Venice
February 1617, 16-28

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1908

Pages

439-450

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: February 1617, 16-28', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 14: 1615-1617 (1908), pp. 439-450. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=95964 Date accessed: 20 August 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

February 1617, 16–28

Feb. 16. Consiglio di X. Criminale. Venetian Archives.638. At the petition of Giulio Muscorno, a prisoner, that Marco Loredano be not allowed to take part in his trial.
Ayes9.
Noes4.
Neutral1.
[Italian.]
Feb. 16. Consiglio di X. Criminale. Venetian Archives.639. That the Inquisitors of State and State attorneys, the committee for the case, do inform the prisoner, Giulio Muscorno (who has requested that on certain points of his defence the evidence of the king of Great Britain may be taken, whilst on another account he petitions for enquiry to be made of the queen, to prove what he has urged in his defence), on reasonable accounts no question soever will be put to Their Majesties, but should he choose to bring forward other witnesses to bear evidence to the same facts, the law will endeavour to satisfy him.
Ayes14.
Noes0.
Neutral1.
[Italian.]
Feb. 16. Consiglio di X. Criminale. Venetian Archives.640. That Antonio Foscarini, prisoner, on the charge brought against him, purporting how when Giovanni Maria Lugaro, one of the gentlemen in waiting of the Queen of England, was dining at his table, had asked him chi negoviava la regina et anco contra natura, he was reproved by Lugaro, said in his defence: “That I used such obscene language in speaking of the queen with that gentleman, let him be applied to. That Foscarini be informed that no witness of any sort will be examined concerning the said accusation, which will not be brought against him at the trial. Also that when the process against Foscarini is presented this resolve be read.”
Ayes14.
Noes0.
Neutral1.
The oath of secrecy was administered by the doge to all the Council.
[Italian.]
Feb. 16. Consiglio di X. Criminale. Venetian Archives.641. That our Inquisitors of State and State Attorneys, the committee for the case, inform Antonio Foscarini, prisoner, that the archbishop of Canterbury, cited by him as a witness, for suitable reasons, will not be examined on any point in his defence, but should he mention anyone else, let him add whomsoever he wishes, and endeavours will be made to give him satisfaction.
Ayes13.
Noes0.
Neutral2.
[Italian.]
Feb. 16. Consiglio di X Criminale Venetian Archives.642. That Foscarini be likewise told that his late valet, Ottavio Robbazza, produced by him as a witness, will not be examined; for good reasons his suit will not be granted as to investigating whether Muscorno chose to have Renaldo Perundini examined touching Foscarini's having spoken ill of the king, in order that the examination might subsequently reach His Majesty.
Ayes13.
Noes0.
Neutral2.
[Italian.]
Feb. 16. Consiglio di X. Criminale. Venetian Archives.643. Draft of a despatch addressed by the Council of Ten to Giovanni Battista Lionello, Venetian Secretary resident in England.
To proceed as secretly as possible in collecting evidence for the defence of Foscarini and Muscorno. But should the king or his ministers get word of anything displeasing to them, he shall inform His Majesty that justice forbids the denial to persons under trial of evidence in their favour. So we deem it fitting that His Majesty should be informed that we have commissioned you to take particular information from several lords and other persons on behalf of the accused, with regard to statements made concerning their connections (interessi), actions and mode of life. We trust that if you should have occasion to go to His Majesty for support, he will graciously vouchsafe it to you, so that the appeal to justice made by Foscarini and Muscorno may be complied with.
Ayes13.
Noes0.
Neutral2.
[Italian.]
Feb. 16. Consiglio di X. Criminale. Venetian Archives.644. That in like manner the Cavalier Foscarini be told that neither will the Prince Don Luigi of Este be examined. Should he choose to name anyone in his stead, let him do so.
Ayes12.
Noes0.
Neutral3.
[Italian.]
Feb. 16. Consiglio di X. Criminale. Venetian Archives.645. That Foscarini be also informed that it is not thought fit to return the letter presented by him, signed by the king of England, which Foscarini wished to have sent back to England that the date might be added.
