Venice
July 1616, 16-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1908

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258-269

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'Venice: July 1616, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 14: 1615-1617 (1908), pp. 258-269. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=95951 Date accessed: 02 October 2014.


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July 1616, 16–31

July 16. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.364. Christoforo Surian, Venetian Secretary destined to Holland, to the Doge and Senate.
I have had a conversation with Colonel Schomberg. He said that matters were proceeding in Italy as in Germany, and as was attempted in Juliers. This was all the work of the Spaniards. I would be prudent for all the interested powers, such as the Princes of the Union, the republic, the States of Holland and perhaps the king of Great Britain to have a certain understanding together, and unite at least for the common defence.
Hulzonen, the 16th July, 1616.
[Italian.]
July 16. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.365. Lord Dingwall, a Scot, having arrived in this city and having offered his services to the republic, and having been recommended by letters of the king of England and by the two last expositions made by the ambassador of that crown, that the Savii of the Cabinet hear his pretensions and negotiate with him.
Ayes124.
Noes0.
Neutral2.
[Italian.]
July 20. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni Venetian Archives.366. To the Secretary Lionello in England.
Your letters of the 1st inst. have reached us to-day, bringing word of the report that the republic has sent money to Savoy to induce him to break with Milan. This is very far from the truth, and you must endeavour to remove that suspicion. Our intention was entirely different, namely, to facilitate peace and liberty, in view of the fact that the Spaniards were increasing their armaments instead of disarming, as bound by the treaty of Asti. This made it necessary to help the duke, as we did before in the case of Mantua, and as we have always been accustomed to do. The republic has always acted in the interests of peace and a good intelligence among friends, without any particular bond. This information will serve as a basis for all discussions upon the matter.
Ayes107.
Noes9.
Neutral30.
[Italian.]
July 20. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.367. That the Ambassador of England and Lord Dingwall be summoned to the Cabinet and the following read to them:
We have been much gratified by the disposition of the baron towards the republic, accompanied by the letter of His Majesty and the testimony of the ambassador. We fully recognise the great qualities of the baron and we thank him for his disposition towards us and we should like to accept his offers; but we understand that he will only undertake to serve with a levy of a large number of troops. We shall preserve a grateful memory of his offer to make use of it when occasion serves. We also beg your Excellency to thank His Majesty, as we shall instruct our Secretary Lionello to do.
Ayes107.
Noes9.
Neutral30.
[Italian.]
July 20. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.368. To the King of Great Britain.
The readiness of your Majesty to grant leave to Lord Dingwall to come here and offer his services shows your continued care for the interest of the republic. We also recognise his own zeal in taking so long a journey for this purpose. We return hearty thanks for all this, which will be expressed by our Secretary Lionello. We shall remember the offer, to make use of it when occasion serves.
Ayes107.
Noes9.
Neutral30.
[Italian.]
July 20. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.369. To the Secretary Lionello in England.
Lord Dingwall, a Scot, was introduced into the Cabinet on the 29th ult. by Sir Henry Wotton, with the exposition of which we enclose a copy. We opened negotiations, intending to give him a formal command, according to the use of the republic with other persons of quality. However, he let it be known that he would not bind himself to serve unless he had under his command 6,000 foot of his own countrymen. The republic, accordingly, not being at present in need of this levy, decided to make a courteous reply, thanking him in the presence of the ambassador, and to present him with a gold chain worth 2,000 crowns as a sign of honour and esteem. We send this for information. We enclose letters for the king, which you will present, thanking him in our name for granting permission for the baron to come, with other friendly expressions If you speak to the Secretary Winwood upon the matter, you will do so more exactly so that he may be well informed and impressed For your further information we have to inform you that the baron would accept no responsibility for bringing his own men, except to fetch them to the shores of England for disembarkation, and to free himself from all responsibility of the voyage. This point outweighed all other advantages. The baron has given us to understand that he was sent here by the Ambassadors Foscarini and Barbarigo, by mutual arrangement. We see, however, from the letter which he brought us from the Ambassador Barbarigo, of which we send a copy, that he was led by his own inclinations to come here and offer his services.
Ayes107.
