Venice
December 1612

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Horatio F. Brown (editor)

Year published

1905

Pages

455-471

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: December 1612', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 12: 1610-1613 (1905), pp. 455-471. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=95712 Date accessed: 21 September 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

December 1612

Dec. 1. Senato. Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives.699. Domenico Domenici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Two Couriers have arrived from England recently. They were sent by Lotti and bring information on the Savoyard negotiations, in which the Duke is employing Wotton and making large offers of dower. Lotti says that if the Grand Duke will raise his offer there is a chance of the match coming off. The Grand Duke is thinking of sending Don Giovanni de' Medici expressly to England.
Florence, the first of December, 1612.
[Italian.]
Dec. 1. Minutes of the Senate. Venetian Archives.700. To the Rectors in Padua.
We have heard to-day from our Ambassador Foscarini that the Prince of England is dead after a few days' illness. You are to make a suitable statement of our sorrow to the English Ambassador, who is in Padua. You are to report what you have done.
Ayes 166.
Noes 1.
Neutrals 1.
[Italian.]
Dec. 2. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Padua. Venetian Archives.701. The Rectors of Padua to the Doge and Senate.
We have enquired whether the English Ambassador is still in Padua; we are informed that his Excellency has left and is in Venice. Madame, his consort, is leaving this morning for Venice.
Padua, 2nd December, 1612.
[Italian.]
Dec. 2. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Padua. Venetian Archives.702. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
On Wednesday, the 28th, an express arrived from England, sent by Sir Henry Wotton and Gabaleone, announcing the death of Prince Henry. The Court and his Highness were greatly concerned. The day following a council was held which lasted many hours. Prince Tommaso is ill of a fever very like that which carried off the Prince of Wales. The Duke let fall some expressions which show that he doubts whether the Prince died a natural death.
Turin, 2nd December, 1612.
[Italian.]
Dec. 3. Collegio, Secreta. Lettere. Venetian Archives.703. As the Rectors of Padua have been unable to carry out our orders to condole with the English Ambassador, owing to his departure from Padua, motion is now made that the white balls shall mean that these condolences are to be presented here by two Savii of the Cabinet, the green balls that they are to be presented by a Secretary, the red balls are neutral.
White 16.
Green 3.
Red 1.
The Doge then nominated Ser Alvise Foscarini and Ser Piero Contarini to carry out the task.
[Italian.]
Dec. 7. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi, Venetian Archives.704. The Secretary of the English Ambassador came to the Cabinet and spoke as follows:
On the orders of the King, who has returned to London, congratulations on the Doge's accession are renewed. The Ambassador returned from Padua on purpose to carry out these orders, but the death of the Prince of Wales, about which he is awaiting fuller information from England, prevents him from fulfilling this duty in person. He has, therefore, sent me to present his excuses, and to offer congratulations and to hand you his Majesty's letter.
[Italian.]
Dec. 7. Minutes of the Senate. Venetian Archives.705. To the King of Great Britain.
Letter of condolence on the death of Prince Henry.
Ayes 148.
Noes 1.
Neutrals 2.
Dec. 7. Minutes of the Senate, Venetian Archives.706. To the Queen of Great Britain.
Letter of condolence on the death of Prince Henry.
Ayes 148.
Noes 1.
Neutrals 2.
Dec. 7. Minutes of the Senate, Venetian Archives.707. To the Duke of York.
Letter of condolence on the death of Prince Henry.
Ayes 148.
Noes 1.
Neutrals 2.
This letter was sent in duplicate, one addressed with the title of Duke, the other with the title of Prince.
[Italian.]
Dec. 7. Minutes of the Senate, Venetian Archives.708. To the Ambassador in England.
We have received your despatches of the 17th of last month, informing us of the death of the Prince of Wales. We at once sent to condole with his Majesty's Ambassador here resident, who was at Padua. When our orders reached Padua the Ambassador had already left. We therefore resolved to send two Savii of the Cabinet to his residence here to condole; which was done.
We feel sure that by the time you receive this, you will have already offered due condolences, still we charge you to renew them expressly in our name in accordance with the terms of the letters we send you and which you are to present. The letter to the Duke of York is in duplicate; you will present the one with the title you know to be correct.
Ayes 148.
Noes 1.
Neutrals 2.
[Italian.]
