Venice
August 1614

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1907

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166-184

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'Venice: August 1614', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 13: 1613-1615 (1907), pp. 166-184. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=95884 Date accessed: 25 October 2014.


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August 1614

Aug. 1. Senato. Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.346. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
To-day, after dinner, the King of Denmark arrived in this city, accompanied by five or six persons only. (fn. 1) He descended at the queen's palace, whither the prince immediately proceeded. News was at once sent to the king, who began his progress on Monday. He is sixty miles away, but it is expected that he will now return to London.
The reasons for this unexpected visit are not known yet, only it is argued that it must be connected with the rumours of war. The king has left his court in a place far away from here and it will soon arrive. This is all that I have been able to gather in so short a time.
London, the 1st August, 1614.
Postscript.—At this moment, namely three o'clock at night, the ambassador of Spain has left the house of the representative of Flanders on horseback, who has only recently returned from the court where he had a very few words with the king (dove ha pochissimo parlato col Re), and at once took leave.
[Italian.]
Aug. 1. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.347. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The latest letters from the Hague, dated on the 20th, relate that on that very day Henry, general of the cavalry, had set out and with him Count John Ernest with troops, munitions and money, for Juliers, in order to re-inforce the garrison of that place, which the States are determined to defend. There will be a garrison of 2,000 infantry, two companies of horse, money to pay the troops for six months and sufficient provision of food and artillery.
The Count John Ernest will remain as governor. He is colonel of a regiment of Walloons, captain of a company of cuirassiers and a leading cavalier. On the following day they began to march in order of battle with twelve pieces of artillery, forty companies of infantry and sixteen cornets of cavalry.
It is understood at Brussels that the Marquis Spinola will assemble all his troops near Maastricht, and it is hoped that with the new levies they will number 20,000 foot and 3,000 horse.
The ambassadors of Neuburg and Cologne have been some days at the Hague to treat about Juliers, but they have left without obtaining an answer to their mind. The assembly at Wesel has also broken up, so that everything points to war.
Neuburg is fortifying Dusseldorf, and also hopes to receive help in troops from Lorraine and in money from the Catholic league, and more from the pope.
Yesterday the ambassador of the archduke went to the king, who was forty miles distant from here. It must have been about these commotions. I will send particulars as soon as I can obtain them.
Sir [Henry] Wotton, ambassador extraordinary to Holland in the interests of peace, has not yet started. It is thought that all his efforts will be in vain. The ambassador of the States is still indisposed, and therefore is not transacting any business.
London, the 1st August, 1614.
Aug. 2. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.348. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
This morning I kissed the hand of the king of Denmark, congratulated him, on behalf of your Excellencies, on his safe arrival, and wished him all prosperity, adding that I would wait upon his commands. He replied in cordial terms towards your Excellencies and said that after he had visited the king he would be glad to see me. His Majesty has made the journey by sea bringing three ships with him. He routed some pirates, having left Denmark unexpectedly without any of his people knowing his purpose. After he landed, he travelled post, and without being recognised almost succeeded in reaching the most private apartments of the queen, who only heard just in time so that even with great difficulty she only managed to receive him at the door, (fn. 2) with the warmest demonstrations of affection. The prince arrived soon afterwards and the king is expected this evening. I have not learned any more except that he is expected to stop here a few days. I will make every effort and forward all information.
London, the 2nd August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 2. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives.349. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
Sig. Ottavian Lotti, the resident of His Highness at the court of England, has returned home, and the duke has appointed Sig. Francesco Quaratesi to succeed him.
From Florence, the 2 August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 3. Senato, Secreta Dispacci, Padova. Venetian Archives.350. Giovanni Battista Foscarini, Podestà of Padua, to the Doge and Senate.
Don Ippolito Aldobrandini called on me the day before yesterday and showed me the letters of his uncle upon his interview with the pope about the affairs of Mantua, the substance being that the cardinal had not the smallest knowledge of the intention of the duke of Savoy to send Senator Pescina to Venice, but when he heard of Pescina's arrival at Venice and that His Highness had taken this resolve owing to the single act of Francesco Martinengo he felt sure that if the Senator remained incognito at Venice for some days, he would finally be able to execute his commission. The motive of this decision was the project of the governor of Milan to disarm the duke by force. Nevertheless, the cardinal approved of the duke's action, and as he feared new disturbances in the province, he determined to speak to the pope, urging him to use his authority to cut at the root of the evil. His Holiness said that he had already acted in the matter and was ready to do more if a way was shown to him to do so efficaciously for the general welfare.
