Venice
September 1613

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1907

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36-51

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'Venice: September 1613', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 13: 1613-1615 (1907), pp. 36-51. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=95872 Date accessed: 16 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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September 1613

Sept. 2. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra, Venetian Archives.70. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Having heard on the way that the queen had come to the baths in this city, I came straight here. I found Her Majesty surrounded by a somewhat greater number of ladies and gentlemen than ordinary, and all the nobility of the province gathered together. Because the king has never been here, all sorts of people hasten to see the queen, and show their pleasure at seeing her, by offering the greatest honours and service.
Yesterday I paid my respects. Her Majesty asked after the health of your Serenity, and after some pleasant discourse she desired me to serve her all the day. I thus saw games, hunting and, finally, public representations, all carried out at the expense of the city, which has done its utmost in receiving Her Majesty, during the few days that I was there. (fn. 1)
In passing from place to place, all the streets were full of people and blessings and good wishes were showered upon the queen, who thanked everyone and gave her hand to many to kiss, which they did kneeling. The queen showed her delight at these honours and the affection bestowed upon her by everyone, which is truly great.
She told me that she was much obliged to them and she will stay at least a month in these parts. During the conversation, she spoke of Scotland, where she had lived for some time and had left ten years ago, and which seemed to her like her native land, referring to it with great affection.
No one here will know anything of affairs or news of the world. They only care to enjoy themselves in the court three or four times more than usual, in feasts and banquets.
I have already taken leave, in order to continue my journey to-morrow.
From Wells (Vuelles) the 2 September, 1613.
[Italian.]
Sept. 3. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives.71. The ambassador of England came into the Cabinet and with him the earl of Arundel, and the ambassador took his usual seat while the earl sat on the left of his Serenity, the Cabinet having decided to grant him that place and the title of Most Illustrious.
The ambassador said, the earl of Arundel was among the ambassadors sent by my master to accompany his daughter. After he had performed that office he wished to re-visit privately this country and city. Last year he was in Padua for his health and he has now come for his pleasure and recreation. As one about the court he will be able to bear testimony to the great affection of His Majesty for the republic, and he has come to pay his respects and to say that he will remain here some days to see the notable things of the city with his wife, if they will allow him, and then he will return to Padua after first coming to ask permission.
The doge replied that he was glad to hear this new reminder of His Majesty's friendship and to welcome so illustrious a nobleman, who would have every facility granted to him and his wife. He added a few words in praise of the ambassador.
The ambassador desired the earl to speak, but he signified that he would prefer his Excellency to use his knowledge of the Italian language to return thanks.
Many courteous speeches were made and subsequently some English gentlemen were introduced to kiss the hand of his Serenity, when, after reciprocal compliments had been paid, the company withdrew.
[Italian.]
Sept. 3. Senato, Mar. Venetian Archives.72. That all honour be shown to the earl of Arundel, who has come to this city with his wife, and that the Cabinet have leave to spend 100 ducats in entertainment, to be offered to him in the name of the republic on several occasions, as the Cabinet sees fit.
Ayes 146.
Noes 2.
Neutral 4.
[Italian.]
Sept. 3. Collegio, Ceremoniale. Venetian Archives.73. Visit of the Ambassador of England to the Cabinet accompanied by the Earl of [Arundel], first earl of England.
The ambassador introduced the earl, who sat on the left of his Serenity and received the title of Most Illustrious. Gregorio Bembo (sic), ambassador elect to the king of Great Britain, was delegated to show the earl and countess the sights of the city, including the Arsenal, which the earl had expressed a particular desire to see.
On the 7th it was decided that 1,500 ducats should be spent in the Arsenal in honour of the earl.
[Italian.]
Sept. 4. Collegio, Lettere. Venetian Archives.74. To the King of Great Britain.
Letters of credence for Gregorio Barbarigo, appointed to succeed Antonio Foscarini as ambassador.
[Italian.]
Sept. 4. Collegio, Lettere. Venetian Archives.75. To the Queen of Great Britain.
The like.
[Italian.]