Ayes13.
Noes0.
Neutral2.
[Italian.]
Feb. 16. Consiglio di X. Parti Secrete. Venetian Archives.646. That the letter of our Secretary in England, regarding the undertaking of Genoa, ostensibly proposed by Sir Walter Raleigh (Ser Vat Ralle) to the king of Great Britain, be committed by the Secretary of this Council, after an oath of the strictest secrecy has been taken, and the names of all written down, to the Savii of the Cabinet, and if they see fit, to the Senate also, so that they may do what they think best for the public service.
Ayes13.
Noes2.
Neutral1.
This was done, the oath being administered and the names taken. A copy of the letter mentioned, of the 19th January, was left in the hands of the Secretary, Giovanni Rizzardo.
[Italian.]
Feb. 17. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.647. To the Secretary Lionello in England.
With regard to the representations made by our ambassador in Spain that the troubles in Italy cannot be ended without a general accommodation, his Catholic Majesty, by means of the duke of Lerma, recognised the necessity and asked that negotiations might be begun at that Court. He offered to obtain authority from the emperor and archduke, so that if we did the same with the duke of Savoy the negotiations might be taken up. We have, therefore, sent the necessary instructions to our Ambassador Gritti, so that we may not be found wanting in our desire for peace, if it can be obtained upon just conditions. We send this for information, and if you are assured that the count of Scarnafes; ambassador of Savoy, has informed the king of this in the name of His Highness, you also will inform His Majesty about it, as an office of confidence, but you will not do so otherwise.
The like to the secretary Surian at the Hague, except the last paragraph.
Ayes138.
Noes2.
Neutral2.
That the following be sent to England instead of the last paragraph.
We direct you to ask audience of the king and inform him of the above, as we are sure that His Majesty will approve, seeing that we have never shut the door upon peace, that it be opened, and we wish to impart this as a sign of continued confidence, although we cannot predict what may be the outcome of these negotiations.
Ayes31.
[Italian.]
Feb. 17. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.648. Giovanni Battista Lionello, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassador Scarnafis spoke to the king a week yesterday simply upon the subject of helping the duke. He made complaints and left nothing undone to move the king. His Majesty replied that he intended to help His Highness, but he wished the duke and republic would decide to make offensive war on the Spaniards instead of defence, and then he would take his share, although it could not be in money, because he was very short of it for the moment. He would, however, give 6,000 valiant English soldiers, from whom he would obtain excellent service. He wished first to ascertain whether the Huguenots, who are now serving in Piedmont, will not ask for leave to return to France and defend their own homes. He was also awaiting replies from the princes of Germany and the States, as he wished them to join in. He said he had received letters from Lord Roos from Spain two days before saying he had had his first audiences and urged peace. The Catholic king replied that the king of Great Britain had great influence with him and he would show it to the world, but he did not know if he had such power with the duke of Savoy as he professed, hinting that he should induce the duke to do what the Spaniards desired for the sake of their reputation. Lord Roos asked to have this reply in writing to form a basis for negotiation. The king of England told Scarnafis that fresh news must come from Spain in two days and he would confer with Winwood, who would tell him what the Council had decided to do. Eight days have passed since the audience, and no letters have come from Spain. The ambassador saw Winwood on Monday and received the same reply, with a great deal about offensive war, and the necessity for your Serenity and the duke to make it. The ambassador replied that the duke was quite willing, provided His Majesty supplied the means.
Four days ago the ambassador received letters from the duke of the 23rd January with a copy of the proposals recently made by the ambassador Bethune in the name of the Most Christian, and the reply of His Highness, telling him to see His Majesty and ask for advice, so that he may answer Bethune more decisively, and ask for his opinion as a mark of respect and because of the part taken by His Majesty in the treaty of Asti. His Highness points out to the ambassador that this new proposal is a trick of the Queen Mother, of whom he complains loudly upon various points, saying that she is constantly doing something to the prejudice of himself and his interests.