Dec. 7. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.709. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The death of the Count of Soissons will mean the quiet of France there remains however the Duke of Rohan, some commotion in la Rochelle, and St. Jean d'Angely very well fortified. There is intelligence in Germany and with Maurice in Holland, and this has induced the Queen to pay the two French regiments, which she never intended to do, has produced the second and more favourable answer to Brandenburg, and has brought her to discharge one hundred thousand crowns of the debt due to England. There are many malcontents in France; the majority of the Princes cannot endure that the Chancellor and Villeroy should direct everything as they please, nor yet the great weight enjoyed by Concini; they are, however, pacified from time to time by donatives. Villeroy and the Chancellor shelter themselves to some extent behind the President Jeannin. I have all this from a good source. The Queen has made some communication to the Princes in Germany on the subject of her Ambassador in the Grisons and his efforts to detach them from the league with your Serenity. She lays the blame in the first instance on your Excellencies' Ministers in those parts, and says if the Grisons wish to renew the league she will use her good offices. I must inform your Excellencies that while I was in France the Grisons pensioners of France repeatedly told me that Villeroy desired to see all relations between Venice and the Three Leagues cut off, as I reported at the time. The French think that, during the minority, it is dangerous to stir up arms in neighbouring States. They do all they can to quiet the Princes of Germany, and are opposed even to arming against the Turk. The French insinuate that the forces of the Emperor and of Spain would be the most powerful in Germany and might be directed against the Protestants, not against the Turks. Caret (Carey), (fn. 1) Master of Wards, is dead; he was Ambassador in France, and I passed three years of close friendship with him there and kept it up during the twenty months I have been here. His death is a loss to your Excellencies as well; and it seems to me that continual misfortunes are weakening my powers of humbly serving you.
London, 7th December, 1612.
[Italian.]
Dec. 7. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.710. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Last Saturday Gabaleone took his leave of the King, who explained to him all his most intimate intentions in the late negotiations. His Majesty charged him to assure the Duke that he may count on the support of England just as if the match had taken place. Gabaleone was knighted (fn. 2) and received from the King a diamond worth one thousand five hundred crowns, which he took off his finger, and the right to bear the rose of England and the thistle of Scotland as crest to his arms. He was also given two horses * * * * and in short was dismissed with the most honourable expressions that he could have desired. In the letter to the Duke in which he laments the death of his son, he praises the dexterity of the Duke's agents. Gabaleone was three days ago with the Queen, who though living as much retired as possible, kept him an hour with her, and gave him a cluster ring of diamonds, worth one thousand five hundred crowns. He has also kissed hands with the Prince and Princess. He will take his departure, possibly with the idea in his head that he may open negotiations for the marriage of the Prince Charles and the Infanta Catherine, or at all events for a closer union. Certain it is that the King is pleased at the marks of esteem shown by the Duke. It is also true that the King intended the match to take place, though the Prince in the last days of his life was much averse, and was entirely given up to grandiose schemes. The King went to Theobalds on Saturday, where he passed two days, unwell. The doctors of his Majesty and of the Palatine were there and exaggerated reports reached London. He mended, and is now quite well. To facilitate the peace between Sweden and Denmark, which is meeting with some difficulties, there is a scheme to marry the King of Sweden's sister, who is very beautiful, to the King of Denmark, and good hopes of success are entertained. The Ambassador of Brandenburg, who was here, is now in Holland on the same mission as he had here and in France. I have letters from the Hague that the Dutch are preparing a regiment of infantry to send to Cleves, on the pretext that they have been hired by the “possessioners.” Yesterday the Palatine's first Councillor visited me while his master and Count Henry were at Theobalds with the King. The marriage is fixed for the 7th of May, as I reported; and on the 27th of January, old style, they will draw up the contract. The Secretary of the English Ambassador in Venice has arrived here. He saw the King at Theobalds, but owing to his Majesty's bad health he was ordered back to London, there to wait the King's coming. I only know as yet that in various places he has spoken in most honourable terms of your Serenity and Excellencies. The Dutch Ambassador here told me that the Dutch Envoy (Haga) at Constantinople has secured both his objects, the release of slaves and the formation of a commercial treaty, and will be back in a few months. I asked if another ambassador would be sent, and he replied that he did not know. The day before yesterday a gentleman of the Spanish Ambassador came here by post. He brings some orders about the Savoy match and the King's instructions that the Lieger is to stay on, so Don Diego Sarmiento's arrival is postponed. The Savoy dower was fixed at three hundred thousand crowns down and five hundred thousand within a fixed time; although Gabaleone told me yesterday evening, when visiting me to take his leave, that the sum was seven hundred thousand, to be paid in four years. Jewels were not counted in.
London, 7th December, 1612.
[Italian.]
Dec. 7. Minutes of the Senate. Venetian Archives.711. Motion made to grant one thousand crowns of seven lire each to Antonio Foscarini in consideration of his expenses in entertaining the son of the Duke of Modena, in following the King on Progress, and in making suitable preparation for the funeral of the Prince and the marriage of the Princess.
Ayes 137. Not carried; second vote. Ayes 127.