Sept. 4. Collegio. Lettere. Venetian Archives.76. To the Prince of Wales.
The like.
[Italian.]
Sept. 4. Consiglio X. Parti Communi. Venetian Archives.77. That licence be given to Marco Antonio Correr and Gregorio Barbarigo, one a late ambassador and the other ambassador elect for England, to visit and assist the earl of Arundel during his stay in this city.
That the like be granted to Piero Loredano da San Marco.
Ayes 15.
Noes 0.
Neutral 0.
[Italian.]
Sept. 4. Consiglio X. Parti Communi. Venetian Archives.78. That the jewels of the Sanctuary and the halls of the arms of this Council be shown to the earl of Arundel.
Ayes 14.
Noes 0.
Neutral 1.
[Italian.]
Sept. 4. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Mantova. Venetian Archives.79. Antonio Maria Vincenti, Venetian Resident at Mantua, to the Doge and Senate.
The Cardinal Duke has entirely recovered. On the third day he was at Mantua, visiting Madame di Ferrara, and yesterday he returned and called upon me.
From Mantua, the 4 September, 1613.
[Italian.]
Sept. 7. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.80. Francesco Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The arrival of the English corsair at Villafranca is confirmed, and that he has four vessels well manned ready to set out, but he cannot start for lack of money to make the other necessary provisions.
From Genoa, 7 September, 1613.
[Italian.]
Sept. 7. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.81. As the ambassador of England is to take over the Arsenal the earl of Arundel, who is in this city with his wife and other gentlemen of quality, leave is granted to the Cabinet to spend 300 ducats in his honour and to give a banquet there.
The Proveditore in the Mint, deputed for the chest of gold and silver consigned for the officials of the republic, is directed to provide the money necessary for this.
Ayes 138.
Noes 4.
Neutral 9.
[Italian.]
Sept. 9. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives.82. Barbarigo, the ambassador destined for England, came into the Cabinet and said:
Yesterday while accompanying the earl and countess of Arundel, in conformity with the orders of your Serenity, I chanced to hear the following from the English ambassador, which I thought I ought to bring to your notice.
The earl had spoken of the increasing esteem and confidence of His Majesty in your Serenity, especially with regard to these movements in Montferrat, of how the king had publicly declared that the Venetians were the most sincere friends he possessed, and that if he were not king of Great Britain he would desire to be a Venetian nobleman and other things of a like nature. The ambassador further pointed out that this friendship was the more stable owing to the coincidence of their interests and purposes, as they were not moved by ambition but by the desire to maintain universal peace. That seems to be assured for a long time, because no prince at present has any other intention than this. He quoted as examples the king of Spain, France, your Serenity, the pope, the emperor and the Grand Turk, adding that the Spaniards, though they set out to win many things by subtlety, do not want to have recourse to violence, as they would stir up a greater confusion in their own affairs than they could procure in those of others. That the duke of Savoy made every effort to obtain the friendship of the king of Great Britain, who, though gratified by this, only desired that it might tend to peace. He hinted, though he did not express himself well, that the authority of His Majesty would do more for the general tranquillity than the interposition of others between the Italian princes. He further informed me that he had good advices that the duke of Savoy was very dissatisfied with the Spaniards, because either by incitement or connivance they had induced him to take the steps which he had taken, whereby, if they had given offence to the duke of Mantua they have not done for Savoy what they gave him to understand they would do. This was their usual device, to issue ordinances of the king different from the operations of the ministers, so that the council might after the event confirm which policy it pleased. Their present treatment of Mantua is notorious, and they are not favourably disposed towards the duke of Savoy, who is aware of this and has informed the French of it by the duke of Lesdiguières. The French have heard this gladly, as they do not desire the duke and Spain to come together. That union was really less than it appears to be, and he knew that when Don Inico de Cardinas returned as ambassador to France he was commissioned to do something to the prejudice of the duke of Savoy and his states, and finally reduce him so that he would no longer be able to trouble any one. This had come to the duke's knowledge and might have good results. He told me all these particulars as if he firmly believed them to be true.
