Venice
June 1616, 1-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1908

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212-222

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'Venice: June 1616, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 14: 1615-1617 (1908), pp. 212-222. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=95948 Date accessed: 20 August 2014.


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June 1616, 1–15

June 3. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.300. Gregorio Barbarigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The two letters of your Serenity of the 13th of last month, with the copies of the exposition of the marquis Manriquez and the reply of the Senate reached me yesterday, when I was in bed in a somewhat serious condition. The evening that I sent off my last dispatch I went to bed in severe pain, and on the following morning I lay immoveable and was so ill that I have not been able to rise up to the present moment. My weak constitution has been still further enfeebled by the continued sufferings of these three years, and the extremes of this climate are most injurious to me. However, as I am somewhat better, I hope in a few days to go to the king to execute the commands of your Excellencies. I console myself by the reflection that the time which must necessarily intervene will not greatly prejudice the affairs of your Serenity, as I know that the ambassador of Savoy had orders from the duke, his master, to speak to His Majesty upon current affairs, and has asked for an audience and spoken about it to the secretary Winwood, who has dissuaded him from persisting in asking for it, showing him how useless it is since the king has made up his mind not to come to any decision at present upon the affairs of Italy until he receives letters from Sir [Henry] Wotton, after he has arrived in this Province, with a resumé of the true state of affairs, and that he may see the results of the mission of M. de Bethune, the French ambassador, because if the Spaniards will not come to terms he is resolved not to waste any more time in words, but to have recourse to deeds, and before such time it is useless to think of drawing His Majesty into greater affairs. They think it strange here, and Winwood has spoken about it to the ambassador of Savoy with some dissatisfaction, that Wotton travels so slowly and does not hurry on more quickly, since he knows how important it is.
However, I will ask for an audience, so soon as I am able, and if I am unable in this state of affairs, to obtain a stronger declaration from the king, I shall at least inform him of the latest news which I think will most serve the cause of your Serenity and of the duke of Savoy. In particular I shall endeavour, without delay, to obtain from him some commissions for lord Hay, who is going as extraordinary ambassador to France, such as were sent many days ago to the ordinary ambassador, to support all the representations made by the ambassador Bon to their Most Christian Majesties.
This mission of lord Hay, which was to have set out soon, has been postponed some days, owing to the sumptuous and superb train which he takes with him and to some money difficulties, as he spent long since the 32,000 crowns which he had from the king at the beginning, to get himself ready. However, it is thought that he will leave in a few days.
With M. Caron, ambassador of the States I will perform the office of thanks, after I have seen His Majesty, for the friendship shown by his masters, especially with regard to the particulars of the proposals, as I am directed, although I performed a similar office of thanks after the return of my secretary here I will now do it more fully.
The news from Flanders and the neighbouring countries shows signs continually of new matters of great moment. It is now understood that the Emperor made a secret declaration that the states of the inheritance of Cleves ought to be placed in a third hand until judgment has been delivered as to whom they ought to belong, and that the marquis Spinola should be the person. The states of Holland become continually more certain that war must ensue, and though they themselves are not inclined to be the first to declare it, yet they feel that it is inevitable, and while they maintain their usual forces on foot, they keep bringing everything into order so that they may lose no time, whatever may happen.
The 600,000 crowns are ready to be paid to the king here in the name of the United Provinces, as the first instalment, in according to the agreement, and on Monday viscount Lisle will leave England, who was governor of Flushing, to make restitution of those places which were pawned to the Crown. As I have written at other times, this will cause great displeasure to all the English, who will thus lose the important advantage of holding towns, fortresses and ports on the mainland. This viscount Lisle, in addition to a good sum of money and other favours granted to him by the king for the loss of that governorship, will receive the day after to-morrow, the order of the garter, to take the place vacant rendered by the death of the earl of Salisbury.
Besides, what I wrote last week about the attempt to make the provinces under the archduke Albert take the oath to the king of Spain, they say this week that seeing the difficulty raised by some of the people in saying that His Catholic Majesty ought to come in person to receive it, the archduke has proposed that the prince of Spain, His Majesty's eldest son, shall come to receive it for his father, and thus matters have been appeased for the moment and nothing more has been done. Your Serenity shall receive full information of what takes place subsequently.
