Queen Juana
December 1520, 1-10

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Institute of Historical Research

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G. A. Bergenroth (editor)

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1868

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328-347

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'Queen Juana: December 1520, 1-10', Calendar of State Papers, Spain: Supplement to Volumes 1 and 2: Queen Katherine; Intended Marriage of King Henry VII to Queen Juana (1868), pp. 328-347. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=93764 Date accessed: 31 August 2014.


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December 1520, 1-10

7th December? 72. The Count Of Haro to the Constable Of Castile.
[Archivo General de Simancas. Patronato Real. Comunidades de Castilla, Legajo 2. f. 94. Contemporary transcript.]
Traslado de una carta que escrivieron al condestable.
ya escrevi a V. S. ante ayer como se avia tomada este lugar. para que lo sepa mas largamente fue. quel miercoles que se contaron cinco del presente llegamos aqui estos Señores e yo con arto buen exercito especialmente de gente de a caballo que la avia mucha y muy buena. ynbie un rrey de harmas a requerir la villa y pidieron que les diese algun espacio para responder lo qual hera porque se acercava la noche y tanvien por que esperavan socorro de don pedro giron que de los lugares del alderredor ya les avia venido. donde mas adelante torne a ynbiar otra vez el rrey de harmas. tanpoco aprobecho. y como esto bimos acordamos de dar luego el conbate y concertar nuestras batallas. yo tome la batalla Real y tanbien anduve por las otras de las gentes de Señores. al llegar llego bien al conbate la gente, mas despues afloxo tanto que yo estava el mas desafaziado del mundo y a muchos destos Señores les parescia que se devian rretraher. y estando en esto plugo a dios que se entro el lugar lo qual hera ya en anocheciendo. la primera bandera fue la del conde de benavente y luego la del conde de Alba de liste y la del marques de astorga y la de haro y otras no se cuantas. apearonse muchos hombres de harmas e hizieronlo muy bien y ansimismo otros hartos cavalleros. como bimos la bandera luego mobimos con la batalla rreal. estando desta manera los del lugar pusieron fuego a unas casas junto a la puerta por donde hera el conbate. tubieron en grandisimo aprieto a los de las banderas y mucha gente de pie de la questava aca fuera hera tan bil que no abia medio de hazerles entrar aunque les dava onbre cient mill guinchones y de los de dentro no avia memoria. dende a gran rato parecieron unos fuegos de la otra parte del rrio y como alli no podiamos tener aviso de lo que hera pensavamos que hera gente de la junta porque en el lugar nunca cesaban de rrepicar y hazer aumadas. ya quiso dios que començo a andar la gente a lançadas y a cuchilladas con la gente del lugar y una vez echaron muchos de los de dentro por donde avian entrado ansi que stuvieron buen rrato en todo esto. el conde de oñate y el marques de falces y el mariscal de flomesta entraron por otra parte, el conde de benavente y otros Señores y cavalleros entraron despues por un portilloque se avia hecho. la gente de cavallo avia començado arremolinar algo que de noche sienpre vence el miedo a la verguença, aunques verdad que yo avia puesto mas junto del lugar de lo que devia la batalla rreal. como se començaron a bencer los de dentro hera tanta la priesa del entrar de la gente de fuera por robar que no avia quien los toviese y ansi no se pudo escusar que no se hiziese harto dapño. ya que la gente de pie estava dentro del lugar no avia lugar por donde entrase el hartilleria, y la gente de caballo estuve haziendo abrir una puerta por donde se metiese muy gran rato y al cabo hizose lugar por donde entrase el hartilleria y la gente de caballo, de manera que seria la una quando yo entre y tanpoco pude sosegar aquella noche de ver quel lugar quedava abierto por muchas partes.
luego otro dia acordaron estos Señores que se prendiesen todos los procuradores que aqui se hallaron y que fuese uno dellos que se llama gomez de Avila a los de la Junta para que se derramase la gente.
ayer vino nueva que los de la Junta venian a medina de Rioseco y fue que pasaron cerca della y le tiraron algunos tiros y fueronse su camino derecho de Valladolid. robaron a los de Castromonte algun ganado. dizen que estan para ahorcarse de aver salido de aqui.
el almirante tomo la mano de escrevir a [cibdades y a grandes esta nueba de aqui. otro tiro avieramos acertado por poco casi tan bueno como este y hera tomar el hartilleria que tenian sobre alaejos sino que la retiraron tenprano.
yo bese las manos a la Reyna ayer y dixele que V. S. avia sabido la desautoridad en que su rreal persona hera tenida y la Señora ynfanta y que acordandose de la lealtad con que sienpre avian servido a la corona rreal nuestros pasados V. S. avia acordado de ynbiarme con estos otros Señores para la deliberacion de Su Al. respondiome que lo agradecia mucho a V. S. el cuydado que tenia della y a mi mi venida y que avia olgado mucho de conocerme. yo no he curado de yr mas alla. el almirante paso alla anoche. yo no estuve presente mas dizenme que lo estuvieron muchos Señores. lo que les (fn. 3) dixo fue los dapños que los de la Junta avian echo en estos rreynos y ella rrespondio que sienpre avia mandado a los procuradores de las comunidades que no hiziesen ningun dapño a nadie y que asi les mandava que derramasen la gente y el almirante lo mando tomar por testimonio. a algunos les parescio que se pudiera escusar esta diligencia.
(Translation.)
