Venice
November 1612

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Institute of Historical Research

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Horatio F. Brown (editor)

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1905

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441-454

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'Venice: November 1612', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 12: 1610-1613 (1905), pp. 441-454. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=95711 Date accessed: 22 July 2014.


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November 1612

Nov. 2. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives.675. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The Secretary Ciorli is to go to the Court. He has just returned from England, and will report on the state of the negotiations for the match. Their Highnesses, learning that the Duke of Savoy is pushing ahead, have resolved to negotiate through the English Ambassador in Venice, to whom they have sent an agent.
Florence, 2nd November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 4. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Savoy. Venetian Archives.676. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
The negotiations for the English match hang fire a little; the chief difficulty being the question of the assignment of the dower; his Highness wishes to place it in Piedmont or Savoy, the King desires England or Holland. Gabaleone is coming here on this business.
Here the rumour of a rupture between England and Spain over Virginia grows daily.
Turin, 4th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 9. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.677. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I herewith enclose two letters, one from the second son of the Duke of Modena, the other from the Duke, his father. I have replied in the terms of the copy, also enclosed. These letters and the answers refer to the suggestion of a pension for the Prince and the permission to raise troops in the territory of Modena. The Ambassador believes six thousand crowns a year would satisfy the Prince; that is the half of what the Republic gave to Vaudemont. He strongly urges an understanding with Modena and Mantua.
London, 9th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 9. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.678. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On the second of this month I received the despatches of the fifth of October. I sought audience, and was received with those honours which the King is wont to show to your servant; he kept me in conversation for nearly two hours. I began by congratulating him on the safe arrival of the Palatine, who came with a great suite and much pomp, as I shall report later on. The Palatine has surpassed expectation, which, on the King's part, was not great. The Elector professed eternal attachment and submission, and the King declared that he received him as a son. He was pleased that your Serenity had announced your succession to the Palatine. I then went on to thank his Majesty for the honours shown me. I then touched on the Uscocks. His Majesty listened as to something he knew already. He renewed his offers, and talked slightingly of the House of Austria, which, he said, had hardly any other forces than those of Spain; Gratz and Innsbruck were poor, so also those of Germany, the Archduke (meaning Flanders) was in a way a mere governor, and had no states of his own, the Emperor was a pauper. He said that the Republic on the other hand was strong in money and men and had God on its side. He then went on to talk of Brandenburg and the issue of the second Imperial ban. He wished that Neuburg would show the same spirit as Brandenburg. He has endeavoured to have the question referred to himself; but Saxony is featherbrained and puffed up, full of false views; a man who at the Imperial Election deserted the lay electors to stand for Albert and Spain; while his brother lived he did nothing but hunt; now he does nothing but drink; he is sure to die soon. All this the King expressed with considerable movement of his person and still more of his spirit. Saxony is devoted to Spain and so they will be forced to return to the state of two years ago, which he appeared to be unwilling to do, that is to a union of France, the United Provinces and the Confederates of Hall. When I asked if France was so far forward he replied that it could not be better, for recently the Queen had openly announced that if Saxony would not listen to reason she would stand in with England, the Provinces and the Confederates on behalf of the two “possessioners”; the Queen herself has sent a copy of this statement to his Majesty. He said France was doing all she could to show she had nothing in common with Spain; then seeing that I was paying close attention he added “If you wish me to tell you what I really think about France it is this, I believe that all the better sort are very adverse to Spain. The Queen and Villeroy you know by experience.” As to Savoy some of the Duke's party have been arrested in Geneva and put to death. I asked if the Duke were not bound to abstain; the King replied “yes,” but that the Duke would plead that the obligation is not binding until the match has been concluded. If the Duke desired to break away from Spain he might do so without alarm, as on the one side there would be the English, on the other the Venetians, the States, the Swiss and the Confederates, besides more than one Italian Prince, so he would have more support than he could get from Spain. He asked if your Excellencies' frontier was near the Duke's; I said about forty or fifty miles away.