Noes 11. Noes 8.
Neutrals 17. Neutrals 30.
Suspended for the first time, as the vote requires a five-sixths majority in a chamber of one hundred and fifty and upwards.
[Italian.]
Dec. 8. Senato. Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives.712. Domenico Domenici, Venetian President in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
News of the Prince's death. The Grand Duke at once sent orders to his Ambassador in Rome to communicate it to the Pope and to express his devotion to the See, and to say that he never intended to do aught that could possibly injure the faith. The friends of Spain are glad at the death of the Prince. They say the remaining one is weak and may not live long; and so the King of Spain may one day find the way to place his foot in that Kingdom and reintroduce the true faith.
Florence, 8th December, 1612.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 10. Senato. Secreta. Despatches from Savoy. Venetian Archives.713. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
The English Secretary eight days ago went with all his suite in deep mourning (con habiti sino in terra) to kiss his Highness' hand. But they were told that his Highness's grief was so great that he did not desire to increase it, and so they deferred their audience to another season. I, knowing the good relations between your Serenity and England, desired to foster them, and so, though it is not usual for ambassadors to visit agents, I called on the English Secretary. This gentleman is a person so sagacious and reticent that it is impossible to extract any valuable information from him. I endeavoured to discover the truth about the Prince's death in order to see whether there were any doubts about foul play; but as far as his words went I left in the same state of doubt as that in which I came. On the one hand he called it a malignant fever that slew the Prince, on the other he said the Prince was very free and sincere, that he lived very openly as one who had no suspicions. More than that I could not get.
Turin, 10th December, 1612.
[Italian.]
Dec. 11. Original Despatch. Venetian Archives.714. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
I reported the negotiations for the marriage of the second Princess and the late Prince of England. After his decease the affair is being pushed forward with the present Prince, with hopes of a more easy settlement. The other day Villeroy, on the excuse of condolence, visited the English Ambassador and very openly proposed the match. The Ambassador held out hopes and assured Villeroy that if the French would pursue this matter sincerely and frankly they might quite well look for success. Villeroy then told him that the negotiations of Florence were purely a ruse of the Spanish to upset the French match and this was the real object of Don Pedro de Zuñiga's mission. An English match would rouse Spanish suspicions. Villeroy did not conceal the fact that the Spanish had proposed a defensive alliance with France. France replied that she was willing provided this step did not compromise her with her other allies. The English Ambassador reported home at once, that there was a disposition towards the match. The question having arisen whether the King of France should go into mourning for the Prince, and some having observed that the King of England did not go into mourning for the Duke of Orleans, the Queen Mother decided that he should and so should the Court; and to the Ambassador, when conveying the news of the Prince's death, she showed great grief. In France generally the Prince's death is considered a gain and conducive to quiet; for, I know not on what foundation, there are reports that the Prince had designs and was in close understanding with the French Huguenots, of great weight with the Dutch, and had schemes of moment afoot in Germany, besides being little friendly to this Crown; in this, they lay much to the charge of Soissons, who was endeavouring to secure strong places and ports in Normandy. I merely report this, for, as I say, I have no sure grounds to allow me to assert its truth. As to Rohan and the Huguenots it is thought that, after the death of the Prince, they will prove more tractable.
The Prince de Joinville has not been able to get leave to go to England and so to-morrow he will send in his place M. de la Font, who will also take some orders from the Queen to her Ambassador on the subject of the said match.
Paris, 11th December, 1612.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 11. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.715. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetián Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
I gathered from what Villeroy said to me that the rumours about the Prince's designs were not vain; and that the probability of a match with England is great.
The other day on an Arrêt of Parliament a book written by a German called Schioppius (Topio) was burned by the public executioner because it contained passages which attacked the King of England and the memory of Henry IV.
Paris, 11th December, 1612.
[Italian.]
Dec. 13. Minutes of the Senate, Venetian Archives.716. To the Ambassador in England.
We have received your despatch of the 9th of last month with our usual satisfaction. We understand the preparations that are making against the marriage of the Princess, especially among Ambassadors; we consider it right that we should follow the example of other Sovreigns to maintain the dignity of the Republic. We are aware of the extraordinary charges to which you were put in this and other Embassies; they have affected your private purse. We have, accordingly, provided two thousand crowns without obligation to present accounts, and this sum will be paid here to your agent. Motion made to vote the said sum of two thousand crowns.
Ayes 128. Ayes 132.
Noes 23. Noes 23. Not carried.
Neutrals 17. Neutrals 16.
[Italian.]
Dec. 14. Minutes of the Senate, Roma. Venetian Archives.717. To the Ambassador in Rome.
Announcing that the Council of Ten, after getting from Giorgio Cardosa all that they thought necessary, have set him free.