His Holiness said that he was under the impression that the Cardinal had been the originator and chief promoter of these negotiations, as if it had been arranged between the Cardinal and the ambassador of England that the Senator should be introduced into the Cabinet. He thereby seemed to place the Cardinal under two imputations, the one, of having a close understanding with the minister of a prince of a different religion, the other of taking out of the hands of the Spaniards the accommodation of these long-standing differences. The Cardinal replied that it was true that he had promoted the reconciliation between the duke and the republic, but that he had never passed the limits of his position as a prelate of Holy Church, an Italian and a Catholic; had never had the smallest intelligence with the ambassador, and that nothing would have induced him to treat for peace with the minister of a prince who, for his own interests, must desire troubled waters in Italy. The pope seemed satisfied and said he would be glad to see the Cardinal intervene between the republic and the duke.
After leaving his Holiness the Cardinal went straight to the Ambassador Contarini to tell him all. He said that his previous negotiations had all been in the interests of the peace and liberty of Italy, but he never knew that the offices of the ambassador of England would be employed to introduce the Senator Pescina, and as a sign of confidence he had instructed his nephew to come and tell me everything.
From Padua, the 3 August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 5. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.351. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassador of Holland has sent his secretary to the court to inform the queen of the warlike preparations of Holland. If this is in order to break the truce, he beseeches the king for his protection, saying they only desire peace. They are ready to leave the question of Juliers in his hands and will abide by whatever he decides, provided that he does not allow the place to fall into the power of the Spaniards. They will hand it over to whomsoever it is adjudged to belong. The garrison which they have placed there is composed of French, English, and Germans, to show that the place ought not at present to be dependent upon anyone unless they were allied with those princes who took up the matter from the first.
The duke of Savoy continues his request that His Majesty will intervene in the accommodation with Mantua, but without entering into any particulars. It is known here that the duke has craftily approached England with the same purpose, and some reports say that the same thing is taking place with your Serenity. The Resident of Mantua pressed me hard whether I had any confirmation of this, and I replied that no such information had reached my ears.
From Paris, the 5 August 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 5. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.352. To the Secretary at Mantua.
We have received to-day letters from Milan, in which the Secretary sends the reply of the governor of Milan in the matter of the Senator Pescina, relating the things done and the little gratitude received from the duke, by reason of his unstable nature. He adds that his Highness contemplates printing something against his Excellency to which he would have to reply, and as Savoy discloses that the Signory is united with him and that the governor agrees with him, he had no other course but to execute the orders received from his Catholic Majesty that very morning to compel him to do his duty by force and to humiliate him. He believes that the Signory will not intervene, and that the contest will be between themselves alone. His Majesty does not want his possessions, but only to punish him so that he may not raise his head again. We desire you to communicate this to the Duke.
Ayes156.
Noes0.
Neutral1.
[Italian.]
Aug. 5. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.353. To the Secretary at Milan.
We send a copy of the negotiations with the Senator Pescina on the 26th ult. They afford no cause for uneasiness to the Cardinal Duke, but rather the certainty of our continual regard for his interests, notwithstanding what the governor may have said to his deputies.
Ayes165.
Noes0.
Neutral0.
[Italian.]
Aug. 5. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.354. To the Ambassador in Spain.
We send copies of the latest negotiations with the Senator Pescina and of those with the Catholic Ambassador on the 24th and 26th ult. We wish you to go to his Catholic Majesty and inform him of what has taken place with the Senator Pescina, expressing our conviction that he will issue definite orders for the laying down of arms and for the amicable treatment of controversies, pursuing the end of the tranquillity of this province, especially as the Duke of Mantua has done all that can be required of him, and delays are dangerous. You will assure his Majesty that we aim at peace, as we have done from the first.
You will speak to the same purpose to the duke of Lerma and to such ministers as you see fit, with the purpose chiefly of acquainting them with our dealings with the Catholic Ambassador and with the governor of Milan.
Ayes167.Ayes16.
Noes0.In the CollegeNoes0.
Neutral2.Neutral0.
[Italian.]
Aug. 5. Collegio, Secreta. Lettere. Venetian Archives.354A. To the Proveditore of Zante.
We send enclosed herewith the copy of a memorial presented by the ambassador of England in the Cabinet. We command you to cause speedy justice to be done to Henry Morton, recommended by that ambassador, in the cases which he has in your town, so that he may benefit by such intervention and rest content, and you shall send back word of what you have done.
Ayes21.
Noes0.
Neutral0.
[Italian.]
The Memorial.
Enclosed in the preceding Despatch.354B. Henry Morton, shipmaster, subject of the king of Great Britain, having hired his ship at Zante until the 31 March, 1613, to George Balsamo, a Greek, and John Wragge, an Englishman, upon certain agreements, and being involved here in a prolonged suit with Zuan Maria Riva, to whom he had hired his ship for Candia, with the consent of an agent of the said George and John, which, as he will show, has reduced him to extreme want, not having anything either to pay wages or to supply food to his sailors, he beseeches your Serenity to cause a letter to be written to the Governor of Zante to administer summary justice in the disputes between him and the said George and John, so that he may not be injured by their dragging out the case.
