Venice
May 1520, 21-25

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Rawdon Brown (editor)

Year published

1869

Pages

14-34

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: May 1520, 21-25', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 3: 1520-1526 (1869), pp. 14-34. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=94318 Date accessed: 26 July 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

May 1520, 21–25

May 21. to July 14 Sanuto Diaries, v. xxix. pp. 210–239. 50. An Account of the Conferences held by King Henry VIII. with the Emperor Charles V. and King Francis I.
On Monday the 21st of May, the King and Queen of England, and the royal retinue quitted London and arrived at Canterbury on the 24th, awaiting the Emperor's arrival, as stipulated.
Late on Saturday the 26th the Emperor, with a few of his ships, appeared within six miles of Dover Castle, awaiting there the rest of his fleet.
Cardinal Wolsey, on receiving this intelligence, proceeded with his retinue of 50 gentlemen and other attendants, to Dover, where he embarked with, some of his followers in two large boats, for the ship on board of which were the Emperor and Mons. de Chievres. He then, in a brief Latin speech, expressed the joy of the King at the Emperor's arrival, offering him all that England afforded, and inviting him to land there, as if it were his own territory. The Emperor accepted the offer most willingly, and together with Mons. de Chièvres, went straight to Dover Castle, the rest of his attendants remaining in the town. When the English warder presented the keys of the castle on behalf of his King, the Emperor refused them, saying that without keys he considered himself safe in the house of his uncle and good father, the King of England. Shortly after the departure of Cardinal Wolsey from Canterbury, the King, having heard the news, rode to Dover, where he arrived in the night when the Emperor had supped and was in bed, and there they exchanged embraces and other loving compliments.
The King then left the Emperor in bed, and went and lodged below in the town.
At daylight their Majesties rose, and rode with all their attendants to Canterbury. At a distance of four miles from the town they were met by the French and Venetian ambassadors, who made their obeisance and kissed the Emperor's hand. Outside the gates of Canterbury were 60 dappled palfreys, saddled with women's pillions, but empty; the pillions were all of cloth of gold, one of them being embroidered with fine pearls and jewels. These palfreys had been prepared for the Queen Germaine de Foix, the French woman, relict of the late King Ferdinand the Catholic, now married to the Marquis of Brandenburg. (fn. 1)
Within the gates, on entering the town, they found all the clergy with crosses awaiting them on one side, ard on the' other was the mayor and the whole corporation in scarlet gowns, with hoods half black and half red, according to the custom of the country.
On reaching the square in front of the cathedral everybody dismounted, and entered the church processionally. The French ambassador [De laBastie] was accompanied by the Duke of Buckingham, and the Venetian ambassador, Surian, by the Duke of Suffolk, the Papal Nuncio pairing with the Bishop of Durham. Having entered by the principal door, the Sovereigns walked over a carpet of purple velvet to a kneeling desk for two persons, in the English fashion, covered with gold brocade and furnished with two cushions to correspond. There they knelt, the Emperor on the right hand, the King on the left; and the Archbishop of Canterbury, standing before them in his episcopal robes and mitred, presented the cross for them to kiss, commencing with the Emperor, and then saluting them with the censer and incense; finally he sprinkled them with holy water, always commencing with the Emperor. Their Majesties then rose, and were conducted under a canopy of cloth of gold to the high altar, where in like manner a kneeling desk had been prepared with cushions of cloth of gold, and the ledge covered with crimson velvet. There they again knelt, and the Archbishop presented them with the wood of the holy cross to kiss, and then commenced the hymn, “Veni Creator Spiritus” which was suited both to the day, Whit Sunday, and also to the conference between the two Sovereigns, united by spiritual love and goodwill for the benefit of Christendom.
When the music ceased, their Majesties moved to the other end of the church, in the direction of the Archbishop's palace, which had been prepared for the Emperor.
Below, at the door of the first porch, which forms the entry into the palace, they met 25 of the handsomest and best apparelled ladies of the Court. Then, on entering another large corridor, they found some 20 of the Queen's pages in gold brocade and crimson satin, in checquers. They next ascended 15 steps of a marble staircase, and there on the landing was the Queen of England, the Emperor's aunt, dressed in cloth of gold lined with ermine, and beautiful strings of pearls round her neck. She embraced her nephew tenderly, not without tears; and they then proceeded upstairs with the ambassadors and the ladies, into a chamber where breakfast had been prepared; whereupon the attendants were dismissed until the hour for mass.
Francesco Cornaro, the Venetian ambassador resident with the Emperor, and his colleague Surian, accredited to the King of England, having dined, two English gentlemen came in the King's name and conducted them from their lodging to the Emperor, who was lodged with the King and Queen. After a brief stay their Majesties went to the cathedral, preceded by the ambassadors and by upwards of 600 lords and knights, who were all most sumptuously clad in cloth of gold and silver, and wore massive gold chains round their necks.
Cardinal Wolsey walked immediately in advance of the Emperor and the King, who were side by side, the Emperor to the right.
Both their Majesties wore simars; that of the Emperor was on the right half of cloth of silver, and on the left half of alternate stripes of gold and silver, and the simar was lined with costly sables.
The simar of the King of England was entirely of cloth of gold, lined with very beautiful lynx's fur, and round his neck he wore a very valuable jewelled collar. Both their Majesties wore cloth caps with a brim, and two very superb jewelled ornaments.
On entering the cathedral they were met by the Archbishop with cross and censer, and on arriving at the high altar found three pews. The first was on the right hand side, at a little distance from the altar, and on a level with the fourth step, which marks the first landing. This pew was of gold brocade, lined with silver brocade embroidered with roses, the King's badge, and was carpeted with crimson velvet; it accommodated from 10 to 15 persons, and was destined for the two Sovereigns, who knelt there to hear mass, their kneeling desk being of cloth of gold, and the ledge covered with cloth of gold.
The second pew was on the left-hand side, farther distant from the altar, and four steps lower than the first inclosure; it was also of gold brocade, lined with murrey satin, embroidered in like manner with roses.
After the entry of the Emperor and the King, the Queen proceeded to this second enclosure, and knelt at a desk covered in like manner with cloth of gold, and with two cushions to correspond. Beside her was “the beautiful Lady Mary, the King's sister, late Queen of France, now consort of the Duke of Suffolk.”
The Queen's petticoat was of silver lama, and the gown of cloth of gold lined with violet velvet, with raised pile, on which the roses of England were wrought in gold. She wore a necklace of very large pearls, from which hung a very valuable diamond cross. Her head gear was of black velvet striped with gold lama, and powdered with jewels and pearls.
The Lady Mary was dressed in silver lama, in plates, joined throughout with gold cords at the extremities of which were fine pearls instead of tags.