The same to Germany, France, England, Savoy, Milan, Florence, Naples.
[Italian.]
Dec. 20. Minutes of the Senate, Venetian Archives.718. The motion of the 13th was again put with a change of the sum from two thousand to one thousand five hundred crowns.
Ayes 164.
Noes 15. Carried.
Neutrals 10.
[Italian.]
Dec. 15. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives.719. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
The Grand Duke communicated to me the news of the Prince's death. He said that may be God intended to chastise that Kingdom. The Catholics might have entertained hopes, as the Prince was not hostile to them.
He told me he had discussed Turkish affairs with Sir Thomas Glover, who had passed through Florence recently. It is two months since he left Constantinople.
Florence, 15th December, 1612.
[Italian.]
Dec. 21. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.720. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Acknowledges receipt of despatches of the 15th November, reporting the vehement and angry representations of the Spanish Ambassador about the arrest of Cardosa, the reply of the Senate and the summary of the report by the Council of Ten on the conduct of the said ambassador in sheltering bandits. As to the case of Castelvetro, cited by the Ambassador in support of his claim, I can easily, if required, adduce proof that the case is quite different.
The resolve of the second son of Modena to enter your service arrives at the right moment, as you will see from the enclosed. He cannot, however, claim the supreme command, nor should a question of a little more or a little less as regards salary stand in the way when it is a matter of having troops at your disposal. If I were on the spot I think I could easily settle the matter in a few words, but there are not wanting able men who can do it as well and better than I. The example of Modena will probably induce other Princes to offer men for your service. Troops can be raised here and in Holland, but the distance is great and many must die on the road; so that such levies must count for a second rather than for a first campaign; whereas Modena is near and Mantua contiguous. Prince Henry is leaving tomorrow. He hopes, after accompanying the Elector and the Princess to their States, to go to Venice. I assured him of the reception that awaited him. M. de Plessen came to see me to-day. He is anxious that the marriage should take place as soon as possible, without waiting till May. He urged me to say a good word to the King to this effect, should an occasion offer. The Ambassadors of France and the States will do likewise. He discussed the Diet which is to meet in April, and the assembly next month of the Confederated Princes, to come to some agreement about Mühlheim and about the claims of Saxony, to which Brandenburg will certainly not assent. He told me that the English Ambassador (Le Sieur) was already at the Imperial Court, and had been to Düsseldorf to see the Princes. He must have gone through Heidelberg, capital of the Palatinate. There is no news from him, though it is expected every moment. The Palatine has great need to return to his States, especially as the Diet is coming on. I am informed from a sound quarter that the King will not hear of the marriage taking place before the date established, by which time everyone would be out of mourning and the wedding could be celebrated with pomp.
On Saturday the Spanish Ambassador came to visit me. He told me that his successor is not coming, as he has been made President in Seville; the revenues of that city and the arrival of the flotta in which the King has a share would mean a great sum, but it is all spent in advance, as is the money from the flotta which has not yet come in. The administration of money in Spain is bad; everyone wants a share. He said that in Germany there was hope of a powerful movement against the Turks, as all the younger Princes were inclined to it. The Persian Envoy had vigorously pressed his requests, and the answer would be given in the Diet in April. I pointed out how necessary it was to have able Envoys to bind Princes together and how his Master needed ministers such as he at every Court. He replied that in his opinion the success of negotiations depended on dexterity and phlegm. The French Ambassador, who came to see me, asked what news I had from Venice; he then said that in April they intended to give the Garter to the Palatine and to Maurice. He seemed to think that the Spanish aim was peace. The Spanish Ambassador has sent couriers to Spain on the subject of certain Spanish vessels plundered by the English some months ago, nor does there seem to be any disposition to give aught but fair words. Whether the King of Spain would or would not have consented to the Savoy match no one can know. His Ambassador had precise orders, but since they came too late the whole lies buried with him.
London, 21st December, 1612.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 21. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.721. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
News from the Hague that the States General have continued their Ambassador at Constantinople for another four years, and are fitting out a great ship with presents for the Sultan. Some of the leading merchants of Amsterdam will leave to take possession of the Consulates of Aleppo, Cairo, Caffa and other places in the Turkish Dominions. Their trade in those parts grows rapidly. Only a few days ago nine ships laden with silk, cotton and other rich merchandize of great value have arrived, besides the six ships which came in a little earlier with the good fortune of a quiet passage and large gains. The Dutch have resolved to support the “possessioners” should Spinola, either with Spanish or Imperial forces, attempt any thing against them. The Ambassador of Brandenburg, having got all he wanted, has left the Hague on the 9th.
There is an uncertain report by way of Sweden that the Muscovites have elected as their Grand Duke the brother of the King of Sweden.