72. Transcript of a letter to the Constable.
I wrote the day before yesterday to your Lordship that we have captured this place. [This letter will] give you a more detailed account. [The thing] happened in this manner. Wednesday the 5th of the present month, these Señores and I (fn. 1) arrived here with a very good army, and especially with good horse, of which we had a great number. I sent a king-at-arms to request the town to surrender. They asked me to give them some time for answering. They did this because night was near at hand, and they hoped to be succoured by Don Pedro Giron. The surrounding villages had already sent their contingents. Some while afterwards I sent again a king-at-arms, but again without effect. When we saw this we decided immediately to give battle, and arranged our plan of attack. I took the batalla real (fn. 2) , but went also to the other troops, composed of the men of the lords. At joining battle our men behaved well, but afterwards they lost so much heart that I was the most discomfited man in the world, and many of the lords were of opinion that we should retreat. Whilst things were in this state it pleased God that the place was carried when it was already growing dark. The first troop that entered was that of the Count of Benavente, then came those of the Count of Alba de Liste, of the Marquis of Astorga, and that of Haro, and I do not know how many more. The men-at-arms dismounted and behaved very well, as did other cavaliers. When we saw the standard we moved with the batalla real. Whilst things were in this state they [the towns people] set fire to some houses near the gate where the battle raged, and pressed hard on the troops. A great portion of the foot who had remained outside were such cowards that it was impossible to make them enter even if one had goaded them a thousand times with a lance. Of those who had entered we heard nothing. There appeared some fires on the other side of the river, and as we could not know what they signified, we thought that an army of the Junta was there, because those who were in the place had never ceased ringing the bells and making signals. God was then already pleased that they were exchanging with the townspeople thrusts with pikes and with swords, and at one time they drove many of those who defended the place out of it through the gate (?) by which we had entered. This lasted a good while. The Count of Oñate, the Marquis of Falces, and the Marshal de Flomesta then entered on another side. The Count of Benavente and other lords and cavaliers entered a little later by an opening which had been made. The horsemen began to be a little troubled, for by night fear is always stronger than shame, and it is true that I had placed battalla real real a little nearer the place than I should have done. When, however, victory began to incline on our side, the troops who had remained outside were so eager to enter and to plunder that no one could restrain them. Thus it could not be avoided that great injury was done. Although the infantry was in the town there was no possibility of getting the artillery within. The horsemen were occupied in opening a gate, which took them a long while. At last an opening was made through which the artillery and the horse could go in. It was about one o'clock when I entered. I could not rest that night, because I knew that the place remained open on different sides.
Next day these lords decreed that all the Procurators who were there should be arrested, and one of them, of the name of Gomez de Avila, should go to the Junta and tell them to disband their troops.
Yesterday we received the news that troops of the Junta had marched to Medina de Rioseco. The fact is that they marched past that place, fired some shots, and went then the direct way to Valladolid, stealing some cattle from those of Castromonte. It is said they are ready to hang themselves because they have been driven from here.
The Admiral hastened to write the news from here to cities and grandees. Another advantage almost as great as this we have narrowly missed, that is to say, to take their artillery. It was near Alaejos, but they withdrew in time.
Yesterday I kissed the hands of the Queen, and told her that your Lordship had been informed of the want of respect with which she and the Infanta were treated, and remembering the loyalty with which our forefathers had always served the crown, had sent me and these noblemen to restore her Highness to liberty. She replied that she was much obliged to you for your solicitude for her, [adding] that she was glad I had arrived and that she had an opportunity of making my acquaintance. I did not like to go further in this matter. The Admiral spoke with her last night. I was not present, but many of the lords who were told me that what he said to her (?) was, that those of the Junta had done great damage in these kingdoms. She answered that she had always ordered the Procurators of the cities to do no injury to any one, and that she had also commanded that they should disband their troops. The Admiral ordered an attestation to be drawn up. Some think that it was superfluous.
8th December. 73. Hernando De Vega, Comendador Mayor of Castile, to the Constable.
[Archivo General de Simancas. Patronato Real. Comunidades de Castilla. Legajo 2. f. 90. Autograph. The postscriptum holograph.]
del comendador mayor de Castilla.
Al condestable.
Muy ille, y muy magnifico Señor,
la noche que aqui entramos no escrevi a V. S. porque el Señor conde no me hizo saber que enbiava mensajero y yo escape tan cansado que no pude hazer diligencia para sabello. lo que despues a sucedido es que la gente de las comunidades tubimos nueva anoche que temieron que les aviamos de tomar a Valladolid y salieron de Villalpando y an andado con mucha diligencia y avisaronnos, como digo, que pasava ayer y que la mayor parte cle la gente entraria en Valladolid, pero esto aun no lo sabemos bien cierto. nosotros agora entendemos en rreparar y fortalezer esta villa, no para que con la gente que aqui esta sea menester reparo para defendella, sino para que con mucho menos se pueda defender y estar segura. y en ello se porna toda diligencia porque lo tengo yo por negocio ynportante.
entendemos asimismo en dar orden como no falten mantenimientos que es asymismo muy necesario de proveerse.
enbio el Señor Conde de haro ayer al conde de Oñate con ciento y cinquenta lanças y quatrocientos ynfantes a estar en Simancas. partio tarde. no hemos sabido aun si esta ya dentro, pero creo yo que si hubiera algun desman que me lo hubieran escripto.
teniendo gente aqui y en Simancas y en torre de lobaton y en Villalva y en Arevalo, como lo esta, y en portillo, que se podria poner, pareceme que tenemos las mejores guarniciones que ay en Castilla.
los rrebeldes no pueden elegir sino uno de dos caminos, o venirnos a cercar y esto pareceme que seria locura porque la gente que hablava ayer en dalles batalla no se ha de pensar que la an de tomar por conbate, y el canpo agora no estaria para ellos muy apacible. o an de creer que juntando mucha gente en Valladolid y en medina y poniendola aca tanbien a la parte de toro que nos quitaran los mantenimientos, y a mi ver tanpoco podran hazer por esta via como por la primera, pues que tenemos mucha mas gente de cavallo que no ellos y mejores guarniciones para ponella.