The third pew, like the second, was also on the left hand side but nearer the altar and loftier, and on a level with the eighth step. It formed a canopy of crimson satin embroidered throughout with most superb gold cords. Its width was four breadths of satin, and the length of the canopy six yards. On a level with the fifth step of the altar were a gilt chair and a gilt kneeling desk; this was the site where Cardinal Wolsey, legate de latere, placed himself with two crosses, which always precede him, to denote that he is both “legate born,” and legate de latere, He wore a cape of crimson camlet lined with ermine.
The Archbishop of Canterbury, also legate born, celebrated the paschal mass of Whitsuntide, with most excellent music; and the mass ended, Cardinal Wolsey arrayed himself in a cope of gold brocade, and gave the benediction and plenary indulgence.
The Sovereigns then departed processionally, and returned to the Emperor's chamber, when every one was dismissed, their Majesties dining alone,—the Emperor (placed on the right hand), the King, the Queen, and the Lady Mary.
After dinner there was dancing, and in the evening, the Queen Germaine and 60 ladies on horseback, mounted on white palfries saddled with cloth of gold, made their entry. She was met, amongst the rest, by the Lady Mary, late Queen of France, and accompanied also by 200 Spanish ladies dressed according to their own fashion, but with long thin veils and small caps on their heads as worn in Flanders, with flaps (coste) and double brims, also in the Flemish fashion, some white, some green, and some tawney. These ladies were not handsome, but graceful (gratiate), and very attractive from their Spanish costume.
On the morrow, Whit Monday, at the hour of mass, the King accompanied by the ambassadors, and with no less pompous a retinue than on the preceding day, came from the abbey (his abode) to the cathedral; inside which, near the door, he awaited the Emperor and his train; and after they had embraced, placing him on the right hand, he took him to the high altar to the appointed pew.
Shortly after, the Queens came—first the Queen of England; and then Queen Germaine, and the Lady Mary, the former being on the right hand as a mark of honour for a foreigner, and she was accompanied to her abode by 120 ladies, besides the 20 Spanish dames, all most richly arrayed.
The Emperor wore a doublet, half of silver brocade, and half of alternate stripes of gold and silver, over which he had a gown of gold brocade lined with sables.
The King of England wore a simar, one half of cloth of gold and the other half of grey velvet, girt with a jewelled belt; the simar was slashed across in about six compartments, and joined by a quantity of buttons, all of which were balass rubies, sapphires, diamonds, and other sorts of jewels, and round his neck he had a jewelled collar, said to be worth more than 10,000 ducats. His cap or bonnet of black velvet was edged and covered with white feathers.
The Queen wore a petticoat of cloth of gold with a black ground, slashed and laced with gold and black cords, at whose extremities, in lieu of tags, there hung pearls and jewels, her gown being one half of cloth of gold and the other half of violet velvet with a raised pile, the flowers in relief being embroidered with gold thread and pearls. Her head dress was in the Flemish fashion with a long veil and no cap, which gave her additional grace. Round her neck were five large strings of pearls, with a pendent St. George on horseback slaying the dragon, all in diamonds.
Queen Germaine was dressed in cloth of gold in the Flemish fashion.
The Queen Mary in cloth of silver lama.
In the Emperor's company was the Prince of Orange, a youth about 18 years of age. His entire costume—doublet, hose, and shoes— was all of silver lama, striped longitudinally with cloth of gold; and so wide were the sleeves of his doublet, which were lined with cloth of gold lama, that they almost touched the ground; and the hose and doublet joined in jacket fashion, with three plaits; his shirt being of red murrey sarsnet, which contrasted admirably with his white arms.
The mass was celebrated in state, and the Sovereigns being then accompanied to the Emperor's chamber, their Majesties dined together. The Emperor sat at the centre of the table; on his left the King; to the right of the Emperor, the Queen of England; to the left of the King, the Lady Mary; and to the right of Queen Katharine, Queen Germaine.
After dinner there was dancing for a long while, and the King danced, but not the Emperor.
Then in the evening about an hour after dusk, both the Venetian ambassadors were conducted from their lodging, in the King's name, by two knights, and on arriving at the court, entered a large hall on the ground floor of the palace inhabited by the Emperor, where three tables had been prepared, two lengthwise, and one at the head of the hall. There they met the French ambassador likewise, and after waiting a while, their Majesties came down stairs, and the water for the hands was given thus:
The Emperor and the King and Queen of England washed together by themselves. The Duke of Suffolk brought a large gold basin with a cover bearing a crown, in the centre of which was a small up, and when this had been removed by the Duke of Buckingham, the Marquis of Brandenburg's brother, (fn. 2) who had accompanied the Emperor, took off the cover, holding it under the basin borne by the Duke of Suffolk; whereupon the Duke of Buckingham gave the water in the cup to drink to the Duke of Suffolk, who having thus made the assay, then poured the water from his basin, which had an aperture or mouth at the side, over the hands of the Sovereigns, to whom the brother of the Count Palatine of the Rhine (he likewise being in the Emperor's train) presented the towel.
The Emperor and the King and Queen then sat down to table; the Emperor in the centre, and the King on the left, both on very stately gilt chairs; the Queen sitting on the right, but on a low chair.
After this the second gold basin was brought, also with a cover, but without any crown, by the son of the Earl of Northumberland; the cup for the assay was borne by the Duke of Buckingham, and the Marquis of Dorset uncovered it, the towel being presented by the old Duke of Norfolk.
The right reverend Cardinal of York, Queen Germaine and the Lady Mary, having washed their hands together, (fn. 3) seated themselves at table, and the Cardinal to the right of Queen Katharine, but there was space between them for another chair. To the right of the Cardinal was Queen Germaine, and to the left of the King, his sister, Queen Mary, these six sitting at the table placed at the head of the hall.
Then at the second table, to the right of the centre table, there sat first of all, the French ambassador, with a Spanish dame, Señora Doña Maria, the daughter of a Count of Spain; next came the Venetian ambassador, Surian, with the Duchess of Norfolk, and then the brother of the Count Palatine, with the daughter of the Duke of Buckingham; (fn. 4) the other lords pairing in like manner with the Spanish and English ladies.
The first place at the table on the left was that of the Venetian ambassador, Cornaro, resident with the Emperor. He paired with a lady, and next sat the Duke of Alva, with the other lords and ladies.
The banquet was most sumptuous, the tables being surrounded by enamoured youths (gioveni innamorati), who stood behind the ladies; and amongst the rest, certain Spaniards played the lovers' part so bravely that nothing could have been better (nihil supra). One of them, the Count of Capra, made love so heartily, that he had a fainting fit, or swooned for his mistress, and was carried out by the hands and feet until he recovered himself.