Upon this the Ambassador Scarnafis asked for a fresh audience of the king, and when he could not have it so soon, he showed the letter to Winwood, asking him to communicate to the king what His Highness said. Yesterday morning Winwood told him that His Majesty does not look favourably upon Bethune's proposals, as he fancied that the French wanted to have the negotiations for a settlement all to themselves, without the king of England sharing as he ought, because he took part in the treaty of Asti, but that His Majesty would consequently like to consider the subject more in order that he might be better qualified to give the duke his opinion and advice.
Three days ago Baron Tour had his first public audience, when he did not go beyond the usual general compliments. The king afterwards left London and will return to-morrow with the idea of remaining there for the whole of the following week for the benefit of the ambassador.
Upon the journey to Scotland I can say no more except that while some are persuaded that it will never take place, others declare that His Majesty will not change his mind. He has even sent to prison one individual who said that he would not go, (fn. 1) and I hear that the other day he unsheathed his sword and declared they were traitors who said he would not go, threatening to have their heads off (anzi ha fatto impreggionar alcuni che scommettevano per il no, et intendo che l'altro giorno sfoderasse la spada chiamasse per traditori et minacciasse di tagliar la testa a chi diceva che non vi anderebbe).
Seven ships, all new, have been got ready by the merchants in the river here for the East Indies. They are the finest that have ever been seen at sea. This affair of the Indies may enrich many individuals, but it impoverishes the kingdom, as they have to take from it a great quantity of ready money.
The weather continues to be so extraordinary that all philosophers, physicians and men of judgment are agreed in predicting a great famine and plague in England next year, and the want of wheat is beginning to be felt very severely now.
London, the 17 February, 1616. [m.v.]
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Feb. 17. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives.649. Almoro Nani, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
Seeing that the Pasha had come to no decision about the carazo after eighteen days, I went to urge him on and had a long audience upon the subject. I told him that the ambassadors proposed to come together, but knowing that he did not like this, I had come alone in the name of all. He replied that he had done what he could. He had shown the document and capitulations to His Majesty, who had referred him to the Mufti. The latter had declared that the man who had written the capitulations deserved to have his hands cut off. The Cadi had written him a letter saying that the affair was settled and that the Pasha alone had incited the ambassador to act. These things greatly worry the Pasha, and increase his weakness, which I recognized from the first and which led me to augur badly for our affair. However, as a last resort, I gave him your Serenity's letter, asking him to give it to His Majesty, telling him that the other ambassadors were also hourly expecting letters from their princes, this being considered the most important affair ever negotiated with the Porte. If the other ambassadors had presented letters, I should be sanguine, but being alone I dare not feel sure of success.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, the 17th February, 1616. [m.v.]
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 17. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Spagna. Venetian Archives.650. Pierro Gritti, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassador has gone, much earlier than he announced and than the affairs which he was to have conducted seemed to demand. The duke of Lerma and another minister spoke to him about the marriage, but they did not open negotiations. The almoner of the Spanish ambassador in London has come here, so far as I can find out, to sound His Majesty and the ministers, and if they are well disposed, the king of England will send an ambassador to negotiate.
An assembly of theologians has recently been held at the house of the cardinal of Savoy, the duke of Lerma attending, to discuss the difficulties of religion in this affair. Opinions were varied, they say. They were greatly indignant at the request made by the ambassador that the English should have free permission to sail in the Indies, the more so because he hinted at the hindrances which the English could put in the way of the Spaniards and the passage of the fleet, from which the king there wishes to abstain owing to the friendship between the two crowns. The duke of Lerma waxed wroth at this request, and made loud complaints because the king of England had recently not only permitted an English knight (fn. 2) to go to the Indies with the intention of establishing a footing there, but had given him fourteen galleons and many soldiers for the purpose.
For this reason the ambassador had no success in his negotiations, especially as they had disputes about the affairs of Savoy. The ambassador told the duke of Lerma that his king was bound by his promise to help the duke. His Excellency replied that if His Majesty decides to keep a force at the strait of Gibraltar the king of England will not be able to help the duke of Savoy. This answer provoked the Englishman to retort, much to the duke's anger, that his king was so powerful at sea that it would not be so easy to prevent the passage of his forces wherever he wished, while his Excellency was well aware that wars are also made by diversions.