Noes9.
Neutral30.
[Italian.]
July 20. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.370. That out of consideration of the inconveniences under gone, and the long journey taken by Lord Dingwall, a Scot, who came here to offer his services to the republic, all honour be shown to him at his departure, and that 2,000 crowns be expended upon a gold chain to be presented to him with such ceremony as shall seen good to the Cabinet, to show our esteem for him.
Ayes132.Second vote, Ayes137.
Noes10.Noes8.
Neutral27.Neutral26.
In the Cabinet, Ayes19.
Noes0.
Neutral1.
[Italian.]
July 21. Senato. Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.371. To the Ambassador in England.
The archducal forces have recently done some harm in S. Antonio in Istria, but our troops have retaliated upon Sabresez and Rezimian, burning 106 houses and carrying off some booty after a sharp skirmish, without any loss on our side. They made a similar raid on the following day, burning a great quantity of hay intended principally for the enemy's horses. In Friuli the enemy sometimes leave their posts, but never go far and offer no chance of skirmishes. Our troops continue to secure their position at Santa Maria de Foiano, and they hold that of Sagra, hard by. We send this for information.
The like to the Imperial Court, Rome, France, Spain, Savoy, Florence, Mantua, Naples, Milan, the Hague, Zurich.
Ayes132.
Noes0.
Nentral0.
[Italian.]
July 21. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.372. Pietro Gritti, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The secretary of England told me that he had recently asked the king and his ministers, in the name of his master, for the execution of the treaty of Asti. He told me they had given him the following reply: The Marquis of Ynoyosa in that treaty had not only exceeded the authority which he possessed but had disobeyed express orders from His Majesty. However, the king was disposed to carry out that treaty and to honour the word of his minister even though it might be to the detriment of all his dominions.
Madrid, the 21st July, 1616.
[Italian.]
July 21. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.373. Pietro Gritti, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The Count of Bucquoi has recently left for Flanders. He is said to have induced His Majesty to declare that he will make war on the States if, in the reply which they are to give to the ambassador of the king of England, they do not agree to restore Juliers, with which place they can not only stop the assistance which Flanders generally receives from the Archbishopric of Cologne, but also those which the king sends by Germany from the state of Milan.
The forty captains for the Indies have received orders to make up their companies, which, when complete, will number 4,000 men. However, this is being done slowly, and I understand that the money has already been spent.
Madrid, the 21st July, 1616.
[Italian.]
July 21. Inquisitori di Stato. Lettere agli Ambasciatori d'Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.374. The Inquisitors of State to Giovanni Battista Lionello Venetian Secretary in England.
The promises to Nodari and Smith will clear the way to discover who gave Foscarini's letters to the person who copied them, and at what time these practices began. It is above all things important to discover from whom the Frenchman, M. de la Forêt, or possibly others, received the letters of Foscarini, of which copies came into the hands of the ambassador of Spain. Angelo dei Nodari, whom you describe as likely to be of use in serious affairs, will be welcomed by the ambassador Donato. You will assure Sir [William] Smith that when we have sufficiently clear information for the recovery of his loan to Muscorno, he will have every reason to be satisfied with us. With regard to the things published by him and the affair of the letters, which have been shown, and in all other matters, his name shall be kept most secret.
[Italian.]
