M. R. A. d. H.
Salazar. A. 19. f. 39.
278. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the
The Pope has told him that the Turks are preparing a
powerful fleet and a numerous army, with the intention of
assailing Rhodes, Sicily, and any other country they think it
desirable to conquer. The Pope says he does not doubt that
this news is true, and begs him to set a good example to the
other Christian princes, by ordering his fleet, which is lying off
the coast of Africa, to proceed to the threatened countries, in
order to prevent the Turks from carrying out their designs.
The Pope added many flattering words. Told his Holiness
that he had spoken very well, and that he (the Emperor)
would approve his words ; but that he (Juan Manuel)
could not conceal the astonishment he felt that the Pope
should be always asking him (the Emperor) to do him services,
and then that he should lose all memory of them as soon
as they were rendered. The Emperor, he added, was the first
to arm against the Turks when the Pope begged him to do
so, and he will be the last to disarm. Such being the case,
it was strange that the Pope should make such great difficulties
about concluding the alliance. (fn. 1) Should his Holiness
not consent to the prompt conclusion of the alliance, he (Juan
Manuel) would expose himself to the suspicion of being a bad
negotiator, if he recommended his master, in that case, to do
what the Pope asked of him.
The Pope replied that he was ready to conclude the treaty.
Knows, however, very well that he insists on the alteration
of the article in the draft which speaks of his absolution
from perjury, protesting that he cannot absolve him (the
Emperor) from a sin which he has not committed. (fn. 2) The
Pope observed, that if he gave the absolution, and the treaty
were known, he would be a lost man.
As his instructions are that not a word of the draft
of the treaty is to be altered, he asks him to send him
new orders. Thinks it would be best to do the will of
the Pope. If the Pope pays the expenses of his (the
Emperor's) fleet, and if the whole business is dexterously
executed, he (the Emperor) can then make himself lord of
Marriage of the Marchioness of Massa.—Rome, the 2nd of
The Pope is going on a hunting excursion, from the wish
to cure himself of a certain illness. It was, therefore, impossible
to negotiate with him any longer.
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar. A. 19.
ff. 51, 62.
279. Juan Manuel, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the
After his departure from the Imperial court, he wrote for
the first time from Florence to the Bishop of Badajoz. As he
found the Cardinal de Medicis at Florence, he stayed four
days with him. The Cardinal is all powerful with the Pope,
and is a person more inclined to what is good and right than
Has been very well received at Florence, as well as in Rome.
The courtesy of the Cardinal and the Pope went so far as to
provide him with food and everything he wanted on his
journey, without permitting him to pay for it.
The Pope asked whether he had brought his (the Emperor's)
profession of obedience. Told his Holiness that it would
probably be sent by one of the next couriers
In Rome it is generally said, and most probably also
believed, that he (the Emperor) and the King of France are
on good terms. But those who have lately had letters from
France protest that the French are by no means contented
with the behaviour of him (the Emperor). They complain that
Navarra has not been given to them, that the Neapolitan pensions
are not paid, that the marriage is not concluded, &c.
Is of opinion that he (the Emperor) ought to live in peace
with the King of France ; for the French are little liked in
Italy, and have a great many determined enemies in that
country. As soon as ever he (the Emperor) should come to
Trent, the Italians would rise and drive the French out of
Italy. Thus the French are not dangerous to him.
The Swiss are ready to sell themselves to him.
Begs him to nominate the Cardinal de Medicis Protector of
his realms as soon as possible. The Seigneur de Carpi is a
friend of the Cardinal de Medicis, but he rather inclines
towards the French party.
Johan Matheo, (fn. 3) the secretary of the Pope, is a good and
Has been told that Fray Nicolo was a partisan of the King
of France ; has found, however, that he has been falsely informed.
Fray Nicolo is a good Imperialist, a man of great
genius, and of great importance.
The Prothonotary Caracciolo seems to be a zealous servant
of him (the Emperor), yet, although he is his subject, he is
also a faithful servant of his master (the Pope).
The Cardinal Petrucci has great influence over the Pope.