de manera que a lo que yo puedo juzgar ellos no tienen forma para deshazernos si nosotros mismos no nos deshazemos. y el remedio verdadero es el dinero para podernos sostener. y deste aca no ay un maravedi ni aparejo para podelle aver. las provisiones que me parece que V. Señoria deve mandar hazer dire aqui. si alguna o todas fueren fuera de proposito enmendar las a.
dizen que en la feria de medina an de acudir a V. S. con xxv : o ducados de los del Rey de portugal. enbie recaudo para que acudan con ellos y los trayan aqui. y a mi parecer no se avian dentregar all almirante porque no se si se gastarian ordenadamente a caubsa de muchas ynportunidades que le harian de que no se podria defender, ni el señor conde de haro por la misma caubsa, sino mandaria venir aqui un oficial abil del licenciado de bargas a quien los mandaria entregar y gastar.
yt. mandaria venir aqui a alonso gutierrez y a vosmediano ell uno para que pusiese diligencia en cobrar lo de los maestradgos, y ell otro lo de la cruzada, y acudiesen con ello para sostener esta enpresa.
y pues como he dicho a mi parecer esta es ya la mejor estancia que podemos tener los que aca estamos, debria V. S. dar orden como viniese aqui el cardenal y tres u quatro de los del consejo y oficiales de contadoria por manera que se pudiese proveer en toda esta parte de aca en lo de la hazienda y justicia y governacion y con esto y con la gente que tenemos de cavallo creo que aprovecharia mucho para poder cobrar hazienda con que nos pudiesemos sostener. y sin ello ni tenemos aviso ni manera de provision para podernos aprovechar de nada. y yo como tengo ya por cierto que sostenienclose lo de aqui se sostiene V. S. alla me alargo en las provisiones y seria de parecer que se hiziesen todas quantas V. S. pudiesse para questo no cayese, porque cayendo seria la misma regla que V. S. ternia mucho que hazer en no caer alla. ñtro Señor la muy ylle. y muy magca. persona y estado de V. S. guarde y prospere. de tordesillas a viij. de dizienbre.
Anoche començo ell almirante una materia escusada y a mi ver mucho dañosa y fue hablar a la Reyna que manclasse a la gente de la Junta que no hyziesen daño en tierra de grandes y que derramasen la gente. ella dixo que se hyziese asi y tomose por testimonio delante los dos escrivanos ante quien se solian tomar los testimonios de la Junta, esto es aprovar lo que ellos hazian y lo mas principal hazer fundamento de la Reyna que es poner dos Reyes en Castilla que es el mayor daño que en un Reyno puede aver, emos travajado por estorvar que no vayan los testimonios y emoslo acabado hasta agora y como son pasados ya los Rebeldes de medina de Ruyseco hazia Valladolid creo que lo podremos llevar adelante.
Servydor de Vra Sa. hernando de vega comendador mayor. [Rubrica.]
73. To the Constable. From the Comendador Mayor of Castile.
Very illustrious and very magnificent Lord,
The night on which we entered this place I did not write to your Lordship, because the Count (fn. 4) did not tell me that he was sending a messenger, and I was too much tired to inquire about it. What has since happened is that, as we were informed last night, the army of the commons is afraid lest we should take Valladolid. They therefore left Villalpando, and, so we are told, marching in great haste past this place the greater part of the troops was expected to reach Valladolid yesterday. We do not, however, as yet know it for certain. We are occupied in repairing and fortifying this town. Not that repairs were necessary for its defence with the troops which are now here, but we do it with great diligence in order that it might be defended and safe with a much smaller garrison. I consider it as a matter of importance.
We are also occupied in supplying the place with the necessary provisions.
The Count of Haro sent the Count of Oñate yesterday with one hundred and fifty lances and four hundred foot to Simancas to remain there. He left late, and we do not yet know whether he has arrived, but I think if anything had gone wrong they would already have written to me.
Having troops here, in Simancas, Torre Lobaton, Villalba, and Arevalo, and being able to send forces to Portillo, I think we have the best garrisons in Castile.
The rebels have no other alternative than this : they can come and besiege us. That, however, as it seems to me, would be madness, because troops which only yesterday spoke of giving battle cannot be reduced by a siege, and [camping in] the field is now by no means pleasant. Or they may hope by assembling large bodies of troops in Valladolid and Medina, and sending them also to the neighbourhood of Toro, to intercept our provisions. In my opinion they would not succeed in this manner any more than in the other ; for we have many more horse than they, and better quarters where to place them.
Thus, in as far as I am able to judge, they have no means to defeat us, if we do not defeat ourselves. The true medicine for the evil is, however, money wherewith to maintain ourselves, and of that we have not a maravedi nor any way to procure it. I shall state here what I think your Lordship ought to order to be done. If I am wrong, either in part or in the whole, I can be corrected.
It is said that they have to pay to your Lordship at the fair at Medina twenty five thousand ducats, as part of the loan from the King ot Portugal. Issue an order for them to pay and bring the money hither. I am not of opinion that it should be handed over to the Admiral, because I do not know whether he would spend it properly, on account of the many applications which would be made to him and which he could not refuse ; nor to the Count of Haro for the same reason. But you should send hither an intelligent officer of the Licentiate Vargas, and order him to receive and disburse the money.
Item.—You should order Alonso Gutierez and Vozmediano to come hither to do what they can to collect the revenues, the first from the estates of the military orders, the latter those of the Cruzada, and help with what they get to defray the expenses of the enterprise.
