Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 1, 1618-29. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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The Pope's Letter to the Prince of Wales
Most Noble Prince, We wish you the health and light of God's grace. Forasmuch as Great Britain hath always been fruitful in virtues, and in men of great worth, having filled the one and the other World with the glory of her renown, she doth also very often draw the thoughts of the holy Apostolical Chair to the consideration of her praises. And indeed, the Church was but then in her infancy, when the King of Kings did choose her for his inheritance; and so affectionately, that 'tis believed, the Roman Eagles were hardly there, before the Banner of the Cross. Besides that, many of her Kings instructed in the knowledge of the true Salvation, have preferred the Cross before the Royal Scepter, and the Discipline of Religion before Covetousness; leaving examples of piety to other Nations, and to the Ages yet to come; so that having merited the Principalities, and first places of blessedness in Heaven, they have obtained on Earth the triumphant ornament of Holiness. And although now the state of the English Church is altered, We see, nevertheless, the Court of Great Britain adorned and furnished with Moral Virtues, which might serve to support the charity we bear unto her, and be an ornament to the name of Christianity, if withal she should have for her defence and protection the Orthodox and Catholick truth. Therefore by how much the more the glory of your most noble Father, and the apprehension of your Royal inclination delighteth us, with so much more zeal we desire, that the gates of the Kingdom of Heaven might be opened unto you, and that you might purchase to your self the love of the Universal Church.
Moreover, it being certain that Gregory the Great, of most blessed memory, hath introduced to the People of England, and taught to their Kings the Law of the Gospel, and the respect of Apostolical Authority; We, as inferior to him in holiness and virtue, but equal in name and degree of dignity, think it very reasonable, that we following his blessed footsteps should endeavour the salvation of those Provinces, especially at this time, when your design (most noble Prince) elevates us to the hope of an extraordinary advantage. Therefore as you have directed your journey to Spain towards the Catholick King, with desire to ally your self to the House of Austria, we do commend your design, and indeed, do testifie openly in this present business, that you are he that takes principal care of our Prelacy: For, seeing that you desire to take in marriage the Daughter of Spain, from thence we may easily conjecture, that the ancient seeds of Christian Piety which have so happily flourished in the hearts of the Kings of Great Britain, may (God prospering them) revive again in your Soul. And indeed it is not to be believed, that the same man should love such an Alliance, that hates the Catholick Religion, and should take delight to oppress the Holy Chair. To that purpose we have commanded that most humble Prayers be made continually to the Father of Lights, that he would be pleased to put you as a fair Flower of Christendom, and the only hope of Great Britain, in possession of that most noble Heritage which your Ancestors purchased for you, to defend the Authority of the Sovereign High-Priest, and to fight against the Monsters of Heresy. Remember the days of old, enquire of your Fathers, and they will tell you the way that leads to Heaven, and what way the Temporal Princes have taken to attain to the Everlasting Kingdom. Behold the Gates of Heaven opened! The most holy Kings of England, who came from England to Rome accompanied with Angels, did come to Honour and do Homage to the Lord of Lords, and to the Prince of the Apostles in the Apostolical Chair; their Actions and their Examples being as so many voices of God, speaking and exhorting you to follow the course of the lives of those, to whose Empire you shall one day attain.
Is it possible that you can suffer that the Hereticks should hold them for impious, and condemn those whom the faith of the Church testifies to reign in the heavens with Jesus Christ, and have command and authority over all Principalities and Empires of the Earth? Behold how they tender you the hand of this truly happy Inheritance, to conduct you safe and sound to the Court of the Catholick King, and who desire to bring you back again into the lap of the Roman Church; beseeching with unspeakable sighs and groans the God of all mercy for your Salvation, and to stretch out to you the Arms of the Apostolical Charity to embrace you with all Christian Affection, even you that are her desired Son, in shewing you the happy hope of the Kingdom of Heaven. And indeed, you cannot give a greater consolation to all the people of the Christian World, then to put the Prince of the Apostles in possession of your most noble Island, whose Authority hath been held so long in the Kingdom of Britain for the defence of Kingdoms, and for a Divine Oracle. The which will easily come to pass, and that without difficulty, if you open your heart to the Lord that knocks; upon which depends all the happiness of that Kingdom. It is from this our great Charity, that we cherish the praises of the Royal Name, and that which makes us desire that you and your Royal Father may be stiled with the names of Deliverers and Restorers of the ancient and paternal Religion of Great Britain.
This is it we hope for, trusting in the goodness of God in whose hands are the hearts of Kings, and who causeth the people of the earth to receive healing, to whom we will always labour with all our power to render you gracious and favourable. In the interim take notice by these Letters of the care of our charity, which is none other than to procure your Haypiness: and it will never grieve us to have written them, if the reading of them siir but the least spark of the Catholick faith in the heart of so great a Prince; whom we wish to be filled with long continuance of Joy, and flourishing in the glory of all Virtues.
Given at Rome in the Palace of S. Peter, the 20. of April, 1623. in The third year of our Popedom.
The Prince of Wales returned this following Answer to the Pope's Letter (according to a Copy preserved by some then in Spain at the Treaty.)
There is another Copy of the Princes Letter to the Pope, published by several hands, somewhat different from this.
Allurements to make the Prince change his Religion.
Orations, Processions, and Pompous Shews were made in Spain, to allure the Prince to Popery; Popish Books were dedicated, and Popish Pictures presented to him. They carried him to the most Religious places, and to persons famous for pretended Miracles. And they shew him of what importance his Conversion is, to the gaining of a large entrance into the Infanta's affection, and a smooth path to this Catholick Marriage. And in case a Rebellion in England should follow his change of Religion, they offer an Army to subdue the Rebels.
The Prince sted fast in his Religion.
But the Prince remained stedfast in his Religion; neither did he express any shew of change.
But as to the interior carriage of Affairs, notwithstanding his splendid entertainment to the height of Princely State, yet in the main business he was meanly dealt with, and in his Adresses to the Infanta, unworthily restrained and undervalued.
Is not well dealt with in his Address to the Infanta The Dispensation is at last procured.
The dispensation sticks long in the Birth, but after a tedious Travel, it was brought forth: Mr. George Gage advertised the King from Rome, that the Cardinals made mention of him in most honourable Language; and had a firm opinion, that the former Rigor towards Catholicks, hath risen from others, but the Graces vouchsafed to them, from himself; and they were now confident that such potent intercessions having been made with him, and all civil jealousies removed, he will not only command a real performance of what is promised, but according to his own Loyal heart will enlarge the benefit.