Madrid, the 17th February, 1617.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Feb. 21. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives651. Ottavio Bon and Vicenzo Gussoni, Venetian Ambassadors in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The declaration of the Council of State and the decrees of Parliament have been published, declaring the dukes of Vendome and Mayenne, the Marshal de Bouillon, the marquis of Coure, President Le Jay (Leggie) and all who join them, to be guilty of high treason. The princes on the other hand continue to ask for foreign help by their agents in Germany, England and eleswhere, so that the undertaking will be more difficult for the king than is thought. The queen can trust no one except the marquis of Ancre and she even suspects the duke of Guise, who commands her armies. However, she obtains information by means of her secret spies, and she has made a searching enquiry into the actions of the English ambassador, who left here a month ago, as she has heard of various ill-offices performed by him to the prejudice of the royal service and in favour of the princes. However, she is determined to carry everything through by force and will not hear of negotiations.
Paris, the 21st February, 1617.
[Italian.]
Feb. 21. Senato, Secreta, Dispacci, Savoia. Venetian Archives.652. Antonio Donato, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the Doge and Senate.
The Cavalier Gabaleoni has left for Berne. The agent of England accompanied him with orders from the king to intervene in the settlement made with them. They propose the renunciation of the Pays du Vaud in favour of the Bernese, who are to undertake to help the duke with 4,000 foot paid for six months, giving them 100,000 crowns and certain munitions of war. If they cannot obtain all this they will confine themselves to having the troops, whom they wish to be ready by the 10th April. Prince Vittorio has promised to renounce the Vaud, as the Bernese desired this for greater assurance. The matter is of high importance and will produce great results, bringing great prestige to the arms and defence of the duke.
Biondi has been sent to England with very urgent letters to the king. He set out post. The count of Scarnafis is recalled and the duke has deputed Biondi to be his agent in that kingdom. He assigns him a salary, but I do not think he will style him minister, to save the expense, however, he takes credentials to the king, queen and prince.
Turin, the 21st February, 1616. [m.v.]
[Italian.]
Feb. 23. Senato, Secreta. Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.653. To the Secretary Lionello in England.
We send you the copy of a paragraph of a letter of the Secretary Dolce, resident at Zurich, that you may see the lies disseminated there by a gentleman of Count William of Nassau and his evil intentions with regard to the Princes of the Union, so that you may be warned and declare that this Count William was well treated by us, as we gave him refreshments, told off a gentleman to accompany him, showed him the arsenal and other notable things, and provided him with an accommodation of money, and we shall always treat him as his merit deserves.
We also send you a copy of what our resident at Naples writes about the galleons being armed by the Viceroy there. This has given us occasion to propose to arm four great galleys, two of which will be ordered very soon. This is for information, to be used where fitting.
Ayes139.
Noes0.
Neutral2.
[Italian.]
Feb. 23. Senato. Secreta Deliberazioni. Venetian Archives.654. To the Secretary in England.
The enemy attacked unsuccessfully the Villa de Cani; they were pursued by the Governor Giustinian. They retired to Trieste. The Procurator General in Dalmatia has made some successful raids.
The last letters from Turin of the 18th relate that the duke advanced to the Tanaro, skirmished with the Germans and drove them to the very gates of Alba. The place is expected to surrender. Prince Vittorio after destroying Mascerano will proceed to Vercelli or join his father.
The like to the Imperial Court, Rome, France, Spain, Turin, Milan, Naples, Florence, Mantua, the Hague, Dolce, Padavin.
Ayes169.
Noes6.
Neutral0.
[Italian.]
