Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 1, 1618-29. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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In the mean while, an Army of Thirty thousand was levying in Flanders, under the command of Marquis Spinola. The King of England sent to know the cause of so great preparations. The Marquis gave answer, That he received his Commission sealed up, with a charge, not to open it, till his Army were compleated, and brought together to a Rendezvouz: but the King had proof enough to assure him, that this Army was intended for the Palatinate. Yet no more than one Regiment, under the command of Sir Horatio Vere could be obtained from him, though two more were promised: When Spinola had his Rendezvouz, where he mustered fix and twenty thousand Foot, and four thousand Horse, he opened his Commission, which required him to make War against all those, which should be confederate with the Bohemian Rebels; and he communicated the same to the Ambassador of Great Britain. At the same time the English began their match; as brave a Regiment as hath appeared in any Age, consisting most of Gentlemen, under a most worthy Leader, who was accompanied with the Earls of Oxford and Essex, persons innobled, as well by their own virtues, as by their Progenitors. Other Commanders in this Regiment were Sir Edward Sackvile, Sir Gerard Herbert, Sir Robert Knolles, Captain Stafford, Captain Wilmot, Captain William Fairfax, Sir John Burlacy, Captain Burroughs, Captain Robert Knightly, &c.
The Imperial Forces became exceeding numerous, by large Supplies from several Countries and Provinces. The States Protestant of the Upper and Lower Austria, upon the approach of the Bavarian Army, seeing nothing but manifest ruine, renounce their confederacy with the Bohemians, and submit to the Emperor, saving to themselves their Rights and Privileges in Religion. Whereupon the Bohemians and their King, being but twenty thousand strong, besides an addition of ten thousand Hungarians from Bethl m Gabor, and fearing left Bavaria and Buquoy Joining their Forces should fall into Bohemia, thought it best to fortifie the Frontiers, and to defend their Country, which, they conceived, they might well do, if the Elector of Saxony would continue in his Neutrality. The Emperor sent to the said Elector, to execute his Ban or Declaration of Treason against the Count Palatine, and the Bohemian Rebels. The Bohemians, by their Ambassadors, requested him, if he would not own their Cause, yet at least to remain Neutral. The Duke of Saxony replied to King Frederick, That he had often represented to him, what ruine was like to follow him by taking another's Crown; and for his own part, being called upon by the Emperor, to execute his Ban, and chastise the Rebels, he could not disobey that just command. The Protestant Princes sent to him again, and gave him notice of Spinola's advance to subdue the Palatinate; but this did nothing move him. He entred Lusatia with some Forces, and quickly reduced a part of that Province.
In the Palatinate, Spinola having got the start of the English, by means of a far shorter march, had no sooner arrived, but he took in divers Towns, and prevailed greatly over a spiritless people; yet he warily declined the hazard of Battel with the Princes of the Union: Neither was the Marquis Ansbach very forward to engage, or to seek or take advantages. The Dutch slowness was not excusable, howbeit, the great access of strength to the Emperor's party, and this slender aid from the King of Great Britain, to preserve his Children's Patrimony, must needs dishearten the German Princes, and help to dissolve the Union. After a while, the season of the year drew them into their Winter Quarters; the Princes retired into their several Countries, and the English Regiment was disposed into three principal Garrisons: Sir Horatio Vere commanded in Manheim, Sir Gerard Herbert in Heidelborough, and Captain Burroughs in Frankendale, having only power to preserve themselves within those Walls, whilst the Enemy ranged round about them.
A Letter writen from the Marquis of Buckingham to Conde Gondomar, discovered the bent of the King's mind and will touching the German War, That he was resolved to continue Neuter for Conscience, Honour, and Example's sake. In regard of Conscience, judging it unlawful to Inthrone and Dethrone Kings for Religion's sake; having a quarrel against the Jesuits for holding that Opinion: Besides, he saw the World inclined to make this a War of Religion, which he would never do. In point of Honour; for that when he sent his Ambassador into Germany to treat of Peace, in the interim his Son in Law had taken the Crown upon him. And for Example's sake; holding it a dangerous president against all Christian Princes, to allow a sudden translation of Crowns by the People's Authority. Nevertheless, he could not sit still, and see his Children dispossessed of their Hereditary Rights, and hopes his Son in Law will make overtures of Peace; which is slighted by the Emperor, he will not lose the season to prepare for the defence of the Palatinate. But is his son will not hearken to his advice, he shall be enforced to leave him to his proper Counsels.