Furthermore, he assured the King, That such difficulties as were already spent, and were yet to come, have been laid hold on by the Cardinals; neither to frustrate, nor prolong this Treaty, but out of an opinion, that otherwise they could not secure their Consciences, proceed upon a just and valuable ground, and satisfie the judgments of such discreet persons, as may in times to come, understand the passages of this great Business.
The dispensation comes clogged.
So the long solicited Dispensation came from Pope Gregory the Fifteenth to the Court of Spain. But whereas it was expected full and absolute, it came with a Clog, a Clause thrust in of purpose to retard the proceedings.
That whereas there were certain Articles condescended unto by the King of England, in favour of the Roman Catholicks in his Dominions, Caution should be given for the performance of those Concessions. The King answered, That he could give no other Caution, than his own and the Prince's Oath, exemplified under the Great Seal of England. But this would not satisfie, unless some Sovereign Catholick Prince would stand engaged for them. Hereupon the frame of things was like to fall asunder, and a rumor went, that the Prince intended to get away covertly.
Olivares proposes ways of Accommodation.
Amidst the heats of this dispute, Olivares (whether in a humor or good earnest) propounded three ways of accommodation: The first was, That Prince Charles should become Catholick. The second, That the Infanta should be delivered to him upon the former security without further condition. The third was, to bind him as fast as they could, and not trust him with any thing. And of these three ways, he said, The two former were good, but the last was a bad one.
The King of spain proffers to engage himself on the behalf of the King of England and the Prince.
At length the King of Spain proffered to engage himself by Oath on the behalf of the King and Prince for the performance of the Articles: Provided, That he first consult with his Ghostly Fathers, whether he might do it with a safe Conscience. This was a fair contrivance, where by that King might not only oblige our King and Prince, but lay the ground-plot of a fair pretence of War against England, if the Roman Catholicks received not satisfaction in the enjoyment of the Freedom promised. Besides he would form a party in these Dominions to a Dependence upon his Protection.
His Ghostly Fathers approve his intentions.
A Juncto of Divines were called to determine upon the Cafe, and they go very gravely and tediously to work, and protract the time almost beyond the bounds of the Prince's Patience; but they conclude at last affirmatively. And in case the King of England fail to execute what was stipulated, the King of Spain was to vindicate his Oath, and right himself by the Sword.
Then was the Match declared publickly, and the Prince had frequent access to the Infanta, yet always in publick manner, and in the King's presence.
The Match is declared publickly.
Whilst these things were forging in Spain, there were not wanting such as warned the King, and tendred safer Counsels. The Archbishop of Canterbury was bold to press him close in this serious Letter.
May it please your Majesty,
I Have been too long silent, and I am afraid by my silence I have neglected the duty of the place it hath pleased God to call me unto, and your Majesty to place me in: But now, I humbly crave leave I may discharge my Conscience towards God, and my duty to your Majesty; and therefore I beseech you freely to give me leave to deliver my self, and then let your Majesty do with me what you please. Your Majesty hath propounded a Toleration of Religion, I beseech you take into your consideration what your act is, what the consequence may be. By your Act you labour to set up the most Damnable and Heretical Doctrine of the Church of Rome, the Whore of Babylon: How hateful it will be to God, and grievous to your good Subjects, the Professors of the Gospel, That your Majesty who hath often disputed, and learnedly written against those Heresies, should now sbew your self a Patron of those wicked Doctrines which your Pen hath told the World, and your Conscience tells your Self, are Superstitious, Idolatrous, and Detestable. And hereunto I add what you have done in sending the Prince into Spain without consent of your Council, the Privity and Approbation of your People: And although you have a Charge and interest in the Prince, as Son of your Flesh; yet have the people a greater, as Son of the Kingdom, upon whom next after your Majesty are their Eyes fixed, and welfare depends; and so tenderly is his going apprehended, as (believe it) however his return may be safe; yet the drawers of him into this Action, so dangerous to himself, so desperate to the Kingdom, will not pass away unquestioned, unpunished. Besides this Toleration which you endeavour to set up by your Proclamation, cannot be done without a Parliament, unless your Majesty will let your Subjects see that you will take unto your self ability to throw down the Laws of your Land at your Pleasure. What dread consequence these things may draw afterward, I beseech your Majesty to consider, and above all, left by this Toleration and Discountenancing of the true Profession of the Gospel, wherewith God hath blessed us, and this Kingdom hath so long flourished under it, your Majesty do not draw upon this Kingdom in general, and your self in particular, God's heavy Wrath and Indignation.
Thus in discharge of my duty towards God, to your Majesty and the place of my calling, I have taken humble leave to deliver my Conscience. Now Sir do what you please with me.
The King would not admit any motion of drawing back, but in going forward he would yield to all demands, and was accordingly scrued up to the greatest height.
So at last the Difficulties in Rome and Spain were all furmounted; and then these following Articles (styled by the Cardinals, Propositions for the right Augmentation and Weal of the Roman Catholick Religion) were sworn unto by the King, Prince and Privy Council.
Articles sworn to by the King, Prince, and Privy Council.
- I."That the Marriage be made by Dispensation of the Pope, but that to be procured by the endeavour of the King of Spain.
- II."That the Marriage be once only celebrated in Spain, and ratified in England, in form following. In the morning after the most Gracious Infanta hath ended her Devotions in the Chapel, she and the Most Excellent Prince Charles, shall meet in the King's Chapel, or in some other Room of the Palace, where it shall seem most expedient; and there shall be read all the Procurations, by virtue whereof the Marriage was celebrated in Spain; and as well the most Excellent Prince, as the most Excellent Infanta, shall ratisre the said Marriage celebrated in Spain, with all solemnity necessary for such an Act; so as no Ceremony, or other thing intervene, which shall be contrary to the Roman Catholick Apostolick Religion.
- III. "That the most Gracious Infanta, shall take with her such Servants and Family as are convenient for her service; which Family, and all persons to her belonging, shall be chosen and nominated by the Catholick King: So as he nominate no Servant which is Vassal to the King of Great Britain, without his will and consent.
- IV. "That as well the most Gracious Infanta as all her Servants and Family, shall have free use and publick Exercise of the Roman Catholick Religion, in manner and form as is beneath capitulated.