He also told me that he had heard from England that their expedition to Virginia had proved a great success and that some ships had recently returned bringing merchandise of considerable value, so that many others who had been somewhat discouraged from making that voyage now hastened to do so with the greatest zeal, hoping to have a ready and safe traffic with the savage inhabitants of that country because they had a daughter of their king, and in the capitulations for her restitution it had been agreed that all the arms which those savages had taken from some of the English should be restored and that they should also give up other Englishmen who had been joined with them. These have already been surrendered and have received the punishment they deserved. So that by the example and advantage of this agreement that trade will be firmly established for the future.
[Italian.]
Sept. 12. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.83. Commission to Alvise Giustinian, elected governor of the galleys of the condemned.
The treatment of English vessels is to be in accordance with the instructions given to his predecessor on 24 September, 1605, as agreed between the king of England and the republic.
[Italian.]
Sept. 13. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.84. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After taking leave of the queen, I continued my journey and have just arrived here, twelve miles from Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. In England particularly I have seen a country of great beauty and fertility and very populous. Four things in particular have struck me as being especially worthy of notice. First, that in the 420 miles which I have traversed in my journey from London to the frontiers of this realm I have not seen a single palm of unfruitful land. Second, that every eight or ten miles I have found a city, or at least a town comparable to the good ones of Italy. Third, a number of navigable rivers, including the Thames, the Trent, and the Severn, which in their long course to the sea widen to a mile or more. Fourth, I might have said first, a quantity of most beautiful churches so numerous as to pass belief. The kingdom is most rich in the fertility of the soil and by its extensive commerce with all parts of the world.
In the port of Bristol, which faces towards Ireland, I counted forty-three vessels with tops (da gabia), besides ten of seven to eight hundred tons, and other smaller ones in the part nearest the sea. In the port of Newcastle I counted ninety-eight with tops (da gabia), and they assert that there were more than as many again further down. They say that at the rising of the tide the water takes the quality of the ocean, and at the fall that of a river.
The devotion of the subjects for their king is remarkable, because they recognise the riches and ample liberty which they enjoy from him, paying no imaginable charge, and governing their towns by a chief elected by themselves, whom they call mayor, and other assistants called aldermen.
I have not come across a single paid soldier in the whole country, which increases the great estate of the king, as he is not obliged to spend except as he pleases and desires.
Fortresses are not needed for those within, who are perfectly loyal (muniti di perfetta fede), and for those without all the ports are armed with a great number of ships, and these realms are masters of this part of the ocean.
In the time of Queen Elizabeth, there was a guard of 800 foot and 200 horse at Berwick, the frontier of Scotland. Now, the crowns being united in the king's obedience, this fortress remains unguarded and, it may be said, falling into ruin. It is of five bulwarks on the land side, and on the side of the port of two platforms, an ancient wall but well banked up with earthworks (terra-pienata).
So far I have seen little of this kingdom of Scotland, but it is a good country and where it might be better it is industriously cultivated and is almost all fertile.
On the road I received your Serenity's letter of the 9th commanding me to thank the ambassador of the States for telling me on behalf of Barneveldt of the friendly relations established in the Levant, assuring him that your Serenity has never believed the common reports, and is sure of their goodwill. This has made me hasten my journey in order to execute this command as soon as possible. I will take the first opportunity of sending these presents to London by courier.
From Haddington (Adinthon) on 13 September, 1613.
[Italian.]
Sept. 13. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Mantova. Venetian Archives.85. Antonio Maria Vincenti, Venetian Resident at Mantua, to the Doge and Senate.
The Cardinal Duke's fever has again returned, and although it is not serious it may last a long time in the present season, especially as he is worried by the present affairs.
From Mantua, the 13 September, 1613.
[Italian.]