And as, according to what I have stated, we who are here have the best place which we can have, your Lordship ought to give orders that the Cardinal and three or four of the members of the council, together with the officers of the Treasury, should come hither, so that all the decrees concerning finance, administration of the law and government be issued from here. This and the horsemen we have would contribute much towards collecting the revenues, with which we could maintain ourselves. Otherwise we should remain without counsel and without the means of sustaining ourselves, as we could not make use of anything. As I am persuaded that in maintaining ourselves here we support your Lordship there, I speak at large of the measures to be taken, and state my belief that your Lordship should do all that is in your power to prevent us from being overcome. For if we were defeated it is only natural that your Lordship would find it difficult to avoid being also defeated there. Our Lord preserve and prosper the very illustrious and magnificent person and state of your Lordship.
From Tordesillas, 8th of December.
Last night the Admiral started a matter which was not necessary, and in my opinion very mischievous, that is to say, he asked the Queen to order the troops of the Junta to do no injury to the estates of the grandees, and to disband. She answered that it should be done, and an attestation was drawn up before the two escrivanos who used to authenticate the attestations of the Junta. This is as much as to approve what they have done, and, what is of more importance, to acknowledge the authority of the Queen and to set up two sovereigns in Castile, which is the greatest misfortune that can befall a kingdom. We have laboured hard to prevent the attestations from being sent, and hitherto have succeeded. As the rebels have already retired from Rioseco (fn. 6) to Valladolid, I believe we shall be successful also in future.
Your Lordship's servant,
Hernando de Vega, Comendador Mayor.
[Sign manual.]
9th December. 74. Don Hernando De Vega, Comendador Mayor of Castile, to the Emperor Charles.
[Archivo General de Simaneas. Patronato Real, Comunidades de Castilla. Legajo 2. f. 91. Autograph.]
A su Magestad. Del comendador mayor de Castilla. a ix. de Dizienbre.
Anoche ell almirante pienso que no con mala yntencion pero muy escusada y a mi parecer no poco dañosa movio una meteria (fn. 5) que fue hablar a la rreyna y dezille que mandase a don pero giron y a estos que estan con la gente que traen que no hiziesen daño en ninguna tierra de grandes y que derramasen la gente que tienen. y esto paso por ante los dos escrivanos ante quien solian pasar las cosas de la junta y esto a mi parecer es muy grande inconviniente. lo uno porque es aprobar lo que hazian estas comunidades que quando querian dezir que mandava algo la rreyna tenian esta mesraa manera. y lo otro y muy prencipal hazer ningun caso de la rreyna pues su Alteza no esta en dispuscion de entender en ninguna cosa de governacion. en sabiendolo yo hable al conde de venavente que tiene mas entrada con el allmirante que otro para que lo estorvase y que no fuesen los testimonios. el le hablo y se suspendieron y no se an enbiado. y asi se trabajara todo lo posible para que no se enbien ni aya cosa desta calidad porque cierto seria negociacion que della me parece que podrian rresultar muchos ynconvinientes y pareceme que V. Mt. debria proveer escribiendo all almirante y conde de venavente y marques de hastorga y conde de haro que en esto de la Reyna pues saben la dispusicion que plugo a nuestro Señor de le dar que no entiendan con ella en otra cosa sino en que este en su libertad como agora lo esta y en que sea tratada y servida como conviene a su persona rreal.
quando escrevi a v. m. que los procuradores avian huido no sabiamos como estavan algunos dellos escondidos en Santa Clara. despues hallamos que heran huydos don pedro de Ayala procurador de Toledo y otros algunos y quedaron de Avila y leon y Salamanca y creo que de otras cibdades que a la verdad yo no los e visto y estan alli en Santa Clara como he dicho y aseles puesto guarda para que esten a buen recaudo. cuia S. C. C. M. ynperio y rreal estado nuestro Señor guarde y prospere con acrecentamiento de mas rreynos y señorios. de tordesillas a ix de Dizienbre de dxx de V. S. C. C. M. humill siervo y vassallo de V. Magestad que sus Reales pies y manos besa. hernando de vega comendador mayor.
[Sobre :] A la S. C. C. Mt. del enperador y rrey despaña nuestro Señor.
74. To His Majesty. From the Comendador Mayor of Castile. 9th of December.
Last night the Admiral started a subject which, although he had no bad intention, was, in my opinion, very superfluous and not a little dangerous. The case was this. He spoke with the Queen, and told her to command Pedro Giron and those (fn. 7) who are with the army not to do injury to the estates of the grandees, and to disband their troops. That was done in presence of the two escrivanos who used to draw up the public instruments for the Junta. It seemed to me to be very inconvenient, for, in the first place, it implied an approbation of the doings of the Commons, who, when they wanted to excuse themselves with the pretext that the Queen had ordered anything, observed the same formalities ; and secondly and principally, not the least mention should be made of the Queen, because her Highness is not in a position to occupy herself with the affairs of government. When I heard of it, I asked the Count of Benavente, who is more intimate with the admiral than any one else, to prevent the testimonies from being made use of. He spoke with him. The testimonies were retained, and not sent. I shall do all that is possible that they be not sent, nor any other thing of a similar character be done, for, in my opinion, that is a business from which very great inconveniences might result. It seems to me that your Majesty would do well to write to the admiral, to the Count of Benavente, the Marquis of Astorga, and the Count of Haro, not to meddle in any affairs touching the Queen, except to see that she be at liberty, as she at present is, and well treated and served as it becomes her royal person, because they know what disposition of mind our Lord has been pleased to give her.