[Italian.]
Aug. 8. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.355. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king arrived on the very evening that I sent off my last, as I wrote that he would do. Three days later the ships of the King of Denmark arrived on the coast twenty miles from here, and on the third day all his court reached this city. The day before yesterday his councillors were with him. It is not yet known if they have broached any matters to his Majesty. Only two persons possess the king's confidence entirely, the admiral and the chancellor. Various reasons are given for his coming, each person expressing his own beliefs, so that opinions are various and conflicting. On his arrival the king is reported to have remarked that all the world was at peace, and Beati Pacifici, but afterwards he showed that he thought otherwise. He is understood to have come on affairs of the highest importance, in the hope of persuading the king to something, which he could only do by his presence here. When he has spoken I will do my utmost to inform your Excellencies of everything.
I have not yet discovered what subjects were dealt with by the ambassadors of Spain and Flanders the evening that they were together, that I wrote of. In the audience that the ambassador of Flanders had with the king on that day, his Majesty gave him several particulars of Wotton's mission to procure peace, adding that France also would act to the same purpose, and that they were working in concert. Thus it happened that the said ambassador had a long interview upon this with the representative of France on the following morning. Wotton is to set out at length to-day. After the States, his mission is to go to Brandenburg and Neuburg, and he may afterwards go to the Duke of Brunswick also. As regards the States, he takes various instructions, but the principal is to have Juliers placed in the hands of a third person satisfactory to both parties, without prejudice to their claims, until sentence has been pronounced and the matter settled peaceably. As regards Brandenburg and Neuburg, he is to persuade them to agree to choose a third person into whose hands the said place may be put, provided that the States first agree to it.
London, the 8 August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 8. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.356. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The reasons which have induced the king of Denmark to come here and the matters upon which he has negotiated with this king, have only been imparted by His Majesty to the earl of Somerset. However the general purpose of them has been discovered as well as some of the particulars. (fn. 3) The queen wrote to him about some small dispute with the king and asked him to come and find a remedy and also for an appointment in case of an unexpected visit. I am assured that this is one of the reasons. A short time will certainly show what has been decided. It has already been discovered that some feeling against the States still lingers in the mind of the king of Denmark, although they are at peace perhaps because circumstances compel them to be. Nevertheless he had a long discussion with the king upon events which had taken place with the States. He showed his resentment, declaring that he was inclined towards peace in order to follow the counsels of His Majesty, but he made it clearly understood that he did not think that their excessive aggrandizement was a good thing. He spoke of matters touching Greenland, the fisheries of those realms and other contentious points between his kingdom and the States, and at the end he conjured the king not to help them if they take the offensive in Flanders. Results show that he made no great impression in this, because no other commissions have been given to Wotton except those of which I spoke.
It is said that he spoke about marrying the prince here to a daughter of Spain, and that the queen is in favour of it.
I have visited him [the king of Denmark] and told him that your Excellencies would always be his most cordial friends, both because of his close alliance with the king here and for his own sake. He replied with courteous words.
I had audience after France, and I might have had it before, as they began with Savoy and proceeded in order. I preferred to arrange with France, thinking it more proper.
The king of Denmark is above the average in height. He is dressed in the French fashion. His nature is warlike. He left on Monday and the king resumed his progress towards Theobalds on the same day. I will endeavour to procure more complete and certain information for your Excellencies.
The King in concert with France continues to propose to the States and Princes three trusty persons, to choose one into whose hand Juliers may be put. They are, the landgrave of Hesse, the Prince Christian of Anhalt and the Prince of Orange. Orders have been sent to Wotton to proceed to Brunswick for the solemnisation of the marriage, which is to take place next month.
Count Henry entered Juliers with the troops of which I spoke, having forced a passage through some place of the archduke. Armaments are increasing on every side. They have resolved to increase that garrison by 3,000 more infantry, 1,200 French, and the remainder partly English and partly Scotch. The archduke will have a great number of Spaniards and Walloons among the new levies, but few Italians and those discontented. He betrays a great desire to remain at peace.
It is said that the Dutch ships in Greenland amount to thirty, those of the king to nineteen, those of France to twelve, and ten of Spain, under the command of the admiral of Vizcaya (Biscaglia). It is thought that a battle has taken place.
London, the 8 August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 11. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Grisoni. Venetian Archives.357. Gregorio Barbarigo, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary to the Swiss and Grisons, to the Doge and Senate.
It is said that the ambassador of Spain has received 400,000 crowns to pay to the troops of the count of Bucquoi, and that the pope would contribute; and that every effort would be directed against the Elector Palatine, not only in the matter of Cleves, but because it appeared that everything would have to be decided at this time, which might crop up at a future election of a king of the Romans, to which, it seems, his ambition is covertly directed. The Spaniards are afraid that the king of Great Britain and the other confederates intend to make the choice fall upon the Elector Palatine. I am told that the queen of France has been asked not to prevent the confederate princes of Hall from joining with the league of Zurich and Berne, but the Palatine's agent was unable to obtain any definite reply either from the queen or from M. de Villeroi.