Sept. 13. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi, Venetian Archives.86. The Ambassador of England came into the Cabinet and said in substance:
The last time I was here it did not seem the time to treat of business because I had come with the earl of Arundel on a purely complimentary visit. Now I have to thank you on behalf of His Majesty for having handed that prisoner over to me and for sending him to England. The king my master has recently commissioned me to go on a friendly mission to the duke of Mantua, and he has expressly charged me to first inform your Excellencies of the matter and to offer my services, as this mission must be generally considered as being undertaken with the concurrence of your Serenity. I shall set out on this journey on Monday as the ambassador of His Majesty and as the devoted servant of your Excellencies, and I shall feel highly honoured by any commands which you may give me. His Majesty would rejoice to see all his friends and dependents united with each other, and I may be allowed to add, what I have referred to on other occasions, how gladly His Majesty would see such relations take place with a prince nearly allied to him, the king of Denmark, which would increase that good understanding and relationship from which the best results might be expected in all eventualities. Your Excellencies will pardon me for my importunity knowing as you must that His Majesty has not expressly laid this duty upon me, because so great is his friendship for the republic that he does not wish to do anything which might offend them in the slightest degree, but you may be sure that I avoid mentioning the name of His Majesty as much as possible here when I have not his express commands and that I proceed with the utmost reserve in all these matters, which I know to be in accord with your wishes.
In conclusion I kiss the hands of your Excellencies in the name of the earl and countess of Arundel, and of all the gentlemen in their company, for the manifold favours and courtesies which they have received. They have been greatly impressed by the wonders of the city which has abundantly repaid them for all the fatigues of their long journey, and we all declare that Venice alone is truly Paradise and a miracle of the world, while I, who have been here three years, may say that until now I had not seen Venice. They have been accompanied the whole time by the Illustrious Sig. Gregorio Barbarigo, to whose courtesy they are greatly indebted. Of this they will take back a report to England, whither he is to go as ambassador, and on his arrival at the court he will find himself in great honour and esteem, both as the ambassador of the republic and as a fast friend of the English nation. Also the Renowned Sig. Piero Loredan, who always accompanied Sig. Barbarigo, has shown unfailing attention to the earl, but he has previously shown his esteem for the English, having spent three years in England. If I may say so, this will prove of great advantage to the republic, for whatever charges and honours are given to him in the future will be considered by the English as conferred on one of themselves.
The earl will remain in this city for these two feasts more, in order to see the Great Council, with the permission of your Serenity, he will then stay some days at Padua.
The senior councillor Donado replied that, with regard to the prisoner, they were glad to have given satisfaction to His Majesty by their action. He also said:
We thank your Excellency for communicating your purpose to go to Mantua, wishing you every success in your mission.
I do not understand your meaning with regard to the king of Denmark, but I am sure the Signory will always be ready to meet the wishes of His Majesty, whether they are asked to do so or no.
The honours rendered to the earl of Arundel are such as befit his estate and to show the esteem of the republic for English lords of such exalted rank.
The ambassador said that the earl had seen the Arsenal; which might be called the bulwark of the defence of the republic and of all Christendom, and that the king would like to make another Arsenal of his friends, to increase their forces.
After many compliments had passed on both sides, the ambassador took his leave.
[Italian.]
Sept. 13. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.87. To the Secretary in Mantua.
The ambassador of England has this morning informed the Cabinet of his master's instructions to him to visit Mantua, for the purpose contained in the enclosed copy of his discourse. We direct you to inform the duke of his coming. We also ask you to call upon the ambassador when he comes and show him the greatest attention, in order to show the good understanding that exists between His Majesty and our republic. If you cannot do this by reason of indisposition tell Sig. Ferrante de.' Rossi to do so in our name, and make your excuses to the ambassador.
Ayes 136.
Noes 1.
Neutral 3.
[Italian.]
Sept. 13. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.88. To the Proveditore of the Fleet.
Notification that in the port of Villa Franca there are four bertons of that English pirate who made the offer to the duke of Savoy to harass and infest the shipping of the seas of the Levant, and that two others are expected in the same place. It will be necessary to be vigilant in order to protect the vessels of the republic trading in the Levant, by cruising between Corfu and Zante in accordance with orders.
Ayes 121.
Noes 0.
Neutral 1.
[Italian.]
Sept. 13. Senato, Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.89. To the Captain of the Great Galleys.