London, 9th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 9. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.679. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Talking of the Duke of Saxony the King said he was won over when in Rome by Pope Clement VIII, a Pontiff whom he praised. He also made some remarks unfavourable to the zeal of the French Ambassador in Constantinople for the establishment of the Jesuits, whom he called seditious and a rock of offence.
London, 9th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 9. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.680. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
At Dover were two ships belonging to the Elector Palatine, and a personage of importance who was on board, took post to go to the King. A few hours later, the wind having freshened, his Highness entered the Thames with three ships of war belonging to the Dutch, and some smaller vessels, in all, eleven. He landed at Gravesend, where the Duke of Lennox and a large company of gentlemen in the royal barges and others had gone to meet him, and so all the preparations made in various places nearer to the sea were rendered useless. His Highness rested two days and on Sunday week set out for London. He was accompanied by about one hundred and fifty boats of various kinds, and the nearer he came to London the denser grew the throng. He passed straight to Whitehall (Vintal), a royal palace, and was saluted on his way by upwards of two hundred guns from the Tower of London, as well as by an infinity of salutes from the shipping, with which the river was full. The reverberating blare of trumpets, drums and other warlike music was immense; the echo of the cannon, the smoke, and the cheers with which he was saluted made a vast confusion. He found his Majesty in the Great Hall where they hold their barriers, their dances and so on. The Queen was with him on a daïs raised up ten steps, which is unusual, and under a baldachino of gold brocade. The Prince, Princess and Duke of York stood by. The guard were all in rich dresses of velvet and gold; the Hall was thronged with Lords and Ladies in the richest robes and laden with jewels; a display that this kingdom could not excel, nor was its like seen even at the coming of the King of Denmark. The Palatine was preceded by a number of gentlemen who had gone to meet him; then came his gentlemen all in gala dress; then came thirty-six Barons and gentlemen who hold fiefs, who were in his train; finally eight counts, among them three of the House of Nassau, and one brother of Prince Maurice, Prince Henry, who has in his own private suite above sixty persons, between gentlemen and servants. The Duke of Lennox walked with Prince Henry and all preceded the Palatine. When he had made his reverences at the due distances he mounted the steps and was embraced by the King, whereupon he made a profound reverence with great humility and grace and offered himself in the very terms I have reported. The King was extremely pleased, all the more so as he had been in some doubt, and tenderly embracing him he said he took him for his son, as such he desired and as such he would treat him. The Palatine then paid his respects to the Queen, who looked favourably on him, and then after two bows he approached the Princess and boldly kissed her; the King look on approvingly at the spirit and grace with which this was done, and at the blush which suffused the Princess' face and enhanced her beauty. Then after fulfilling his devoirs to the Princes and having stayed as long as he thought suitable, he withdrew to the lodging prepared for him, leaving a most excellent impression behind him in all the Court, on their Majesties and above all on the Princess.
That evening I sent my Secretary to present my compliments. He found the house so handsomely furnished, the crowd so great, and the pomp so magnificent that he was amazed. He discharged his mission satisfactorily and the Palatine replied in suitable terms. The day following he again visited the King and Queen, and saw the Princess separately in her apartments. He kissed her for the second time, and made advances in the general favour. He is very handsome, of pleasant speech, with a French accent, as he was brought up at Sedan along with his uncle de Bouillon. He changes his dress every day, and one is richer than another. All the gentlemen he has with him are covered with gold, chains and jewels. He has fifty pages and grooms in crimson velvet liveries embroidered with gold, silver-brocade doublets, and each gentleman of his suite has his own livery. The English gentlemen vie with these, and so the whole city is full of animation. Three days ago he entered on his appartment in the Palace to the universal satisfaction. He is frequently with the Princess, with whom he is now very familiar. He speaks French to her and to every one else, and knows the language excellently well, as does the King and the rest of the royal family sufficiently. Since his arrival hardly any other language has been used at Court, as it is the language of all his suite. The Princess, who maybe begins to feel the warmth of the approaching nuptials, adorns her great natural beauty by dress and embellishments. She is preparing a sumptuous ballet of sixteen maidens, of whom she will be one; it is to cost twelve thousand crowns. They are also preparing barriers, tourneys, and jousts. These will go on till Easter, when the marriage is to take place, and the Elector will set out with the Princess. The six hundred thousand crowns destined for these fetes have grown to a million, and those who know say that even this will not suffice.