From Zurich, the 11 August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 11. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives.358. The Ambassador of England came into the Cabinet and said:
My desire not to leave a good work unfinished has brought me here from my house in spite of my feebleness. The duke of Savoy has asked me to renew the expression of his filial regard for the republic and I have received his letters upon the occasion of the return of the Senator Pescina to Turin. His Highness begs me to thank your Serenity for the kind reception of that senator and for the gracious reply given to him. The duke has decided to go a step further, and informs me that he has selected a resident ambassador as before, to whom he has given all necessary instructions together with certain particulars which greatly concern his Highness and which should be no less important to the republic. They are, in fact, of grave moment, because, as I understand from several quarters, they refer to the pretentions of others who assume a supreme authority, satis pro imperio, and will not permit any reply to be made to their decrees. I may now leave the senator to treat with your Serenity, only adding this on my own behalf. That it is the general rule, when treating of peace between individuals, to make use of two tongues, with direct and indirect expression, in order to adjust the dispute more easily. But in treating of peace between princes of a generous mind it is always best to deal straightforwardly with absolute sincerity; and to that end since the duke has decided to send his ambassador to your Serenity, to treat the better together, I hope that you will do the like, as I think it will be most advantageous for you to have a discreet and prudent representative at that court, especially as the duke is ready to follow the prudent counsels of the republic. But perhaps you will think that I go too far in the affairs of others, though under the circumstances this business may be considered as common, and I have received letters about it from my king these last days.
His Majesty praises the prudent conduct of your Serenity in this important affair, which ought to redound greatly to the advantage of the republic, whose honour and glory he values as his own. I am charged to say how much the king will be gratified if your Serenity will send a representative of your own to the duke of Savoy, who has already selected a subject to represent him here.
In the absence of the doge, the senior councillor Viaro replied, thanking the king. He added, our good disposition towards the duke of Savoy appears in our desire to see him released from his present difficulties. The republic also desires to see this province relieved from all dangers. We will deliberate upon the matter and afterwards a reply shall be given.
The ambassador replied, I shall await the decision of your Serenity, in order to inform His Highness. Every hour that this consolation is delayed will seem a year to him, as he is so devoted to the republic that he considers his most glorious title to be that of eldest son of your Serenity. The earl of Arundel (Arlè), who has already passed through the state of the republic and has since visited Florence, where he was courteously received by the Grand Duke, proposes to return to these parts, and has asked me for my house in Padua, to spend this season there. But news has arrived of the death of the earl of Northampton (Morean), his uncle, so that it will be necessary for him to go straight to England in order to take possession of the inheritance and the property left to him. He has asked me to thank your Serenity for the favours which he has received, to say that he will always be ready to serve the ministers of the republic at the court, and to offer his excuses to your Serenity for leaving Italy without having fulfilled his duty.
The Most Illustrious Viaro replied: We entertained the earl in a manner befitting his quality and we should have been delighted to do more if he had returned here. But as his grief for the loss of his uncle will be somewhat relieved by the increase of his fortune, we wish him a pleasant journey home. After further courteous words, the ambassador took leave.
[Italian.]
Aug. 13. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Milano. Venetian Archives.359. Effective forces of the duke of Savoy, enclosed in a despatch of Agostino Dolci, Venetian Resident at Milan, to the Doge and Senate, dated 13 August, 1614.
Swiss2,000
French1,200
Savoyards1,200
A mixed company of various nations under Captain Valesiano223
The above are the best infantry up to the present. Vaudois -2,000
Under Baron Firnon, half Savoyards, half Piedmontese1,000
Under Count Guido San Georgio600
The regiment of Camillo Giusti300
The regiment of Italians of Menesterli300
The Italian regiment of Cav. Cunardo Brogha300
French newly arrived from Dauphiné under M. de Moyer, formerly lieutenant of M. Lesdiguières-2,000
Levies of Marquisate of Saluzzo-600
Levies of Val Lucerna-800
Levies of Val d'Aosto700
Levies of Pinarolo400
Levies of Mondein, Oneglia, etc.1,500
15,123
Twenty-one squadrons of cavalry1,260
Arquebusiers on horse from Dauphiné, which came with the infantry under the Lieutenant of Lesdiguières400
It is expected to levy from the Swiss of Lucerne6,000
Savoyards and French expected with the duke of Nemours4,000
Cavalry promised with the Duke of Nemours500
The infantry will thus amount to25,120 men
The cavalry to2,220 “
Total, exclusive of bombardiers and devastators (guastatori)27,340 men.
