Venice
August 1527

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Institute of Historical Research

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Rawdon Brown (editor)

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1871

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81-88

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'Venice: August 1527', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 4: 1527-1533 (1871), pp. 81-88. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=94573 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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August 1527

Aug. 1. Navagero Despatches, Cicogna Copy, in the Correr Museum.146. The Same to the Same.
The Emperor has sent a very bland letter to the Pope, announcing the mission of Mons. Migliau.
The Emperor is naturally slow, and in the present business he is very doubtful as to what he ought to do, it seeming to him on the one hand fair to release the Pope, whilst on the other hand he does not feel sure of securing his Holiness's friendship.
The French ambassadors went yesterday to Villalpando to see the most Christian King's sons.
Letters received today by several merchants from Lyons announce that Mons. de Lautrec has returned to the Court, because he does not choose to proceed into Italy with less than 25,000 Switzers.
Valladolid, 1st August 1527.
[Italian.]
Aug. 5. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlv. p. 457.147. Sebastian Giustinian to the Doge and Signory.
The most Christian King and Cardinal Wolsey are at Amiens, with much pomp and pageantry. The Cardinal said to Giustinian that the Signory had taken Ravenna, and that spoliation of the Church was not to be tolerated.
Amiens, 5th August. Registered by Sanuto, 18th August.
[Italian.]
Aug. 5. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlv. p. 457.148. Hironimo DA Canal, Secretary of the Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Prothonotary Fontana.
On the 28th ult., announced the departure of the King and court from Paris, and that they [Giustinian and Canal] were to follow, as they did, on the afternoon of Tuesday the 30th, travelling 16 long miles, and sleeping at Caserta (sic); the weather being very hot. On the 31st, rode upwards of 40 miles, in cold and rain, and dined at Clermont, a very fine castle, where the renowned Orlando alighted. Supped and slept at a small place called Bertual [Breteuil], and by reason of the crowd accompanying the Court, had rather bad accommodation in all the places aforesaid. Dined at Bertual on the 1st of August, and after a journey of 22 miles, entered Amiens three hours before sunset. The town is large, but built after the fashion of the country, as the houses are all of wood, and by reason of the concourse of French and English there is a scramble for quarters (“vi è una furia di allogiar”). They [the ambassador and secretary] are very well lodged, he (Canal) having a good chamber, with tapestries and ornaments; and the house has a garden. The proprietor and his wife withdraw into one single chamber, leaving them the rest of the house, where they have stabling for two mules and a horse; the rest being at a village beyond the town, there not being accommodation within for so many horses. Describes the position of Amiens; it is strong, and its streets are cleaner than those of Paris. The chief church, dedicated to the Virgin, is the most beautiful in France, although built merely of porous stone (“pietre di tuffo”); but the architecture, which it would require time to describe, is good, and the church contains many very beautiful Flemish pictures.
The King made his entry on the 3rd, without further ceremony, and was followed by his mother and the other ladies.
Yesterday, the 4th, his Majesty invited all the ambassadors, with the exception of the Legate Salviati, to accompany him in the afternoon to meet Cardinal Wolsey, and at 2 p.m. the King mounted on horseback. He was preceded by all his gentlemen, and a little in advance of him were the Princes and Lords of the kingdom. On a line with his Majesty to the left was the Queen of Navarre, and behind, the ambassadors; then came the whole of his Majesty's guard on horseback. The Switzers were on foot, to the right and left, on a line with the King, but they halted at the gate.
His Majesty proceeded upwards of a mile outside the town, the whole company being booted and in their doublets; and on espying the King, Cardinal Wolsey put his mule to her full speed, and raising his hat from his head, and also his coif, embraced him; his Majesty returning the salute, cap in hand. They remained a short while thus in conversation, the Cardinal in the course of the colloquy frequently doffing both one and the other, and the King with his hand endeavouring to make him put them on again.
Besides the other prelates, Cardinal Wolsey was accompanied by the Cardinals of Lorraine and Vendôme; and on arriving at Amiens, there were numerous discharges of artillery; the soldiers of the guard being scattered about, some with muskets, some with bows, and some with arbalasts. Within the town were some five stages, with representations of the union between the King of England and his Majesty, everybody being agreed on this point, namely, that the general peace should be accomplished, which the writer prays God to grant.