July 22. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.375. Giovanni Battista Lionello, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king returned to London on Tuesday, and set out again on Wednesday after having arranged audiences for the ambassador of Savoy and myself for yesterday, at Wanstead (Unsted) seven miles away. I went there and saw His Majesty, whom I found in a very good humour. We conversed for rather less than half an hour walking up and down in a gallery. I succeeded in fulfilling the instructions sent to me in letters of the 17th and 22nd ult. I first informed him of the choice of the ambassador Donato to serve here. In speaking of his worthiness I said incidentally that he was nephew of the Doge Leonardo Donato of glorious memory. The king seemed highly pleased at this and said smilingly, I am much delighted that he is the nephew of that great man who bore the charge of the republic so well, and who was one of the doges most valued by me in my time. I pray God that the ambassador may have as happy an end as he. I then told him that until the arrival of the ambassador your Excellencies charged me to stay here and serve him and to inform him of what is taking place in Italy, which is certainly extraordinary, and which you wish to be brought to the knowledge of His Majesty so that you may obtain help from his most prudent advice. I told him about the negotiations with the archduke, of the departure of the Marquis Manriquez and of their slight inclination to meet the disposition of your Serenity for peace, of the offices performed in the Cabinet by the Spanish ambassador simply asking for the restitution of the places and only promising a remedy, introducing new distinctions which reduce the matter to nothing. I went on to speak of the attitude of the republic towards these points; I pointed out how much it concerned His Majesty, his authority and inclination being engaged for the general peace and the advantage of your Serenity, urging him, so far as I was able, to make the declarations and take the action which your Excellencies desire, and using the methods which are usually successful with His Majesty, and which give him considerable gratification, namely by speaking of the great reputation which he has acquired in the world by so many generous resolutions to help his friends, by arranging through his influence, the most serious differences of Europe, and that in this affair of your Serenity a great increase of glory is reserved for him as the report of his goodwill towards the republic will alone suffice to produce effects advantageous to the public peace.
During the course of this speech His Majesty interrupted me frequently, approved of the position of your Serenity, observing that you had always been inclined towards peace and he remembered that during the dispute between Savoy and Mantua, your Serenity had protected Mantua simply in order to prevent the disturbance from spreading further. When subsequently the Spaniards turned against Savoy, your Serenity re-established friendship with the duke to balance matters; that throughout so far as his information served, your Excellencies had always acted straightforwardly. Proposals for an accommodation had been made, and he remembered that the Austrians and Spaniards had already given their promise three times, and had then changed in carrying it out. The decision to abandon Gradisca was especially great, in order to open the way for negotiations, but nevertheless it had not proved successful; he did not know by what right the Spaniards dealt thus with the powers, and he marvelled at it; in this wise he approved of all the acts of your Serenity. He asked me about those of your enemies, and I was about to leave with his declaration that he wished to remain the friend of the republic, and would always act and speak in her favour. However, as the opportunity seemed favourable I endeavoured in thanking him to invite him to make like advances and declarations by the most public means that might seem good to his prudence. He replied, I shall be ready to declare myself to all the world, and with this he went into his bedchamber, as the time had already gone. I also touched upon the good understanding which exists between your Serenity and the duke of Savoy, of the advance of money you are making to him, the action of Bethune and of the sinister offices performed by the French ministers in the Grisons, but I did not go very far into this owing to the shortness of the time, and because I Knew that he had heard the greater part of it at that very time from the ambassador of Savoy, who knew what he had to say, and especially because I had begged him on the preceding day to assure His Majesty of the good understanding existing between your Serenity and His Highness and of the help given, and of the satisfaction of His Highness with this. I desired the ambassador to perform this office in order to remove all doubt from the mind of His Majesty, as I reported in my late despatches.
As the disposition of His Majesty at this audience seemed to me to be quite favourable while his words were altogether friendly, I thought it well to lose no time in forwarding the interests of your Serenity as much as possible, especially as I heard that His Majesty had received news that affairs in Flanders may come to a breach, in which event they would pay rather more attention here to the affairs of Italy. Accordingly this morning I went to see the Secretary Winwood, to whom I imparted all that I said in my audience with the king, expressing my great satisfaction at the continued goodwill of His Majesty and at what he said to me in favour of your Serenity, that as I had left His Majesty in this highly favourable disposition, I needed the good offices of the secretary to obtain all the effects desired by the republic, which amounted to those offices, declarations and acts which His Majesty had published to the world at other times during similar troubles of your Excellencies, to your great glory and benefit. After various speeches the secretary recognised that this desire of your Excellencies was very reasonable and he would readily work for its fullfilment. That he would see the king on Sunday and tell him that I had conferred with him and spoken to this effect, so that if His Majesty sees fit, he will procure an open declaration to the world that he accepts the cause of the republic and will be her friend and defender against those who wish to attack her in this cause using the same means as were employed at another time when a like favour was obtained from His Majesty. I will use every effort to obtain what I know to be the desire of your Serenity.