The like notification, with order to go straight to Zante, to cruise uninterruptedly in the seas of the Levant where he thinks it is required, especially in the Straits between Zante and Cerigo and Candia, keeping an eye upon the Archipelago, but not to cross there from Zante without the express command of the proveditore of the fleet or in case of evident need, and on no account to stop any time at Corfu. If he meet the said bertons he must treat them as pirates, even if they carry the flag of Savoy.
Ayes 121.
Noes 0.
Neutrals 1.
[Italian.]
Sept. 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives.90. Cristoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
In the present year, in addition to the shipwreck of the Maona, the Turks have lost eleven galleys, with the two taken by the Florentines in these last months. (fn. 2) Such losses may easily provoke them to devote their attention to providing a great fleet to which the mind of the Grand Vizier will apparently soon be turned. However, everything remains unchanged at the Arsenal for the present.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, the 14 September, 1613.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Sept. 15. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Mantova. Venetian Archives.91. Antonio Maria Vincenti, Venetian Resident at Mantua, to the Doge and Senate.
Yesterday evening there came letters to the duke from the resident Sordi notifying him of the coming of the ambassador of England, without specifying the cause. The same evening a courier was sent post to the resident to ask him to induce the ambassador to postpone his visit, upon pretext of the duke's health, but more truly because Sig. Carlo Rossi was about to set out for the court of Rome to treat about resigning the cardinalship, after which he will be able to receive and welcome him. (fn. 3)
Yesterday the letters of your Serenity reached me announcing the coming of this ambassador. As the duke is getting better, having been three days without fever, I went and delivered my commission to him. He told me of the instructions sent to his resident and exhibited much pleasure on being informed of the purpose of the visit, charging me to convey his thanks to your Serenity.
I spoke afterwards with Chieppio about this. He expressed doubts about the way in which this action of the ambassador was to be understood and showed that he would have preferred the duke to have nothing to do with it, as the arrival of so important a minister in the present exigencies could not fail to be notorious. However, the issue would be seen, and if the ambassador came they would not fail to show courtesy to him in conformity with the wishes of your Serenity.
From Mantua, the 15 September, 1613.
[Italian.]
Sept. 17. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives92. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The negotiations for the English marriage have been lately in suspense owing to the indisposition of the prince of Condé. The ambassador went to the queen upon it the other day and was asked to meet her at Fontainebleu, whither the court sets out to-day. Some difficulty has arisen owing to the difference between the laws of France and those of England, which do not compel a complete but only a minor restitution. There also seems to be some discrepancy on the question of religion, of which the princess was to have free exercise, as they make a wider interpretation of that here than they do in England. There are some other points beside which may delay the conclusion, but will not prevent it, although the Spaniards are employing underhand means against it.
From Paris, the 17 September, 1613.
[Italian.]
Sept. 18. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.93. Agostino Nani, Francesco Contarini and Girolamo Soranzo, Venetian Ambassadors in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassador of England arrived here three months ago and has been openly denied an audience, as there is great dissatisfaction at certain of his proceedings. (fn. 4) It is hoped that the king of England will recall him if he is not received.
From Ratisbon, the 18 September, 1613. Copy.
[Italian.]
Sept. 18. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives.94. Presented by Sig. Gregorio Barbarigo.
On Monday morning the earl of Arundel left for Padua, full of contentment and of gratefulness to your Serenity for the entertainment given to him. I have used every endeavour that both the earl and the ambassador might be perfectly satisfied and so fulfil your Serenity's intentions. In all these matters I have been greatly assisted by Sig. Pietro Loredano, my nephew, who was in London with Sig. Corraro during the whole time of his embassy, and who has thus become acquainted with the customs of the country and speaks the language fluently.
The ambassador has also gone to Padua, and proposed to go straight on to Mantua from there, for which he had prepared everything necessary. But the last day that I was there, I heard that he had changed his first design and would stay in Padua ten or twelve days, until he heard that the Cardinal Duke of Mantua had recovered from his indisposition. This is, of course, a pretext to put off the visit for the present, for reasons which your Excellencies will have heard from other quarters.