- V. "That she shall have an Oratory and Decent Chapel in her Palace; where at the pleasure of the most Gracious Infanta, Masses may be celebrated; and in like manner she shall have in London, or wheresoever she shall make her abode, a Publick and Capacious Church near her Palace, wherein all Duties may be solemnly celebrated, and all other things necessary for the Publick Preaching of God's Word, the Celebration and Administration of all the Sacraments of the Catholick Roman Church, and for Burial of the Dead, and Baptizing of Children. That the said Oratory, Chapel and Church, shall be adorned with such decency as shall seem convenient to the most Gracious Infanta.
- VI. "That the Men-servants, and Maid-servants of the most Gracious Infanta, and their Servants, Children, and Descendants, and all their Families of what sort soever serving her Highness, may be freely and publickly Catholicks.
- VII. "That the most Gracious Infanta, her Servants and Family, may live as Catholicks in form following. That the most Gracious Infanta shall have in her Palace her Oratory and Chapel so spacious, that her said Servants and Family may enter and stay therein; in which there shall be an ordinary and publick door for them, and another inward door, by which the Infanta may have a passage into the said Chapel where she and other, as abovesaid, may be present at Divine Offices.
- VIII. "That the Chapel, Church, and Oratory may be beautisied with decent Ornaments of Altars, and other things necessary for Divine Service, which is to be celebrated in them according to the custom of the Holy Roman Church, and that it shall be lawful for the said Servants and others to go to the said Chapel and Church at all hours, as to them shall seem expedient.
- IX. "That the care and custody of the said Chapel and Church shall be committed to such as the Lady Infanta shall appoint, to whom it shall be lawful to appoint Keepers, that no body may enter into them to do any undecent thing.
- X. "That to the Administration of the Sacraments, and to serve in Chappel and Church aforesaid, there shall be Four and twenty Priests and Assistants, who shall serve weekly and monthly, as to the Infanta shall seem fit, and the Election of them shall belong to the Lady Infanta, and the Catholick King. Provided that they be none of the Vassals of the King of Great Britain, and if they be, his will and consent is to be first obtained.
- XI. "That there be one Superior Minister or Bishop, with necessary Authority upon all occasions which shall happen belonging to Religion; and for want of a Bishop, that his Vicar may have his Authority and Jurisdiction.
- XII. "That this Bishop or Superior Minister, may Correct and Chastise all Roman Catholicks who shall offend, and shall exercise upon them all Jurisdiction Ecclesiastical: And moreover also, the Lady Infanta shall have power to put them out of her service, whensoever it shall seem expedient to her.
- XIII. "That it may be lawful for the Lady Infanta and her Servants, to procure from Rome, Dispensations, Indulgences, Jubilees, and all Graces, as shall seem fit to their Religion, and Consciences, and to get and make use of any manner of Catholick Books whatsoever.
- XIV. "That the Servants and Family of the Lady Infanta, who shall come into England, shall take the Oath of Allegiance to the King of Great Britain: Provided, That there be no clause therein which shall be contrary to their Consciences, and the Roman Catholick Religion; and if they happen to be Vassals to the King of Great Britain, they shall take the same Oath that the Spaniards do.
- XV. "That the Laws which are or shall be in England against Religion shall not take hold of the said Servants; and only the foresaid Superior Ecclesiastical Catholick may proceed against Ecclesiastical Persons, as hath been accustomed by Catholicks: And if any Secular Judge shall apprehend any Ecclesiastical person for any offence, he shall forthwith cause him to be delivered to the aforesaid Superior Ecclesiastick, who shall proceed against him according to the Canon Law.
- XVI. "That the Laws made against Catholicks in England, or in any other Kingdom of the King of Great Britain, shall not extend to the Children of this Marriage; and though they be Catholicks, they shall not lose the right Succession to the Kingdom and Dominions of Great Britain.
- XVII. "That the Nurses which shall give suck to the Children of the Lady Infanta, (whether they be of the Kingdom of Great Britain, or of any other Nation whatsoever) shall be chosen by the Lady Infanta, as the pleaseth, and shall be accounted of her Family, and enjoy the priviledges thereof.
- XVIII. "That the Bishop, Ecclesiastical and Religion Persons of the Family of the Lady Infanta, shall wear the Vestment and Habit of their Dignity, Prosession, and Religion, after the Custom of Rome.
- XIX. "For security that the said Marrimony be not dissolved for any cause whatsoever: The King and Prince are equally to pass the Word and Honour of a King; and moreever, that they will perform whatsoever shall be propounded by the Catholick King for further Confirmation, if it may be done decently and fitly.
- XX. "That the Sons and Daughters which shall be born of this Marriage, shall be brought up in the company of the most Excellent Infanta, at the least, until the age of Ten years, and shall freely enjoy the right of Successions to the Kingdoms, as asoresaid. enjoy the right of Successions to the Kingdoms, as aforesaid.
- XXI. "That whensoever any place of either Man-servant, or Maidservant, which the Lady Infanta shall bring with her (nominated by the Catholick King her Brother) shall happen to be void, whether by death, or by other cause or accident, all the said Servants of her Family are to be supplied by the Catholick King as asoresaid.
- XXII. "For security that whatsoever is capitulated, may be fulfilled, The King of Great Britain, and Prince Charles are to be bound by Oath; and all the King's Council shall confirm the said Treaty under their hands: Moreover the said King and Prince are to give their Faiths in the Word of a King, and endeavour, is possible, That whatsoever is capitulated, may be established by Parliament.
- XXIII. "That conformable to this Treaty, all these things proposed, are to be allowed and approved of by the Pope, that he may give an Apostolical Benediction, and a Dispensation necessary to effect the Marriage.
The Oath taken by the King and Prince, was as followeth.
We Ratifying and Confirming the asoresaid Creaty, and all and every Capitulation contained, and specified in the same, do approve, applaud, confirm, and ratifie of our certain knowledge, all and every of these things in as much as they concern our Selves, our beirs, or our Successors: And we promise by these presents in the word of a king, to keep, fulfil, and obserbe the came; and to cause them to be kept, fulfilled, and observed inviolably, firmly, well and faithfully, effectually, Bona fide, without all exception, and contradition. And we confirm the same with an Dath upon the Holy Evangelifts, in the presence of the Illustrious and noble John de Mendoza, Charles de Colona, Ambassadors of the most Gracious Catholick King residing in our Court.