Begs him to write a courteous letter to him. The kinsman of
the Cardinal, who is at Naples, has no power in Rome.
The Cardinal Piccolomini is in Rome. He is a good Imperialist.
Did not dare to deliver to him the letter which he
brought with him from fear of arousing thereby the jealousy of
The French speak much of the interview which is to take
place (between the King of France and the King of England).
They give out that they will obtain from the King of
England whatever they ask of him. They add that Madame
Margaret is doing all she can to prevent this interview from
taking place, and that he (the Emperor), on his journey to
Flanders, intends to see the King of England, for no other
purpose than to oppose the interview of the King of England
with the King of France. The Cardinal of Sion has written
the same news to Rome. Tells those who speak to him on
these subjects, that it is the desire of the King of England to
meet him (the Emperor), and that there can be no doubt that
the King of England is a trusty friend of him (the Emperor).
Whilst writing this letter, received his despatches dated
Santiago, 30th of March. Consulted with Luis Caroz, and
even with Barosso. Were all of one opinion that it will be
best not to speak to the Pope about ecclesiastical matters until
the political affairs are concluded. The Pope is not in Rome.
He is hunting in the neighbourhood, and at the same time
taking medicine and purging himself.
Many persons in Rome complain that he (the Emperor) has
disposed of church preferment of which he had no right to
dispose. Said to them that he (the Emperor) does not intend
to encroach on the privileges of the Church, but expects that
the Church, on her part, will not encroach on his rights.
Went with Don Luis Caroz and Barosso to the house of the
Cardinal of Santi Quattro, and said to him, in the presence of
Johan Matheo, that the Pope was not showing any readiness
to conclude the alliance with him (the Emperor) and the
King of England, for he made difficulties about mere words ;
such, for instance, as "quatenus expediat," in the clause in
which he speaks of absolution. The Cardinal answered that it
would be ridiculous if the Pope were to give an absolution
without stating from what offence. Is very sorry that he (the
Emperor) cannot come to a perfect understanding with the
Pope, for if he could, the French would lose all their credit
and he would easily gain the whole of Italy. If the Pope
does not conclude an alliance with him (and the King of
England), his Holiness must of necessity conclude an alliance
with the King of France.
The Pope, wishing to get Ferrara into his power, greatly
desires that he (the Emperor), the King of France, and Venice
should be at peace with one another.
Many persons in Rome blame the Cardinal de Medicis,
because he has offered him (Juan Manuel) his house in Rome.
Answers them that the Pope is acting in a much worse
manner, as the Count de Carpi, who, though not the formal
ambassador, is the agent of the King of France, is lodged
in the Papal palace. Hopes the Count de Carpi will soon lose
the friendship of the Pope, which he has hitherto enjoyed.
Hieronymo de Vich is not a faithful servant of his.
The ambassador of the King of England came to his house,
and told him that he wished very much that his master, the
King of England, and he (the Emperor) should be friends,
adding that he (the Emperor) ought to pay a visit to the King
of England on his voyage to Flanders. If he should refuse to
do so, the King of England might perhaps think himself
slighted by him, and, resenting the offence, might conclude an
alliance with the King of France, especially as the King of
England had already, on another occasion, repeatedly invited
him to come to England, and he had not done so. Answered
the English ambassador that he was fully convinced that the
King of England would on no account renounce the friendship
of him (the Emperor). Added that there was no doubt
that he (the Emperor) would stop in England and see the
King on his voyage to Flanders, if the state of the weather
permitted him to do so. Even on the former occasion of
which the ambassador had spoken, he said, he (the Emperor)
would have paid a visit to the King of England had he not
been prevented by most important business, which suffered
no delay. Finished his reply by offering the King of England
his good services.
The administration of the kingdom of Naples is deplorable.
Has not delivered the letter which he sent him for the
Duke of Ferrara, as it arrived too late. The Marquis of
Mantua has received his letter.