[Italian.]
Aug. 14. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.360. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king's ambassador has set out for Paris, he bears commissions to treat for the marriage of the second princess there with the prince here, but in considerably restricted terms and rather as a compliment to Her Most Christian Majesty than with serious intent (ma in termine assai ristretto e più per mostrar corrispondenza alla M. Chrme. che per conclusione). He has also taken letters in reply to their Majesties upon this affair, others in favour of the Courtenays, and one to the Prince of Condé in which the king exhorts him to take them into his protection.
Gabaleone has gone, well contented in all matters except the marriage propositions, to which a courteous reply but of no import has been made.
The Prince of Condé has resolved not to return to court before the king is of age or the Estates have met.
Here the nobility continue to make grants to the king, but it is not thought that the amount can possibly come anywhere near the sum desired (qui si continua dalla nobilita far donativi al Re; ma non si crede possa aricinarsi la somma di gran longa a quello si sperava).
After a long silence I beg to remind your Excellencies that two years have passed since my successor was appointed, four that I have served here and ten of continuous service, without reckoning the expenses, inconveniences and sufferings of mind and body which I have experienced during the whole of this time. I have almost entirely lost my health and have consumed a great part of my substance. Sig. Barbarigo has been nearly a year in Switzerland and the Grisons, but I have held my peace because I knew the importance of the affair. I venture to speak out, and say how my long absence from my country, my poor health and the need of seeing to my affairs, arouse tender longings in my heart. But if the service of your Excellencies requires the continuance of Sig. Barbarigo in those parts, and mine here, in consequence, I will waive my own interests and continue to expend what little of life and substance remain to me without any other object than to earn the favour of your Serenity and your Excellencies.
I have received your letters of the 22nd, containing the exposition of the ambassador of this king for Senator Pessina bearing letters of credence from the duke of Savoy, with the reply made thereto, and containing instructions to go to the king and thank him for his share in this. I will take the opportunity, upon his fortunate day, when I send to congratulate him. I will also discover his convenience for an audience, and if he sends for me for one, I will go willingly, although he is 70 or 80 miles away, as the inconvenience and expense are of small moment to me as compared with the service of your Excellencies.
London, the 14th August, 1614.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 14. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.361. To the Secretary at Milan.
Go to the governor of Milan and inform him of the latest proceedings of the Senator Pescina as contained in the enclosed copy. From the words spoken on behalf of Savoy we are sanguine that he will do his duty, and accept good advice.
Ayes180.
Noes0.
Neutral3.
[Italian.]
Aug. 14. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.362. To the Governor of Milan.
We have instructed our resident to inform you of certain things said by the Senator Pescina and of our opinion thereupon. We beg you to hear him.
Ayes180.
Noes0.
Neutral3.
[Italian.]
Aug. 14. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.363. That the following be read to the Senator Pescina:
We shall be glad to receive the ambassador of His Highness. With regard to his request to use our offices for disarmament, we have written to Rome, Spain and the governor of Milan and have spoken with the Catholic ambassador. Matters are proceeding satisfactorily.
Ayes165.
Noes0.
Netural3.
[Italian.]
Aug. 14. Senato. Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.364. To the Duke of Savoy.
Assurances of friendship and of a friendly welcome to the ambassador when he comes.
Ayes165.
Noes2.
Neutral4.
[Italian.]
Aug. 14. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.365. To the Secretary Vincenti.
Particulars of the Senator Pescina's audience in the Cabinet the day before yesterday. Communicate them to the Cardinal Duke as a sign of confidence, adding that we have written to the duke and replied to Pescina that we shall welcome the ambassador and have negotiated for the disarmament.
Ayes165.
Noes2.
Neutral4.
[Italian.]
Aug. 14. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.366. To the Ambassador in Spain.
We have consented to receive an ambassador from Savoy, and enclose copies of what we have written to Mantua and Milan for information.
The like to Germany, France and England.
Ayes165.
Noes2.
Neutral4.
[Italian.]
Aug. 14. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.367. That the Ambassador of England be summoned to the Cabinet and the following be read to him:
We have always known the affection of His Majesty for the republic and have received a confirmation of it in the recent offices of your Excellency. We have no other object than the quiet of this province, that right and justice may prevail and everyone be sure of his own. We are therefore especially glad to see that the actions of the duke of Savoy agree with his words. We feel sure that it will be to his advantage in the end, as we desire, owing to our ancient friendship with his house. We have therefore given express orders to our ministers to use every possible effort for the peace and the common weal. We have decided to receive the ambassador sent by the duke to the Republic, who will be received and treated in the ordinary manner, and (when an opportunity arises) we shall not neglect to assure His Highness of our paternal benevolence and excellent disposition towards him and his house.
Copies of this exposition and of the exposition of the ambassador shall be sent to England and the other courts.
Ayes150.
Noes2.