The Dutch Envoy, who has just received a large donation from his Masters, has made new liveries and new suits, and frequents the audiences at Court. The Flemish Ambassador also is awaiting assistance towards his expenses, which has been promised him. France and Spain, too, have received assistance. I am constrained to lament that my private fortune is not such as to permit me to compete with them, as they have their Masters' purses behind them. I will, however, do my best, and my remarks are merely to express my duty, so that either a resolution may be passed to assist me, or that I may be pardoned for the nature of the efforts I shall be forced to make.
London, 9th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 10. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives.681. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
A ship has arrived in Leghorn from London with lead, spices and quantities of cloth.
Florence, 10th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 14. Collegio, Secreta, Esposizioni Roma. Venetian Archives.682. The Spanish Ambassador having demanded the release of Georgio Cardosa, received a reply by resolution of the Senate. He came to the Cabinet again to complain and to press his demand. He cited the precedent of Castelvetro, released from the Inquisition at the request of the English Ambassador within six hours, whereas he had now asked in vain three times for a similar favour in the case of Cardosa, his servant, innocent, and any way accused of a slighter offence than Castelvetro, who was a relapsed heretic, condemned by the Inquisition. The Ambassador lamented that the popular voice charges him with designs to murder Senators and with keeping powder in his house to blow up buildings.
[Italian.]
Nov. 15. Minutes of the Senate, Roma. Venetian Archives.683. To the Ambassador in Rome.
The Council of Ten some days ago ordered the arrest of Georgio Cardosa; the Spanish Ambassador complained on the ground that Cardosa was a Spanish subject in service of the Embassy, and claimed his release. We pointed out that Cardosa had come to Venice seventeen years ago from Fez with jewels, and had settled in the city and married; therefore it cannot be urged that his arrest is an offence to his Majesty or to his Ambassador. The Ambassador was not satisfied; he continued to talk in an excited manner. He quoted the case of Castelvetro. We pointed out the difference between the cases. We send you this for your information should the case be mentioned at the Court where you reside.
Similar to Germany, France, England, Savoy, Milan, Florence, Naples.
Ayes 6.
Noes 1.
Neutrals 51.
To this the following amendment was moved: The Ambassador will receive a copy of the report of the Ten on the case, and will make use thereof if prejudicial rumours are spread abroad; and will dwell on the conduct of the Spanish Ambassador here in giving shelter to bravi and bandits.
Ayes 105.
Nov. 16. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.684. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Spinola on his return from Germany has been to Marimont, where he reported to his Highness on his negotiations with the Emperor about the election of the King of the Romans, the dismantling of Mühlheim, the claims of Saxony, and arming against the Turk. As to the election the Emperor is well disposed, and it may take place in the diet to be held in May. As to Muhlheim he has obtained what he wanted after some difficulty, and on the absolute promise that obedience to the Imperial ban would be exacted by the arms of Spain and Flanders. Saxony is resolved to support his claims on Cleves. As to the muster of troops there is great opposition among the larger number of German Princes and alarm among the Protestants lest the forces of Spain and the Empire may be turned against them. The moment the two “possessioners” received the second Imperial ban ordering the immediate suspension of the works on Mühlheim and the dismantling of the fortress within a month, they sent off fresh agents to lay their case before the Emperor; as Mühlheim is already in a state to defend itself, they have suspended further works, which were of little moment. They show small disposition to dismantle the place, and if they don't, both Brandenburg and Neuburg will be placed under Imperial ban. Both those Princes are resolved not to admit Saxony to the possession of Cleves. Both points threaten to lead to war, as both sides are heated and both have strong support. On Sunday, the 10th, the Ambassador of Brandenburg had a long interview with the King, who assured him that he would support the two Princes if Saxony would not come to an amicable arrangement. The Ambassador wants the King to threaten immediate war, as mild terms only make the Duke more haughty. He urges that to escape the rain they are jumping into the water.