London, the 22nd July, 1616.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 22. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.376. Giovanni Battista Lionello, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassador of Savoy had audience of the king before me. He left it greatly comforted having obtained from His Majesty more words, offices and promises than he expected. He informed the king of what I wrote that the duke had sent to him by express courier, and urged strongly that His Majesty should not consent to the slightest alterations of the treaty of Asti, notwithstanding any offices which the Spaniards or French might make, but to use his influence for its maintenance, and to stand firm upon what his agent at Turin had publicly declared to be his intention. The king replied with great warmth that he entirely approved of what his agent had said, that he would write and send word that he should continue on the same lines and he begged the duke not to depart one jot from the said treaty but to stand fast to the point that the Spaniards must carry it out punctually and freely. For his own part he is resolved that the forces of the state of Milan must be disbanded and the powers of Italy relieved from disturbance, and if the Spaniards have any other intentions, he himself will make war in company with the others and compel them to do their duty by force. That Lord Hay, who is leaving for France to-day, has orders to declare these intentions of his to the Most Christian King and to speak freely to him; that the Spaniards must fulfil their obligations, to disarm the state of Milan, otherwise he will make war, and he exhorts his Most Christian Majesty to adopt the same policy and make the same representations. He expressed his opinions in many other worthy words, for which the ambassador thanked him warmly, and he will write about it soon to His Highness.
The Spanish ambassador is aware that Lord Hay has instructions to negotiate a marriage in France, and has discovered that he is not so far advanced with the matter as was believed and as he made others believe. Accordingly he is making use of every pretext to undermine his reputation. At present he goes about saying that as the king has recently hanged a priest who had escaped from prison, (fn. 1) this action has broken off all negotiations with his king, as it shows that England is so hostile to the Catholic religion that such a princess cannot be given to him, and that even if the king, his master, wished to give her, the people of Spain would not permit it, because they would call him a heretic himself. I believe that if all this comes to the king's ears, it will produce a good effect.
The secretary of the Most Christian ambassador has gone to France upon pretext of his own private affairs, but I happen to hare heard that he is taking a petition from the ambassador to be recalled from this service, although he has not stayed here a year. The reasons which move him are that as he is the son-in-law of the Chancellor Sillery, he foresees himself involved in the fall of the latter, and he has decided to anticipate his recall by asking leave to return. In addition to this he knows that he is not in favour with the queen of England, and is most hateful to her as the son-in-law of Sillery, and because on a recent occasion she found him out and taxed him with falsehood. But what affects him most of all is being passed over in the marriage negotiations, upon which the king has not said a word to him, but they are negotiated by Lord Hay in France, without his having the smallest share.
The king intended, after Lord Hay had fulfilled his mission in Paris, to send him on to Heidelberg, to settle the differences which have arisen between the princess, his daughter, and the elector, her husband, upon a question of precedence, since the wife, as a king's daughter, wished to have the advantage, which was refused by the Palatine, and some occasion for dispute arose afterwards. But letters have recently reached His Majesty from Amsterdam saying that it is unnecessary for Lord Hay to take this trouble, as the question has been settled by the Electoral Council, who have accorded the superiority to the princess. These things are ill received here, and are spoken of with impatience. (fn. 2)
With regard to the news that I said His Majesty had received about a probable rupture in Flanders, I have not been able to discover further particulars, but this fear must have some foundation upon the negotiations because with respect to facts there is nothing more than there has been at any time of late.
To-morrow morning the sons of the late Ambassador Barbarigo are leaving London on their way to the sea, to wait for a favourable wind and an opportunity to cross.
Yesterday I received your Serenity's letters of the last day of June with the news of the most recent events in Istria, which I will use as directed.
London, the 22nd July, 1616.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 23. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.377. To the Ambassador in England.
Since the 21st, our troops have raided the borders of Friuli and captured a quantity of booty. The proveditore General in Dalmatia has captured the fortress of Scrisa or Carlo Bago, a nest of the Uscochi, killing Captain Zuane Scicich, one of the most villainous of the Uscochi of these times. He took the boats there but allowed the others to depart where they pleased with their arms. The Uscochi were constantly issuing from the place to attack our island of Pago, which is opposite. We send this for information.