Notwithstanding this open, wary, and tender proceeding, with all care and patience to observe the Spanish humours, our State-Ministers that were most addicted to Spain, discerned their trifling with us, which they did not spare to censure, and resolved to use a freer Language; yet still discovered a willingness to wait their further leisure; for the English Patience seemed invincible. In the mean time, the Privy Council having an eye to the support of the Palatinate, began the raising of Monies by way of free gift, and directed Letters of the tenor following, to divers Earls, Viscounts, Bishops, and Barons, the same Letter being sent to each respectively.
You may formerly have heard how the Palatinate, being the ancient Heretage of the Count Palatine, his Majesties Son in Law, and to descend to his Majesties Grand-children, is now invaded by a Foreign Enemy; many principal Towns are surprised, a great part of the Country in the possession of Strangers, and the Inhabitants forced to take an Oath against their Natural Prince. Whereupon his Majesty, out of considerations of Nature, Honour, and State, hath declared himself in the course of an Auxiliary War, for the defence and recovery of the same; and the occasion being so weighty and pressing, hath moved his Majesty, by the general advice of us his Council, to think of some course for provision of that nature, as may serve as well to the maintenance and preserving of the present succours already sent, as for the re-inforcing them out of those Countries, as the occasion of the War shall require: And for that the swistness of the occasion would not permit a supply by other means for the present, so readily as was needful, we have all concurred to begin with our selves, in offer of a voluntary Gift unto his Majesty, for the advancement of the present occasion; nothing doubting, but that your Lordship, being a Peer of the Kingdom, will cheerfully and readily follow the example of us begun. And if there were much alacrity and readiness found in the Nobility, and others, to contribute at the motion of his Majesties Son's Ambassador, at what time the Palatinate was not invaded, neither had his Majesty declared himself, you will much more, and in a better proportion do it, now these two weighty Motives do concur; and so nothing doubting of your Lordship's readiness herein, we bid, &c.
|To the||Marquis of Winchester,||Earl of Darby,|
|Earl of Cumberland,||Earl of Northumberland, &c,|
But the short Reign of King Frederick was near its period : The Imperial Forces under Bavaria, Buquoy, and D. Balthazar, advance towards Prague; and the Bohemians quit their Garrisons, to make their Army the more compleat; yet neither Count Mansfield nor the English Forces were there. On the Eighth day of November, being the Lord's day, both Armies met, for the fatal Decision of the great Controversie. The Bohemians stood upon the advantage-ground, betwixt the Imperialists and Prague: But the Enemy breaking through, scattered and ruined their whole Army, and pursued the Victory. The King and Queen surprised with this Discomfiture, among a wavering people, in a City not very defensible, were constrained to flie the next morning.
Diminution of Honour was added to the calamity of this Prince, because he suffered his Soldiers to mutiny for Pay, when he had a Mass of Money by him, which was left behind to augment the Enemy's Conquest. Neither was Anhalt the General, a fit Person for the high trust reposed in him; who, not long after the defeat, sought and obtained the Emperor's favour, and was made one of his Generals to debel the Protestant Cause and Party. But Count Mansfield, whom Anhalt slighted, and closed not with him, to bring him up to this Fight, made good his fidelity, and with his flying Army became a continual vexation to the Emperor, harassing his Countries, and forcing Contribution.
King James upon the news of the Palsgrave's overthrow, and upon a narration of the state of Affairs in those parts made unto his Majesty, by the Earls of Oxford and Essex, newly returned from the Palatinate, was pleased to call a full Council together, to consider of this great and weighty affair. The order ensuing relates the particulars.
At the Court at Whiteball, Jan. 13. 1620.