News from the Hague of the 5th, that money to pay the French regiments has arrived. The Spanish have again raised the question of peace; they offer to renew the declarations as to “sovereignty” and religion in the amplest form and even to go further. The States will not hear of peace; they desire to enjoy the truce until such time as the King of France shall be of age and this Prince, who is martial in spirit, shall have grown up. The Dutch keep all their forces, little less than thirty thousand foot and three thousand horse, ready. Within a month the vessels destined for the Indies will start.
While the Elector was passing down the Rhine, near to a Spanish fortress, on the pretext of saluting him several guns were fired, one of which was shotted and killed two of his suite close by him. Although they sent to apologise, laying the blame on the gunner's carelessness, still some natural resentment survives. I visited the Palatine the day I sent my last despatch. He came to meet me, gave me the right hand and at several doors compelled me to take the pas. On my leaving he came down several steps. Prince Henry, brother of Prince Maurice, has done all he could to wait on me first, but I would not depart from ordinary practice, and yesterday morning as I was going to visit him I met him coming to visit me. There is also in the Palatine's suite, Prince John of Nassau, who is married to the daughter of the Duke of Wirtemberg. All the ambassadors have visited the Elector. His Majesty received the Dutch Ambassador in the morning and the Flemish Ambassador in the afternoon of the same day. This has given rise to discussion. In order to end the great expenses to which they are now put, it is thought that the nuptials will take place at Epiphany. Over and above the preparations for barriers, tourneys and ballets the four Colleges (fn. 1) in which are five hundred of the wealthiest gentlemen of this Kingdom, are, in obedience to the Prince's orders and at great expense, preparing jousts, banquets, liveries and other sumptuous entertainments.
London, 16th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in preceding despatch.685. Letter from the Sultan to the Dutch.
Refers to the Embassy of Cornelius Haga and the letters he brought, begging for the grant of capitulations such as have been granted to other Sovereigns. These capitulations have been conceded to the Dutch. Dutch slaves are to be set free. The custom of the City is that the port is open to all comers, but especially to those who come in friendship. The Dutch to be admitted on the same footing as England and France.
June 1st, 1612.
Nov. 16. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.686. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On the King's arrival in London four Commissioners were added to the three appointed to prepare the answer to Savoy; then three more were named. On Tuesday, the 5th of this month, all ten met to come to some resolution; but the Prince sent to implore the King to defer the matter to another day, as he was not feeling very well. His Majesty agreed. The Prince then went to bed. The French have done all they can to upset this marriage, fearing, and perhaps with reason, that it might possibly serve to bring, eventually, the Crowns of England and Spain together, which would be equivalent to surrounding France entirely. The warlike ideas of the Duke and of the Prince of Wales have led the French to propose the second sister of the King of France with a dower of five hundred thousand crowns to be paid half at once and the rest when the Princess is ten years old, at which age she will come over to England to be brought up at Court; not a word was said about religion or the Catholic rite. These steps have given the members of the Council a great deal to think of and have aroused discussion wherever they were known. As the Queen of France is known to be zealous for her faith, it is thought that these proposals are merely intended to secure for two years the friendship of England at the cost of two hundred and fifty thousand crowns. The Agents of Savoy are pressing for an answer. On Sunday, the 11th, Gabaleone had a very favourable interview with the King.