When I wrote to your Majesty that the Procurators had fled I was not aware that some of them were hidden in the Convent of Santa Clara. Afterwards we found that Don Pedro de Ayala, Procurator for Toledo, and some others, had escaped, but that those for Avila, Leon, Salamanca, and, I think, for other cities, have remained. In fact, I have not seen them. They are in Santa Clara, as I have said, and are well watched. May God protect your Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty's empire and royal states, and give you more kingdoms and dominions.
From Tordesillas, 9th of December 1520.
Your Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty's humble servant and vassal, who kisses your Majesty's royal feet and hands.
Hernando de Vega, Comendador Mayor.
[Addressed :] To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty the Emperor and King of Spain, our Lord.
9th December. 75. Gomez De Santillan to the Cardinal Of Tortosa.
[Archivo General de Simancas. Patronato Real Comunidades de Castilla. Legajo 2. f. 47.]
Muy Ille. y Reverendissimo Señor,
el jueves pasado despues ganada esta villa escrevi a V. S. Rma. y porque fuese mas seguro enbie un vecino de aqui. hasta agora no ha buelto y con sospecha que no aya allegado alla enbio este mensagero para tornar a desir lo que alli escrevia y lo que despues se a ofrecido.
ya se acordara V. S. R. que algunas vezes le dixe que la principal cosa que aprovecharia al bien destos negocios y pacificacion del Reyno seria procurar de aver esta villa por muchas causas que me parescia que con el exercito que ay estava junto se podria hazer y paresceme que mi ardid a salido verdadero y creo con el ayuda de dios questo que se ha hecho sera ocasion de poner los negocios en razon si se encaminan por buena maña y como deven.
sobresta villa llegamos el miercoles a las diez del dia. estuvimos esperando a la gente del conde de haro hasta la una. luego en llegando se ordenaron las batallas y esquadrones y mientra esto se hazia enviaron un Rey darmas y dos tronpetas y un Secretario del Almirante a requerir a esta villa que abriese las puertas a los grandes que aqui venian a besar las manos a la Reyna nuestra Señora. Respondieronles con dilacion por esperar el socorro que les venia. estos Señores tornaron a enbiar el Rey darmas y secretario y tronpetas para que luego se determinase y mandaron mover la gente hazia la villa. Respondieron peor que la primera vez diziendo que resistirian la entrada y todavia querian goçar de dilacion. tornaron otra terzera vez y no aprovecho de manera que fue forçado llegar al adarve la gente la qual llego muy bien y con mucho esfuerço y la de cavallo mas adelante de lo quera menester. començose el conbate a las tres y media, estuvimos una hora sin hazer nada y Recebiendo daño. en este tienpo yo hize a un peon que llegase a cavar por unas tapias con un açadon que le di. diose a tan buen recaudo quen poco tienpo hizo un agujero por donde se entro la villa y mientras se hazia el agujero posimos fuego a una puerta que estava tapiada por de dentro. luego como sentro la villa por el agujero los de dentro pegaron fuego a ciertas casas que estavan alli al rededor pegadas al muro y esto enbaraço algo el entrada de la villa. turo en acabarsa de ganar des que se entro mas de dos oras y media. luego començaron por la (fn. 9) puente a Luyr algunos. avia venido al socorro el mismo dia cierta gente de pie y de caballo y venia otra que no alcanço a entrar. avia dentro de forasteros mas de ocbenta lanças y quatrocientos peones. todos estos grandes y cavalleros lo hizieron muy bien y algunos señaladamente que yo dire a V. S. desque le vea ; son muertos y heridos de una parte y de otra hartos. saqueose el lugar aunque harto se ha salvado. estan presos diez o doze procuradores y de los del consejo anse recogido mucbas cartas y escrituras que son de ver. la Reyna Nuestra Señora mandava que dexasen entrar los grandes antes que se conbatiese y no lo quisieron hazer. su Alteza y la Señora Infanta a la barahunda salieron del palacio hasta cerca de una yglesia que esta junto. mando sacar el carro para llevar el cuerpo del Rey don felipe nuestro Señor que aya gloria y su cofre de joyas saco consigo y como no uvo tanto espacio ni manera para sacar a su Alteza bolbio y pusose a la puerta de palacio donde la hallaron algunos cavalleros de los que entraron y de alli la metieron a su aposentamiento. aquella noche le besaron las manos los grandes y muchos cavalleros. de la jornada me cupo ciertas pedradas y un cavallo que me hirieron y que ubieran muerto a don diego mi hijo con un esquina que dio con el y con el cavallo en el suelo. a dios sean dadas gracias todos estamos buenos para servir a sus mr~s en lo que mas fuere menester.
el viernes por la noche se juntaron estos Señores grandes para suplicar a la Reyna nuestra Señora que mandase derramar la gente de las comunidades y que no hiziesen daño. Su Alt. lo mando delante de dos escrivanos segun V. S. R. creo que avra visto por el testimonio que dello dieron de que yo fue uno de los testigos. creo que aprovechara para que mas ayna se derrame la gente. gomez davilla el procurador de Avila fue el viernes a don pedro giron y all obispo de partes de estotros procuradores a dezilles que devrian derramar la gente y concertarse en el bien del Reyno. vino anoche. dize que bravean aunque don pedro giron no tanto como los otros. Valladolid y Medina se pertrechan. en Medina prendieron a un gonçalo perez quenbiaron estos Señores creo que sobre lo del artilleria. la gente de Çamora es yda y la de Valladolid esta dentro. creese que la de las otras cibdades se yra presto.
paresceme Señor que seria provechoso para el buen fin destos negocios y para que mas presto se pacificase el Reyno que V. S. R. y el consejo y aun el Señor Condestable se devrian luego venir aqui y de aqui escrivirian a las cibdades del Reyno para pacificallas y quenbiasen procuradores que les convenian para entender en el bien del Reyno y en desazer los agravios que oviere. como verdadero servidor digo lo que me paresce y si estuviese en presencia declararia mas esto. yo quedo aqui hasta que V[uest]ra Señoria mande otra cosa de que sea mas servido. Nuestro Señor la vida y muy illustre estado de V. S. R. prospere. de tordesillas domingo a las cinco de la tarde d. V. R. S. muy cierto servidor que sus manos vesa. gomes de Santillan.