The count of Schomberg, who came here for the elector Palatine, has stayed on at Greenwich since Sunday with their Majesties, and has had various conversations with the king, from which I do not think they have yet arrived at a final decision. I hope, before he has left, to hear something, as I imagine that His Majesty has gone into some circumstances at length with him, especially upon the affairs of Italy, as the count had instructions to make certain enquiries about them.
To-day, at last, after various postponements, the trial of the Earl and Countess of Somerset has begun. The Countess was summoned to public trial this morning before a countless multitude of people. As she was unwilling to speak point by point upon the matters with which she is charged, she said that all that she had related at other times was true, confessed herself guilty and submitted herself to justice. She was condemned to be hanged, and the execution is fixed for Monday. No greater favour is expected from the king that what is customarily granted to magnates, namely to be beheaded instead. (fn. 1) The Earl will be tried to-morrow, and after him various knights and gentlemen accomplices in the act.
I hope that my letters of the 6th May advising your Excellencies that I had executed the commissions contained in the letters of the 26th and 28th March will have dispelled the doubt expressed in your letters received yesterday. In those of the 20th I indeed wrote an armistice, as I had no time to properly see the letters, which reached me at the very last moment of sealing the dispatches, as I did not wish the courier to lose the favourable wind and tide, so that he was obliged to depart; but in a subsequent letter I wrote to say that I had informed the king of the orders given to the Proveditore General to withdraw the troops from Gradisca, and that was the news generally understood here by everybody.
I have informed my secretary Giovanni Battista Lionello of the satisfaction of your Excellencies with his services. He has been much encouraged by this appreciation, and it has consoled him in his trouble over the recent death of his mother, the long illness of his father and the inroads on his small fortune caused by his prolonged absence.
London, the 3rd June, 1616.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 6. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.301. Giovanni Battista Lionello, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After the ambassador Gregorio Barbarigo had written his last despatch of the 3rd June, his sickness continued until the night of the 4th to 5th, when a fever suddenly declared itself, so violent that he passed the whole of the following day in perpetual delirium, and in spite of his years and strength and the care of the king's own chief physician, he rendered his soul to God this morning about 8 o'clock. The previous evening he was conscious for a quarter of an hour, when he confessed, and an hour before the end he was able to recite from memory a great part of the Office of the Virgin, which he used to recite daily, and after receiving the last Sacrament, he passed away very quietly. During his few lucid intervals he expressed with modesty his sense of how unfortunate this event was, as he was leaving his affairs in great confusion, and his sons in England, but he consoled himself by the reflection that as he died in the public service your Excellencies would extend your favour towards him. It is undoubtedly true that his sufferings during these last two years have brought about his death, his condition being aggravated by an excessive solicitude for the affairs of your Serenity, which ruined his health and corrupted his blood, so that he died in a few hours.
Of the three sons whom he leaves, Sig. Giovanni Francesco is the eldest and is a little over sixteen, but far beyond his years in ability, character and prudence. Undaunted by this tragedy he has resolved to follow in his father's footsteps, and not to think of himself in obeying your Excellencies. Sig. Antonio is a year younger, of angelic nature, similar to his father and inspired by the same ideals as his brother. The third is Sig. Angelo, who left Venice at the age of seven and has accompanied his father and brothers in all their strange travels, so that at his present age of ten he fills those who see him with amazement, his conversation being that of a wise man. All these three are so overwhelmed at the loss which they have sustained that they have thought but little at present of what they must do to return home, but their journey will be managed so that they may arrive safely with the least possible inconvenience.
I propose to-day to go to Greenwich, in order to inform His Majesty, the queen and the prince, who are there, if my feelings will allow me to do so, and a slight indisposition, caused I believe by my extreme sorrow and because I have remained by the bedside of his Excellency day and night, as he seemed pleased to be served by me I have served him for seven years and he has always taken my imperfections in good part and has never expressed dissatisfaction either in words or any other manner. So I can do nothing but weep at his loss.