The viands were so numerous that the banquet lasted four hours, after which the tables being removed, dancing commenced, and the ball was opened by the Duke of Alva, a sexagenarian, but still amorous. He danced with a Spanish lady, his favorite, not handsome, but beyond measure graceful.
The ball throughout was “the Gloves of Spain” (sic), with a very gay finale to the sound of the fife. The dress of the Duke's sweetheart would be long to describe, but the Duke himself wore a small cap of tawney cloth, with a green silk tassel across the cap which he cocked to the left, in the Ghibelline fashion.
The next dance was performed by the enamoured Count of Capra.
The third by another Spanish count.
The fourth by the King; and the last was performed, and admirably, by the Prince of Bisignano, all dancing in the Spanish fashion, and the ball ending when it was broad daylight.
On the morrow, Tuesday, the Emperor and the King rested part of the day, and then sat in council until late in the evening, when, at about an hour after sunset, the Emperor quitted Canterbury, accompanied by the King and Cardinal, without the ambassadors, who were told to remain behind, though all the rest of the royal retinue followed by torchlight, the torches not being many, but of wax, and very long indeed, in the English fashion; and having quitted Canterbury together, their Majesties took leave of each other five miles thence. The Emperor however was accompanied towards Sandwich by Cardinal Wolsey; the King proceeding to Dover; the Queens also doing the like, and Queen Germaine taking leave of Queen Katharine.
The Field of Cloth of Gold.
The King and Queen and the court quitted Dover with 27 ships, and arrived at Calais at noon, after a very calm passage.
On the 5th of June, the King, accompanied by the ambassadors and the rest of the court, quitted Calais in the evening, and arrived at the Castle of Guisnes, where, amongst other things, he had built a palace beyond the fortress, with a basement of stone four feet above ground, and the rest of timber; the partition walls and roof being of canvas.
The chambers of Queen Katharine were hung with tapestry of silk and gold representing the most minute foliage, the most beautiful that the eye of man ever beheld; and it cost seven ducats per yard.
In this palace were two oratories, both looking into the large chapel, and both with hangings; the first of cloth of gold with green velvet, and the King's badge of roses with the garter, quartered with lilies. In each of these two oratories were six images of massive gold, more than one cubit high, and two gold basins each worth 3,000 ducats, two gold censers, two gold boats containing insense (navieelle), two candlesticks, and a chalice also of gold; and this for each of the oratories, one of which was for the King and the other for the Queen, and each had a pew in the English fashion. The King's pew was of cloth of gold; the Queen's of crimson velvet with a raised pile.
In the King's oratory on the altar, besides the things already mentioned, were six jewelled images:—a St. George on horseback, smiting the dragon, and a St. Christopher with the infant on his shoulder, both of which were of diamonds; a Nativity (presepio) of various jewels; a St. Ursula with her companions, a St. Katharine, and a St. Barbara; all which things were worth a world of gold.
The large chapel was entirely covered and hung with cloth of gold and green velvet; and the twelve apostles in gold, and a crucifix three feet high, were on the altar.
On one side of the palace a corridor leads to the door of the palace at Guisnes, through which the King can pass to and fro at his pleasure.
It having been arranged that the conference between the Kings of France and England should take place on the 7th of June, the King of England at the 21st hour quitted Guisnes, accompanied by Cardinal Wolsey, who rode beside him; then came the Papal Nuncio with the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Spanish ambassador with the Duke of Buckingham, and the Venetian ambassador with the Duke of Suffolk. The rest of the lords and gentlemen followed, about 500 in number, all splendidly attired in cloth of gold and silk. The King wore a simar of silver brocade, joined with silver cords, from the extremities of which hung beautiful pendent jewels, and round his neck he wore a jewelled collar of great price. This band [of 500] in part preceded, and in part followed the King in pairs. On the [left hand] side of the King was his guard, 500 in number, dressed in doublets of white and green velvet in checquers, with the royal badge of the rose embroidered on their breasts, and with halberts in their hands. They headed a squadron of 4,000 footmen, a force so imposing that it caused some suspicion on the part of the French, who sent officials to inspect the number of the band, and ascertain whether it was armed, who found the men were without arms, according to the articles. The English in their turn made a similar inspection, of the French.
At length, both parties, English and French, being assured, marched forward to a hill, at the bottom of which is a pleasant valley, called “Vallis Aurea” On this hill the King of England halted, and the whole retinue formed a ring; the like being done by the most Christian King on his reaching the opposite hill, which also looked on the valley, in whose hollow a tent had been pitched, covered with cloth of gold, and an awning. The ambassadors having halted on the hill, the King of England caused the sword borne by the Marquis [of Dorset] to be unsheathed, and his Majesty, with Cardinal Wolsey alone, on horseback descended into the valley, with the Master of the Horse [Sir Henry Guylford] on foot, in a doublet of cloth of gold, and Sir Richard Wingfield, English ambassador to the King of France, from whom he had then arrived, dressed in a simar of brocatel, which his most Christian Majesty had given him.
These three (sic) descended into the valley, and the most Christian King did the like from the opposite direction, he by himself on horseback, and the Lord High Constable [Bourbon] on foot with the drawn sword, the Lord Admiral [Bonnivet] with the badge and the whistle, and the Master of the Horse [San Severino] on foot.
The Kings on arriving in the valley below, and drawing nigh, saluted each other cap in hand, and then embraced very lovingly on horseback; after which, having dismounted, they embraced again, and entered the tent accompanied by Cardinal Wolsey. They re-remained there in private for half an hour, after which, on coming out, they again embraced each other repeatedly, and having mounted their horses, took loving leave, and with music and great rejoicing each went in his own direction; the most Christian King to Ardres, and the English King to Guisnes: it being sunset when they got home.
Note by Sanuto, that the Mantuan ambassador in France, who was present there, transmitted this account.
On Saturday the 9th, in the afternoon, the two Kings again met, in the field appointed for the joust, situated a short mile, in the direction of Ardres, from the spot where the first interview was held. It was a large square of greater length than width, enclosed by a ditch and dike, the entrances being to the front, with bars to correspond. On each of the sides within were stages for the spectators, and in the centre was the tilt-yard, with its lists, and at the extremity towards the English [Pale?] two chambers were erected, one on each side, well and richly furnished for the accommodation of the Kings to arm and rest themselves.
At this extremity, beyond the ditch, was another square on each side, where tents and pavilions were pitched for the service of the jousters; those of either nation having their own side, and passing from the houses of their respective sovereigns into the square by the esplanade of the ditch, which is sufficiently wide for the passage.
At the end of the tilt-yard, in the direction of the two houses, there was a tree resembling an elm, around which was a square mound, the height of a man on horseback, but of timber covered with green damask. The trunk was clad in cloth of gold, as likewise two large branches affixed to the sides; and at the summit of the mound or bank were the rests for the heralds, and for the shields and arms of the jousters.