The Palatine, who has been here twice only since the King's departure, left again to join his Majesty, who will be at Theobalds on Monday, and three days later in London, when he will grant audience of condolence to the Ambassadors. The King has not yet filled up Lord Salisbury's posts of Lord Treasurer and of first Secretary of State. It is expected he will do so on his arrival. There is news that Gabaleone has reached Paris.
London, 21st December, 1612.
[Italian.]
Dec. 22. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives722. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Although negotiations for the English match are at an end the Grand Duke has written a letter of condolence to the King, professing his devotion, as, I am informed, they do not wish to abandon all idea of a matrimonial alliance with that Crown.
News from Marseilles that three great ships from Syria, laden with silk, cotton and other merchandize, have reached that port, which is rapidly growing.
Florence, 22nd December, 1612.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 23. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi, Venetian Archives.723. The English Ambassador came to the Cabinet and after a pause expressive of sorrow, spoke as follows:—
He cannot find words adequate to the loss, not only to the King, but to all the world, which the untimely death of one of its greatest ornaments has occasioned. No one has lost more than his Serenity. “The Prince was prouder of nothing than of your regard, and desired above everything to prove this on every occasion. Your Serenity has shown a like disposition in the courteous representations you made to me on the subject, for which I should have come sooner to tender thanks, but I thought that the interposition of a little time would, as is usual, bring some alleviation to our grief. Such is not the case. The pain grows greater. The King was at the very summit of felicity; all his affairs were prospering; his kingdoms were united and at peace, his royal house fairly based upon a progeny not so numerous as to cause confusion; it was honoured and surrounded by powerful allies, and was on the point of extending its relations, for which event the Court, the people, the entire country was rejoicing, when lo! in a moment, all is turned to grief and mourning. It is a fate which pursues our island; this is the seventh eldest son who in the course of two hundred years has been carried off in the flower of his age by a sudden death. The Prince went to a ball given in honour of the Palatine; there he fell ill, on the 3rd of last month, of a continuous fever that became violent and malignant, refusing to yield to any medicine or remedy. He died, leaving the Court plunged in the bitterest grief. To satisfy public opinion, as the times are full of evil deeds and men's tongues prone to wag, the body was opened and a careful examination showed that this blow came solely from the hand of God, who has called him to Himself to bestow upon him celestial gifts, the kingdoms of this world being all inadequate to the merits of so great a Prince, who was gifted with singular qualities of virtue, propriety, piety mingled of goodness and modesty, in spite of the fact that he was mighty and young, conditions in which we often meet with arrogance and incontinence; these, however, he expelled by the reasonableness of his mind, so that he felt no inordinate passions, but was entirely dedicated to generous thoughts, virtuous actions, glory. So well grown was this noble tree that it promised most savoury fruit to delight the world. He was, moreover, admirably endowed with those secondary gifts of beauty and agility of body, gifts which waxed daily, as he took daily exercise on horse or on foot, or handled his weapons. His household was as it were an academy of young nobles submitted to the severest discipline and entirely devoted to the pursuit of glory, so that the noblest deeds were confidently expected of them. But now all these hopes are dashed by this immature and furtive demise. He faced sickness and death with the highest courage, and made his end in piety, and showed that he was grateful to God who desired to bestow on him greater glory than could fall to him here below. His younger brother remains and greatly resembles him in vivacity of spirit and readiness in all things. Thus in our grief there remains this consolation, that if a fair bough has been lopped off another springs in its place, and the roots of this noble tree are still alive in their Majesties the King and Queen, both sound, both young enough to hold out hopes of further offspring. Nothing remains for me to say save to express the utter grief of the King and Queen; but that would require tears not words, and may be left to understanding of Your Serenity.”
The Doge made a formal reply, declaring the attachment of the Republic to his Majesty.
The Ambassador returns thanks for the honour paid him by sending two Savii of the Cabinet to offer condolences. He will report all to the King; he apologises for having sent his Secretary instead of coming in person.
The Doge replied with his wonted benignity.
[Italian.]