Owing to my enfeebled health, due to past labours and the present trouble, I needed to return soon to the feet of your Serenity, but at present I dare not think of doing so without the express commands of your Excellencies, and I will await your permission as a great favour.
London, the 6th June, 1616.
[Italian.]
June 6. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Savoia. Venetian Archives.302. Antonio Donato, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
The negotiations carried on by M. de Bethune with the Duke of Savoy may be reduced to two points, the first to assure His Highness that the treaty of Asti shall be fully carried out upon all points but the disarming; and a promise of the crown of France that the Spaniards should not harm the duke. His Highness has waxed very wroth, moved by his own impetuous spirit and his determination that the Spaniards shall completely disarm. He has suggested that the ambassador shall lay his proposals before the council and the ministers of the princes who took part in the treaty, namely England and Venice. The ambassador refused, and said that he wished to negotiate as between prince and prince and not with ministers.
Sir [Henry] Wotton proposes that the meeting shall take place in the house of the republic, but France refuses this also. The duke insists that the whole point of the treaty consists in disarmament, which he is determined to obtain, and he expresses astonishment at the attitude of France. M. de Bethune proposed to confer with the Marshal Lesdiguieres; the duke accepted this, and the marshal is expected in a week. The duke has asked me and the ambassador of England to be present at the meeting. I hope your Serenity will send me word what course I must pursue.
Turin, the 6th June, 1616.
[Italian.]
June 6. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Savoia. Venetian Archives.303. Antonio Donato, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
Before Sir [Henry] Wotton, the English ambassador, left here on his way to take up his charge, he did his utmost to persuade M. de Bethune to represent to France the true state of affairs here, and the obligation of his masters to make the Spaniards lay down their arms. I have seen the French ambassador several times since, but have never been able to get anything from him beyond formal phrases and a determination to leave the Spanish army on foot. It is therefore clear that his mission has been arranged by the Spaniards to serve their interests.
Turin, the 6th June, 1616.
[Italian.]
June 7. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.304. Giovanni Battista Lionello, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Yesterday as His Majesty remained the whole day at the chase, I could not perform the office which I wished, upon the death of the ambassador. This morning I travelled to Greenwich and obtained admittance to His Majesty, who graciously consented to receive me before he went to the Council. After I had kissed hands with due reverence, I informed him of this sad event, of the sickness and death, adding that your Excellencies would regret that this court must remain for a long while without an ambassador from them, especially at the present time, but that I was sure that as soon as the news reached Venice, whatever was possible would be done to remedy this, and you would proceed to elect a person worthy of this charge, who would be instructed to hasten with all speed to take up his task. The king heard me with an expression of great sorrow, possibly more than is generally shown in such circumstances. He said that he heard of this misfortune with great grief, both as ambassador of the republic and on his own account, as he had become very fond of him and he was worthy of better fortune. He did not know what he could do, but offered to do his utmost for the sons and would send a gentleman to their house to offer his condolences and express his friendship.
I thanked him suitably, and said that the ambassador a few hours before his death received letters from your Serenity to inform His Majesty of what was taking place in Italy and of the negotiations. I felt sure that it was better that His Majesty should receive this information even by my feeble means than leave it unimparted until the arrival of the new ambassador, and if His Majesty pleased I would inform him then or at any time that proved convenient. The king took the Secretary Winwood, who was there, by the arm, and told me to confer with him and tell him what I had to say, as he was then going to the Council, and forthwith he left the room. The secretary then gave me between seven and eight on the following morning, when he would expect me, also at Greenwich. I promised to come, and will do so, please God, if my slight indisposition does not become worse. I beg your Serenity to excuse the delay in sending off the courier until to-morrow evening, as in addition to this bad news, for which he is chiefly sent, he may also bring your Serenity some light upon the king's intentions. If I have meddled in these grave affairs without the orders of your Excellencies the fault arises from my belief that this line of action is the best.
I should have liked to perform the same office with the queen, but could not do so this morning, and owing to her occupations I hardly hope to have audience, and I know that she has already instructed one of her gentlemen to come and offer her condolences. He has been, and after dinner there also came a knight from the king, both expressing the feelings of Their Majesties, and making offers so full of their favour that they should afford some consolation.