In Cestimony and witness of all and every the premises we have caused our Great Seal to be put to those Articles subscribed by our hands there, in the presence of the most reverend Father is Chriff, George Archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, and the Reverend Father in Chriff, John Bishop of Lincoln, Lord keeper of the Great Seal of England, Lionel Cransield, Chief Creasurer of England, Henry discount Mandevil, president of our Council, Edward Earl of Worcester, keeper of the privy seal, Lewis Duke of Richmond and Lenox, Lord Steward of our househould, James Marques Hamilton, James Earl of Carlisle, Thomas Earl of kelly Oliver discount Grandeson, &. and George Calvert Right one of our Chief Secretaries of State and all our Privy Council.
Given at our palace of Westminster, &.
After this the King did swear to certain private Articles in favour of Papists, and for the advancement of the Roman Religion.
James by the grace of God of Great Britain King, Defender of the faith, &c. To all to whom this present writing shall come, greeting. Inasmuch as among many other things which are contained within the Treaty of Marriage between our most dear Son Charles prince of Wales, and the most renowned Lady Donna Maria, Sitter of the most renowned Prince and out welbeloved Brother Philip the Fourth King of Spain, It is agreed, That we, by our Dath, shall approve the Articles under expressed to a word:
- 1. That particular Laws made against Roman Catholicks, under which other Vassals of our Realms are not comprehended, and to whose observation all generally are not obliged; as likewise general Laws under which all are equally comprised, is so be they are such which are repugnant to the Romish Religion, shall not at any time hereafter by any means or chance whatsoever directly or indirectly be commanded to be put in execution against the said Roman Catholicks; and we will cause that our Council shall take the same Oath as far as it pertains to them, and belongs to the execution which by the hands of them and their Ministers is to be exercised.
- 2. That no other Laws shall hereafter be made anew against the said Roman Catholicks, but that there shall be a perpetual Toleration of the Roman Catholick Religion, within private houses throughout all our Realms and Dominions which we will have to be understood as well of our Kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland as in England; which shall be granted to them in manner and form as is capitulated, decreed and granted in the Article of the Treaty concerning the Marriage.
- 3. That neither by us nor any other interposed person whatsoever directly or indirectly, privately or publickly, will we treat (or attempt) any thing with the most renowned Lady Infanta Donna Maria, which shall be repugnant to the Romish Catholick Religion; neither will we by any means perswade her that she should ever renounce or relinquish the same in substance or form, or that she should do any thing repugnant or contrary to those things which are contained in the Treaty of Matrimony.
- 4. That We and the Prince of Wales will interpose our Authority, and will do as much as in us shall lie, that the parliament shall approve, confirm and ratifie all and singular Articles in favour of the Roman Catholicks, capitulated between the most renowned Kings by reason of this Marriage; And that the said Parliament shall revoke and abrogate particular Laws made against the said Roman Catholicks, to whose observance also the rest of our Subjects and Vassals are not obliged; as likewise the general Laws under which all are equally comprehended, to wit, as to the Roman Catholicks; if they be such as is asoresaid which are repugnant to the Roman Catholick Religion; And that hereafter we will not consent that the said Parliament should ever at any time enact or write any other new Laws against Roman Catholicks.
Moreover I Charles Prince of Wales engage my self (and promise that the most Illustrious king of Great Britain,my most honored Lord and Father, shall do the same both by word and writing) That all those things which are contained in the foregoing Articles, and concern as well the suspension, as the abrogation of all Laws made against the Roman Catholicks, shall within three years insallibly take effect, and sooner if it be possible, which we will have to lie upon our Conscience and Royal honor. That I will intercede with the most illustrious king of G. Britain my father, that the ten years of education of the children which shall be born of this marriage, with the most illustrious Lady Infanta their mother, accorded in the 23 Art. (which term the Pope of Rome desires to have prorogued to twelve years) may be lengthened to the said term: And I promise freely and of my own accord, and Swear, That is it to happen that the entire power of disposing of this matter be devolved to me, I will also grant and approve the said term.
Furthermore I prince of Wales oblige my self upon my faith to the Catholick King, That as often as the most illustrious Lady Infanta shall require that I should give car to Divines or others whom her highness shall be pleased to employ in matter of the Roman Catholicks religion, I will hearken to them willingly without all difficulty, and laying aside all excute. And for further caution in point of the free exercise of the Catholick religion, and the suspension of the Law above named, I Charles Prince of Wales promise and take upon me in the word of a king, that the things above promised and treated concerning those matters, shall take effect and be put in execution as well in the Kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland as of England.
The Privy-Councellors Oath was this:
I A.B. do swear, That I will truly and fully observe, as much as belongeth to me, all and every of the Articles which are contained in Treaty of marriage between the most gracious Charles Prince of Wales, and the most gracious Lady Donna Maria Infanta of Spain. Likewise I swear, that I will neither commit to execution, not cause to be executed either by my self, or by any inferior Officer serving me, any Laws made against any Roman Catholick whatsoever, not will execute any punishment insitted by any of those Laws, but in all things which belong to me will faithfully observe his Majesty's word given in that behalf.
A difficulty concerning the Pope's title on the King's part.
But in the taking of the solemn Publick Oath, it is said there arose a difficulty between the King and the Spanish Ambassadors concerning the Pope's title, Most Holy; which the King refused to pronounce openly in the Chapel at Whitehall, alledging that it was repugnant to his Religion, and might be an impeachment to his Honour: But the Ambassadors would proceed no further, till the King had yielded to give him that Title.
Another on the Ambassadors part concerning prayers in the King's Chapel.
There was another rub, which the King soon removed. The Ambassadors had heard, that in the King's Chapel when they should come to see the swearing of the Articles, they should be present at such Prayers and Singing as were used in the Protestant Church; whereunto they declared that they could not yield, since the end of their coming thither was to maintain and warrant the Catholick, Apostolical and Roman Church: Whereupon the King commanded, that nothing should then be sung, but, what was chanted when the Constable of Castile did swear the Peace between the two Crowns, which was an Hymn of Joy in praise of Peace.
A titular Bishop of Chalcedon sent into England.
At that time England had swarms of Priests and Jesuits who were busy in drawing the people from the Protestant Religion: And a titular Bishop of Chalcedon privately came to London, to exercise Episcopal Jurisdiction over the Catholicks of this Kingdom.
Preparations for conducting the Infanta into England.