For the last four days it seems that the Prince's sickness has been growing worse and is becoming dangerous. They have bled him twice in the arm and once in the shoulder; the day before yesterday they cut his hair. As I write I learn from a person I sent to enquire, that after midday he has grown much worse. If he recovers he will be married in a few months, not in France or Spain, but in Germany or Savoy, and to a grown woman, so that he may soon become both husband and father and secure the succession to this Crown.
London, 16th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 16. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.687. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
During last night the Prince grew mortally ill; and this morning for an hour and a half he lay as one dead, so that all the city thought him gone. On his coming to they gave him a medicine which made him weaker by throwing him into a sweat, though it cleared up his spirits and his intelligence. None the less the doctors think his case is desperate. The Queen has left his chamber and the King is gone to Theobalds. It is thought they cannot bear the spectacle of the Prince their son dead before their eyes; while the King thinks the solitude of the country more fitting for grief and tears than the bustle of London and the Court. Pray God help the Prince, this kingdom, and all who wish it well.
London, 16th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17. Senato, Secreta. Despatches rom Savoy. Venetian Archives.688. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
Spain is doing all she can to prevent the English match, all the more so as matters between England and Spain are very strained.
Turin, 17th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives.689. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
At Leghorn two ships have arrived, one an Englishman from Muscovy with a cargo, for the most part, of hides.
Florence, 17th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.690. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Prince died two hours after midnight. He has fallen when at the very flower of his high hopes. News was at once sent to the King and Queen by the Lords of Council, who are by the corpse, bewailing the common loss. The succession to this Crown now rests on one single child of ten years, the Duke of York, though it is true that the law does not exclude the Princess. This death will certainly cause great changes in the course of the world. The foes of this kingdom are freed from a grave apprehension, the friends are deprived of a high hope. His Highness had remarkable decision of character and had acquired weight; he was nearer to taking action than many thought. It has fallen to my lot to be present at the death of Henry of France and now of this other Henry, Prince of Great Britain, his peer in greatness, magnanimity, valour, and devotion to your Excellencies; the only difference was their age; nor can I do aught else than follow his bier with useless tears, with temporal mourning in my dress and sempiternal dolour in my breast.
I send your Excellencies this bitter news with all the speed it merits. In such grief as this will bring you I can think of no other words of comfort save that the King still lives.
London, 17th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in preceding despatch.691. The Report of the Autopsy on the Prince. (fn. 2)
Signed by the Grand Master Henry, chief Physician to the King, John Hammond (Admond), Richard Palmer, John Gifford, William (Balliam) Butler (Buller).
Nov. 23. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.692. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The King received the news of the Prince's death at Theobalds; it affected him greatly and made of the happiest the saddest father in the world. He, however, displays his wonted courage and has begun to attend to affairs. The Queen's life has been in the greatest danger owing to her grief. She will receive no visits nor allow anyone in her room, from which she does not stir, nor does she cease crying. The Princess has gone two days without food and cries incessantly. The Elector Palatine does not know what to do; he is quite upset at finding himself here at such an unpropitious and lamentable juncture. The Duke of York, now known as Prince Charles, shows a grief beyond his years. And so the nuptial festivities of this house are turned to mournful trappings.
The Prince's sickness was a continuous fever, with violent and malignant crises of double tertian; rushes of moisture and blood to the head. It is the same sickness that twenty years ago swept the army at Rouen. His Highness only yielded to the sickness of necessity and took to his bed quite unexpectedly. Among the doctors, who attended in great number, it seems no one diagnosed the disease correctly save a Frenchman (fn. 3) in the King's favour. They administered antidotes, bled the Prince on the arm and the shoulder, but later and less copiously than the case required, and hence his death. They shaved his hair and applied violent remedies to relieve him of an excessive pain in the head accompanied by delirium. He bled twice from the nose, nor was this effort of nature to find relief of any efficacy in teaching the doctors, who held it for a sympton of moisture, not blood in the head. His Highness took all his medicines and obeyed the orders of his medical attendants, and through the whole course of his sickness and death he showed himself ever intrepid. He caused many papers and notes given him by others to be burned. (fn. 4) Two days before he took to his bed he wished to hear a preacher, (fn. 5) who took for his text “Man that is born of woman is of short continuance and full of trouble,” and preached a sermon precisely as though he had known what was going to happen.