[Sobre :] Al muy illustre y Rmo. Señor el Señor Cardenal de tortosa governador de Castilla mi Señor.
75.
Very Illustrious and most Reverend Lord,
I wrote to your most reverend lordship on Thursday last when this town had been taken. In order to be more sure, I sent the letter by a man from here ; but as he has not yet returned, I am afraid that he has not arrived there, and therefore I send another messenger to inform you again of what I have already written, and of what has since occurred.
Your most Reverend Lordship will remember that I have told you at various times that the thing which would most benefit these affairs, and much contribute towards the pacification of the kingdom, would be to take this town. From various reasons, I was of opinion that it could be done with the army which was there (fn. 8) assembled, and I think that my audacity has been justified. It seems to me that, with the help of God, this which we have done will be sufficient to settle the affairs, if they are conducted with as much dexterity as they ought to be.
We arrived before this town on Wednesday at 10 o'clock in the morning, and waited there for the troops of the Count of Haro until one o'clock. As soon as he arrived, the army was drawn up in divisions and squadrons. Whilst that was being done they sent a king-at-arms, two trumpeters, and a secretary of the admiral to request the town to open the gates to the grandees, who had come to kiss the hands of the Queen our lady. They delayed their answer because they hoped for the succour which was on the way. The Lords sent again a king-at-arms, the secretary, and the trumpeter, telling them that they must give their answer immediately ; and at the same time our troops were ordered to draw nearer the town. They gave a worse answer than the first time, declaring that they would oppose the entry. As they, however, wished still to delay the decision, they were requested a third time, and again without effect. It was then necessary to lead the men to the walls. They advanced very well and with great energy, the horsemen a little too much in advance. Fighting began at half-past three. During one hour we did not obtain any advantage, but suffered considerable losses. I gave to a foot soldier a pickaxe, and told him to undermine some walls. He did it so well that in a short time he made a hole through which we entered the town. Whilst he was making the hole we set fire to a gate which was obstructed from within. As soon as we entered the town through the hole, those who were inside set some houses on fire which were not far off joining to the wall. They thus rendered the entry a little difficult. From the moment that we entered until the moment when the whole town was taken, two hours and a half elapsed. Soon they began to flee over the bridge. Some foot and horse had entered the place the same day, and other succour arrived too late. Of foreigners there were within [the town] more than eighty lances and four hundred foot. All these lords behaved very well, and some of them excellently, as I shall tellyour Lordship when I see you. Many are the killed and wounded on either side. The place has been plundered, but much has been saved. Ten or twelve of the Procurators are taken prisoners. Many letters of privy councillors have been found, which are worth seeing. Before the battle began, the Queen our lady ordered that they should let the grandees enter the place, but they did not obey. During the confusion her Highness and the señora Infanta left the palace, and went as far as a church which is not distant. She commanded the cart to be brought on which to carry away the corpse of King Philip our lord, who is in glory, and she took also with her a chest containing her jewelry. As, however, there was no time to get away, her Highness returned, and remained at the door of the palace, where she was found by some cavaliers, who led her to her apartments. The same night the grandees and many cavaliers went to kiss her hands. My part in the fight was that some stones fell upon me, and that my horse was wounded. They have almost killed my son Don Diego, who was thrown on the ground with his horse. God be thanked, we are all safe, and ready to serve your Lordships whenever it is necessary.
Last Friday night these lords and grandees assembled, and asked the Queen our lady to order the Commons to disband their troops, and to do injury to no one. Her Highness gave the order, in presence of two escrivanos, as, I believe, your most Reverend Lordship has already learnt from the attestation which was drawn up by them. I was one of the witnesses. I think it will contribute towards the more speedy disbanding of their troops. Gomez de Avila, Procurator for Avila, had gone on Friday to Pedro Giron and the bishop, to tell them, in the name of those other Procurators, to disband the troops, and to conclude peace, for the good of the kingdom. He returned last night, and said that they menace in an arrogant manner, Don Pedro Giron not so much as the others. Valladolid and Medina collect ammunition and warlike stores. In Medina a certain Gonzalo Perez was arrested, whom these lords had sent, I believe, to speak about the artillery. The troops of Zamora have gone, and those of Valladolid are in the place. (fn. 10) It is believed that the contingents of the other cities will soon go.
It seems to me, my Lord, that it would be good, for a satisfactory conclusion of these affairs, and for the speedy pacification of the kingdom, that your most Reverend Lordship, together with the Council, and even the Señor Constable, should soon come to this place, and write from here to the cities of the kingdom, to pacify them, and send such commissioners as are fit for that purpose, to inquire into the wants of the kingdom, and to redress what is wrong. As a loyal servant, I say what I think, and if I were in your presence I should say more. I remain here until your Lordship sends me other orders. Our Lord protect the life and the very illustrious estate of your most Reverend Lordship.
From Tordesillas, Sunday, at five o'clock in the afternoon.
Your most Reverend Lordship's true servant kisses your hands.—Gomes de Santillan.
[Addressed :] To the very Illustrious and most Reverend Lord, the Cardinal of Tortosa, Governor of Castile, my Lord.
10th December. 76. Lope Hurtado De Mendoza to the Emperor Charles.