- Lord Archbishop of Canterbury
- Lord Chancellor
- Lord Treasurer
- Lord Privy Seal
- Lord Steward
- Lord M. Hamilton
- Lord Chamberlain
- Earl of Arundel
- Earl of Kelly
- Lord V. Doncaster
- Lord V. Falkland
- Lord Carew
- Lord Digby
- Mr. Treasurer
- Mr. Secretary Naunton
- Mr. Secretary Calvert
- Mr. Chanc of the Exchequer
- Master of the Rolls
- Master of the Wards
His Majesty being resolved to make come Royal preparations for the Recovery and Protection of the Palatinate, being the antient Inheritance of his Majesty's Son in Law, and Grand children, did in his high wisdom think meet to appoint some persons of knowledge and experience in the Wars, to consider of, and give their advice in such Propositions as shall be made unto them by the Board, for the better expediting of that service. Co which purpose, the Cars of Oxford, and the Cars of Essex, the Cars of Leicester, the Lord Discount Wilmot, the Lord Danvers, the Lord Calfield, Sir Edward Cecyl, Sir Richard Harrison Knights, and Captain Danbingham were called to the Cable, and made acquainted with his Majesty's pleasure, Chat then, or and five or more of them, together with Sir Horace Vere, and Sir Edward Conway Knights (if then return into England while this committee both continue) shall undertake this service, and have their Meetings and Assemblies in the whole Council-chamber here in Whitehall, touching the affairs above mentioned: And that for their better assistance, then call unto them such others of experience, whole advice and opinion they shall think fit to make use of in their several Consultations, upon such things as shall be so referred unto them from the Board. Which they are to prosecute without intermission or delay. And then shall make report of their Opinions, which is to be done in writing under five of their hands at least.
And secondly, By what time it will be meet, that their Forces be in readiness; And where the Arms, Munition, and Victuals may best be provided; with such other Circumstances, as are incident to any of these Heads.
Moreover, the King to encourage the Princes of the Union, and to keep them in Arms, sent them thirty thousand Pounds; yet withal, resolved to treat for a peace and dispatch'd Sir Edward Villers into Silesia, to fetch the Palsgrave's submission to the Emperor, upon conditions to be conceived according to equity and conveniency.
Never did the Spaniards more flatter King James, than after the Defeat at Prague. They affirm, that he shall ordain, according to his pleasure, in the Palsgrave's Restitution, and be obey's; that the Infanta's Portion was preparing, and that the Pope was obliged to grant the Dispensation, from whom they resolve to take no denial. Cottington the Agent in Spain, now attested the Honesty of Gondomar's Dispatches hither, and cried him up for a cordial man, and well deserving his Majesty's favour.
"Besides that which I enjoin you in your general Instructions given you for England, whither I send you to reside, I thought good to advertise you apart by themselves of the chiefest things of importance, which you shall there negotiate, and endeavour to further and advance.
"It is well known, that I have desired and endeavoured to favour the cause of the Catholicks of that Kingdom, and to further it to their best advantage, as well in the time of the Queen deceased, who did so much prosecute and oppress them, as since the time that the present King hath succeeded; yet that calamity still continues upon them by reason of the ill offices done unto them by the Puritans and Protestants (of whom the greater part of that King's Council doth consist:) Howbeit, be cause it is a thing that I could not well urge or press, without breeding jealousies, and so cause thereby a greater harm to the Catholicks, I have proceeded on my part with that Wariness and Dissimulation as is fit,
"D. A. shall inform you of what hath passed in this matter, as also in what estate things are at this present, and how you shall govern your self for the time to come, according to the orders given unto him, whose example we wish you to follow. And of this take special heed: That although it be believed, that we may be very confident of the trustiness of those Catholicks, by whose means the business of the rest is undertaken, that they will be secret; notwithstanding, left any Heretick shall come in the name or shew of a Catholick, only to make some discovery; it shall be sit, that in all speeches you shall have with them, concerning that which shall touch the Catholicks, that you tell them, how much I desire to see them freed from those pressures, under which Queen Elizabeth put them, and that God would inspire the King's heart, that he may reduce himself to the obedience of the Roman Catholick Church: And advise them to endeavour to win the King unto them, by shewing themselves good, and loyal, and obedient Subjects, in temporal duties, and not to meddle any thing against his State; that by their deeds, he may see, what security may be expected from them, and may also bind himself to favour them; these being things that do no way contradict the observing the Catholick Religion, and are due from them to the Dignity of their King and Natural Lord: And for the same reason they ought to abstain from all ill practices, or unfitting speech or actions against his person, as, is said, some heretofore have used; especially seeing no good hath, or can come thereof, and thereby they shall justly provoke him against themselves; and by holding this course, they shall win the King's good will, and the peace shall be preserved, and by the peace by little and little, be won and attained that which is desired. By this manner of proceeding it is certain, there can come no inconvenience: But in case that this your manner of dealing shall come to the King's knowledge (as possibly it may) it will breed a great obligation of Brotherhood and Friendship between us, when he shall see, that I carry my self in this sort in his affairs, and consequently will be the more confident of our amity, and will thereby be induced the better to subdue all malice in them, that shall endeavour to persuade the contrary. And therefore you shall have a special care to do this dexterously, in due time and season; and to inform your self very particularly from the said D. A. concerning those with whom you may deal confidently, and how far you may trust the Negotiants for the Catholicks; though you shall do well alway to proceed with the aforesaid caution and wariness.