It has not been fitting to do more with the prince, because he was present when I saw His Majesty, and almost all the Lords of the Council were there, who expressed their grief not only in words but with tears. It is hardly credible how general is the grief at Court, the gentle nature and loveable qualities of the ambassador having endeared him to all, and the magnates in particular declare that the republic has suffered a severe loss, especially just now, as he was beloved by the king with more than ordinary affection, and this was of great moment in the important negotiations on foot.
The sons propose to go and kiss the hands of Their Majesties and His Highness after some days, to thank them for so many favours, and take leave to return to Italy, as they propose to do as soon as possible by way of France. They will send the embalmed body of their father by sea. When the body was opened the organs were generally sound, but the liver was badly affected and the lungs somewhat full of matter. In addition to the loss of their father the poor boys will have to spend a considerable sum of money, and they have no other refuge in their wretchedness than the benevolence of your Excellencies.
London, the 7th June, 1616.
[Italian.]
June 8. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.305. Giovanni Battista Lionello, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
This morning, in conformity with the intimation given me by the Secretary Winwood, I went to see him at Greenwich, and informed him of all that is contained in the letters of your Excellencies of the 5th and 13th May to the Ambassador Barbarigo. I began by telling him that we had not met with the response we expected from the men of Gradisca, and that hostilities and preparations for war of the archduke kept on increasing. I told him of the passage of General Stomestorf over the Lisonzo, of his arrival at Lucinis and favourable reception by the General in Terra Firma. I then told him of the return of the Marquis Manriquez and of his unreasonable proposals, of the decision of your Excellencies to write to Milan and await a reply. I went on to speak of your decision to allow 2,000 French infantry for some time to the duke of Savoy to use for his needs, providing him with the money for enlisting and keeping them, and that you were disposed to do more if need arose. I told him that your Serenity had been led to take this resolution by the union of hearts and interests which exists with that prince, as you have done at other times with Mantua and others who were joined to you in good will without any other obligation of any kind. I used all the arguments contained in the letter so that this office might produce the effect with His Majesty and his ministers that is contemplated by the prudence of your Serenity. I added that as His Majesty had shown himself favourable in the past to the protection of the duke of Savoy, your Excellencies were sure that he would continue so in the future, especially in negotiating for the execution of the treaty of Asti, and that the republic, while recognising its indebtedness to His Majesty, was ready to respond most fully, especially in the present circumstances, which demand prompt action.
The secretary answered my discourse taking the various points in order: he said that the truce for two months between your Serenity and the archduke had not produced any good results. At this I interrupted him, saying that your Serenity had never made any truce, but that this report was a trick of our adversaries, to spread about the world to serve their interest, by calling the raising of the siege of Gradisca a truce for two months. He said that this had been written to the king from Venice. I replied that it was entirely untrue and that men so crafty as our enemies were able to make false things believed. Being thus undeceived, the secretary continued that this hardness of the archduke Ferdinand showed what backing he was obtaining from the house of Austria, that the king had previously heard of proposals made in the Cabinet in the name of the governor of Milan, which were too unequal. He passed lightly over these particulars and said nothing about the decision of your Serenity upon the 2,000 French granted to Savoy. Enlarging upon the principal point he said that the king had written to Spain and France and had spoken to the Spanish ambassador resident here, to ask that the treaty of Asti might be carried out, and Italy relieved of its fears and everything pacified. From the Catholic king he received the reply that His Majesty was resolved to do this, but they began to see that the words were only words, and that Don Pedro of Toledo is an arrogant, restless man who wishes to do everything otherwise, will not carry out the treaty, asks His Highness impossible things, increases the forces in the state of Milan and wishes to turn the world upside down. On this account His Majesty is much annoyed, and if he sees that matters are to proceed thus, he will have himself recognised as the great and powerful monarch that he is. But really His Majesty desires general peace; his natural inclination has always led him to arrange differences between the European powers; he had made the truce between the Catholic king and the Dutch; the unhappy agreement, so he termed it, in the county of Cleves, the accommodation in France, and last year, peace in Italy. He would like to see these present affairs also terminated quietly, and therefore wishes to see a little what is at the back of the minds of the Spaniards and what they will decide upon the mission of Bethune, the French ambassador to Italy. If this does not succeed they will come to some proper resolution here.