[Archivo General de Simancas. Patronato Real. Comunidades de Castilla. Legajo 2. f. 101. Holograph.]
A Su Magt. de lope hurtado. a x. de dizienbre.
S. C. C. Mt.
a seys del presente escrevi a V. Mt. como este logar se abia conbatido e ganado e saqueado. hanle destruydo. don pedro giron como lo supo bino la via de Valladolid e a syete del presente llego alli con su exercito. dizen que entro en la villa para darles descargo porque no abia socorrido este lugar e para aposentarse en el. Respondieronle que no querian su descargo agora y que la gente seria gran ynconbiniente aposentarse en la villa. asy diz que esta en unos lugares cerca de Valladolid. dizese que ha embiado a las cibdades que saquen los pendones con toda la gente que puedan para venir sobre este. aqui se ha proveydo de poner en Symancas al conde de oñate con dozientas lanças e quinientos peones y creo que pornan otras fronteras y se repara el lugar y se esperara lo que hizieren sin salir al campo syno sostener esto porque parece que es ganarlo todo, pues V. Al. ha de venir que syn su benida nada aprovecha. el almirante ha escripto a las cibdades diendoles cuenta de lo que se ha hecho y de la prision de los procuradores que aqui estan como mas le ha parecido que conbenia. no han respondido. un procurador de los presos que es de A vila pidio licencia para ir a hablar con don pedro y los otros capitanes deziendo que el haria por que se derramase la gente. alla fue y no quisieron e asy se torno. en este estado esta la cosa hasta oy.
la Reyna nuestra Señora dixo muy buenas cosas a los que aqui estavan quando le dixieron que V. Mt. se llamava Rey en perjuicio de Su Alteza. dixo que asy se acostunbraba por auttoridad del Reyno. quando le dixieron que avia hechos muchos daños en el, dixo que no la Rebolbiese nadi con su hijo que todo lo que tenia era suyo y que el miraria por ello. quando benimos a conbatir mando que abriesen las puertas deziendo que bien sabia Su Alteza que no harian daño syno que antes todos venian a servirla. salio Su Alteza y la Señora ynfanta al patio quando andava Rebuelta la cosa e alli la hallaron don juan manrique e don geronimo de padilla que llegaron los primeros a palacio y luego subieron a Su Alteza a su aposentamiento. dizen que olgo de ver a los grandes y de hablarlos. la Señora ynfante esta la mas gentil dama del mundo. seria bien que V. Mt. le escriba que dize que le an dicho que V. Al. esta mal con ella y es la mas rreal cosa que puede ser.
agora enbio a V[uest]ra magestad memorial de los procuradores que aqui se prendieron porquel otro dia no ubo tiempo para saber de todos. a estos tienen sin prision e juntos e aun Suero del Aguila anda por el lugar. V. Alt. deve enbiar a mandar que los pongan en prisiones a buen recabdo porque ay mas piedad de la que era menester con ellos.
los libros de los contadores se han hallado aqui. con ellos estava christoval de avila e bazquez. hallaronse muchas escripturas de las bellaquerias que estos tenian ordenadas. al marques de astorga cupo una area de don pero laso llena dellas como V. Magestad vera por su carta. asymismo se tomo la noche que entramos una carta de don pero laso que escrevia de villalpando a juan de ayala avisandole de la venida del exercito aqui en que dize que tienen mal contentamiento de don pedro giron, y que estan mal concertados y que no tienen dineros. espero en dios que cada dia los yra peor porque dize que todas las cibdades estan muy sospechasas de don pedro y aun que cada dia le llaman traydor.
el saco de aqui ha seydo tan general que ningun criado de Su Alteza quedo. hasta la mula de la Señora infante de que a todos ha pesado mucho. pero no se ha podido haser mas. piensase que desto han de hazer grandes esclamaciones al Reyno los contrarios. aca paresce a muchos que aunque los del lugar no lo merecen ni ansi los mas de los criados de Su Alteza que otros hazian lo que eran obligados que V. Mt. debria luego escrebir mostrando sentimiento del daño de los criados de la Reyna nuestra Señora y desta villa y mandando que se averiguase lo que avia seydo porque lo mandaria pagar.
Segun lo que algunos destos criados de Su Alteza han hecho pienso que el marques suplicara a V. A. que mude algunos y creo que querria poner algunos suyos. V. Al. deve mandar mirar en esto porque ay muchos criados de los Reyes Catholicos y del Señor ynfante perdidos en quien estara bien hazerse la provision si obiere mudança, pues de necessidad les ha de mandar dar de comer.
estos grandes y cavalleros quisyeran que yo fuera a V. Mt. a dar cuenta de sus servicios e por las albricias de la vitoria. para lo suyo tienpo abra si dios quisiere y para lo mio por mejores albricias tengo estar serbiendo aqui a V. Al. que ay bien en que cierto todos lo han hecho muy bien como a V. Mt. escrevi. e despues que entramos en este lugar el conde de benavente ha hecho buenas cosas en hazer probeer de bastimentos hasta yr el a moler el trigo porque ha habido necesydad y castigar los suyos sobre el saco. V. Mt. debe enbiar le las gracias y a todos que bien las merecen.
el duque del ynfantazgo escribio que embiava ciento y cinquenta onbres de armas y cinquenta ginetes y enbio dineros al almirante para la paga de quince dias y cartas para los governadores de sus tierras que acudiesen con veynte mill onbres adonde les mandassen. el de villena ofrecio dineros. agora no se lo que hara con esta nueba el de alburquerque. aqui estan don beltran y don luys. no tienen gente. dizen que verna el duque su padre. guarde nuestro Señor la S. C. C. Mt. y acreciente su muy Real estado. de Tordesillas a x. de dizienbre.
de V. Mt. basallo y servidor que sus Reales pies y manos besa. lope hurtado.