[Italian.]
Sept. 19. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.95. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The same day on which I wrote my last from Haddington, I reached this city. On the following morning I saw the castle and after dinner I went to Leith (Lif), a considerable port only three miles from here. In the absence of the High Chancellor, the deputies of the city received me in state with the utmost kindness. I thanked them as well as I was able and continued my voyage. At Glasgow, which is one of the two archbishoprics of the realm, the provost (mer) and deputies performed the same office, giving me lodging and entertainment in the house of the son of the baillie (Bagli), where I spent the night. On the following morning I was early visited on behalf of the archbishop, who pressed me to dine, and said he would come himself. I answered both by word of mouth and by the same person.
At Stirling, a place which contains one of the largest of the king's palaces, I was met by the son of the earl of Mar, who is absolutely the greatest nobleman in Scotland, accompanied by the principal people of the place. From the lodging at which I descended, I was taken to his house, and on the following day he showed me the park, and accompanied me for some miles with the same company, on horse-back, offering me various acts of courtesy the while.
At Falkland (Falcan), a moderate palace of the king, Baron Schum (fn. 5) treated me in the same manner, so that I received abundant favours everywhere.
Two miles further, at Linlithgow (Lefco), (fn. 6) which is also a royal palace, the letters of your Serenity of the 16th reached me, with the matters written by the king concerning the ship Corsaletta, with instructions to obtain an audience of the king to fulfil the commands contained in it. Accordingly I at once abandoned everything else and set out immediately for this city, whither the High Chancellor has to-day come on purpose to call upon me, showing the greatest consideration.
I have taken leave and am setting out straight for the court. When I am two days off, I shall send on to ask for an audience, and I shall also send another person to London for the letters arrived to date.
When I meet the king he is sure to ask me many particulars of this kingdom, in which he was born, and of which he spoke with great affection, and he will thank me for my pains. When the opportunity comes I will present the letters and speak, and I hope, by God's grace, that all will be settled as your Serenity directs, and to the satisfaction of His Majesty.
I will send my despatch as soon as possible, and when I reach London I will fulfil the command of your Serenity with the ambassador of the States.
I will give your Serenity all particulars of this country, so beautiful, fertile and populous, as I did of the other, on my return home.
From Edinburgh, the 19th of September, 1613.
[Italian.]
Sept. 19. Senato, Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.96. To the Secretary in Mantua.
With regard to the decision of the Cardinal Duke not to receive the ambassador of the king of Great Britain at present, we have nothing to say, as the matter is settled. But we think that so friendly and spontaneous an advance from so great and powerful a king would have been of great service to the duke, and no one could have reasonably complained of his receiving a compliment of this description. Moreover it is known that the king recognises the justice of the duke's cause, and does not favour the opposite side.
Ayes 168.
Noes 2.
Neutral 4.
[Italian.]
Sept. 19. Senato, Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.97. To the Ambassador in England.
The governor of Milan has sent to demand in the name of His Catholic Majesty that the princess, daughter of the late Duke Francesco, be delivered to him. The Cardinal Duke has excused himself, regretting that he cannot give the king satisfaction in this. It is clear that the duke of Savoy has had a hand in this, and so it is not expedient to take away the princess and give her to Savoy.
The prince of Castiglione has gone to Mantua on behalf of the emperor to procure the pardon of the rebels, but with the opinion that he ought not to press it. He refused to join in the demand for the surrender of the princess, as he received orders from the emperor to the contrary. What the duke will decide to do is uncertain, but it will soon be known.
You must make such use of these particulars as you think will be best for our service, especially in informing His Majesty whom we instruct you to thank for having acquainted us with his resolve to send his ambassador, resident here, to Mantua, praising his purpose of preserving peace in this province.
Ayes 134.
Noes 0.
Neutral 1.
[Italian.]
Sept. 20. Senato, Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.98. Instructions to Gregorio Barbarigo, chosen as Ambassador to the King of Great Britain in succession to Antonio Foscarini, recalled.