'Tis said that King James had now so much considence of the Match, as to say openly in the Court, That now all the Devils in hell could not break it. In Spain the Infanta was stiled the Princess of England, and was kept no longer in her Virgin retirements. In England a Chappel was building for her at S. James, and Don Carlos de Colona laid the first stone: Her Picture was every-where to be seen, and a Fleet was prepared for her passage. And the greatest Enemies to this Alliance submitted to the King's will. But in all this capitulation between the two Crowns, hitherto the Restitution of the Palatinate was laid aside; the King conceiving that the Consummation of the Match would overrule and settle that affair to his entire satisfaction.
No mention made in the Capitulations of restoring the Palatinate.
In the heigth of the Spanish Treaty, there was a notable Letter writ from Mr. Alured to the Duke, perswading him not only to endeavour the breaking of the Match with Spain, but also the preventing of any Match with a Princess of a different Religion.
M. Alured his letter to the Duke.
The Parable in the Gospel (said he) tells of a great King that Married his Son, and had many thereunto; yea, upon the execusal of some and refusal of others, all of whatsoever condition, as well out of the highways as the high-places, were called and invited. As every true Christian hath an interest in the Marriage of that King's Son of Heaven, so every good Subject, as well as every great Subject, hath an interest in the Marriage and welfare of the King's Son here on Earth. Which occasions so many (and me the meanest of those many) to wish that it may bring with it glory to Him on high, good will and peace to those on earth; which is much doubted cannot be from Spain, since the motioning of that Match makes a general fear, that it can neither be safe for the Kings person, nor good for his Church and Common wealth, because that thereby there may be an inlet to the Romish Locusts, who like the Cankerworm may in an instant smite our gourd, under whose shadow we fit safe.
To address this poor discourse to your Lordships more particular: Kings have almost ever used to have their Favourites: Alexander had long since his Ephestion, and Henry the Third of France of late his Espernon, and Philip of Spain had since his Lermas. Tea, the best Princes have not wanted them: For, after the reckoning of David's great Officers, Hushai the Archite is called the King's Friend, and Ira the Jarite is set down to have been chief about David. Which stands to Reason, and agrees with Nature: For every private Man is left to affect as he likes; neither can Affection be forced. Now to disallow or confine that in a King, which is left at liberty in the meanest Subject, were preposterous and injurious: For though they command Nations as they are Kings, yet they are subject to their Passions as they are Men. And if I may alledge it without misinterpretation of others, as I am free from ill meaning my self, Who knowns but Christ the rather to shew himself a Natural Man, expressed so much the more his Passion in his often weeping, and his affection to divers particulars, but especially to St. John, if I may not say his Favourite, certainly the Disciple whom Jesus loved more than any of the rest. It is God's blessing, and your happiness, if you account it so, to be the King's Favourite. As Peter therefore not presuming to ask Christ who it was he spake of, beckoned to the Disciple whom Jesus loved, on whose breast he leaned, to ask for him; so since most Men neither may, or ought to be so bold to ask or advise the King in this business so much spoken of, yet they point at you, who the higher you are in the King's favour, the more you are in the peoples eye and observation, and they expect you will not be wanting in the duty of a Subject, a Counsellor, and a Favourite. We do not read of any servant almost better respected of his Lord and Master, than Eliezar of Damafcus, whom Abraham had meant, had he died childless, to have made his heir; and we read not of any service he did Abraham more, at least greater, than in choice of a Wife for his Son Isaac. Among the Servants of our Patriarch, the Defender of our Faith, we observe none better respected then your self; For the King hath manifested, he loves not your person only, but takes care for your soul, and labours to make you as good as great, and as happy in another world, as high in this: Yet we know not wherein you can do him better service, than with Eliezar to help to choose a Rebeccah for our hopeful Prince.
We have not heard (said he) of any 'Protestant King that ever married with a contrary Religion, save the last Henry of Navar with the last Margaret of France: which Marriage so unfortunate to the parties (having never Issue) and being afterwards divorced, was also so fatal to our Religion, that there was more blood spilt at those Nuptials, than Wine spent: For while the Protestants dreamed of the glory and security they should have by the Match they were most miserably massacred. And who doubts but what the French Papists committed in their own Country upon that Colour and occasion, the Spanish 'Papists would be glad to see done in this Kingdom upon the like? For, without breach of Charity, we may doubt of their sincere meaning, though there be a Treaty of a Match: since in Eighty Eight, even while there was a Treaty of Peace, their Armado came upon us.
Again, we shall find it forbidden, in the best people in the world, to marry with a differing Religion. The injunction, the reason, and the effect are laid down in Deuteronomy to the Jews.
And if we descend to our own Books and Chronicles, we shall find that God hath crossed (if not cursed) our alliance and association, particulary with the Spanish Nation; the position of that Country, and the disposition of that People being as it were so malignant and ill-agreeing with us. The Prince of the greatest performance that ever this Kingdom or Christendom had, was the Black Prince: Yet our Chronicle records, that going into Spain to settle Don Pedro in that Kingdom, besides the monstrous ingratitude and persidiousness of the Spaniard, who failed in the performance of those Conditions he had promised, which caused the miserable Revolt in France to the loss of our inheritance, the Prince was so poisoned in that Country, that he never had his health after.
Moreover, he beseeched his Lordship to observe, that all the Marriages which the Heirs and Princes of this Crown have made in England for these last sixscore years, except the several second Matches of Henry the Eighth, have been only and no where else but with Spain; which how little God hath blest, the success shews. Prince Arthur married the Spanish King's Daughter: We know God took him away suddenly within a very small time, and without any issue. In a Politick respect, we would yet make a second Match; so Prince Henry, (afterwards King) married the same Daughter: But doubtless God was less pleased with that match, which was less lawful; and therefore God took away all the male-children of it and left only a Daughter, in whose short Reign was shed more blood for the true Religion in six years, than for the false in these succeeding sixty years. We made then a Third Adventure and Marriage with Spain, Queen Mary with King Philip; which was so discontenting to the people, that it caused Wyat's Rebellion; so discomfortable to the Queen, that it broke her heart, being left and neglected of her Husband; and so dishonourable and prejudicial to the Kingdom, that merely for the Spaniards sake, we having no difference at all with France, we lost Calis in six days, which had been above two hundred years in our possession.
He added lastly, Though I have not so much judgment, not so little wit as to presume to advise where to match; yet I assume so much, as to think, a Match at home cannot be held any ways inconvenient. We find the first and the last of our Kings that ever matched with their Subjects, were Edw.4. and Hen.8. From which two Matches, God (as it were to shew, the less we rely upon others abroad, the more he will help us himself at home) gave two DAughters, two Elizabeths, two such Queens, than which there were never two more blessed Instruments of God's glory and this Kingdom's good, by establishing Peace in the Land, and Religion in the Church, until his Majesty's happy coming who brought both with him.