With regard to the affairs of your Serenity he said that the king's friendly disposition towards the republic was what it always had been, and it had appeared in his acts, and if your Serenity prefers any particular request you may be sure that you will be satisfied. I had reserved the last part of my office for such an opportunity, and said that your Excellencies felt most certain of His Majesty's goodwill towards you, and it caused you the most lively satisfaction. You would be glad of the publication of a declaration in your favour, as it had happened at other times that when the king had declared the republic to be in the right, and that he was ready to assist it, this had proved most useful and had facilitated a lawful accommodation; that this was the most particular and the most modest request that your Excellencies had ever made, and they might be backed by representations made in Spain and elsewhere, with such demonstrations as befit his great authority.
The Secretary replied that he understood everything, and would inform his master, especially of this last particular when he returned from the chase, and he would afterwards tell me the reply. I further begged him to add instructions to Lord Hay, who is going to France, to assist the offices of the Ambassador Bon. He promised faithfully to do so, and with that we parted, after I had promised not to send the courier before to-morrow morning, as he said that His Majesty desired to write something to his ministers in Italy and also to your Serenity in order to express his grief at the death of the Ambassador Barbarigo.
London, the 8th June, 1616.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 8. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.306. Giovanni Battista Lionello Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In conformity with what the secretary Winwood told me this morning with regard to His Majesty's disposition towards the affairs of Italy, the ambassador of Savoy told me that he also had received a similar reply, not only from the ministers, but from the king's own lips, with the promise that if the going of Bethune and Wotton to Milan does not suffice, His Majesty is resolved to declare war upon Spain. The Count of Schomberg, marshal of the Palatine, who is to leave for Germany to-morrow, told me that he had discussed the affairs of Italy a good deal with the king. He had suggested to His Majesty a generous resolution in order to bridle the vast ambitions of the Austrians, such as to attack them on several sides, and thus restrain their insolence by fear, but he had not found His Majesty so well disposed to this as he could have desired.
The French ambassador at this court promises himself a good deal from the mission of Bethune to Italy, saying that the authority of his king will suffice to appease all disturbances, but many who know that Bethune was chosen for this task by the queen-mother are very doubtful about the results which may follow, as although the queen, since the marriage, owing to some offence she has received, seems to have changed her mind, yet the results are not such as yet to dissipate the belief that it is all artifice. The same French ambassador says that he does not believe that the Spanish troops are going to enter Montferrat, as this will be stopped by the mission of a gentleman from the court of France to Mantua, for the purpose.
Of the marriage with Spain the whole of this kingdom speaks openly as of a thing accomplished, but the queen recently told the ambassador of Savoy that it has certainly not been arranged and that nothing is certain. Winwood said the same thing, and the king himself told the ambassador that before taking such a step he would inform his friends.
On Saturday the earl of Somerset was brought to trial. They spent eleven hours simply upon the question of the death of the knight who was imprisoned. (fn. 2) He defended himself with considerable ability, but, in spite of all, his twenty-four peers found him guilty, and sentence was forthwith pronounced, depriving him of all his titles, earldoms and baronies, the Order of the Garter, of all the goods given him by the king, and to be hanged by the neck. It is said that he will receive no pardon from His Majesty, and that there were many important things, such as betrayals and high treason, but that in order not to publish secret things to the people at a time when negotiations are proceeding for the marriage with Spain, they preferred to condemn him on this head alone. Neither he nor his wife has yet been executed, because they are awaiting the trial of the other accomplices.
The Dutch States have replied to the request made to them by the king to give up what they have in the country of Cleves and remove the names of the two kings from the treaty of Santen, that they cannot do so because it would prove too prejudicial to them, but they wish both their Majesties to remain bound, as they are, to the execution of that treaty. The king is much displeased at this, and it is feared that his dissatisfaction may increase, to the detriment of the general good. In the Low Countries and in Cleves things are certainly quiet, but there are always the gravest suspicions, and in letters which I receive from the Hague I have these formal words: A rumour is now current that the Spaniards are making great preparations to take possession of other neutral places, and for this purpose Neuburg is demanding by letters the restitution of the county, city and town of Mörs, as appurtenant to the jurisdiction of Cleves and as an imperial fief. I think that he will be answered by the mouth of guns.