Into this place, and from this side, the King of England made his entry with fifty knights and lords, summoned according to a roll in the hands of one of his officials.
Then, from the other corresponding side, the King of France made his entry, summoning an equal number of his own subjects.
At the English entrance were the French infantry archers, and at the French entrance the English; and others patrolled the environs on horseback, with orders not to allow anyone to cross the ditch, even should it be requisite to enforce them by death.
When the two Kings met on the ground, they lowered their spears, saluting each other lovingly as usual, and then commenced making their own horses, and those of their companions gallop, jump, and wheel; after which two heralds brought two shields, one with the arms of England, the other with those of France, and carried them round the tilt-yard, preceded by 80 trumpeters and 22 heralds, and then went to the trunk of the tree under its branches, the French shield being on the right hand, as also was the French house. (fn. 5) On this day the two King exchanged coursers.
Beneath the royal shields were three others, one striped longitudinally tawney and murrey, with an inscription in French in gold letters, signifying “For the courses to be run in the tilt-yard.” The second shield was in like manner striped, yellow and white, with the inscription “For Tourney.” The third shield was all silvered white, with the inscription “For the battle on foot at the bars.” (fn. 6)
Around the rails of the mound were placed the badges of all the lords and knights who were to tilt, together with their names.
Whilst this was doing, Cardinal Wolsey arrived from Ardres, where he had been to dine with Madame [Louise of Savoy]; and the Kings, having already dismounted, and being inside King Henry's house, the Cardinal joined them there. They remained in conference for half an hour, and then, remounting their horses, returned to their quarters.
On Sunday the 10th the King of France was banqueted by the Queen of England [Katharine]; the French Queen [Claude] doing the like by the King of England.
The English banqueting chamber was hung with most beautiful tapestry, such as never had been seen before, worth some 15,000 ducats, representing foliage.
Each course consisted of 50 double dishes, that is to say, with covers, all of silver gilt except those presented to the King, winch were of gold, and they went so often to the kitchen that to count the times was impossible.
Beyond this chamber was a hall, 750 feet in length, where 134 ladies dined, with about twenty gentlemen in their company, as a mark of honour, according to the custom of England, but all Englishmen of rank. (fn. 7)
Besides this hall there was another of the same dimensions, in which the gentlemen dined, in number upwards of 200. In a chamber corresponding to the first the Duke of Bourbon, Lord High Constable, and the Admiral [Bonnivet], with all the great French personages, dined, with a few Englishmen of rank; and thus there were tables from place to place, and from grade to grade. In Cardinal Wolsey's apartments, the Bishop of Paris [Stephen Poncher], and all the French prelates and priests dined; and in each of these places were cupboards of most beautiful and costly gold plate. Then all over the house below, and about the courtyard, victuals were served; the abundance of food and wine being so great that the people choked themselves. In front of the first gate there was a fountain, which spouted wine during five hours for all comers.
King Francis and Queen Katharine having finished their repast above, came into the hall, and dancing commenced to the sound of the tabour, and pipe, and viol; the first dance being performed by the Lady Mary with a French nobleman.
After this, King Francis having brought with him his fifers and trombone players, who are excellent, had a dance performed in the Italian fashion, and danced with the sweetheart (innamorata) of one of the hostages given by him to the King of England, by name Montpézat, an accomplished woman (una brava dona), and the handsomest in the company; (fn. 8) and some 20 couple danced. The ball being ended, the King with very great gallantly kissed all the damsels; and the crowd became so great that their Majesties withdrew to the banqueting room, where they danced until the signal for departure at the 23rd hour.
On Monday the 11th they went to the joust at about the 20th hour. The King and Queen of England arrived first; and the Queen was with the Lady Mary in a litter of crimson satin embroidered with gold knots and foliage, the horses which carried it being trapped in like manner. Two led palfries with empty saddles and two empty litters followed; then three waggons (carete), drawn by four horses one before the other. After the waggons came 30 ladies well-dressed but ugly.
The Kings, having armed themselves, came forth from their houses, each accompanied by seven companions in livery. The dress and horse furniture of the King of France were covered with slashes, and certain circles, destined apparently for a feather, with the motto, “De vous peut étre.”
The Queen of France and Madame [Louise] were in a litter of cloth of silver, followed by Madame's Jitter of black velvet, and by 20 damsels on palfreys, after whom came three waggons, covered in like manner, as also the horses, and another black litter, after which 30 ladies on horseback, well appointed. The Queen having dismounted, and ascended the stage where the Queen of England was, the Duke of Alençon entered the lists with nine companions, all in silver tissue, with gold scrolls and black letters, which were illegible, his lance-servants being all dressed in white in like manner.
This band commenced tilting against the 16 challengers, first of all against the King of France, and then against the King of England, and the others in succession. The encounters were not fierce at first, but improved subsequently. The King of France rode a good and well-trained chesnut (razinato rosso) courser; the King of England a bay; King Francis tilted much; King Henry but little, having sprained his hand.
The 10 knights having run their courses, the Admiral of France entered the lists, with nine companions in a livery one half of murrey velvet, the other of gold brocade and silver tissue in checquers, with an anchor and an illegible motto, and with plumes of the same colours. When they had tilted it was time to depart; and as it threatened rain and was late, many proceeded towards their lodgings, but not in time to escape the shower, which drenched them thoroughly. On the 12th the jousting was resumed, but without any remarkable display, save that of a company of 11 in black, yellow, and white—the black, velvet, the yellow, gold brocade, and the white, silver; their surcoats being trapped with a white cord on the black, yellow on the white, and black on the yellow; but they jousted no better than the first. Their weapons were battle-arms and spears, with not very large buttons at the points, but they hit seldom.
On Wednesday the 13th they went to the ground, but there was such a high wind and so much dust, it was impossible to tilt; though there was a fine wrestling match between these English and French.
On Thursday the 14th, the two Kings and their companies kept the field. The King of England wore a woman's sleeve, with embroidery, in lieu of a plume, as"did his companions. The King of France had an L embroidered in silver all over his apparel, and the word “Quando” in italics; and he rode a light grey Neapolitan courser.
The opponents were first a band of 10, followed by the company of Mods, de L'Escu, who was in gallant trim on a courser trapped with black velvet and brocatel, all slashed in checquers; and where the velvet was above the brocatel was beneath, and in like manner beneath the broeatel was the velvet; and from his shoulders there hung a hood or mantle in the olden fashion, which fastened to the left shoulder and hung over to the right, a costume recently brought into fashion again, as if to serve for a capuche, but of a different shape. He came immediately in advance of his 10 companions, sword in hand, turning about in front of them as if to keep them in order; and when he came in front of the Queens he made his horse courtsey twice, and went round the yard making this display.