To go to England and hand his commission to his predecessor, and after receiving necessary information from him, to ask an audience of the king. To present his credentials, congratulate the king on his good health and express the hope that the cordial relations subsisting between the king and the republic may continue.
He shall perform a like office with the queen, as he judges proper, and also present his credentials to the prince, putting the title of Wales or of York, as he thinks best, in the part which is left blank. He shall proceed to visit and treat with the lords of the Privy Council, who are the principal ministers of the court, and with the representatives of the princes accredited to the court.
He shall use all diligence to understand what is going on, day by day, sending advice of all from time to time, and it is best for this purpose to be as much as possible near the place where the king is.
In conformity with the wishes of Popes Clement VIII. and Paul V. he shall always support the cause of the Catholics, but it will be necessary to act with great circumspection in order not to offend the king, and to do nothing except generally, and then only if he is sure of succeeding.
The ambassador of His Majesty here has often proposed that some means be found to relieve the subjects of both parties from the imposts, to encourage mutual commerce. We draw attention to our instructions to the Ambassador Molino, of the 30 December, 1604, and 5 February, 1605, as a basis for all negotiations upon this subject.
The journey to England will afford an opportunity to visit Zurich, that being the shortest and safest way at present, and he shall present credentials there and express the friendly sentiments of the republic.
He shall discover if they are disposed to come to a good understanding with the republic and to send troops in case of need. He shall deal with the other Cantons through which he passes as he thinks best for the service of the republic.
We grant, beyond the ordinary household, a chaplain and an interpreter of English, and we grant to the chaplain a salary of 186 ducats a year, and to the interpreter one of 100 ducats a year.
He shall receive 200 gold ducats a month for his expenses of lire 7 each, without being required to render account. He shall keep eleven horses, including those of his secretary and servant. Also 1,000 gold ducats as a gratuity, according to the decree of the Senate of 2 June, 1561, and 300 ducats of lire 6 soldi 4 for stables, trappings and chests. To the secretary, 100 ducats as a gift and 20 ducats each to two couriers accompanying him. We have given 150 ducats for the expenses of couriers and for the carrying of letters, and 40 crowns a month for all other expenses. (fn. 7)
Ayes 151.
Noes 0.
Neutral 3.
[Italian.]
Sept. 19. Senato, Deliberazioni Venetian Archives.99. To the Ambassador in England.
Notification of the coming of Gregorio Barbarigo to succeed him, and of his own recall, and that he has given entire satisfaction in the discharge of his duties.
Ayes 151.
Noes 0.
Neutral 3.
[Italian.]
Sept. 22. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Mantova. Venetian Archives.100. Antonio Maria Vincenti, Venetian Resident at Mantua, to the Doge and Senate.
As regards the matter of the ambassador of England, the duke has not spoken about it to me, but the ministers have done so more than once. They recognise how advantageous such an office would be, but finally they shrug their shoulders and say it was the wish of their master, a resolution taken hastily, and if the letters of your Serenity had arrived only four hours sooner the affair might possibly have taken another turn. If they say more, I will proceed in accordance with instructions.
From Mantua, the 22 Sept. 1613.
[Italian.]
Sept. 25. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.101. Agostino Narni, Francesco Contarini, and Girolamo Soranzo, Ambassadors in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
While we were waiting for an audience, the ambassador of England came out of His Majesty's chamber and then went back looking very irresolute and worried. This shows that the interview was stormy, and indeed as we waited we heard these formal words Dabit Deus his quoque finem and then funem. On his return he was heard by the emperor and all the council, and perhaps he received a reply entirely different from what he had reason to expect, as he left greatly conciliated, though he only made a slight reverence to His Majesty as everyone remarked. Perhaps this was out of resentment for having been made to wait three months for an audience. (fn. 8)
From Ratisbon, the 25 September, 1613. Copy.
[Italian.]