Neutral2.
That the words in brackets be omitted 33.
[Italian.]
Aug. 16. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives.368. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
News has come from Brussels that troops and artillery are being sent from Brabant to Juliers. That the United Provinces, on their side, have sent fresh troops and munitions to that place, proposing to introduce at least 4,000 infantry; that they have asked the king of England for assistance, but that he, after having spoken upon this with the Catholic ambassador resident with him, had interposed in favour of an accommodation and has decided to send an ambassador to Holland to exhort the States to peace and to place Juliers in neutral hands.
From Florence, the 16 August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 18. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.369. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
I have seen letters from the Marquis Spinola to the Count of Bucquoi asking him to come immediately to Flanders, saying that he will assemble his army at Maastricht and he will soon have 20,000 men. He complains that relief has been allowed to enter Juliers, and that provisioning takes longer than is necessary.
The count will leave immediately, without a thought as to the necessity of his presence here.
The Ecclesiastical electors, seeing these states in manifest peril, have joined together and decided to unite their forces with those of the king of Spain, who in this way will become interested in that war, to the disadvantage of the emperor, who will lose the contributions promised to him by them in the last diet at Ratisbon. Copy.
From Linz, the 18 August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 18. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives.370. The Ambassador of England came into the Cabinet and after the deliberation of the Senate had been read to him, he said:
The reply of your Serenity is what I might expect from your prudence and graciousness. I will send it on to the ministers of His Majesty with the duke. If what is said be true, I shall hope for satisfactory results, and that the duke will follow up his words by deeds. I will also inform His Majesty of the value placed by your Serenity upon the offices performed by me at his command. They have been done most willingly, and I shall always be ready to do the like if your Serenity will overlook my imperfections. I have in mind the desire of my king, who is anxious to see this reconciliation effected. It ought to come about soon, for non caret effectu, quod roluere duo, and I may expect it for three other reasons besides.
Firstly, because it is desired and asked for with great humility by a son; then because he is heard by a most kind father, and lastly because a king has interposed who is the friend of both, but especially of the republic. I thank your Serenity for the honour you do me in admitting my feeble efforts, which are always done readily, however much they may be lacking in other respects.
The doge replied that His Excellency always acted with great ability as the worthy minister of His Majesty, of whose friendly disposition they were always receiving fresh proofs.
The ambassador expressed a wish to hear the deliberation again. This was read to him by a secretary in the Ante-secreto. The ambassador asked pardon for causing the trouble.
[Italian.]
Aug. 19. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.371. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The good results of the decision of their Majesties to take this journey become more apparent every day. Villeroi, who advised it, has risen to the most influential position not only with the queen but with all the court. At present the queen decides all important matters by his advice. During this progress the queen observes the methods by which the deputies now being chosen may be persons absolutely dependent upon her, whereby she hopes to secure herself for a while in the administration and afterwards to effect the marriages with Spain, over which Villeroi watches with extraordinary application, taking great pains to win over every one and among others the chiefs of the Huguenots, so that the matter may be settled unanimously.
From Paris, the 19 August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 19. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.372. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassador of England has returned. He brings no decision about the marriage of their prince with the second princess here. He only speaks of the excellent disposition of his Majesty and says that he will have to discuss the details afterwards with the queen. From this it is sufficiently clear that they want to see the end of those of Spain before they enter upon this.
Three days ago Gabaleone passed through here on his way from England to Turin. Although he pretended that he was called by his private affairs, yet the haste with which he travelled makes it probable that he has gone on the business of his master.
From Paris, the 19 August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 19. Enclosed in the preceding Despatch.373. The number of troops and the regiments which the Spaniards expect to put in the field in Flanders beyond the forces usually maintained there:
Three regiments of Spaniards of 1,000 men each.
A regiment of Irish of 1,000 men.
A regiment of Italians of Marcello de' Indici of 2,000 men.
A regiment of Burgundians of the Baron de Balançon of 1,000 men.
A regiment of Germans of the Count of Emden of 3,000 men.
Three regiments of Walloons of 1,000 men each.
Two thousand five hundred horse.
[Italian.]
Aug. 20. Senato, Mar. Venetian Archives.374. The ambassador of England having requested the heads of the Council of Ten to grant him permission to have a place on the Lido to see the shooting (tirar di frezza), (fn. 4) that it be granted as a sign of regard, as is customary in such cases, and that in addition to the usual 20 ducats given to the officials of the Rason vecchie, 120 ducats be supplied to them, to give a dinner to the ambassador and his wife, and such quantity of silver shall be given to those officials as is necessary for the occasion.
Ayes151.Ayes16.
Noes2.Noes1,
Neutral9.Neutral1.
[Italian.]