Dec. 23. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.724. Christoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
To-day, while I was making up the ordinary despatch, a cha'ush was sent by the Grand Vizir to summon me to audience. At the same time other three were sent to call the Ambassadors of France, England and Holland (Fiandra), bidding us all come together to him at once. I obeyed and so did the others, thinking that there must be some affair of great importance on hand. The English Ambassador waived the question of French precedence which usually prevents them from meeting in public. Accordingly we all four went together to the Grand Vizir, expecting to hear some strange news. No sooner had we reached his serraglio than we were introduced into the usual chamber, and presently into a more inner room, where the Pasha soon made his appearance. He saluted us graciously and then proceeded to say that as he was the supreme minister of his Sovreign he was bound to watch over the interests of his Master, as were all his other servants, whom his Majesty had raised from such humble nests and nourished and reared by offices and even by his very blood, as he gave them his daughters in marriage. The Janizzaries and the military generally had greatly increased, compared with past ages, and this had seriously affected the Treasury; he therefore thought it just that all foreign merchants should pay the casaplick, a tax of one per cent. applied to the up-keep of the Janizzaries. He had discussed the matter with other Pashas. Orders had been made out for all the ports, but he had chosen, for our satisfaction, to give us notice first of all, being persuaded that for so small a sum we would not annoy him by refusal. In truth the Pasha's request was very far from the thought of each one of us, and we all replied expressing our great surprise at his demand: we said this was not a point that lay with us to concede, for as this was an innovation contrary to our capitulations we felt bound to refer to our Sovreigns, as our powers were not sufficient to permit of our acting differently. All the same we could not help pointing out that the grandeur of so mighty a Prince should not shrink from a small increase in expense due to the increase of his forces, and everyone would resent this innovation which had been attempted on other occasions, though without success owing to the injury it necessarily brought to the interests of his Majesty himself. The Pasha replied that he was aware that at the time he was in service in the Serraglio this plan had been put forward, but that nothing had been done because the Vizirs of that day were peculators; that he might of himself have issued the orders without informing us, and that we should have been bound to submit, but as a mark of friendliness he had sent to summon us, that after taking counsel together we might grant our free consent, otherwise he would not fail to do his duty by his Master and no one would have any ground for complaint. These and other arguments he repeated, declaring that we might consult among ourselves, but that he could not wait till we had consulted our Sovreigns and awaited their pleasure. I knowing that this proposal would be more damaging to Venetians, who trade in all ports of this Empire, than to anyone else, added that the capitulations established now for so many years ought not to be modified to our prejudice; during the time of his predecessors the Casaplick was not enforced owing to many difficulties in the way, and therefore far less did I expect molestation under his regime which was marked by such perfect justice. His Lordship should bear in mind especially that burdens on merchandize were a burden on his subjects, for merchants would be forced to raise their prices, and this would run dead counter to the great pains he was at to keep the city and the country fully supplied to the relief and comfort of the people. Moreover, our Sovreigns would not permit their subjects to be bound beyond the capitulations; the certain consequence would be a decline in commerce with corresponding fall in revenue. The Pasha replied that if he were seeking to impose a tax not paid by the Turks themselves, then our Sovreigns might have grounds of complaint, but seeing that the Turks paid this tax it was only fair that others resident in the Turkish dominions should also pay it. He was quite willing that we should consult among ourselves but not that we should write to our Sovreigns, as that would only be done to gain time; for each of us would ask for six months or a year in which to present our answer. If in so small a matter we were not willing to gratify him, making much of what was of little moment, we would force him to take into consideration the bad quality of the cloth and silk imported by our countrymen, and to prohibit the purchase, as the silks of Damascus and Aleppo, which were of a quality as good as that of any other country and Babalonian silks also, were quite able to meet the demands of Constantinople and the whole country without having recourse to outsiders. He said we were plenipotentiaries of our Sovreign as he of his, and could act and then report, as he intended to do in this matter, in which he should only inform the Sultan after the deed was done. The Pasha spoke very quietly, and while the conference was going on he ordered sherbet and black water (acqua nera (fn. 3) ), but we remained firm on our first point, that we must report home and that the answers would soon arrive; our ground was that we were merely ministers and agents of our Sovreigns, without power to innovate or alter in the smallest degree that which had been established on such solid basis by the capitulations. Nothing we could say satisfied the Pasha: and so seeing his determination we resolved to consult among ourselves on his proposal and to make the suitable reply which certainly could not be any other than that we had already given; and with that we took our leave, being most courteously treated.
The mover in this affair is, I am told, the Defterdar who thought of it along with the Emin Grande. This man has offered to pay to the Sultan the four hundred thousand sequins of debt left by his predecessor and also another hundred and twenty thousand in three years if he gets this tax in the city alone; and so the Grand Vizir under the influence of these two shows himself most violent. What makes us fear his firmness in the affair is the fact that he has consulted all the Pashas and that he talked to the Ambassadors all together; for the more public the matter is made the firmer is he likely to stand. However, as all the Ambassadors are united and determined to resist the threatened danger, nothing that is proper will be left undone.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, 23rd December, 1612.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 24. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Savoy, Venetian Archives.725. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
I have very recent letters from Paris which put a rather different complexion on the facts of the Prince's death. I am told that the negotiations for a match between Madme. Christine of France and the English Prince are on foot.