The French jealous of this conjuction.
The French were very jealous of the Conjunction between Spain and England, and thought it the safest way to make peace at home, and employ their strength to bound the Incroachments of Spain and the House of Austria: By which means a bitter Persecution ceased in that Kingdom; The Protestants of France were permitted to call home their banished Ministers, to build their ruin'd Temples, and enjoy their liberty in Religion. This benefit did the King's closing with Spain procure a people almost ruined.
But after all the King's concession, the Spaniards contrived new delays, and proposed harder terms. The Pope had obliged the Catholick King to see the Conditions performed, and to protract the Marriage, till matters in England were in perfect execution. Whereupon the Divines advised that King, that the promises of Marriage be made presently, but the Consummation thereof and the delivering of the Infanta be deferred till May the year following. And the death of Pope Gregory did strengthen this contrivance: For Spanish Ministers pretended, that in regard there was no Contract, but a Treaty only on foor, the dispensation which lay in the Nuncio's hands was by the Pope's death suspended, and a Ratification from the new Pope was requisite before any further progress could be made.
Cardinal Barberine was chosen Successor to Gregory the Fifteenth, and took the name of Urban the Eighth. Soon after his Eelection, he wrote the ensuing Letters, the one to King James, the other to Prince Charles.
Pope Urban to K. James.
Pope Urban's Letter to Prince Charles.
The Treaty begins to tend to a rupture.
Notwithstanding, this great business of State began to look with an ill aspect, by the concurrence of various passages, tending to a rupture of the Treaty. In England, the Spanish Ambassadors demands grew high and peremptory; yet the King, to give them content, directed the Lord Keeper, and other Commissioners, to draw up a Pardon of all Offences past, with a Dispensation for those to come, to be granted to all Roman Catholicks, obnoxious to any Laws against Recusants; and then to issue forth two General Commands under the Great Seal of England: The one to all Judges Justices of the Peace; and the other to all Bishops, Chancellors, and Commissaries, not to execute any Statute against them.
The Prohibition to the Judges and Bishops in behalf of the Catholicks suspended.
The General Pardon was passed in as full and ample manner, as themselves could desire, or pen it: But to that vast Prohibition to the Judges and Bishops, some stop was made by the advice of the Lord Keeper, for these Reasons.
First, Because the publishing of this General Indulgence at one push, might beget a general Discontent, if not a Mutiny; but the instilling thereof into the Peoples knowledge by little and little, by the favours done to particular Catholicks, might indeed loosen the tongues of a few particular Persons, who might hear of their Neighbour's Pardon, and having vented their dislikes, would afterwards cool again; and so his Majesty might, with more conveniency, by degrees, enlarge his favours.
Secondly, Because to forbid the Judges against their Oaths, and the Justices of Peace, who are likewise sworn to execute the Law of the Land, is a thing unpresidented in this Kingdom, and would be a harsh and bitter Pill, to be digested without some preparative.
Some of the English in Spain dislike the Match and Religion,; The Duke disgusted in Spain.
The two Ambassadors with much ado consented, That the matter should rest till the end of six Months, or the Infanta's arrival; yet they did it with a shew of discontent, as if the King performed nothing. The disaffection of these Ministers was supposed to be one rub in the way of this Alliance. And on the other side, some of the Prince's followers in Spain, being zealous of the Protestant Religion, disliked the Match, and shewed their averseness to it. Sir Edmund Verney struck an English Man, a Sorbon Doctor, a blow under the Ear, for visiting and labouring to pervert one of the Prince's Pages, who was sick of a mortal Fever. Divers derided the Popish Ceremonies, and Spanish Garb, and slighted the Countrey; and some committed irreverent actions in the King's own Chapel. Hereupon they began to disgust the English, and to rail at Gondomar, for informing the King and State, That the Prince might be made a Catholick. Moreover, those many Irish that subsisted by Pensions from the Crown of Spain, did no good Offices; and the French and Venetian Ambassadors in that Court, were conceived not to be idle: But there were greater things then these. The Duke of Buckingham, the Prince's Companion and Guardian, was much disrellished by the Court of Spain. His French Garb, the heigth of his spirit, and his over-great familiarity with the Prince, were things opposite to the way, and temper of that grave, sober, and wary People. And the Council of Spain took exceptions, that he should come with such a superintendent power in that great affair among so many grave Statesmen, to the prejudice of so able a Minister as the Earl of Bristol, who had laid the first stone in that building: Whereupon his power was called in question, and found imperfect, in regard it was not confirmed by the Council of England: Moreover, the Duke lay open to some affront, which enraged him sore against the Conde Olivares; and things grew to that extremity between the Duke and that King's Ministers, that they did not stick to say, That they would rather put the Infanta headlong into a Well, then into his hands. Nevertheless, in the Prince himself they observed an extraordinary well staid temper, and grave comportment.
Buckingham and Bristol run different ways.
In the present action, Buekingham and Bristol ran different ways, with great animosity: Bristol had the advantage in Spain, yea, in the Court of England, he had gained a great esteem, and powerful party, and had wrought himself into the King's opinion by his strenuous Negotiation, and pleasing Services. As concerning the Duke's Demeanor, the opinions in England were very different: By the People in general, who loathed the Match, he was favoured for his care of his King, Prince, and Countrey; but by the Court he was much maligned and censured, as the occasion of those delays, by diverting and changing the ways wherein they began to treat: But the King himself was very reserved, either still loving the Duke, or over-awed by his intimacy and power with the Prince. For in all occurrences the Prince closed with him, and seemed to give him a large room in his heart Now the Dukes friends at Court pressed him to return speedily, and by all means with the Prince; and assured him, That the longer he staid there, the stronger he made his enemies, and himself the weaker.
The Palatine, by his Secretary, labours to engage the Prince against the Marriage.
