Margaret, who know the
French as well as he, to do the same as he does. The French
have openly declared that they are afraid of the grandeur
and power of the Prince who is to be the heir of both the
Emperor and him, and they are trying, therefore, to separate
them, hoping that, in consequence of their disunion, the Prince
might lose one half of his inheritance. All that Madame de
Ravastans has said to this effect to Madame Margaret is
pure invention. In order to put an end to these French
insinuations, he thinks the proposal of Madame Margaret that
the Infante should immediately marry the daughter of the
King of Hungary, is very wise. This marriage would be a
great advantage to the Prince (Charles) with respect to the
states which he is to inherit in Germany.
The Kings of France and of England have reserved to the
Prince the right to become a party to the treaty they have
lately concluded, and Madame Margaret wishes to know his
opinion about it. He is to tell her that he is as much concerned
in the security of the states of the Prince as in that
of his own states and of the possessions of Queen Juana,
his daughter. Advises her, therefore, to accept the offer of the
King of France and of the King of England, and to see that
the Prince becomes a party to their treaty. The advantage
of it is twofold ; the dominions of the Prince are thereby
placed beyond all danger of an attack or invasion, and the
Emperor and he are at greater liberty to act as they choose
with respect to Italy. He is to tell Madame Margaret that
notwithstanding the treaty which the King of England has
concluded with the King of France, the Emperor and he
must try to win the King of England over to their party.
An alliance and a real friendship between the Emperor, the
King of England, and him would be a most advantageous thing
for all three of them, and for the Prince (Charles). Does all
in his power to gain the friendship of the King of England,
and begs Madame Margaret, on her part, to do the same thing.
Has written to Don Pedro de Urea ordering him to propose
to the Emperor a marriage between the Duke of Milan and
one of their common granddaughters. Such a marriage would
contribute to remove the suspicions which the Pope and
the Italians have of the Emperor and of him. Don Pedro
has answered that, according to what the Emperor has told
him, Madame Margaret wishes to marry the Duke of Milan.
Loves Madame Margaret as though she were his own child,
and has ordered Don Pedro de Urea to do all he can to conclude
this marriage soon. As however, it is of the utmost
importance that the successor of Madame in the government
of Flanders be a person who is faithful to the Emperor, to the
Prince, and to him, he (de Lanuza) is to take care that a
proper person be appointed as successor to Madame.
Indorsed : "The Catholic King to the Knight Commander
Spanish. Draft. pp. 10.