Ayes120.
Noes0.
Neutral1.
The like to Rome, Germany, Spain, France, Savoy, Naples, Florence, Milan, Mantua, Zurich, the Hague.
[Italian.]
July 27. Consiglio di X. Parti Communi. Venetian Archives.378. That the jewels of the sanctuary and the armoury of this Council be shown to Lord Dingwall, an Englishman, now in this city on his travels.
Ayes16.
Noes0.
Neutral1.
[Italian.]
July 28. Inquisitori di Stato. Lettere agli Ambassciatori. d'Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.379. The Inquisitors of State resolve to summon Giulio Muscorno before them to acknowledge a debt said to be due to Sir William Smith of London. If he acknowledges it the debt shall be paid without delay. They wish to have Muscorno's word although he confessed the debt some months ago at the instance of the ambassador of England made to the Council of Ten.
[Italian.]
Covered by the preceding Document.380. Giulio Muscorno being summoned before the Inquisitors of State admitted that he had borrowed 600 crowns in London from Sir [William] Smith, which he had not repaid owing to his imprisonment. He had in vain begged the ambassador Foscarini to pay his debts. There were several sums due to him which should suffice for the payment.
[Italian.]
July 29. Inquisitori di Stato. Lettere agli Ambasciatori. d'Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.381. The Inquisitors of State to Giovanni Battista Lionello, Venetian Secretary in England.
Muscorno has acknowledged the debt and we have arranged that he shall make speedy payment. His letters of the 7th inst. contain nothing to throw light upon the question of the public documents. The secretary must use every means to draw further particulars from M. de la Forét.
[Italian.]
July 29. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.382. Giovanni Battista Lionello, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Three days ago the ordinary courier brought me two letters of your Serenity of the 8th July, one with news of the most recent events in Istria and Fruili, and the other with copies of the letters of the king here and the exposition of the Ambassador Wotton and with instructions to pass the complimentary offices with His Majesty on the arrival of Wotton and for the condolences about the late Barbarigo, and to present the letters of your Serenity in reply. I will do all this next week, not with the king, because now that he has begun his progress and has seen all the ministers of the powers, none of them will go to find him unless for some more than ordinary occurrence, and anyone who did otherwise, besides the difficulty of obtaining access, would cause great prejudice to his own business; but I will see the Secretary Winwood, who will afterwards report to His Majesty in the usual way, and I will give him the letters of your Excellencies. At present the Secretary is away from London with His Majesty, but he will return one of these days, and I will wait to hear from him what His Majesty has decided to do with respect to publishing to the world his declaration, for which, as I wrote, I found that both the king and the secretary were well disposed last week. If they continue to be of the same mind, I shall have reason to hope for speedy results.
I have recently been endeavouring to discover what was the news that the king received about a probable rupture in Flanders. I finally learned that the English agent at Brussels wrote to His Majesty that a courier had come from Spain with news of the return from the Court of the Count of Bucquoi, who brings orders to the archduke and Spinola to lay siege to Juliers. If this be true it will help the affairs of Italy in many ways, especially as many favours would be obtained from His Majesty and the Dutch, owing to the great advantages that they promise themselves from the diversion; but although the agent has written here yet all do not think it so likely to happen for various reasons, and especially because the season is so far advanced.
His Majesty has recently received a further incitement to show himself more ardent in the affairs of Italy, as his ambassador in France writes that if His Majesty will show himself resolute against the Spaniards in making them disarm, he knows for certain that they will yield. The agent of His Majesty at Turin also conducts everything for the advantage of the duke and does his utmost to create a favourable disposition.
M. de Villeroi has written to the French ambassador here that he fears Bethune will do little good for the accommodation of Italy owing to the close understanding between the duke of Savoy and the republic. The same ambassador told me that both these affairs are so interwoven that they cannot be separated and one cannot be settled without the other. I replied that although the questions are two and differ from each other yet they need only one remedy to arrange them, namely the removal of the forces from the state of Milan, as with them would disappear the jealousy and irritation which cause the evil. He agreed that this was true, but it was necessary first to try good means to obtain it, and only have recourse to others if they do not succeed.