Turin, 24th December, 1612.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in preceding Despatch.726. The death of the Prince of Wales has broken off your negotiations. It is received with joy or grief according to people's hopes and fears. It seems that the English will not have it believed that poison had anything to do with it.
[Italian.]
Dec. 29. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.727. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After the Prince's body had lain a month at St. James' Palace, with the same service and order of meals as when he was alive, it was at last borne to the grave in the Church of Westminster with the ceremony I will now relate.
First came two hundred poor in mourning, then came the servants of gentlemen, esquires, knights, baronets, barons, viscounts and earls. Following these some drums preceding the great standard, borne by a baronet and followed by two hundred and forty servants and officials of the lower household. A herald preceded the Prince's Coronet with the three plumes, carried by a knight. Then came the servants of barons, viscounts, earls, of the Duke of Lennox and of the Lord High Chancellor of England. Trumpets in front of the banner of Carrick and a horse trapped in black cloth with the arms of the county. Servants of the Archbishop of the Prince Palatine and of the present Prince. More heralds and the banner of the county of Chester, borne by a baron, and a horse also draped in black cloth with the arms of the county; a number of officers of the household in nine ranks, followed by the architect, the paymasters and the book-keepers, servants of the sacristy, deacons, gentlemen of the chapel, musicians, doctors and chaplains. The ensigns of the Duchy of Rothesay borne by a baron and a horse caparisoned like the others; his Highness's attorney and counsel; gentlemen and esquires of the presence, sewers, carvers, butlers; gentlemen in ordinary and extraordinary of the privy chamber, knights ordinary and extraordinary of the same; pages and others of the bed chamber. Heralds; the banner of the Duchy of Cornwall, borne by a baron, and a horse caparisoned as above. Gentlemen of the Prince Palatine, the Secretary, the Receiver General, Treasurer and Master of the Household to the Prince with their white wands in their hands. Banner of the Prince of Scotland borne by Viscount Fenton; a horse like the rest; younger sons of Barons; the Chancellor of the Prince; Knights; Privy Councillors; eldest sons of Barons; six Scotch Barons; standard of the Prince of England, France and Ireland and the standard of Wales, borne by Viscount De Lisle (Lili); a horse as above; younger sons of the Earls; eldest sons of Viscounts; thirty-two English Barons; the Earl of Exeter; the Prince's Chamberlain, with a wand; the Lord High Chancellor; Prince Henry of Nassau; the Archbishop of Canterbury with a group of Bishops in rochets and black robes; the great standard of the Prince, with his arms embroidered, borne by the Earl of Montgomery supported by Argyle, a Scot. The mourning charger caparisoned in black velvet, led by the Grand Esquire; the spurs, gauntlet, helmet, shield and sword and coat of mail, borne by six heralds; the Marshal of the Household with forty grooms. Then came the body of the Prince on a great open carriage drawn by six roans, draped in black velvet; the arms of the Prince, and on the topmost point the image of the Prince, life-size; at the feet sat the Master of the Wardrobe, (fn. 4) who was his great favourite. Four Barons watched the corpse, over which was a baldachino borne by six Baronets, with twelve others on each side, with little banners; before them went the King-at-Arms on horseback and the Esquire to Prince Charles. Behind the bier came the Prince, supported by the Earl of Northampton and the Duke of Lennox, his train borne by a Baron, and surrounded by twelve Earls, the highest of this realm. Then the Elector Palatine, with ten German Counts; the charger of State, richly caparisoned and led by the late Prince's Master of the Horse. The Palatine's Councillors, the officers of the Horse to the late Prince, and his guard. All this great company—which exceeded two thousand persons, all dressed in black, but in various kinds of robes, the Prince and Palatine alone with trains—passed in perfect order and filled the whole road, more than a mile long, from the Palace of St. James' to the Church of Westminster, so that as the head of the procession entered the Church the tail had not yet left the Palace. The crowd was marvellous. All the houses filled with ladies and the nobility. Every standard was preceded by trumpets and heralds and horses with black plumes and caparisoned. Near the corpse the number of trumpets was greater, and by the sound of their funeral march, most beautifully played, they drew tears from the eyes of all who heard. At the door of the Church were all the clergy robed; the bier was borne shoulder high by knights to the catafalque, which was raised in the form of a pyramid; all the church was hung in mourning. The Archbishop delivered the funeral oration, which lasted two hours. He praised the loftiness of the Prince's ideas, and concluded by dwelling on the fragility of human life and hopes. Then, by the sound of the trumpet, all the officers were summoned to render their last service to the dead. The five chief officers broke their wands over the grave, and so ended their duties as, a month ago, all their hopes had died. Now began the funerals, with dirges, and for three consecutive days offices for the dead were celebrated with chants and psalms. A rich tomb of marble and porphyry is being prepared, and many statues; it will take a long time and cost much. Meantime the leaden coffin has been covered with velvet richly embroidered with gold and pearls.