Feb. 24. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.655. Giovanni Battista Lionello, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The courier has returned from Spain who went two months ago to recall Lord Roos. He brings word that Lord Roos has already left Court and by his reckoning he should now be in France, whence they expect him shortly, to hear further particulars from him of his embassy. Meanwhile he has written to His Majesty by this last courier that the Catholic king, to please the king of England, had promised to order Don Pedro of Toledo to cease from harassing the state of the duke of Savoy any longer with his arms, until further orders, and from this step towards peace they might derive the best idea of the intentions of His Majesty for a settlement.
I have these particulars from the earl of Buckingham (Bocchinger), the king's favourite, who has been admitted to the Council this week, at the age of twenty-two, an unusual thing. (fn. 3) Up to the present neither the king nor Winwood has communicated this news to the ambassador of Savoy, so that I cannot say what His Majesty's opinion about it may be, and if he will open his eyes to see this deception that is hidden beneath. The ambassador Searnafis hopes to have audience in two or three days and perhaps he will speak about it then.
After the first public audience that the ambassador extraordinary of France had of the king ten days ago, he has had no other in public beyond what is appointed for him to-morrow, and that is what he has tried to make the ordinary ambassador here believe. But the latter has discovered that on Tuesday when he went to Court to pay visits to some great lords he passed secretly from the wardrobe of Lord Hay to the privy chamber of His Majesty, with whom he conversed for about an hour, and on his return home he sent a gentleman post to France. When the ordinary ambassador heard this, although he dissimulated his feelings, he felt very deeply, so some of his intimates have told me, as he takes it for a sign of the slight confidence that both parties place him in, as he is considered suspect and hated by the king here, while on the French side they cherish almost the same feelings, because he is the son-in-law of the High Chancellor Sillery, who is in disgrace with the present Government, and some one tells me he hears from Paris that he will soon be removed from here and his successor is already named. I am sorry for this as I know well that since the fall of his father-in-law this gentleman has become very hostile to the Spaniards and entirely opposed to their negotiations, so much so that the Catholic ambassador here has complained about it in a letter to the duke of Monteleone, saying he has no greater enemy in this kingdom.
It has not been possible hitherto to discover everything that took place at the secret audience given by His Majesty to Baron Tour. I only know that His Majesty made urgent representations for the liberation of the prince of Condé, which will prove fruitless, especially during the present rumours of war, as it is not likely that the Most Christian King will give a chief to the princes and so greatly increase their power by adding to their party the first prince of the blood. Upon whatever conditions he is released from prison it is certain that as soon as he is out he will pursue his own ends and will try every means to recover his authority.
As the servant of your Excellencies I have been to call upon the Baron Tour. After the usual compliments he began a long disquisition upon what had happened in France since the death of Henry IV., interpreting the actions of the queen in the most favourable light, and those of Condé and the other princes in a bad light. He concluded by saying that the Most Christian King no longer needs to fear the rebels, but can punish them at his pleasure, and from the manner in which he bore himself and from what I have already heard, I believe that this may be the principal object of his embassy.
From Flanders and France comes the news that very secrect negotiations are in progress between the Marquis Spinola and the count of La Marck, and the Most Christian King for the capture of Sedan from the duke of Bouillon. There is some difficulty, because some do not wish Spinola, who has bought the claims, and consequently the Spaniards, to take possession of it, but rather that the undertaking should be made in the name of the count of La Marck, who has sold. But it is thought that France will not mind whoever it may be, provided that Bouillon is despoiled.
This morning the king visited the Star Chamber and in the presence of a large concourse spoke at length and with eloquence against duels. He was expected to speak upon some other matters, but he did not do so, and he afterwards took leave not to go to that council again for the rest of his life. (fn. 4)
There is news among the merchants that near the Strait of Gibraltar there are more than ten ships of war of the Catholic king, who are awaiting the troops of your Serenity to attack them on their way. I am writing this to the Secretary Surian at the Hague, to forewarn him and induce him to take such steps as his prudence may suggest.
We have this week received two letters of your Serenity of the 27th January, I will execute the instructions.
London, the 24th February, 1616. [m.v.]
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Feb. 25. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.656. Christoforo Surian, Venetian Resident in Holland, to the Doge and Senate.