The Pope has informed him that he is sending his Auditor
de la Camera to England. Thinks that the Pope wishes the
Auditor to be present at his (the Emperor's) meeting with
the King of England. His Holiness is despatching another
Florentine to be present at the interview between the King
of France and the King of England. The Prothonotary
Caracciolo is going to Flanders as nuncio.
The King of France has offered the Bishop of Tricarico in
Naples a bishopric in France, and has invited him to come and
see him. It is said he intends to send the Bishop as ambassador,
either to him (the Emperor) or to the King of
The Cardinal of Santa Maria in Porticu is as much a
French partisan as he (Juan Manuel) is a Spaniard ; and Count
Carpi is even more French in his heart. The Count intends
to go to Naples, in order to take baths there. Has asked
the Viceroy to set spies on him.
Hears that the armaments of the Turks are not so formidable
as was said. Begs him, however, to pretend that
he believes the whole of Christendom to be in imminent
The Pope begs him to give the bishopric of Antwerp to
one of his servants.
All the time since he has arrived in Rome, the Pope has
been continually conferring with Luis Caroz and Barosso about
the treaty of alliance (with the Emperor and the King of
England). At last his Holiness abandoned his negotiations
with them, and asked to see him (Juan Manuel). The Pope
said that he had made up his mind to conclude the treaty
of alliance (with the Emperor and the King of England), and
asked him to say what the conditions of that treaty were.
Answered that he could not change a single word of the draft
which he (the Emperor) had sent to the Pope. The Pope
declared that he was satisfied with it, and that he would
commission Joban Matheo to conclude the treaty. As the
Pope, however, wished to keep the treaty very secret, he
begged him not to mention it to any person whatever. At
last it was resolved that Barosso should be admitted to the
Has been informed that the reason why the Pope has sent
the Auditor de la Camera to England is to ask the King of
England not to conclude the treaty in such a manner that his
(the Emperor's) power would be increased by it. The Pope
wrote to the Auditor that it would not be well for the other
princes of Christendom if he (the Emperor) were to be made
more powerful than he is, as he would then be the judge of
all of them, and decide all their disputes with one another in
whatever manner he liked. His Holiness added that these
were the intentions he had when he opened his negotiations
(with the King of England). The person who gave him this
information is perfeetly reliable. There is no doubt that all
kinds of obstacles will be raised to the alliance (of the Emperor
with the Pope and the King of England). All the
princes of Christendom are afraid of his greatness, because
they do not know his goodness.
Thinks it would be the best policy to imitate great masters
of fence, and to perplex his adversaries, so that they may
forget their subtle designs. That ought to be done, not only
by words, but by deeds.
He can conquer Genoa whenever he likes. The Adorni
would help him to carry out the plan. He would much
perplex the Pope and the King of France by such a feat.
If he goes to Germany, he ought to show some favour to
a certain friar who calls himself Friar Martin, and who is
staying with the Duke Frederic of Saxony. The Pope is
exceedingly afraid of him, as he preaches openly against the
authority of Rome, and is said to be a great scholar. Thinks
that would be a good means of forcing the Pope to conclude
the alliance. Is, however, of opinion that these means ought to
be employed only if the Pope refuses to conclude the alliance,
or if he afterwards breaks it. (fn. 4)
Hieronymo Adorno and his brother are satisfied with his
last letters. They are faithful servants of his. Begs him not
to consent to the marriage of the kinsman of the Pope (fn. 5) with
the Countess of Massa. He is a bad Imperialist. A marriage
of the Countess with Hieronymo Adorno would be preferable.
Will speak to the Pope about the Inquisition as soon as
his Holiness returns from his hunting excursions.
Church preferment for the Cardinals Cornaro, Santi Quatuor,
The Pope has sent him some drafts of papers, amongst
which is a draft of the treaty of alliance (with the Emperor
and the King of England). Will send them by the next
courier. Luis Caroz and Hieronymo de Vich enclose their
letters in this bundle.—Rome, the 12th of May 1520.
Addressed : "... Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed : "To the King. 1520. Don Juan Manuel.
12th of May. Answered on the 5th of June."
Spanish. Autograph in cipher. Contemporary deciphering.