London, 29th December, 1612.
[Italian.]
Dec. 29. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives.728. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The French Ambassador is spreading it about that the Duke of Rohan is entirely settled with the Queen, while the English Ambassador in France assures the King that the Duke has one hundred thousand francs from the Huguenots, to whom he has always communicated all the Queen's proposals. The Ambassador adds that the Huguenots have renewed their demands and sent deputies along with letters from Rohan and that the Queen has refused to receive either; instead, some foot and horse have been despatched towards S. Jean d'Angelly. Rohan asks neither pension nor anything else from the Queen; he says he is the servant of no one but the King. De Bouillon and Lesdiguieres, who are attached to the Queen and are in receipt of large pensions, have certainly come to an understanding with Rohan and Sully, and there are those who think that if the affairs of France become complicated they all will stand together.
Agents from de Bouillon, Conti and Joinville are here to condole on the death of the Prince. If the Queen will allow him Joinville intends to be here for the fête which will be held in May to celebrate the marriage. These gentlemen have been to visit me, and if they have any other mission than that of condolence I hope to find it out in a few days.
On the 20th the Chancellor of Denmark and two Privy Councillors passed the frontier to confer with three Swedish Commissioners. They will consult with the envoys from England, Holland and the federated Princes upon the subject of peace. There is only one point of difficulty. Sweden desires the restoration of three places in Gothland which were lost to Denmark and which Denmark refuses to surrender; it is hoped, however, that the match which is on foot will lead to an accommodation. Meantime there is a truce. Last week an agent from Denmark arrived to give an account of how the King stood. Yesterday he saw the Queen, who begins to receive, though still in deep sorrow for the death of the Prince. The Archbishop of Canterbury, who holds the highest place in the Council, told me that in several Spanish ports they are arming galleons and that one must have an eye on Ireland. On his Majesty's return to London to-morrow, the question will be raised in Council. He discussed the present condition of Ireland, comparing it with its past and concluded that then there were three or four rebellious chiefs, of weight, supported by Spanish gold, now these are crushed and all the principal places are carefully guarded. In Virginia, but one hundred and fifty miles away from the King's territory, there are Spaniards; after Christmas they are to begin sending ships and before Easter nine or ten will be dispatched. Up to now there have been three strong places in Virginia and they are finishing the fourth, all well found in men and arms and provisions, so there is no cause to fear in those parts.
The Prince Radzivill (fn. 5) has been here lately; I have had him twice to dine with me and done all I could to attach him to your Excellencies; he has left for Paris and will be back in May to assist at the marriage.
London, 29th December, 1612.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec 29. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Florence. Venetian Archives.729. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Besides the letters of condolence which the Grand Duke sent to the King of England, I learn that his Highness (fn. 6) has commissioned Lotti to declare that he is ready to do all he can to please and serve his Majesty; intending thereby an offer of the third Princess for the present Prince when he has reached marriagable age. The King's reply will be scrutinized in order to judge of the possibility of negotiating.
Florence, 29th December, 1612.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 30. Senato, Secreta. Despatches from Savoy, Venetian Archives.730. Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
I am told that the match between Madme Christine and the English Prince is quite true. The French Ambassador said that in France they held that the Prince of Wales died of poison, and added “and what is worse is that some hold that his father was an accomplice in the murder, as he was grown jealous of the Prince's vast designs. It is said he was in alliance with Count Maurice, and aspired not only to machinations against his father but to other warlike enterprises in support of the Huguenots. (Ripigliò dicendo, e quel ch'è peggio che alcuni sono di parere che il Rè suo padre sia stato comparticipe della sua morte ingelosito per quanto s'intende, de gli arditi pensieri del principe suo figlio; et rien detto si fusse unito Col Conte Mauritio di Fiandra et aspirasse non solo a machinationi contra il padre ma anco ad altri pensieri di guerra a favore de gli Ugonotti.) The Ambassador told me that it was thought certain that the match with the Palatine would fall through, as his manners were so rude and his habits so disgusting that any dealing with him was repulsive.
Turin, 30th December, 1612.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 See Birch, 1. 208. Sir George Carey, Master of the Wards, probably son of George Henry third Lord Hunsdon.
2 See Birch of eit. 1, 208. “The Banquier Gabellione was knighted.”
3 Tamarind.
4 Sir David Murray.
5 See Cal. S.P. Dom. 1611–1618, p. 133. Warrant to Attorney-General to draw a licence [in favour of Radzivill] for sole making and importing of bay salt for thirty-one years.
6 Decipher reads “Francesi” but cipher N57 = Altezza.