Aug. 22. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.375. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I have taken pains to ascertain better what the king of Denmark dealt with here. I gathered that he left ill satisfied upon the principal matter, which concerns the States, and also as concerns the queen, to which the king replied in very few words. When he asked for Sir [Walter] Raleigh, who is in the Tower, the king seemed well disposed, but referred it to the Council and put it off until the last day, without doing anything else afterwards (havendo dimandato il Cavr. Rale, che si trova in Torre, habbia il Re mostrato buona dispositione, ma rimesso al Consiglio, c' ha portato sino all' ultimo giorno senza poi farne altro). When that king received the visits of the ambassadors of France and of your Serenity he remained uncovered, but he covered with the Lieger of Spain and made him cover himself. He was covered with the ambassador of the Archduke, who remained uncovered. He left on Monday the 11th inst. accompanied by the king as far as Gravesend. The latter continued his progress to Theobalds the same day. The prince remained until after dinner on the following day.
The ambassador of the Archduke requested permission to see his Majesty again, and was at Gravesend, but without seeing the king, from whom the king of Denmark separated himself in order to hear him. The ambassador of Spain subsequently made the same request, and was received on Tuesday after the prince had left, in the royal ship, where they conversed for the space of two hours. They drank various toasts and at parting the ambassador was honoured with a salute of cannon. It is known that they discussed the affairs of Juliers and the arms of Flanders, but as the audience took place in the presence of the ambassador of the Archduke and the Chancellor of Denmark and the Admiral alone, it is most difficult to discover particulars. Those ambassadors have been several times with the ministers of that king, and it is clear that the king of Spain as much as the king of Denmark desires to abuse the States, though their ends are different, the former desiring to subject them entirely, while the latter wishes to reduce them to such a state that they will not be able to oppose his pretensions.
The king continues to pursue what he believes to be his interest and the universal good, without allowing himself to be turned aside by the passions or interests of others.
A week ago to-day an ambassador from Neuburg was here, and in conformity with his instructions he at once had an interview with the ambassador of France, and passed immediately to the king. He brought two commissions, one to inform His Majesty of his conversion and the reasons for the step, the other to state the causes for his taking arms and seeking help from others, resulting from the diet of Wesel after the reply made by the States from the Hague to the ambassadors of his master, and all other matters pertaining thereto. The king replied that he would have listened to him upon the second point, but as regards the first he wished to know no more. However the ambassador contrived to get His Majesty to hear him an hour later. While he was speaking of the reasons for the conversion, the king made various replies upon points of theology, and he concluded by saying that he would have liked it better had he not changed and if he had continued in the faith he would have considered him as a friend. As regards Juliers, he promised to use every effort for peace, related the instructions given to the Ambassador Wotton, and showed himself to be animated in favour of peace. Thus the ambassador has returned here with well-grounded satisfaction. Soon afterwards, as he pursued his journey, the ambasssdor of the Archduke visited him and I am told the ambassador of Spain also. He dealt with these as being friendly to his master, and with France as an instrument of peace.
The ambassador of France told me that while warlike preparations were going forward in Flanders they do not take into consideration what the king of Denmark may do, as the Hanseatic cities allied with the States would keep him busy in his own house, the king of Sweden would not miss the chance and the States themselves with their great number of ships would place him in great peril.
London, the 22 August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 22. Senato. Secreta. Dispacei, Inghilterra Venetian Archives.376. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I sent for an audience and to congratulate the king on his fortunate day, and his Majesty has acknowledged the office. As regards the audience he said that he would always be glad to see me, but for five or six days he would not have very good quarters. However, he left the time and place to me within three or four days. I shall set out to find him some 70 miles from here (fn. 5) to execute my instructions and I will send a full report of what takes place.
I have been told by a person dependent upon Savoy that the Catholic king has in his hands the promise of the duke of Mantua to demolish the citadel of Casale at his pleasure. I succeeded in interviewing the ambassador of Spain upon the subject, who confirmed it, but in such sort as to leave me with the impression that he believed it rather than knew it.
The ambassador of France is informed that there are secret negotiations for the exchange of Montferrat for the Cremonese, and yesterday he showed me the part of the letter containing this. I write what I hear, not because I think it is new. If it is true it will have reached your Excellencies earlier.
Henry, after having well secured Juliers, has returned to the Hague. The States continue resolved as I advised, and while negotiations are proceeding through the interposition of the king here, jointly with the king of France, and accommodations are being sought, armaments are increasing as well as preparations on all hands.
The king, seeing himself very well served by his ambassador with your Serenity, who is at the end of his term, has destined him for another office.
An English ship has been taken in the Strait, with 200,000 crowns. Another has arrived here from the Indies.
London, the 22 August.
[Italian.]