The deputies of the Hanse towns have arrived at the Hague, namely from Lubeck, Hamburg, Magdeburg, Bremen, Brunswick, Rostock, Stralsund and Griefswald, and those of Danzig and many other places are expected to conclude the general league with the States.
In letters from Brussels I am informed that orders have been issued to raise 4,000 Walloons and 400 Burgundian horse for Italy, and they say that Don Philip, son of the Marquis Spinola, is to lead them, but nothing has happened as yet, and if they begin, your Excellencies will be immediately advised.
I am also informed of a Milanese captain of great experience who wishes to come and serve your Serenity with a dozen good soldiers, all known by Sig. Pompeo Giustiniani. I am writing to Flanders to-day to find out his name, quality and claims, and also of other engineers and men of proved service, for which I shall need some indication of the wishes of your Excellencies, if you will let me know what type of men you require and how you wish them to be taken to your service, as if I have to rely upon my own judgment as to what it is your Serenity desires, I shall find the responsibility too great.
I have received your Serenity's letters of the 5th May, sent by way of Cologne to the Hague so that their contents might be communicated to the States General. I will inform their ambassador as soon as possible, as I cannot do this in a better manner. Since our sad loss I have not succeeded in meeting him, I have been overwhelmed with work during these last few days and he lives some miles away from us.
[Italian.]
London, the 8th June, 1616.
[Italian.]
June 8. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.307. Giovanni Battista Lionello, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
For the extraordinary expedition of the present dispatch I have taken 200 ducats from Signori Giovanni Calandrini and Filippo Burlamacchi, which I have given to the courier, leaving your Excellencies to make the payment to Signori Giacomo and Pier Antonio Guadagni.
London, the 8th June, 1616.
[Italian.]
June 10. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.308. To the Ambassador in England.
Nothing fresh has happened in Friuli. Our troops have abundance of provisions at reasonable prices. The Captain of Raspo writes that some companies of the archduke accompanied by numbers of Morlachs, penetrated into that country to burn a town. They were repulsed, and on the way back they fell in with the captain, who drove them off with loss. The General Barbarigo sends word that those of Montona, with some paid troops, penetrated to Cosliaco and Pedena, between which places they burned seven mills. The Proveditor and General, hearing that the people of Servola, near Trieste, offered many conveniences to the enemy to damage our subjects of Muggia, set out to burn out that nest.
The like to the Imperial Court, Rome, France, Spain, Savoy, Milan, Naples, Florence, Zurich.
Ayes111.
Noes4.
Neutrals2.
[Italian.]
June 11. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives.309. Almoro Nani, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
The fleet will not consist of more than thirty six galleys, in a very bad state. It is hardly credible, but the Pasha sent to beg me to send him four or five barrels of powder. I excused myself politely, but I hear that they obtained two or three barrels from England and as many from Flanders. If fortune does not send the Pasha a ship with powder from Cairo, the fleet will have to leave with a third less of powder than it requires.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, the 11th June, 1616.
[Italian; deciphered.]
June 13. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Savoia. Venetian Archives.310. Antonio Donato, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
Lord Dingwall, a Scotchman, arrived here yesterday from England, by post, recommended to me by the Ambassador Barbarigo. He left in the same haste, to go and offer troops to your Serenity. He left two packets of letters with me, as he did not wish to have them with him on his passage through the state of Milan. I directed them to the Rectors of Bergamo. I showed the baron such respect and honour as I thought befitting to his friendship to the republic and the service of your Serenity.
Turin, the 13th June, 1616.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The general opinion is that she shall not die, and many good words were given to put her in hope of the king's mercy. Chamberlain to Carleton, May 25, 1616 o.s. Birch, Court and Times of James I., i, pp. 407. 408.
2 Sir Thomas Overbury.