Measures have been taken to repress the ardour of the soldiers gathered at Texel. Count Maurice sent at once to Alkmaar to order eighty musketeers of the company of Colonel Onderson, an Englishman, to proceed to Veringhen. He also advised that the leaders of the mutiny should be made prisoners. The Colonel left on Tuesday with Colonel Rocalaura. He has not yet returned, but is expected to-day or to-morrow. It is thought that all is well as there is no news.
The Hague, the 25th February, 1617.
[Italian.]
Feb. 25. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Signori Stati. Venetian Archives.657. Christoforo Surian, Venetian Resident in Holland, to the Doge and Senate.
They are still postponing the reply to the proposals of the king of Great Britain, while they are waiting for the reply of the princes interested. The English ambassador says that the king will certainly not allow these negotiations to fall through, and he feels sure that the Spaniards will make restitution.
The Hague, the 25th February, 1617.
[Italian.]
Feb. 27. Consiglio di X. Parti Secrete. Venetian Archives.658. That the letter of the Secretary in England of the 27th ult., dealing with the affair of Genoa, be communicated to the Savii of the Cabinet, with power to read it to the Senate, if they see fit.
Ayes15.
Noes0.
Neutral1.
The letter was committed to Domenico Dominici, the Secretary. (fn. 5)
[Italian.]
Feb. 27. Consiglio di X. Criminale. Venetian Archives.659. Endeavors should be made to examine Nicolo Dolfin, who is outlawed, who is cited as a witness for many points of the defence of Giulio Muscorno.
Ayes1.
Noes11.
Neutral3.
[Italian.]
Feb. 27. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives.660. Almoro Nani, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
In the matter of the carazo the pasha has been vigorously attacked by his enemies and by those who cannot see what is just; they have gone so far as to say that it is a chance for him to make 50,000 sequins and more, and that the capitulations were made without the king's knowledge and ought to be torn up. In fear of this I got a young favourite of the pasha to recover our capitulations for me some days ago, the others remaining in the pasha's room. Your Serenity's letter was presented to the Sultan three days ago and I hope that it will induce him to come to a just decision.
The pasha having heard that the matter of the carazo was not mentioned in the old capitulations, sent to all the ambassadors to ask if we had the capitulations of the Sultan Suliman. After a long search I found ours and sent it to the pasha. After two days he sent for the French ambassador and in a long discourse tried to make him despair of obtaining anything. However, the ambassador stood firm, yielding only on the point of married merchants, who are very few and intend to depart. The following day the Mufti sent for me and made a long speech, saying that the capitulations could not stand against the laws. I replied that His Majesty was bound to keep his promises.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, the 27th February, 1616. [m.v.]
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 27. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives.661. Almoro Nani, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
Two days after I saw the Mufti the pasha sent to tell me that the carazo was removed. I thanked him warmly. I am much relieved, especially as I know that they proposed to extend the carazo to all their towns and gradually force foreigners to pay all their taxes.
Dalle Vigne de Pera, the 27th February, 1616. [m.v.]
[Italian; deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 See Gardiner: Hist, of England, iii, p. 82.
2 Sir Walter Raleigh.
3 He was admitted to the Council on Tuesday, Feb. 4/14 (Birch. Court and Times of James I., p. 390) and took his seat for the first time on Feb. 11/21. Cal. State Papers Domestic, 1611–8, page 434.
4

I forgot . . to write that the king was expected at the Star Chamber, whither he went the day after the term; and there is a case of challenge 'twixt two youths of the Inns of Court—Christmas and Bellingham—he took occasion to make a speech about duelling, wherein he was observed to bestow many good words on the Spanish nation and to gall the French more, which he since interprets to be only touching that point. . . The issue of all was, that the gentlemen, who could say little or nothing for themselves, were fined at 1,000l. apiece, and imprisonment in the Tower during pleasure.

It was thought there would have been something spoken touching the journey into Scotland; but there was altum silentium in that and other things that were expected. Chamberlain to Carleton, Feb. 22, 1617. Birch: Court and Times of James I, i. p. 456.

5 At page 421 above.