"You shall understand from the said D. A. what Pensions are allotted to certain Ministers of that King, and to other persons: It will be necessary to inform your self thoroughly, of all that concerns this point, and that you know both the Persons and Pensions, to serve your self of them, and to make the best use of them in all occasions, that shall be most behoveful for your better direction in the businesses given you in charge, and all others that may be offered of consequence, seeing the said Pensions were appointed to that end.
"Whatsoever of the said Pensions you shall find unpaid for the time past, D. A. is to discharge, and you shall undertake for the time to come, telling every one what his Pension is, to the end they may be deceived of no part thereof by the third person who conveys it unto them, and let it be punctually paid at the days, that their good payment may bind them to presevere, and do their service punctually; for the which you shall be furnished with all that shall be necessary. And have a special care to advertise me, how such persons employ themselves in the things that shall occur, disguising their names in such manner as D. A. does.
"Above all, you must take great care to dive into the estate of the affairs of that King: What his treasure is: In what Estimation he is with his Subjects, and what correspondency and good meaning there is betwixt them; How the English, Scots, and Irish stand affected among themselves, and one towards another, and towards their Neighbours, and how they are bent against me, and my Common Estates, or any of my particular Kingdoms; Whence they draw their Intelligences, and particularly what amity and correspondency that King entertaineth with France, and with the Neutrals of Holland and Zealand, and with the Venetians, and upon what causes it is founded, what matters they treat of, what designs they have in hand. All which is very necessary to be known; for the attaining of which, D. A. will open unto you some ways, which you must follow, besides those which your self shall discover. And you shall advertise me of whatsoever you shall understand and learn, governing your self in all occurrents with that wariness and discretion, as your zeal to my service doth assure me of.
Buckhingham and his Dependants followed the King's inclinations: The Duke of Lenox, Marquis Hamilton, and William Earl of Pembroke, disliking the King's course, did not contest with him, but only intimated their dissent.
It was said of Gondomar, that when he returned into Spain, he gave in his account of disbursements for Pensions given in England, (amongst others) to Sir Robert Cotton 1000 l. a person of great integrity, and one who was ever averse to the House of Austria. Which Sir Robert getting notice of, by the English Agent, then in Spain, demanded reparation; which was obtained, but with a Salvo to the Ambassador's honour, the error being said to be committed by a Dependant upon the Ambassador, and not by himself.
The King being jealous of uncontrolled Sovereignty, and impatient of his Peoples intermeddling with the Mysteries of State, had fallen into a great dislike of Parliaments, and for many years before had given way to Projects and Monopolies: And many of his Ministers perhaps, fearing an inquiry into their own actions, might suggest to him, that he might better furnish himself by those ways, and the Match now in treaty, than by Subsides, usually accompanied with the redrefs of Grievances. Nevertheless, he was now minded to call a Parliament, conceiving it might be special use: For he observed the affections of the people to those affections would open their purses to the supply of his wants; and the Treaty with Spain would effect the business, without the expence and troubles, of War, and the good accord between him and his People would quicken the Spaniard to conclude the Match. And accordingly Writs were issued forth to assemble them the 30. of January. In the calling of this Parliament, he recommended to his Subjects the choice of such Members, as were of the wisest, gravest, and best affected people, neither superstitious, nor turbulent, but obedient children to this their Mother-Church.
In the mean while, in Germany, the Protestant Union continually declined, by the gradual falling away of the several Partakers. The Elector of Saxony reduced the remainder of Lusatia. The Province of Moravia, upon the approach of Buquoy, seeing the Court de Latiere came not in to their succour, prayed that they might enjoy their Privileges in matter of Religion, and be received into the Emperor's grace and favour: which submission was well received at Vienna. Likewise the States of Silesia failing of assistance from the Elector Palatine, were conftrained to make their peace.