This company having tilted, it was then time to depart, and no great feats performed on that day; but the King of England bore himself well. (fn. 9)
After Mons. de L'Escu had tilted, he presented himself to the English King, who was running a course; and having dismounted and kissed his Majesty's hand, gave him his courser, the King having previously admired it.
On Friday the 15th there was tilting as usual, but owing to the rain and wind, there were not many spectators present, nor did the King tilt.
On Saturday the “16th two bands of Englishmen, numbering 11 each, presented themselves against the challengers. The colours of of the first band where white, yellow, and azure, all being dressed in brocade and velvet; and one of them, Master Browne by name, (fn. 10) the brother of that beautiful English girl, had for his opponent, the most Christian King, who on that day wore a surcoat of brocatel, barded with violet velvet, embroidered with silver knots, on the fields of which were open books of silver embroidery with black letters thus, AmE.
All the King's companions bore the same device, which might apparently be interpreted “Libera me.” (fn. 11)
The King of England, with his band, wore yellow, russet, and white, but with various devices.
The second band of Englishmen presented itself in white, red, and azure, with 21 stirrup men. The white was silver tissue, the red crimson, the azure velvet, with gold flames and various devices in embroidery for the surcoats, amongst which was one representing a heart on fire, and above a hand with a garden water-pot for watering flowers, quenching it, with the motto, “pour reveiller.” Another was all covered with white feathers in embroidery, but all severed in the centre, with a motto thus, “voire merci.” In this band one of the knights wore apparel covered with Greek B's encircled by a pen, on whose quill was written “eterna.”
In this band was the younger son of the Duke of Norfolk, (fn. 12) who tilted against the King [of England]. This was the last day of the jousts, and the combatants behaved very well indeed, and shivered almost all the staves.
The King of France received a hurt on the temple and eye—some said from a blow of a spear—others from his horse's head-piece, which being loose, struck him when mounting. He was seen without his helmet in front of his mother and of the Queens, with a black eye and a black patch. (fn. 13)
It was said that on the preceding day, one brother tilting against the other (they were Frenchmen), received such a blow on the head that today he died.
On Sunday, the 17th, Madame, the [French King's] mother, came to dine at Guisnes, and King Francis having anticipated the hour, was in the courtyard of the castle with a few of his followers before King Henry knew of his arrival, to the surprise of well nigh everybody. The English King, however, hastened to meet him, and they embraced, King Francis saying, “My Lord, I am your prisoner;” and after very great greetings they went out of the palace together, and went to mass in the adjoining chapel, which is very gorgeous and magnificent, all glittering with gold. After mass King Henry went to Ardres to dine with the Queen of France, taking with him his sister the Lady Mary, and his company, King Francis dining here [at Guisnes] in the King's apartment. His mother dined with Queen Katharine and Cardinal Wolsey in his own apartments, with a numerous company of French lords and gentlemen. The halls were full, one of men, the other of ladies; and, as usual, there was very great abundance of good cheer, and vast pomp.
After dinner, there was dancing in the French fashion before the Queens (sic), and in a little while 10 couples of masquers made their appearance in long gowns of velvet and satin, with plumes and hoods. Amongst them was King Francis, in a russet-coloured garment bordered with white, both he and his companion; and to the sound of fifes (pifari) they performed a dance, said to be in the Ferrarese fashion, the most Christian King dancing with that my Lady Browne (“con quella milade Brun”) with whom he danced the last time.
King Francis then conversed with the Queen, and with Madame de Chateaubriand, and passed the day thus until the hour of departure, and on his way back met the King of England returning from the dinner and entertainment at Ardres, where he had been with the Queen of France. King Henry was accompanied only by his fellow masquers in their dresses, 30 in number; 10 in long gowns of cloth of gold, 10 in the Greek costume, violet velvet lined with vair, and 10 in the Swiss fashion, with their plumes and short garments, but slashed with silk and brocade.
The feat performed by the French King, coming as he did to Guisnes so confidently, was remarkable, and King Henry, whilst dining at Ardres and narrating it, said that by his faith the King his brother had shown such truth and love towards him, that he should never forget it; and that there was nothing he would not do for him at all times, both personally and through his kingdom, against anysoever. Be it also known, that when the most Christian King arrived at Guisnes this morning, the King of England took from his neck a jewelled collar worth 30,000 (sic) ducats, receiving in exchange from King Francis a jewelled bracelet of less value, but very handsome, a mark of very great love and mutual goodwill.
On Monday, the 18th, Cardinal Wolsey went to dine with Madame, and then came to the joust. The bands were nine in number, and after they had tilted, six coursers were brought to the ground and exhibited by a rider in the service of the Marquis of Mantua, the horses being, however, selected by the French Master of the Horse [Galeazzo di San Severino]. They were given by the most Christian King to the King of England, four of them having come from Mantua, and King Henry mounted three of them immediately, and rode them, and, being good and well trapped, they pleased him much.
On Tuesday, the 19th, Cardinal Wolsey gave a banquet to the French and English prelates here at the Court, including Stafileo, the Papal Nuncio, resident with his most Christian Majesty, and during the repast they discussed the Turkish news, and Stafileo greatly praised the Signory and the Venetian Republic and their government.
On this same morning King Henry went unexpectedly to dine at Ardres, with a very small retinue and without any guard; and then after dinner they came to the joust, where each ran a good 22 or 24 courses. The French King wore his white and violet suit, with the following motto, “Thus will the bear be.” (fn. 14) And this day the jousts ended, and were followed by battle on foot at the bars, and tournaments, as follows.
On Wednesday, the 20th, the Kings presented themselves on the field with their bands.
The King of France was dressed in cloth of silver, embroidered all over in silver with clouds, shaded with murrey silk, edged with a label bearing the words “Tanquam nubes igne crepans” His plumes were white with purple tufts.
On the right side the King of England was dressed entirely in stiff brocade, on the left in russet velvet; and he had a St. George on horseback, with the dragon under his feet and the maiden in front of him; besides red hearts transfixed by a dart, and a hand in the act of launching an arrow; all embroidered in gold.
Against the knights, the keepers of the field, there came in succession all the bands which had jousted, and one by one attacked one of the keepers, rebated sword in hand, dealing lusty and valorous blows one and all. The King of France was the first, and the first stroke carried away his plume. The King of England came next, and thus each combatant in turn, the battle being renewed according to the need.