Aug. 23. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives.377. The Ambassador of his Catholic Majesty came into the Cabinet and said [among other things]:
The duke of Savoy has acted very badly. He has made many proposals, which seem reasonable. He has failed in deed as well as in courtesy and it is impossible to come to any conclusion except that he will fail again, because it is the essence of the man. He has obtained the intervention of the pope, he has recourse to your Serenity, and will go to Poland, England and other kings. He will resolve upon nothing, will made a thousand evasions and a thousand intrigues, he will pass from one thing to another and it will be impossible to know what to believe.
[Italian.]
Aug. 30. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Roma. Venetian Archives.378. Cristoforo Surian, Venetian Secretary at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
A certain Roberto has recently been beheaded here, a worthy man of excellent wit. He was imprisoned for the same thing which cost him his life, namely that divers famous libels and pasquinades were found in his house. But the circumstance which contributed most to his destruction was the finding of a copy of the book 'Homo novus,' which came from England, covered with annotations in his hand, in which he applied the propositions to the actions and life of the present pope.
From Rome, the 30 August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 30. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives.379. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
News from Brussels states that the king of England, through his ambassador sent to Holland, urges the United Provinces to place Juliers in neutral hands, namely the prince of Orange, the landgrave Maurice of Hesse or the prince of Anhalt.
There is great suspicion of the offices which may have been performed by the king of Denmark with the king of England on his recent visit to that country.
From Florence, the 30 August, 1614.
[Italian.]
Aug. 31. Senato. Secreta. Dispacci, Padova. Venetian Archives.380. Giovanni Battista Foscarini, Podestà of Padua, to the Doge and Senate.
Don Ippolito Aldobrandino called on me this morning after mass. He told me that the Cardinal had asked him to say that Don Francesco di Castro had visited him (the Cardinal) at Frascati and had complained that he had arranged not only a reconciliation between Venice and the duke of Savoy but an alliance in the interests of His Highness. That for this purpose the Senator Pescina had been secretly for some days in Don Ippolito's house at Padua, and he, by means of the ambassador of England, had introduced Pescina to audience of your Serenity, and that the Cardinal has supplied the duke with 100,000 crowns. He complained that the Cardinal had kept the Catholic king ignorant of these proceedings, although he was greatly concerned in them, as being the greatest king in the world. The Cardinal replied that he had interposed as a good Italian and a friend of peace; that he had no relations or intelligence with the ambassador of England, and Don Ippolito had never spoken with the Senator Pescina either in his house or elsewhere, and had never even seen him. He also denied having supplied the duke with money, of which Don Francesco might easily satisfy himself.
To further justify himself the Cardinal has directed Don Ippolito to go to Venice, although under another pretext, to remove such impressions from the ambassador of Spain. He will probably arrive to-morrow.
The Cardinal is very anxious in this matter and much put out that his rivals should fasten upon him these calumnies of having, by means of the English ambassador, negotiated an alliance in favour of the designs of Savoy. He is chiefly distressed at being supposed to have employed the ambassador of the prince of another religion, as he wishes to remain free and independent, anxious above all things for the peace, liberty and greatness of the Italian princes.
From Padua, the last day of August, 1614.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 He landed here at Yarmouth and thence took post-horses to London, where, dining at an ordinary inn near Aldgate, he hired a hackney coach and presently addressed his course to the queen's court. Rev. Thos. Lorking to Sir Thos. Pickering, 29 July, 1614, o.s.—Birch, Court of James I., i. p. 340.
2 A more complete account is given by Mr. Lorking in his letter to Sir Thomas Pickering on July 29. He says: He entered the presence before any person had the least thought of him. There Cardel the dancer gave the first occasion of discovering him by saying that the gentleman was the likest the King of Denmark he had ever seen in his life, which a Frenchman, one of his Majesty's servants, hearing, and viewing his countenance well, whom he had seen the last time of his being here, grew confident that it was he, and presently ran to carry the news thereof to the queen, who sat then at dinner privately in her gallery at Somerset House. Birch, Court of James I., p. 340.
3 This visit constituted a nine days' wonder and many conjectures were offered to explain it. Mr. Lorking, writing to Sir Thomas Pickering on 6/16 August, says that the 'most judicious' guess at the cause of the visit was 'to treat with His Majesty about a marriage which is now in parley between his son and the younger daughter of Spain.'—Birch, Court of James I., i. p. 342.
4 Carleton writing to the king on 19 August. O.S., says that on the previous Sunday he had been invited to a public function, the shooting with Turkish bows, and that he was the first ambassador who had been asked to see this ceremony. State Papers, Foreign, Venice. The fact that the Council of Ten gave this invitation makes it probable that the occasion was the feast of St. Jerome on October 1st, when the members of that council were chosen for the year, and when a banquet was given to various officials. See Renier-Michiel: Orig. delle Feste Veneziane v. p. 261.
5 The king was progressing through Belvoir Castle, Newark, Rufford, and Newmarket, and reached Nottingham on the 17th, o.s. Nichols: Progresses of James I., iii., p. 20.