The day that Council was to come to a decision about the reply to Savoy the Prince had prepared many reasons for rejecting it, but at that very moment his sickness took hold on him, and he was forced to retire to his chamber, from which he never issued again. He had intended to go to Germany on the plea of accompanying his sister, so as to see that country, but higher aims moved him which he kept to himself and a very few of his confidants. He was athirst for glory if ever any prince was. He lent fire to the King in the affairs of Germany, and aspired to be head of the confederate princes who include fourteen of the Hanseatic towns. Many predictions centred round his person, and he seemed marked out for great events. His whole talk was of arms and war. His authority was great, and he was obeyed and lauded by the military party. He protected the colony of Virginia, and under his auspices the ships sailed for the north-west passage to the Indies. He had begun to put the navy in order and raised the number of sailors. He was hostile to Spain and had claims in France. He would not suffer the Pope to be ill spoken of, and in his familiar conversation he declared that he admired him as a prince. His designs were vast; his temper was grave, severe, reserved, brief in speech. His household was but little inferior to the King's and kept in excellent order. He had few equals in the handling of arms, be it on horse or on foot; in fine all the hopes of these kingdoms were built on his high qualities. Before his death he said little: his last words were when he begged the Archbishop of Canterbury and others who were praying in his chamber to speak louder. He lay with his hands folded, and being asked as he lay there all but motionless if he would give a sign that he commended himself to God, he moved and slightly raised both hands. Towards the end when the doctors told him to commend himself to the Divine Majesty, the true physician who treats by remedies immortal, he replied that they need not doubt of this, but that they ought to make still an effort to save him. Two days before he died a gentleman of his chamber was sharply rebuked for having told the Prince to think on God and on death; the Prince rebuked the rebukers, declaring that such discourse could not be displeasing to any. The funeral will be at the beginning of next month. Orders have been given already; yesterday all the Court was in mourning, and between to-day and to-morrow all the Ambassadors will also be. The King has distributed fifty thousand crowns among the Prince's household. Yesterday the Chamberlain presented the list of Gentlemen of the Chamber, who, as he told me, number three hundred and fifteen. All are here at present, having been summoned for the coming of the Palatine. The gentlemen of the household number one hundred and two. All will follow the bier on foot, besides an infinite number of Nobles, Earls, Barons, Councillors.
London, 23rd November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 23. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.693. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Yesterday week I went to visit Prince Charles, Duke of York. He asked me who is the King of Spain's Commander-in-Chief in Italy, what I thought of the fleet which his Catholic Majesty was preparing, and for what purpose I imagined that it was intended. I replied that, as far as I knew, there was no Spanish Commander-in-Chief in Italy at present, and that rumour said that the fleet was destined for the Indies. He said very quietly that perhaps the destination lay nearer home, and that he knew there was an idea of creating the Prince of Piedmont Generalissimo. He then spoke to me of Venice, its site, and of the desire he had to visit it some day. He enquired how your Serenity was and how your Excellencies stood with the Pope and with Spain. I replied that his Highness could not go to any place where he would be better received for the love that is borne to his person and his Royal House; that it was well between your Excellencies and the Pope and Spain; and that you were sure of his support on all occasions. This I said knowing that it would please the Duke.
The Ambassador of Brandenburg took leave of the King two days before the Prince died. Two days after that he visited me to take his leave, and he departed the day before yesterday. He told me in all confidence that he was taking to his Master most explicit promises from the King that he would assist Brandenburg with arms if Saxony did not change his attitude; his Majesty has sent strongly-worded letters on the subject.