Those who made their appearance were about 50, and after they had all fought, they gave place to the master of the horse of France, who, being mounted on a Spanish jennet, covered and trapped entirely with gold brocade, he himself being armed as a light horseman, with stirrups and saddle jennet fashion, and wearing a short and close-fitting surcoat of brocade, ran a course with a thick spear a good four fingers in diameter at the extremity, and then repeated the feat; after which he dismounted, leaving the spear and horse for any one who might choose to run in like manner, but as no one came forward, he did himself great honour. The entertainment was thus brought to a close, and will be resumed tomorrow.
On Thursday the battle was renewed, the Kings appearing with their usual companions. King Francis had his surcoats of brocatel, striped and trimmed with black velvet, and on the border were small squares embroidered in silver, shaded with black silk, each square being inscribed with a Latin letter, joined together by a small silver lacet, thus [arrow motif], a very elegant design; and the letters altogether formed the word “Reciproce.”
The King of England and his band had surcoats of silver tissue, edged with gold brocade, the ground representing hillocks of gold, from which sprouted leafy branches resembling the olive, all of gold lama or of some other gilt material, but said to be of gold, tied and bound so that they could not fall, and making a marvellous and costly show.
The opposing bands presented themselves as on the preceding day, and bore themselves bravely, the challengers showing equal prowess, amongst which last the Kings really displayed greater valour and courage than the rest, shattering plate armour, corselets, and swords, and making the steel weapons strike sparks and fire in the air, in a fashion worthy of eternal record. And thus ended the second mode of fighting [tournament wise]; and tomorrow they will fight on foot [at the bars]; after which, it is supposed that the clang of arms and the noise of trumpets and drums will cease.
On Friday, the 22d, the challengers presented themselves on foot, with the exception of the Kings, who on this day chose to witness the feats of their knights.
In front of the Queens' stage was a square stockade, with sufficient space for 10 couple of men, and in its centre a long bar, about three feet high, with two side bars.
Within these bars the challengers presented themselves on foot.
The band of the French King wore doublets of silver tissue and purple velvet, and of other checquered velvet, murrey and yellow, alternate breadths, and with white and murrey plumes.
The band of the King of England wore biparted doublets of stiff gold brocade and russet velvet, embroidered.
The opposing bands presented themselves at the bar, two at a time carrying rebated spears, with which the combatants fought against each other until the spears broke, and then cudgelled each other with the stumps, showering heavy two-handed blows on each other's heads and shoulders. At length, when separated by the side-bars swung by four men,—there being two for the purpose at each extremity,—they then hurled the fragments remaining in their hands at each other, fighting with such ardour that occasionally, when a combatant lost his spear, or when it broke, in his hand, not a fragment remaining, he nevertheless stood firm, thrusting with his arms, as if the weapon was still there.
After the spears, they next fought with swords, making in like manner fierce and desperate strokes, two by two, until the hour arrived for returning home.
On Saturday, the 23rd, a chapel was prepared in front of the stage from which the jousts had been witnessed, and connected with it, at its upper end; and although erected in the course of one single night, (fn. 15) yet was it, nevertheless, costly and all glittering with gold. Here Cardinal Wolsey said mass, being served by (con il servitio del) the Archbishop of Armagh, the Bishop of Durham, and several other English bishops; there being present four Cardinals of France, and other French bishops, two Apostolic nuncios, an Imperial ambassador (also a bishop), three Yenetian ambassadors (one with the King of England and two with the King of France), one from the Duke of Lorraine, one from the Duke of Ferrara, and one from the Marquis of Mantua, all of whom sat in their places on the stage where the altar was raised.
Opposite to the altar, on the stage from which they had viewed the jousts, the Queens sat in separate pews, royally apparelled, and on every side, the whole length of the stage, were lords and ladies, ranged according to their rank, the two Kings going processionally to their appointed places.
The service of the mass was very magnificent. First of all the apparelling of Cardinal Wolsey was performed by bishops, who also placed on his feet a pair of very valuable jewelled sandals. The water for his hands was given him by some of the chief noblemen of England. (fn. 16) The French and English singers chaunted, with occasional accompaniments of trombones, cornets, and organs.
After the elevation, the Eucharist was seen in the air floating over the tilt yard, no one perceiving whence it issued nor who propelled it, to the height of a tall tower, and even beyond, for it travelled half a mile, to the surprise of those who did not know how it was done. (fn. 17)
The mass being ended, Pace, the chief secretary of the King of England, proclaimed the plenary indulgence conceded to all who had attended this mass, saying that such divine service had been performed to the glory of God, and of this noble meeting, beseeching him, of his infinite goodness, to be pleased to render this peace between the two Kings perpetual.
After this the Kings went to dine together, the Queens doing the like by themselves, as also did all the five Cardinals, together with some prelates, and all in sundry compartments of the stage, which had been decorated and prepared for this purpose; and it was marvellous how in the open country they could have provided so conveniently and in so short a time for such a great banquet, for all ate at the same time, and each place had its kitchens and butteries and necessary offices beyond the ditch of the tilt yard under awnings and tents. All the other lords, barons, and courtiers ate in this place in like manner apart at their respective tables, and during the repast all the musicians here, namely, trumpeters, and players on the cornet, sourdine, trombone, fife, tabor, viol, and “tuifolo” each in their turn; and after the repast the combat recommenced on foot, as above, with spears, and at the close they fought with two-handed swords.
On Sunday, the 24th, each King dined with the Queen of the other; King Francis making his appearance at Guisnes with 20 companions, all in gowns and masked, with whom were 20 young French ladies, dressed in the Italian fashion with velvet caps, round which were feathers. The masquers were almost all dressed in brocade and tissue of silver and gold, the ladies likewise being richly attired.
These 20 with their ladies dined all together with the King, and at the appointed hour entered the chamber of Queen Katharine, and each with his female partner danced to the sound of fifes.
King Francis wore a garment of murrey brocatel, with a hood and hat in the German fashion with yellow and murrey feathers; and having danced awhile he approached the Queen, and having conversed with her for half an hour, went and changed his dress.
In the mean while the Queen gave orders to make presents to some of the jousters, a reckoning having been made of their strokes and exploits, by the master heralds and by the judges; so written billets were given accordingly to three or four, they being informed thereby, from whom they were to receive these presents; this service being performed by an official of the Queen's household. It was not possible to ascertain each article, but the total consisted of jewels, or rings, or collars, and the like, the particulars of which will be known more distinctly hereafter.
When King Francis reappeared unmasked, he wore some very large and exquisite emeralds on his breast, there being also a great number of very fine ones in his sleeves and apparel; and he had a black French cape of satin and velvet, slashed, and with gold embroidery.
Talking thus with the Queen, he in the evening took leave of her, kissing all her ladies one by one; after which he departed with his companions for Ardres, to which place the King of England in like manner had betaken himself with 20 of his attendants masked, and an equal number of English ladies; the Queen of France on her part also, making presents to the Englishmen who had distinguished themselves on the field as challengers or answerers.