Then the Palatine propounded to the Elector of Saxony an Overture of Peace, declaring, That he took the Crown upon him to preserve the Protestants in the free execise of their Religion. The Saxon replied, That he had no way to make his Peace, but to renounce the Kingdom of Bohemia, and the Provinces incroporate, and to beg the Emperor's pardon. Afterwards the Elector Palatine goeth to Brandenburg, and then to Segenburgh, where there was an assembly of Princes and States Protestant, to oppose the exploits of Spinola. In the mean while, Count Mansfield stirs in Bohemia, pillages several Towns, and the Goods of all those that cried, God Save King Ferdinand.
The relation of England to those affairs of Foreign States, had caused a general liberty of discourse concerning matters of State: which King James could not bear, but, by Proclamation, commanded all, from the highest to the lowest, not to intermeddle, by Pen or Speech, with State-concernments, and fecrets of Empire, either at home or abroad; which were no fit Themes of Subjects for vulgar persons, or common meetings.
"My Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and you the Commons. Cui multiloquio non deest peccatum. In the last Parliament I made long discourses, especially to them of the Lower House: I did open the true thoughts of my heart; but I may say with our Saviour, I have piped to you, and you have not danced; I have mourned, and ye have not lamented. Yet as no man's actions can be free, so in me God found some spices of vanity, and so all my sayings turned to me again without any success. And now to tell the reasons of your calling, and this meeting, apply it to your selves, and spend not the time in long Speeches. Consider, that the Parliament is a thing composed of a Head and a Body, the Monarch, and the Two Estates; It was first a Monarchy, then after a Parliament. There are no Parliaments, but in Monarchical Governments; for, in Venice, the Netherlands, and other Free Governments, there are none. The Head is to call the Body together: And for the Clergy, the Bishops are chief; for Shires their Knights; and for Towns and Cities, their Burgesses and Citizens. These are to treat of difficult matters, and to counsel their King with their best advice to make Laws for the Common-weal. And the Lower House is also to petition their King, and acquaint him with their Grievances, and not to meddle with their King's Prerogative. They are to offer supply for his Necessity, and he to distribute in recompence thereof Juftice and Mercy. As in all Parliaments, it is the King's Office to make good Laws (whose fundamental cause is the Peoples ill manners) so at this time, that we may meet with the new Abuses, and the incroaching craft of the times: particulars shall be read hereafter.
"As touching Religion, Laws enough are made already. It stands in two points, Persuasion, and Compulsion: Men may persuade, but God must give the blessing. Jesuits, Priests, Puritans, and Sectaries, erring both on the right hand and left hand, are forward to persuade unto their own ends; and so ought you the Bishops, in your example and preaching: But Compulsion to obey is to bind the Conscience.
"For a Supply to my necessities: I have regined Eighteen years, in which time you have had peace, and I have received far less supply than hath been given to any King since the Conquest: The last Queen of famous memory, had one year with another above a hundred thousand pounds Per annum in Subsidies; and in all my time I have had but Four Subsidies, and Six Fifteens. It is ten years since I had a Subsidy, in all which time I have been sparing to trouble you: I have turned my self as nearly to save expences as I may; I have abated much in My Houshold expences, in My Navies, in the charge of My Munition; I made not choice of an old beaten Soldier for my Admiral, but rather chose a (fn. 1) Young man, whose honesty and integrity I knew, whose care hath been to appoint under him sussicient men, to lessen My Charges, which he hath done.
"Touching the miserable diffensions in Christendom. I was not the cause thereof; for the appeasing whereof I sent my Lord of Doncaster, whose journey cost me Three thousand five hundred pounds. My Son in Law sent to me for Advice, but within three days after accepted of the Crown; which I did never approve of, for three Reasons.
"Thirdly, I have treated a Peace, and therefore will not be a Party; yet I left not to preserve my Children's Patrimony: For I had a Contribution of my Lords and Subjects, which amounted to a great sum. I borrowed of my brother of Denmark Seven thousand five hundred pounds to help him, and sent as much to him as made it up Ten thousand; and Thirty thousand I sent to the Princes of the Union, to hearten them. I have lost no time: had the Princes of the Union done their parts, that handful of men I sent had done theirs. I intend to send, by way of persuasion, which in this Age will little avail, unless a strong hand assist: Wherefore I purpose to provide an Army the next Summer, and desire you to consider of My Necessities, as you have done to My Predecessors. Qui cito dat, bis dat. I will engage My Crown, my Blood, and My Soul in that Recovery.