Three days ago the Palatine sent one of his suite to say that presently some of his Council would wait on me to make up in a certain measure for the tardiness of his own visit, the result of the Prince's death. They came and assured me that as soon as the universal sorrow and confusion were abated he would call on me. The Palatine has been with the King for a short time a few miles out of London, and to-morrow his Majesty will be here.
There is a doubt in many minds whether it is expedient to allow the Princess to leave England, now that there is only the Duke of York remaining. All that can be affirmed is that the King loves the Elector, and is resolved that the marriage shall go forward.
London, 23rd November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 24. Collegio, Lettere, Venetian Archives.694. To the Rectors of Padua.
The Ambassador Foscarini, resident in England, writes to us that there has arrived in Padua to take the baths the Earl of Arundel, a gentleman of great rank, nephew of the Earl of Northampton, one of the King's chief ministers. Foscarini says that any favour shown to him will be appreciated. You are to send some officer of your household to wait on him and to offer our services whenever he may require them.
Ayes 18
Noes 0.
Neutrals 0.
[Italian.]
Nov. 25. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Padua. Venetian Archives.695. The Rectors of Padua to the Doge and Senate.
Received orders about the Earl of Arundel. We found that he was lodging in a house he took near il Santo, and which he keeps for his purge; but he is at present in Venice. We have not been able to find out where he is lodged in that city. We shall await his return to carry out our orders.
Padua, 25th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 27. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.696. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
News of the death of the Prince of Wales received. It has been received in various ways. The Huguenots are grieved, as they built their hopes on the Prince, and had already chosen him as their chief support and head; others reckon this death among the good fortunes of France.
Paris, 27th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 27. Original Despatch. Venetian Archives.697. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Don Pedro di Zuñiga has passed through here incognito, on his way from England to Spain.
Paris, 27th November, 1612.
[Italian.]
Nov. 30. Original Despatch. Venetian Archives.698. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The King has resolved to summon Parliament for January, to postpone the wedding till May, and has fixed the seventh of next month, that is the seventeenth, new style, for the funeral of the Prince. Parliament will be occupied with many important points which are maturing in the King's mind and that of his adviser.
The nuptials will be celebrated in great state and at a great cost. They are delayed for that very purpose and to give the Ambassadors time to change their festal robes into mourning for the Prince. The Council has discussed the question whether in view of the Prince's death, the marriage of the Princess should take place. They decided in the affirmative, and the King told the Palatine that when she is his wife he can take her where he likes. This has consoled him greatly in the midst of hostile rumours. The King has decided that Prince Charles shall leave St. James' Palace and settle in the Royal Palace; that for some time he is not to have a household, nor is there any talk of making him Prince of Wales; the Prince has, accordingly, moved into the Palace at Westminster, to an apartment near to the King's. He is seldom to be seen, and continues his studies; he is very popular and amiable with everybody, he is alive to his increased importance; his health is excellent and he is twelve years of age, but so slight and so gentle that, in truth, he hardly shows them; those who wish well to this Crown would fain see him stronger. The servants of the late Prince have petitioned the King to be admitted, each one to his post, when Prince Charles sets up a household, and in the meantime they beg for some support. The King has taken some into his own service, pensioned others and consoled the rest with fair speeches and promises.