Thus ended these games and pageants, which were very grand and magnificent, both with regard to the furniture and decoration of the edifices, and the amount and rank of the persons present, who were so numerous on both sides, and so sumptuously supplied with apparel, jewels, arms, collars, horses, and attendants, as to be inconceivable; nor is it supposed that in our time a similar display was ever witnessed, or that the like will be seen for many a day to come. At this interview the wealth, courtesy, and valour of the two nations were manifested in the noblest mode and fashion, of which, although many striking instances might be written in detail, yet did the reality far exceed them; nor may any one suppose that what has been written is the whole, for it could not be expressed by any memory, however vivid, though aided by the readiest of pens, for the grandeur, address, personal beauty, manners, fashions, deeds, and words, of these two most powerful Kings, in the field, at table, in conversation, at audience, and during amusements and “serizi” (sic) (fn. 18) were altogether remarkable and incredible.
Second Interview between the King of England and the Emperor.
After much negotiation from the 4th to the 9th of July between Cardinal Wolsey and Mons. de Chièvres, it was at length agreed that the King of England should leave Calais on the 10th of July with all his retinue, and proceed towards Gravelines, a place belonging to the French lady, Madame de Vendome, but under the jurisdiction of the Catholic King, in Flanders, at a distance of two miles from Calais. A spear, having on its point a scarlet bonnet or cap, was set up in the middle of a small valley. Towards this signal the King of England went from the Calais side, (fn. 19) and the Emperor from the other; and having embraced each other cap in hand very lovingly, and after much resistance made by the Emperor, who would not take precedence, but at length being told that he must do so whilst within the English Pale, he took the right hand, and proceeded thus towards Gravelines. On crossing a stream, and arriving within the jurisdiction of Flanders, the Emperor placed the King on the right hand as a mark of honour. That night they remained at Gravelines, and departed on the 11th after dinner, and came to Calais. The Emperor wore a doublet of gold brocade, chequered with silver brocade; and the King of England had a simar with a “galeto” well nigh in the Spanish fashion. They were accompanied by Madame Margaret, the Emperor's aunt, in a covered litter of black velvet, and arrived at Calais in the evening.
Behind her litter were 40 ladies and a waggon (careta), and another litter in like manner black. All the ladies were dressed in black velvet, and they were all young and handsome except one, who seemed rather graceful notwithstanding her ugliness.
They entered Calais by the Boulogne gate, and after their entry passed the portal of the royal palace, (fn. 20) where the Queen of England had arrived. She greeted her nephew, the Emperor, and Madame Margaret, who shortly afterwards took leave, and was escorted to the palace of the “Staple of Calais,” a very handsome structure, (fn. 21) accompanied by Cardinal Wolsey. After a while, the Emperor likewise followed her thither, and there they lodged and supped. And on that evening a gentleman of King Francis' chamber, Mons. de Montmorenci, arrived from the Court of France, whom King Henry took with him, masked, to the Emperor, visiting the ladies and dancing a part of the night.
On Thursday the 12th, the King and Queen dined with the Emperor and Madame Margaret at Staple Hall; and in the evening a great banquet was to have been given in an amphitheatre recently erected for this purpose by the King, but the canvas roof having been blown off by a heavy gale of wind, it became requisite to change the site, and the banquet was served in the King's house, (fn. 22) but confusedly, by reason of the narrow space: and also in a private manner, for there were only a few personages present, not even the ambassadors. As the design of this theatre was very handsome, it must be described. (fn. 23)
In front of the King's house [the Checker?] is a fine open space formed by the demolition of sundry buildings, on which spot they constructed this edifice entirely of timber. It has 16 fronts, (fn. 24) and its height and diameter measure each upwards of 250 feet. In the centre of the building is the tall mast of a ship, supported by other masts, the mainmast rising to a sufficient height above the walls for the formation of a handsome and well proportioned covering, like a pavilion. Around the summit of the mainmast are two iron hoops with rings, one hoop being lower than the other, from which hoops ropes are drawn to the walls all round, and thereon rests the canvas covering. Beneath the uppermost hoop the ropes, drawn in like manner from the lower one, support another sort of azure-coloured canvas, which forms the ceiling, being decorated with gold stars and planets of looking glass.
Around the walls below the ceiling are three tiers of balconies or stages, eight or nine feet deep, the parapet in front being of the height of a man's waist, and the tiers raised 10 feet one above the other, with sloping floors, so that the last look over the first, and behold conveniently what is passing on the ground floor.
These tiers are spacious, and intended for the convenience of the spectators, musicians, trumpeters, &c.
On the external parapet (margins esteriore) of the uppermost tier was represented a landscape of mountains, woods, forests, and meadows in relief, all of taffety, delightfully true to nature, with circles and elevations and inequalities; after which, farther inwards, well nigh on a level with the upper part of the back of the tier was an artificial sea of canvas with azure waves, and above the sea sky and clouds and blowing winds, and above the sky flames and gilt ornaments and roses, these representations being continued round the walls in the form of circular globes, on each of which were some of its peculiar attributes. On the earth were windmills, towers, houses, trees, and animals; in the water and in the sea ships, fishes, and marine monsters; in the air, clouds and winds and birds; and on this aerial globe were inscribed many propositions and sayings of Aristotle, as in his “Meteors,"concerning the cause of the winds and clouds, and the like. In the last globe of fire there was nothing, because (I believe) in England they are still of opinion that fire does not generate or nourish any animal soever. The parapet of the balconies on which the spectators leant was covered with white cloth, hanging over the length of two yards, like tapestry, with a border of green ivy all round, and in the centre of the field were large white roses and gilt rosettes; each of the three tiers being decorated in like manner. From the ceiling there hung large chandeliers at each angle of the theatre, and between every two chandeliers there was a human figure in the air of wicker-work, and covered and clad with silk or cloth, and bearing torches in their hands, all in different costumes, and of alternate sexes, man and woman. Below these lights were cornucopias, with foliage, which likewise served for candlesticks, being fixed on the masts.
Round the centre mast tables were placed, forming a square, and which were to have been prepared for the sovereigns; and there were other tables all round for the company.
Fronting the entrance of this banqueting hall steps had been raised for a very large sideboard. The approach to this hall was through a vestibule 30 feet long and upwards of 15 broad, and in front of its entry were three statues. The one on the right hand was meant to represent Hercules, club in hand, and at his feet a scroll representing the Emperor's two columns, with his motto, “Non plus ultra;” and under the shield this saying—“Fidelis amicus protectio fortis.”
The centre figure represented King Arthur in regal apparel, and at his feet a scroll, across which were three royal crowns, and beneath, eight verses in French, to this effect:—
“I am the famous King Arthur, come to behold you, valorous Princes; be welcome,” &c.