"You may be informed of me in things in course of justice: but I never sent to any of My Judges to give sentence contrary to Law. Consider the Trade, for the making thereof better; and shew me the reason why My Mint for these eight or nine years hath not gone. I confess I have been liberal in My Grants; but, if I be informed, I will amend all hurtful Grievances: But who shall hasten after Grievances, and desire to make himself popular, he hath the spirit of Satan: If I may known my Errors, I will reform them. I was in my first Parliament a Novice; and in My laft there was a kind of Beasts called Undertakers, a dozen of whom undertook to govern the last Parliament, and they led me. I shall thank you for your good office, and desire that the World may say well of Our agreement.
The King minded his former Engagements, and in the beginning of the Parliament sends Sir John Digby, now made Lord Digby, into Flanders, to the Archduke Albertus, to gain a present Cessation from War, and to make way for a Treaty of Peace with the Emperor. And also about the same time, he sent Mr. George Gage to Rome, to joyn with Padre Maestre, the Spanish Agent, in negotiating the Pope's Dispensation. The Archduke at Brussels, assented to a Reconciliation in favour of our King, and obtained from Marquis Spinola a suspension of all hostility against the Country and Subjects of the Elector Palatine, which continued till the death of Archduke Albert, who died 17 Julii following. So the Lord Digby returned into England, bringing the Cessation of Arms, about the fame time that Sir Edward Villars brought the Palsgrave's Submission. But the Twelve years Peace between Spain and the United Provinces at this time expiring, Spinola returned into Flanders, and left the Palatinate to the Imperial Forces.
After the Assembly at Segenburg, the Palatine and his Princess took their journey into Holland, where they found a refuge and noble entertainment with the Prince of Orange, who gave a high testimony of honour to the Electress at the first arrival, for her magnanimous carriage in Bohemia.
The Ambassage of Weston and Conway prevailed little. The Emperor went on in a severe Reformation, and frequent Executions among that vanquish'd people: he destroved most of their antient Laws, and made new Ordinances: declaring a Sovereignty over them, not as an Elected King, but as a Lord by right of Conquest.
More Princes of the Union reconcile themselves to the Emperor: The Imperial Protestant Towns, Strasburg, Worms, and Nuremburgh, Subscribe to Conditions of Peace. The reconciled Princes and States intercede for the Elector Palatine; but their motion displeased the Emperor, who alledged, That the Palatine did not acknowledge his faults, nor sue for pardon, but made Levies in Holland and elsewhere, to renew the War in the Empire. For the King of Denmark, the United Provinces, and divers German Princes, did adhere to the Palsgrave's cause, and stickle for him. But the Prince's Confederates being already scattered, and the heart of the Union broken; those counsels and enterprises of War on his behalf, instead of repressing the progress of the Austrian Party, did minister occasion of their more absolute and plenary Conquest.
But to return to the Parliament in England. They petition the King for the due execution of Laws against Jesuits, Seminary Priests, and Popish Recusants. Likewise they take in hand to redress the People's Grievances by illegal Patents and Projects, and chiefly that of Inns and Alehouses, for which there was a great Fine, and an Annual Revenue throughout the Kingdom; and the Monopoly of Gold and Silver-thread, whereby the people were abused with base and counterfeit Wares. But the examination of these Abuses was accompanied with the grant of Two Subsidies, which was very acceptable to the King. Sir Giles Mompesson was convened before the House of Commons for many heinous offences and misdemeanours in this kind, to the intolerable grievance of the Subject, the great dishonour of the King, and the scandal of his Government. The Delinquent was committed to Prison, but he escaped thence, and got beyond-sea, and was pursued by the King's Proclamation.
The Commons, at a Conference with the Lords, offered to prove, That the Patnets of Gold and Silver-thread, of Inns and Ale-houses, and of power to compound for obsolete Laws, of the price of Horse-meat, Starch, Cords, Tobacco-pipes, Salt, Train-oil, and the rest, were all illegal: Howbeit, they touch'd not the tender point of Prerogative; but in restoring the Subject's Liberty, were careful to preserve the King's Honour. The Lords resolved to admit no other business, till this were ended.