The King and Cardinal having neared their respective palaces, his Right Rev. Lordship insisted on accompanying his Majesty, which the King resisted, whereupon there was some little altercation. The King at length carried his point, and they proceeded towards the Cardinal's palace, and being midway in the street where it was situated, the Cardinal again made resistance cap in hand, and so many times that they were overmuch. His Majesty insisted on reaching the palace, and having arrived, the Cardinal besought permission to accompany him, which being denied, he put his mule to her speed for a good distance, in the direction of the royal palace, but his Majesty would not stir. Thereupon the Lord Steward (fn. 1) and other noblemen besought the Cardinal to desist, as the King would never stir from where he stood; so the Cardinal was compelled to return, and dismounting, went to his Majesty cap in hand, and stood awhile by his horse's side returning thanks for the very great honour done him. Then the King departed, and all went to their quarters.
Hopes this interview will prove to the great benefit of Christendom.
Amiens, 5th August. “Received on the 20th.” Registered by Sanuto, 18th August (sic).
[Italian.]
Aug. 17. Navagero Despatches, Cicogna Copy, in the Correr Museum.149. Andrea Navagero to the Signory.
On the day before yesterday the English ambassadors received a courier, who brought a short letter for the French, the most Christian King referring himself to his own courier, who was to be sent off in three days, by which opportunity they expect many advices and some decision.
They no longer speak with such great confidence of their hopes of peace, postponing everything until the arrival of the expected courier.
The Auditor [Ghinucci] has received letters from Cardinal Wolsey to go to him at Amiens for employment on some business of his; so he will depart post in two or three days.
The instructions for Mons. de Migliau have not yet been despatched, and he is still awaiting them at Barcelona. They are now being sent by the present messenger. Mons. de Migliau will be accompanied by the General of the Franciscans, who departed hence a few days ago for Barcelona. Has been told by the Nuncio that by this decision the Emperor charges the Viceroy to reinstate the Pope, and give him back everything as before the attack on Rome, and the greater his demonstration of goodwill towards the Pope the better will his Majesty be pleased. This the Viceroy is to effect with the greatest security possible, and therefore, being on the spot, everything is left to him. The result of this commission will be seen hereafter.
The plague at Valladolid having somewhat increased, the Emperor is going to a distance of seven or eight leagues hence, either to Palencia or some neighbouring place. He dismisses the rest of the Court to go where it pleases for a fortnight, and will then decide on returning hither or going elsewhere, according to circumstances.
Valladolid, 17th August 1527.
[Italian.]
Aug. 18. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlv. p. 466.150. The Duke of Milan to—.
Has received letters from France dated the 8th instant. The most Christian King had been at Amiens to confer with Cardinal Wolsey, and they had letters from Spain with news that the Emperor was sending M. de Migliau to Rome to release the Pope and the College of Cardinals, retaining possession of the territory as security.
Lodi, 18th August. Registered by Sanuto, 20th August.
[Italian.]
Aug. 18, 19. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 7.151. Hironimo da Canal to—.
(Private letter, seen by Marin Sanuto).
The female artisans and women servants of Amiens go about with purple caps on their heads, and in kirtles of the same colour, or black, in the priestly fashion, like those worn at Rome; so on seeing them he could never help laughing. Recommends his correspondent in like manner to laugh with their mutual friends at the new fashions witnessed.
On the 18th high mass was sung, the King and Cardinal Wolsey being present; and after the mass, in the presence of the ambassadors, they swore to the perpetual peace between his most Christian Majesty and the King of England. Hopes that the Cardinal will have come in a propitious hour.
On the 19th Cardinal Wolsey invited the most Christian King to dinner, together with the personages named hereafter, under the cloth of estate, which was of tissue. At the centre of the table the most Christian King sat, on whose right hand was his mother, “Madame,” and on his left, at a little distance, Cardinal Wolsey, beside whom was the King of Navarre. At the head of the table, to the left of Madame, and at a little distance, sat Madame Renée, sister of the late Queen of France, and by her side was the sister of the King of Navarre; then came the consort of Mons. de Vendôme, and two other ladies. The quantity of viands was stupendous. Cardinal Wolsey's attendants served cap in hand, and, when bringing the dishes, knelt before him in the act of presenting them. Those who waited on the most Christian King kept their caps on their heals, dispensing with such exaggerated ceremonies. The dinner lasted upwards of two hours. The King, after having been in council with Cardinal Wolsey and “Madame,” proceeded to fulfil a vow made to our Lady of Liansa (sic), from which place he will go to Compiegne, whither Cardinal Wolsey and the ambassadors will follow him, after remaining at Amiens a few days longer.
Amiens, 18th and 19th August. Registered by Sanuto, 3rd September.
[Italian.]