On the left hand was a man-at-arms in armour carrying a spear, and at his feet a scroll bearing the old arms of England, and beneath the motto—“Amicus fidelis est alter ego.”
Between this figure [of the man-at-arms] and King Arthur, was the red dragon (King Henry's badge) bearing the banner or arms of England.
Between King Arthur and Hercules was the black eagle bearing the banner with the Emperor's arms.
Beneath the verses about King Arthur was a gilt shield, and two hands, in each of which was a drawn sword, and a scroll round them inscribed with the words,—“Cui adhœreo prœest,” (fn. 25) which induced much comment.
In the vestibule were six gilt statues of kings, three on each side; and at the entrance, over the door of the theatre, there were also three statues, and in the centre the God of Love, with a scroll at his feet, thus—“Invent hominem secundum cor meum.”
On the right hand was a lansquenet carrying a scroll inscribed with the words—“Intus pax habitat; nos pro foribus vigilamus.”
On the left-hand was an English archer with his buckler, bearing the following motto:—“Qui violat pacem hinc procul abeat
Within the theatre, at the entrance, were the “old” arms of England and the imperial eagle, being placed in like manner all around, together with the two swords.
In this place, and in the fashion described, the banquet was to have been made, but the westerly wind hearing the report, and fearing it might be too hot in so enclosed a place, stripped off the covering and ceiling, and scattering the fire, the air, the sea, and the land, left the site for the spectators, I suppose, the ruin being so complete that for them alone was there any accommodation.
On the morning of Friday the 13th, after dinner, their Majesties prepared for departure, but there was so much delay and so many conferences, that after a great part of the Emperor's retinue and his baggage had been sent off he at length determined to stay, and the two sovereigns and their ministers sat in council to discuss their affairs.
Then, on Saturday the 14th of July, the Emperor at length departed, accompanied by the King of England and the royal retinue, as also by the ambassadors, in their usual place. Both the sovereigns wore doublets; the Emperor's was of silver and gold lama in triangles; the King of England wore cloth of gold. They rode dapple-grey horses, both with very smart (galanti) coverings of cloth of silver, with knots. Having ridden together four miles, when distant one mile from the site of the [first?] interview, they embraced each other, cap in hand, very lovingly, having first talked together face to face, and the King of England well nigh in the ear of the Emperor, who then shook hands with the ambassadors and the rest of the chief personages; after which, the ambassadors took leave of Madame Margaret, the Venetian ambassador Surian kissing her in the Flemish fashion; whereupon the Emperor returned to St. Omer, and the King of England came to Calais, and, together with his retinue and the ambassadors, crossed the Channel with the first fair weather.
[Italian.]
May 22. Sanuto Diaries, v. xxviii. p. 440. 51. Alvise Gradenigo, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Signort.
Consistory held for the affair of Martin Luther in Germany, and nothing determined. The matter postponed in order not to render the scandal greater than it was by showing that importance was attached to his errors.
Rome, 22nd May. Registered by Sanuto, 26th May.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1

The Venetian ambassador, Francesco Cornaro, records the second marriage of Germaine de Foix to John of Brandenburg, in date of Barcelona, 13 March 1519.

In Hall's Chronicle (p. 604, ed. London, 1809), there is a paragraph thus, “In his retinue with hym” (the Emperor) “were many noble menne, and many faire ladies of his bloud as princes and princesses, and one ladie as chief to be noted was the Princess Avinion” This last word may possibly be a misprint for “Aragon.”

John of Brandenburg died in Spain in July 1525, and at Seville, on the 5th May 1526, Germaine de Foix took for her third husband Ferdinand Duke of Calabria.

The foregoing notices, derived from the despatches of the Venetian ambassadors, serve to correct the biographical notice of Germaine de Foix in Bayle's Dictionary, chap. 69, p. 683, and following.

2 John of Brandenburg, the consort of Germaine de Foix.
3 “ And the Cardinall hymself was so elated that he thought hymself egall with the Kyng; and when he said masse he made Dukes and Erles to serve him of wyne with asay taken, and to hold the basson at the lavatories” (See Hall, p. 593). Sanuto shows that at banquets, as well as at mass, Cardinal Wolsey exacted the “assay.”
4 The Duke of Buckingham had three daughters, the Countess of Surrey, the Countess of Westmoreland, and Lady Abergavenny.
5 As already stated, Henry VIII. gave the right hand to Francis I., because the ground was English.
6 In the original “Pour il bagordo.” My translation of the word is derived from Hall s general account of the challenges.
7 From the general tenour of these notices it may be inferred that the twenty gentlemen were not seated at table, but stood behind the ladies like the “enamoured youths” at Canterbury.
8 As will be seen in date of Saturday 16th June, the sweetheart of Mons. de Montpezat bore the name of Browne,—probably Anne Browne. (See Hall, p. 595, and Rutland Papers, p. 38.)
9 “Per il Re Anglesc si portò bene.” The Mantuau ambassador does not payHenry VIII. any similar compliment.
10 Sir Weston Browne. (See Rutland Papers, p. 31.)
11 The bar was meant to represent a feller.(See Hall, p. 614.)
12 Lord Edmond Howard. (See Hall, p. 614, and Collins, vol. i. p. 84.)
13 If Francis I. received these injuries whilst tilting, they must have been inflicted by the spear of Sir Weston Browne; and the story of the horse's head-piece, was perhaps invented to save the King's credit as a jouster. From a variety of entries in Sanuto's Diaries, I gather that the particulars in this narrative, such at least as relate especially to England and the English, were derived from a journal kept by the Venetian secretary at the Court of Henry VIII., Lodovico Spinelli, whose account must be compared with that of the Mantuan ambassador, Soardino. The accomplished Anne Browne vindicates the beauty of the women of England, which Soardino disparaged; and her brother Weston was no less formidable a jouster than the Marquis of Saluzzo, whose prowess alone is vaunted by Soardino, to the exclusion of Henry VIII. and Sir Weston Browne.
14 “Così l'orso serè.”
15 See also Rutland Papers, p. 46.
16 See also Hall, p. 593.
17 The writer does not explain the mode of the performance of this ascent.
18 Qu. “scherzi”; i.e. sports or merrymaking.
19 The Venetian seems to have been writing at Calais.
20 “The Checker” (see Hall, p. 621).
21 “Staple Hall” (see Hall, p. 621).
22 “The Checker “(see Hall, p. 621).
23 The Venetian secretary's account of this banqueting house contains many particulars omitted by Hall, and which are not supplied by the Chronicle of Calais, pp. 29, 30.
24 Sedece faze.” In the Chronicle of Calais, “xvi. principals.”
25 According to Mezerai this inscription decorated the temporary palace at Guisnes.