[Sobre :] A la S. C. C. Mt. del enperador rrey nuestro Señor.
76.
To His Majesty. From Lope Hurtado.
10th of December.
Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty,
On the 6th of this month I informed you that this place had been attacked, conquered, pillaged, and ruined. When Don Pedro Giron heard of it he marched towards Valladolid, and arrived there with his army on the 7th of the present month. It is said that he entered the town to exculpate himself for not having succoured this place, and intended to remain there in garrison. They answered that they did not want his excuses at present, and that it would be very inconvenient to quarter the troops in the town. Thus, it is said, he is now in some of the villages near the town. It is reported that he has written to the Commons asking them to get out all the banners, and to march with all the men they have to this place. Here it has been decided to send the Count of Oñate to Simancas with two hundred lances and five hundred foot. I believe they will erect new fortifications, repair the place, (fn. 11) and wait to see what [the enemy] will do without taking the field, and only defending this [place], because [to preserve Tordesillas] is as much as to gain everything ; that is to say, if your Highness comes, for without your presence all is in vain. The Admiral has written to the Commons as best it seemed to him, and given them an account of what has occurred, and of the imprisonment of the Procurators. They have not answered. One of the Procurators, who is from Avila, has asked permission to go and speak with Pedro Giron and the other captains, promising that he would induce them to disband their troops. He went, but they refused, and he has returned. This is the state in which things are today.
The Queen our lady spoke very good words to those who have been here when they told her that your Majesty styled yourself King in prejudice of her Highness. She answered that such was the custom of the kingdom. When they said that [your Majesty] had caused great injury to it, she replied that no one shall set her at variance with her son, and that all that belonged to her was his, and he would take good care of it. When we came to give battle she ordered the gates to be opened, saying that she well knew that we would not do any harm, but, on the contrary, came to serve her. When all was disorder her Highness and the Señora Infanta went to the court-yard, and there they were found by Don Juan Manrique and Don Geronimo de Padilla, who were the first to arrive at the palace, and led her Highness directly to her rooms. It is said she rejoiced at seeing the grandees and speaking with them. The Señora Infanta is the most beautiful lady in the world. It would be good if your Majesty would write to her, for they have told her that your Highness is dissatisfied with her. She is the most queenly thing (fn. 12) that can be seen.
I send your Highness a list of the Procurators who were taken prisoners here. The other day I had no time to inquire how many there were. They are not in prison, live together, and Suero de Aguila is even permitted to walk about in the town. Your Highness should order that they be put into prison and well watched. More compassion is shown to them than is necessary.
The papers of the treasurers have been found here in possession of Christoval de Avila and Vasquez. Many documents have been discovered which contain the knaveries ordered by them. The Marquis of Astorga captured a box belonging to Don Pedro Laso full of them, as your Majesty will learn from his letter. The night when we entered a letter of Don Pedro Laso was intercepted which he wrote from Villalpando to Juan de Ayala, giving him notice of the march of the army to this place. He tells him that they were little satisfied with Don Pedro Giron, that they were disunited and had no money. I hope in God that every day they will be worse off. It is said that all the Commons suspect Pedro Giron, and call him daily a traitor.
The pillage has been so general that not a single servant of her Highness escaped. Even the mule of the Señora Infanta [has been stolen]. All are very sorry for it, but it was impossible to prevent it. It is expected that the enemy will make great clamour about this in the kingdom, and many think that, although the [people] of this town do not deserve it any more than most of the servants of her Highness, yet as others have behaved as they ought, your Majesty should write directly, stating that you are sorry for the losses of the servants of the Queen our lady and of this town, and ordering to inquire in what they have consisted, that they may be repaid.
Owing to what some of these servants of her Highness have done, I think the Marquis will ask your Highness to dismiss many of them, and I believe that he wishes to appoint some of his people. Your Highness ought well to consider this, for there are many servants of the Catholic King and Queen and of the Señor Infante who live in misery, and whom it would be good to appoint, if changes are to be made ; for it is necessary to feed them.
These grandees and cavaliers wish that I should go to your Highness to give an account of their services, and receive the rewards for the victory. For their [rewards] a time will come, if God permits it ; and as for mine, I consider it the best reward to be able to serve your Highness here. It is quite certain that all have behaved very well, as I have written to your Majesty. Since we entered this place the Count of Benavente has done a good thing in supplying provisions. He has even gone so far as to grind corn, of which we stood in great need, and to punish his people for the pillage. Your Majesty ought to send him and all the others your thanks. They deserve it.
The Duke of Infantazgo wrote that he sends one hundred and fifty men-at-arms and fifty light horse. He also sends money to the Admiral for the pay of fifteen days, and letters to the agents of his estates to send twenty thousand men in succour to wherever they may be required. Villena offered money. I do not know what Albuquerque will do after the last occurrences. Don Beltran and Don Luis are here. They have no troops. It is said the duke their father will come. Our Lord preserve your Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty, and increase your royal estate.
From Tordesillas, 10th of December.
Your Majesty's vassal and servant kisses your royal feet and hands.
Lope Hurtado.
[Addressed :] To his Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty the Emperor King, our lord.

Footnotes

1 The Count of Haro, son of the Constable of Castile, was the commander in chief of the army.
2 The principal body of the army under the immediate command of the king or his lieutenant.
3 Sic. le.
4 Count of Haro, commander in chief of the army and son of the Constable.
5 Sic.
6 Au estate of the Admiral.
7 Those Procurators of the Junta.
8 In Rioseco.
9 Sic.
10 Valladolid.
11 Tordesillas.
12 Sic.