Aug. 19. Navagero Despatches, Cicogna Copy, in the Correr Museum.152. Andrea Navagero to the Signory.
The Auditor [Ghinueci], now departing for France, is the bearer of the present letter.
The French ambassadors are expecting the return of the courier despatched by them a long while ago. In conformity with the orders brought by him, they will negotiate the conclusion of the peace, of which the Emperor seems more desirous than ever.
The messenger with the commission for Mons. de Migliau and the General of the Franciscans, who are awaiting it at Barcelona, did not depart until yesterday.
Is assured by the Nuncio that the Emperor charges the Viceroy to restore the Pope not only to his freedom and station (dignità) as of yore, but also to his territory, not keeping either fortresses or hostages, or anything whatever, lest it be said that he does not enjoy his entire pristine liberty. It is certain that the Emperor expresses himself thus, and many believe him. He (Navagero) is rather sceptical on this point, by reason of various obstacles, but shall be glad to find himself deceived.
Although the plague continues, the Emperor has suspended his departure for Palencia because the Prince has the scarlet fever or small-pox; but as many of the great personages have departed, and very few remain, the danger here will be less, and the Emperor will perhaps stay where he is.
Valladolid, 19th August 1527.
[Italian.]
Aug. 20. Deliberazioni Senato (Secreta), File 7.153. The Doge and Senate to Sebastian Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France.
Have remarked the rather troubled tone in which Cardinal Wolsey spoke to him about the Signory's seizure of Ravenna. He (the ambassador) replied prudently and truthfully, but the Signory desire him to add that it was necessary to secure that city lest it should fall into the hands of the enemy.
Should Cardinal Wolsey or others speak to him again on the subject, he is to defend the Signory's proceedings; they are convinced that the indignation expressed by the Cardinal was instigated by malignants.
Concerning the matrimonial negotiation with England, should his opinion be asked as to whether it is more desirable for the Princess of England to marry the most Christian King, rather than his son, to reply that he wishes the alliance to take place with whichever of the two may prove most beneficial to the French Crown, not commending one mode more than the other, unless aware what is the wish of the most Christian King, to whom he is to defer throughout.
[Italian.]
Aug. 19. Mantuan Archives.154. Henry VIII. to Federico Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua.
Thinks that the motive whereby not only he (the King) but also all good princes have been moved to seek their self-defence, will have so roused him (the Marquis) to favour the public quiet, to extinguish the general and too contiguous conflagration, and to re-establish the ecclesiastical authority, that he will need no exhortations from any one to check this mischief before it spreads further. Will not, however, expatiate on the grief experienced by him (the King) for such unheard of enormity as the crime now perpetrated, to avoid aggravating his (the Marquis's) sorrow. Requests him solely to oppose to his utmost the barbarous fury of those most iniquitous men, and with his authority and power to countenance (tueri) and assist the party (partes) of the confederates to the utmost in this very important cause, which concerns the individual salvation (salus) and preservation of all men. His most Christian Majesty, and the King himself, by reason of their piety and duty, and of the faith (fidem) which they owe to God, have undertaken to give assistance, omitting nothing which can facilitate this determination, formed for universal tranquillity; and he (the King) entertains such hope, by reason of his fraternal affection for the Marquis, and on account of similar love reciprocated by him, that the King is convinced he will follow his counsels and exhortations; assuring the Marquis that happen what may (in omnem eventum), he (the King) will have at heart his personal conservation and that of his family and principality (status), as if it concerned his (the King's) own affairs. The Marquis will comprehend this more fully from the letters of Cardinal Wolsey, Legate a Latere, and from the statement of the Prothonotary Casal, to whom the King requests him to give entire credence.
Palace at Newhall (?) (fn. 2) 19th August 1527.
[Signed] Henricus Rex. [Countersigned] Petrus Vannes.
[Original, Latin.]
Aug. 21. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 21.155. Marco Antonio Venier to the Doge and Signory.
Sends the proposals of the French ambassador to the Emperor and the Emperor's reply.
London, 21st August. Registered by Sanuto, 6th September.
[Italian.]
Aug. 23. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 22.156. Camillo of Spilimberg to Michiel Barbarigo, son of the deceased Doge Agostino, in Venice.
The pageants performed here (in France) were few; the reason not known, unless it be the straights to which the most Christian King is reduced.