As the Spanish ambassador, after the death of the Ambassador Barbarigo, passed some compliment with his sons and with this house, I thought it only right to go and call upon him yesterday. I remained in conversation with him upon matters of small importance, except that he asked me how the affairs of the archduke were going on. I replied that I had no very recent news and that His Excellency might know more than I did. He said that he sometimes received letters and he heard sometimes that an accommodation is being made, sometimes that it is not. I said that the disposition of your Serenity had always been the same in all this affair and had never varied one jot. He added: I do not know what will happen. The Emperor is a good man and desires peace; I do not know about the archduke Ferdinand, if he is a soldier, he is the first who has worn glasses. We must believe that the breach continues owing to the machinations of evil ministers. I said that if this was the case, they did ill to disturb the public peace. When I was about to leave the room he said Mr. Secretary, I offer you this house and I hope we may be friends, even if our princes are not, and that we may enjoy cordial relations, since neither of us will betray his master. I could not answer this extraordinary observation, so I took leave and departed.
This Spanish ambassador had audience of the king at Theobalds the day before yesterday, when he was entertained at dinner and taken out hunting. When he asked for this audience ten days ago, he let it be understood that he simply desired it to kiss hands and to say good-bye before the king had gone far away on his progress. I do not really believe that he had any formal business to negotiate, but he will have seized the opportunity of this interview to discuss with His Majesty the affairs of your Serenity, Savoy and Flanders in the way that may be expected from such a minister.
Because some English ships have been detained at Seville on account of customs, and pretended payments, the merchants interested have preferred requests here that Spanish ships may be detained as reprisals, but as there are none here at present they are detaining a Flemish ships, as being a dependant of Spain. The Spanish ambassador is unwilling to speak about the matter in order not to cause greater prejudice to the ship by displaying an interest in it, but the agent of the archduke is negotiating for its release, I do not know what will be the judgment.
I have been to visit M. Caron, the ambassador of Holland, and have executed the commissions of your Serenity with him, begging him to advise his masters of the present state of affairs. By recent letters from the Low Countries I am informed that there are grave suspicions, because the Spaniards have quartered almost all their troops about Juliers and are constructing a bridge between Rheinberg and Wesel, for convenience in crossing. Prince Maurice was going to Emmerich and Rees, and the States had secret and frequent consultations with His Excellency, as it is their custom to do upon important occasions.
An ambassador from Basel has arrived at the Hague to ask for a large debt due by the house of Nassau to his masters for money lent at the beginning of the war to the Prince of Orange, by reason of a regiment of Swiss which he maintained against the duke of Alva in the year 1568. After the ambassador had set forth the whole matter to Prince Maurice, the latter submitted the whole to the States in whose service his house incurred the debt. Hitherto they have made no reply to the ambassador and they seem very disinclined to make any payment.
An ecclesiastical minister of the Princess Palatine has arrived here, to take advice upon certain doubts upon religious matters which have disturbed the princess's mind. When they are all satisfied, he will return to Heidelberg.
The prince of England has been introduced to the Council, where he will have his place for the future. The other day the same honour was conferred upon the Earl of Arundel.
London, the 29th July, 1616.
[Italian.]
July 29. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.383. Christoforo Surian, Venetian Secretary destined for Holland, to the Doge and Senate.
I came to Sulzbach, the residence of the Palatine Augustus of Neuburg. The Prince Augustus received me with great honour. He said I will not presume to offer advice to your wise senators, but I will venture to say that I think the States, in order to secure a favourable settlement, would do their utmost to involve the Princes of the Union and the Kings of France and Great Britain, to form a counterpoise to the other side, which consists of the Emperor, Spain and perhaps some other prince, meaning the pope.
Nürenberg, the 29th July, 1616.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 The event is referred to in a letter from Chamberlain to Carleton of July 6th o.s. There was a seminary priest hanged at Tyburn on Monday that was banished before, and, being taken again, offered to break prison.' Birch: Court and Times of James I., i, p. 418.
2 There is a memorandum about this dispute in Wotton's handwriting, dated from Grand near Heidelberg on 23 April, 1616, o.s. State Papers, Foreign, Venice.