The ships destined for Virginia will set out. I hear of the safe arrival eight miles from London of a very rich ship from those parts. It is too soon to note the effect of the Prince's death on other Sovreigns. Late yesterday a courier arrived from France at the French Embassy. The Spanish are now much more haughty. Those who feared the Prince call his natural death a miracle. The Spanish Ambassador says that the affairs of Germany will now change their aspect. Owing to the Prince's death the Ambassador of Brandenburg has carried off nothing “between his two dishes,” so the Spanish Ambassador says. Talking of the possible marriage of Prince Charles to the second Infanta he said that the children of his Sovreign cannot marry heretics; and that he, though a simple gentleman, would never give either sister or daughter to a heretic Prince. On the other hand these gentlemen have shown a high spirit and they say there is no need for the King to think of a Spanish woman. The Ambassador, too, who had audience of the Council on the subject of some Spanish ships plundered by the English, hoped for a favourable reply, but instead got mere words. Letters from Holland bring news that the King of Morocco has defeated his foe and is now sole King. If true, this is a considerable blow to Spain. It has been discovered that the late Prince had secret correspondence in France with Princes of the blood and others, unknown to the King, his father; and that the papers he caused to be burned before his death contained this correspondence and other matters, and therefore the details and the persons will, for the most part, remain hidden. (Si è scoperto che il principe defunto haveva secrcta corrispondenza in Franza con quelli del Sangue et altri, senza saputa del Rè suo Padre, et le scritture che fece abbrugiar inanti la sua morte contenevano questa et altre trattationi; onde li particolari et le persone resterano in gran parte occulti.)
His Highness was so secret that he kept everything entirely to himself. He listened to all, but conferred with none. With a high conception of himself he reached all his decisions alone. He desired all his correspondence to be burned to save from danger those whom death prevented him from rewarding. He had prepared presents and proposals to be made to Prince Maurice when accompanying his sister through Holland to Germany. It is certain that he was in correspondence with Prince Maurice, whom he esteemed above all others. The sudden change in his mind about the Savoy match, which he originally desired, is supposed to have been due to the advice of Count Henry, who is here, acting under the influence of his brother.
Beyond all doubt the ideas which he received and embraced were vast. Finding himself master of many places in the Principality of Wales and the Duchy of Cornwall, eight days before his death he gave orders for the sale of some which would have brought him in more than four hundred thousand crowns; this he intended to employ upon his journey, wherein he designed to be accompanied by an almost infinite number of young nobles. (Era sua Altezza talmente secreta che teneva tutto in se medesimo, ascoltava ogn' uno, non conferira a persona, pretendendo molto da se stesso, risolveva sola. Al suo morire disse voler tutte le sue scritture brucciate, per assicurar dal pericolo quelli che le impediva la morte da premiare; haveva preparato presenti, propositioni et risposte da fare al Conte Mauritio nel passar per Olanda ad accompagnar la Principessa sua sorella in Germania; è certa cosa tenesse trattationi col detto Maurito, da lui stimato sopra ogn' altro, et la mutatione nota nel suo animo quasi in un momento nell' aborrire il matrimonio con Savoia, prima desiderato, credesi sia stato consiglio del conte Arrigo, che si trova qui, impresso dal fratello; et grandissimi eran senza dubio i concetti soministrati et abbracciati da sua Altezza, che trovando di esser padrone di despor di molti luoghi nel Prencipato di Vuaglia et Ducato di Cornubia, otto giorni inanti la sua morte haveva ordinato se ne dovesse far vendita che harrebbe importato più de m/400 scudi de quali dissegnava valersi nel camino et suponeva haver seguito di un numero quasi infinito di nobiltà giovane.)
No Ambassador has as yet had audience of their Majesties. I have sent to pay my respects to the King, who said he was sure of the affection of the Republic. The first Ambassadors he will see will be those of France and of your Serenity. I have also sent to present my duty to the Queen, the Prince and Princess, by my Secretary, who has discharged the task satisfactorily as usual. I shall put myself, my carriage and my suite into mourning.
London, 30th November, 1612.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The Inns of Court.
2 The Report is printed in Birch. “Life of Henry Prince of Wales,” p. 359. The signatures there given are T. Mayerne, Henry Atkyns, John Hammond, Richard Palmer, John Gifford, William Butler.
3 Dr. Theodore Mayerne. Dr. Butler is stated to have “mistaken the beginning of his Highness' illness.” He himself said “he could not tell what to make of the distemper.” See Birch, op. cit., p. 341.
4 Birch, op. oit., p. 355. He told Sir David Murray to burn “a number of letters in a certain cabinet in his closet; which presently after his death was done.”
5 Mr. Wilkinson, who preached from Job xiv. 1.