And Buckingham well observed, that he had little obligation to Spain,and had reason to seek some surer props to uphold his greatness. And to draw him further off, the Secretary too of the Prince Palatine coming to Madrid,under pretence of praying the Duke to be God-father to one of his Master's Children, laboured to engage him against the Marriage: For the Palatine could not rely on the new overture of Marriage between his Eldest Son, and the Emperor's Youngest Daughter, it being a Labyrinth, out of which no Thred could guide him, were the Proposals already granted: For being an Act of so many various parts, as the Pope, the Emperor, the King of Spain,the Duke of Bavaria, and divers others, it must needs be full of tedious intricacies. What Money or other conditions could be offered, that were like to satisfie the honour, humour, and huge expence of the Bavdrian, for quitting his Conquest to an irreconcileable Neighbour? What Foreign Alliance is able to perswade the Emperor, who hath changed all Tenures of Election into Succession, and shaken the ancient Freedom of the German Princes, that he should revive his enemies dead Forces, to the prejudice of all that he enjoys, or aspires unto? Would the Pope be won to suffer Heidelburgh, which he accounted the most dangerous Nest of Hereticks, after Geneva,to return to her former strength? Besides the Education of of the Palfgrave's Son in the Emperor's Court, and the Sequestration of his Countrey, during his Son's Nonage, would be required as necessary to that conjunction.
The Spaniard continues new delays.
But this time the King must needs be full of jealousies, and the Prince's patience well nigh spent by the Spaniard's intricate proceedings; for the Divines insisted stifly, That the Consummation of the Marriage, and the delivering of the Infanta, should be deferred to the next year; which seemed a rigorous Proposal. Howbeit, that King promised to abate the rigor, and engage himself to accomplish the Marriage at Christmas following, if the Prince would continue there so long. But the Resolution touching the delivering of the Infanta,was unalterable.
The English Papists perplexed.
The English Papists apprehending, that a Rupture was like to follow, were much perplexed: A great strickler, Sir Toby Matthews by name, did press his Catholick Majesty to give the Prince some foot of ground, upon which he might be able to stand with honour, in complying with that extraordinary affection which he beareth to the Infanta. Moreover he protested to him, That if the Catholicks of these Dominions should grow liable to persecution or affliction, by the occasion of this breach, through the disgust of the King and his Council, or through the power which the Puritans, assembled in Parliament, will infallibly have with him, that blood or misery may be partly required at their hands, who have advised his Majesty not to accept those large conditions which the King and Prince had condescended unto, and that more then Moral security, which they had offered for the performance thereof.
The Prince ready to depart from the Court of Spain leaves a Proxy with the Earl of Bristol
Now the Prince is thinking to leave the Court of Spain, and they say, he wrote to his Father a Letter of high despair; wherein was this passage, row must now, Sir, look upon my Sister and her Children, never thinking more of me, and forgetting that ever you had such a Son. Whereupon King James sent swift dispatches to hasten his return. The King and Council of Spain seemed to be startled at these resolutions, and his Majesty importuned the Prince, That having staid so many years for a Wife, he would stay some few Months longer: And if he pleased to give way that the Infanta's journey might be put off to the following Spring, he would give him a Blank to write his own Conditions touching the surrender of the Palatinate. But when his Highness urged Reasons for his departure, they took the matter in debate afresh, and consented upon Oath first given, as well by his Catholick Majesty, as by the Prince, to accomplish the Marriage, and to make the Espousals within ten days after the Ratification should come from Rome. To which purpose the Prince made a Procuration to the King of Spain, and Don Carlos his Brother, to make the Espousals in his Name, and left it in the Earl of Bristol's hands. Nevertheless he left in the hands of one of the Duke's Creatures, a private Instrument, with Instructions to be delivered to the Earl of Bristol, to stay the delivery of the Proxies, till further direction from him, pretending, That the Infanta might retire into a Cloister, and defraud him of a Wife. But these Instructions were to be concealed from the Earl, till the Ratification came from Rome.
The Duke and Olivares part not friends.
The Duke not regarding a ceremonious farewell at Court, departed hastily a little before the Prince, pretending to prepare the English Navy that lay at the Port of S. Andrew for the Prince's Transportation. Olivares and he had but a harsh parting; for he told Olivares, That he was obliged to the King, Queen, and Infanta, in an eternal tie of gratitude; and that he would be an everlasting servant to them, and endeavour to do the best Offices for concluding the Match, and strengthning the Amity between the Crowns: But as for himself, he had so far disobliged him, that he could not, without flattery, make the least profession of friendship to him. The Conde replied short, That he accepted of what he had spoken. The Duke departing with so little satisfaction, the Spaniards concluded, that he would endeavour by all means possible to hinder the Marriage.
The Prince universally esteem'd.
But the Prince, for his part, had gained an universal love, and was reported by all, to be a truly Noble, discreet, and well-deserving Prince; His grave comportment suited with the very Genius of that Nation, and he carried it, from the first to the last, with the greatest affability, gravity, and constancy, and, at his farewell, with unparallel'd bounty; and he left behind him Gems of inestimable value for the Infanta, and several Grandees.
His departure solemn.
His departure from Madrid, being the Twelfth of September, was very solemn, the Queen and the Infanta were prepared in great magnificence, with a Train of Grandees and Ladies, to receive his Farewel: And among other passages, this one was taken to be an argument of the Infanta's real love to the Prince, That she caused many divine Duties to be performed, for the safety of his return into England. The King brought him on his way to the Escurial, and there feasted him, and at the minute of parting, deolared the Obligation which the Prince had put upon him, by putting himself into his hands, a thing not usual with Princes; and he protested, That he earnestly desired a nearer Conjunction of Brotherly affection, for the more intire unity betwixt them. The Prince replying to him, magnified the high favours which he found, during his aboad in his Court and Presence, which had begotten such estimation of his worth, that he knew not how to value; but he would leave a Mediatrix to supply his own defects, if he would make him so happy as to continue him in the good opinion of her, his most fair and most dear Mistris.
The Prince feasted the Dons aboard his Ship, and bringing them back again to the shore, a storm surprises them
From thence he was attended with a Train of Spanish Courtiers to the English Navy, where he feasted the Dons a board his own Ship; and when he was bringing them back to shore, there arose a furious storm, wherewith the Barge was so driven, that it could neither fetch the Land, nor make to the Ships again. The night came on, and the tempest and darkness meeting, made their condition desperate; till at length espying a light from a Ship, near which the winds had driven them, they made towards it, and then with extreme hazard were reimbarqued.
It was observed, That the first words his Highness spake after he was embarqued, were, That it was a great weakness and folly in the Spaniard, after they had used him so ill, to grant him a free departure.
Expressions of joy for the Prince's safe return into England.