Sept. 25. Senato, Secreta, Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives.102. Cristoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
Everything shows that the loss by the Turks of seven galleys has caused a great commotion and spurs them to make extraordinary provisions. They are paying special attention to the arsenal and the materials stored there. They have resolved to send immediately to the Black Sea for a great quantity of timber, that the captains be instructed to have their galleys in readiness, that fifty galleys be built and as many more as possible, and that the forty-nine old galleys now in the arsenal be repaired and re-fitted. They also think of making some armed barques, and armed galleys to sail to Alexandria, well supplied with artillery and men. This energy will provide them with 150 sail in all for next year, and they give out that they threaten Malta. But it is thought that their preparations will be delayed by the winter and by other difficulties and they have not yet begun to work except two of the galleys, to be provided by the Grand Vizier. The Captain of the Sea may be removed from his charge. He is at almost open enmity with the Grand Vizier.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, the 25 September, 1613.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Sept. 28. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Roma. Venetian Archives.103. Tomaso Contarini, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
This week there have been rumours of a league between the pope, the emperor and the king of Spain with the design of preserving the Catholic religion in Germany. It is thought that His Holiness will join because the Spaniards have induced him at other times to unite with the Catholics of Germany under this pretext, making him head of the league. It would be a favourable time because of the unfortunate start made by the Imperial Diet, but perhaps their end is to use this alliance for various things. I have not been able to ascertain the truth of the matter, but such operations usually take place with extraordinary quickness.
From Rome, the 28 September, 1613.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The festivities offered to the queen at Wells are fully described in Nichols' Progresses of James I, ii, pp. 672–5. The public performance was given on August 20th, O.S., possibly what Foscarini saw was a repetition.
2 This refers chiefly to the defeat of the Turkish fleet by Don Ottavio of Aragon on 12 August, 1613, when seven galleys were taken. There is apparently no English equivalent for Maona. Perhaps troopship is the nearest approach. The vessels are thus described in the Dictionary of Tommasio and Bellini: Sono grandissimo vasi e si assomigliano alle galee grosse o galeazze veneziane; non vanno a remi, portano vele quadre, sono di tardo moto, servono al Gran Turco per portare soldati, artiglerie, etc.
3 Writing to the king on 7 July, 1614. O.S., Carleton thus refers to his proposed mission to Mantua: I had formerly a commission to performe an office of friendship with ye duke of Mantua, in which I fayled not of my duty, but put myselfe in readines for ye journey and had executed ye same, but yt his Resident here, ye day before my going, cast his Cardinal's hat in my way as an impediment for any external demonstration of friendship. State Papers. Foreign. Venice.
4 Sir Stephen Lesieur, a naturalised Frenchman, was the ambassador in question. He was requested by the marshal to absent himself from the city and the diet until a courier, sent to King James to ask for his recall, should return with the king's answer. Lesieur to James, S.P. Foreign, Germany (Empire).
5 Probably David Murray of Gospetrie, baron Scone, who was in charge of Falkland palace.
6 Falkland and Linlithgow must be the palaces referred to, but they are quite twenty miles apart as the crow flies, with the Firth of Forth between. Falkirk is about seven miles from Linlithgow, but it contains no royal palace.
7 See the previous volume of this Calendar at page 545.
8

Lesieur gives a long account of this audience in his despatch to the king, dated 17/27 Sept. (S.P. Foreign, Germany (Empire). Before being admitted to the presence, he was taken into a chamber apart by the principal ministers of the crown, who informed him of the chief reasons why the emperor disliked him.

They were:

(1) At his first audience he had given the emperor to understand that France had joined with the union of Protestant princes of Germany; but it appeared that it was not true.

(2) He had presumed to prescribe to the emperor what he should do in certain cases.

(3) He had possessed the elector of Brandenburg with the idea that the emperor was willing that James should compound the differences of Juliers.

(4) He had a conventicle and preaching at his house at Vienna without the emperor's permission.

Lesieur met all these charges. This interview is what the Venetians refer to when they speak of the ambassador coming out of His Majesty's chamber. The emperor was not present at the first interview.

Lesieur was subsequently admitted to the presence. The emperor received him graciously, listened favourably to all his requests, but refused to discuss why he had refused him an audience for so long.