On Cardinal Wolsey's arrival at Calais, his Majesty sent the Cardinal of Lorraine to accompany him to Amiens, and at two leagues distance from that city the King in person, with his whole Court and the Burgesses of Amiens, met him; the horsemen 5,000 in number, their apparel and horses of the best. The King and Cardinal embraced, his Majesty expressing in the warmest terms the love he bore the Cardinal, and his yet greater affection for the King his Lord. The Legate Salviati and the Cardinal De Bourbon then placing the King and Cardinal Wolsey between them, proceeded together into the city by a wide street, decorated on either side with tapestries; and at length, on arriving near the lodging of Cardinal Wolsey, the King insisted on accompanying him thither. The Cardinal's lodging is extremely handsome, decorated throughout with cloth of silver tissue and brocade, and on the cloth of silver were the arms of St. Francis in cloth of gold; and each chamber had its cloth of estate.
When the Cardinal dismounted, the King departed immediately; and nothing more was done on that evening.
On the following morning, and for five consecutive days, they safe in council. Last Sunday the King and Cardinal Wolsey went to Our Lady's church here, in Amiens, and had mass sung with all possible solemnity, especially from the number of musicians, and, as was done in England, the parties swore to the peace between them on the termination of the Gospel; after which it was proclaimed to the trumpets' sound, and with great applause both from English and French. The mass being then finished, Cardinal Wolsey accompanied the King home, and then returned to his lodging, and kept the Legate Salviati, the Reverend Gambara, and many others to dine with him; after which the King invited Cardinal Wolsey to supper, and at the appointed hour his Majesty conducted the Cardinal in the unceremonious French fashion, and insisted that his right reverend Lordship should wash hands with him; whereupon the King seated himself at table between “Madame” [Louise], who was on his right hand, and the Cardinal, who sat to the left, and the three supped together without instrumental music and with but very little singing; nor were there any games nor any comedy, but plenty of such good fare as abounds in France.
Cardinal Wolsey then returned to his own lodging, and next morning invited the King and “Madame” to dinner, handsomer than the supper received by him; and he showed them more gold and silver than the King. And when the banquet was ended, his Majesty descended into the courtyard, where all the noblemen, his followers, were assembled, and mounted on horseback, “Madame” travelling in a litter covered with black velvet; Cardinal Wolsey likewise taking to horse, and accompanying them beyond the town; the King proceeding to the shrine of Our Lady of Compieta (sic), some 50 miles distant from Amiens; and thus ended the French pageants. Had I not anticipated something better, I should not have quitted my most noble Lord the ambassador.
Amiens, 23rd August. Registered by Sanuto, 9th September.
[Italian.]
Aug. 26. Commemoriale, v. xxi. p. 61.157. Commission (Sindicatus) (fn. 3) from Cardinal Wolsey, in the name of the King of England, to Sir Gregory Casal.
Henry VIII., King of England, having named him (Wolsey) his lieutenant, authorizing him to negotiate and conclude all leagues and conventions, and to delegate any person qualified (idoneam), he (Wolsey), relying fully on Sir Gregory Casal, Royal Councillor of his Majesty aforesaid, appoints him delegate; giving him authority to present himself to Alphonso, Duke of Ferrara, and to negotiate and conclude with him any league, convention, alliance, and protectorate whatever; and declaring that all matters concluded by Sir Gregory with Duke Alphonso will be ratified and confirmed by the King.
In testimony he (Wolsey) caused these his letters patent to be drawn up, signed, and authenticated by his pendent seal (“sigillique nostri jussimus appensione communiri”).
Dated in the City of Amiens, 26th August 1527.
[Signed] T. Carlis Ebor~. [Countersigned] Petrus Vannes.
[Original transcript, the document itself having apparently been exhibited by Sir Gregory Cased or his brother, the Prothonotary, to the Signory of Venice, who had it registered in the Commemoriale. Latin, 28 lines.]
Aug. 29. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 39.158. Sebastian Giustinian to the Doge and Signory.
Narrates conversations with Cardinal Wolsey and the members of the French Privy Council (consiglio Regio), who wish the Signory to pay the Lansquenets.
The King had not yet returned to Amiens. The news from Genoa had been received, much to the satisfaction of Cardinal Wolsey and of the members of the Privy Council.
They have sent to Spain to announce to the Emperor the peace made and proclaimed between England and France, expressing a wish that he should be a party to it.
Amiens, 29th August. Registered by Sanuto, 13th September.
[Italian.]
Aug. 31. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 3.159. Andrea Loredan, Venetian Bailiff and Captain of Crema, to—.
(Private letter seen by Marin Sanuto.)
Advices from France mention the hope of an adjustment between the Emperor and the most Christian King, through the interview between his aforesaid Majesty and Cardinal Wolsey. A considerable sum of money had arrived from England for payment of the Lansquenets, and the most Christian King despatched this money immediately to Mons. de Lautrec.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Anne de Montmorenci.
2 “Ex regia nostra apud Newhalam.”
3

Shakespeare, in King Henry VIII., Act III., Scene 2, alludes to this document thus:—

(Surrey) “Item, you sent a large commission,
To Gregory de Cassalis, to conclude
Without the King's will, or the State's allowance,
A league between his Highness and Ferrara,”