The Prince arrived at Portsmouth, October the Fifth, and no sooner was he landed, but it appears, that he was the Kingdom's Darling, the Peoples hearts did burn to see him, and unanimously praised God, without any Punlick Edict of Thanksgiving. Publick Societies and Private Families every where abounded in all expressions, both of Religious and Civil rejoycing. When he entred London, the Bonefires, which the People's universal joy had kindled, seemed to turn the City into one Flame.
Immediately after the Prince's departure from the Court of Spain, a rumour was spread, that the Ratification was come from Rome, and that it came plenary and absolute. By which means, the Prince's private Instructions were anticipated by the Earl of Bristol; for the Juncto pretended full Warrant to proceed, and summoned the Earl of Bristol to attend them, and earnestly pressed him, That the Articles might speedily be ingrossed and signed. Hereupon the Party in whose hands the Prohinition, left by the Prince, lay dormant, either conceiving the Ratification to be come indeed, or apprehending that it was the Prince's meaning to prevent the sudden concluding of matters, delivered to Bristol that Letter of private Instructions, the very day that the Prince arrived at S.Andero. In reading it, the Earl was troubled exceedingly, and said to the other, That it must for a time be concealed, left the Spaniards coming to the knowledge of it, should give order to stay the Prince.
Private Instructions delivered to Bristol, contrary to the Proxy.
It vexed Bristol that his Building of so many years should at once be pulled in sunder. He resolves to wave this private Order, and if the Ratification came, to deliver the Proxies, and to support himself by his Publick Warrant under the Great Seal of England. Now the Prince and Duke being jealous that Bristol would counter-work them, left Sir Walter Asbton joyned in Commission with him, and acquainted Asbton,that the Prince's meaning was never to Match there, without the restitution of the Palatinate, and the conservation of his Honour in all respect intire.
Bristol in a Letter gives the Prince a good account of the business.
Immediately the Earl of Bristol sent dispatches into England, labouring to satisfie the King and Prince in all things touching the Marriage: And shewing, that he had exactly set down the Case, how a Woman betrothed, may before the Consummation of Marriage, betake her self to a Religious life, and all the forts of Security for the preventing of such a course, and that the King of Spain, his Sister, and all his Ministers do offer all security that may stand with decency and honour, for the performance of the whold agreement. And though the point of Portion were a tough and knotty piece, yet when by the original Papers, and Consulto's of the last King, the Juncto found it to be no less than Two Millions, they resolved to make it good; notwithstanding they alledged that this sum was four times as much as ever was given in Money with any Daughter of Spain. Moreover he did woo the Prince by Argument, That as the King his Father, so himself had thought this to be the fittest Match in all the World: And though the Spaniards had committed many Errors, yet he had already passed them by, and overcome the main difficulties: That by his journey he had satisfied himself of the, Infanta's Person, who for her birth and portion, was no where to be matched; and, for her vertue and settled affection to his Highnesses person, deserved him better than any Woman in the World; That the Match was fure, the Portion and Temporal Articles now settled, but the delay of the Desponsorio's will grieve the Princess, and bring a cloud of distrust and jealousie upon the whole business. The personal distaste of Ministers indiscreet and passionate carriages should not hazard that which hath been brought to the present state with so much cost, and pains and patience; and which being well accomplished, will procure so much good to the Christian World, and contrariwife, so much trouble and mischief, if it should miscarry and break to pieces. Now, upon these grounds and Motives he made Intreaty, That with all speed a Post might be sent unto him, bringing Authority to deliver the Powers upon the arrival of the Dispensation.
King James falls off, and for a Condition of the Marriage, demands the Restitution of the Palarinate.
But the Prince and Buckingham made haste to engage the King, and making a plausible Narration of their own proceedings, the Spaniard's delays, and Bristol's miscarriages, drew him to alter the whole State of the Treaty. Hereupon, the King sends an express command to Bristol, to deliver his thanks to the King of Spain for the high entertainment, personal kindness, respect, and favour, received by his Son the Prince, who was returned so well satisfied, as that he was not able to magnifie it sufficiently. And further to let him know, that to make a firm and indiffoluble union between their Families, Nations and Crowns, and withal not to abandon his own Honour, nor at the same time to give joy to his only Son, and to give his only Daughter her Portion in Tears, he had by the advice of that King's Ambassadors entred into a Treaty for the Restitution of the Palatinate; that he always understood and expected that upon the effecting of this Marriage he should obtain the restoring of his Son-in-law both to his Country and Dignity; and that the Emperor, either by finding out some great Title, or by increasing the number of the Electoral Stiles, might satisfie the Duke of Bavaria. And for these Reasons the King commanded Bristol instantly to procure from that King, a punctual Answer touching the course he resolves to take, for the restitution of the Palatinate, and Electorate, and what assurance shall be given for his contentment, if the Emperor or Duke of Bavaria should oppose any part of the expected restitution. Moreover, he gave direction, and signified his special desire, that the Espousals should be made in one of the Christmas Holy-days, because that holy and joyful time would best become an action so notable and blessed,
Bristol and Asbron demur upon the new Instructions.
The Earl of Bristol, with the Concurrence of Sir Walter Asbton, took boldness to demur upon these new Instructions: and yet again to represent to his Majesty the state of these affairs; they inform him that by deferring the Espousals till Christmas, the powers were made altogether useless and invalied, there being a clause in the body of them, that they shall remain in force till Christmas and no longer; And the suspending of the execution of the powers, till the validity of them be expired, is an effectual revoking of them: Besides the pretexts of this delay are no new, but old matters, which were often under debate, but never insisted on to retard the main business. And it will be thought, that they should rather have hindred the Grant of these powers, then the excution of them being granted. Surely a staggering in the Former resolutions will be suspected, and the clearing thereof between Spain and England will cost much time. As concerning the Prince Palatine, it was the care of the Spanish Ministers, that that business might be well compounded before the Infanta's coming into England: for they say, that otherwise they might give a Daughter, and a War presently follow. Besides, the Instructions given under his Majesty's hands, were indeed to insist upon the restoring of the Prince Palatine, yet not so as to annex it to the Treaty, as thereby to hazard the Match: For he feemed to be consident, that the one would never grow to a conclusion, without a settled resolution to effect the other: And the Prince and Duke during their being in Spain, observed the same course. Moreover the Palatinate affairs have relation to many great Princes interessed therein, and cannot be ended but by a formal Treaty, which will require a great length of time; and if the conclusion of the match should depend thereon, the Prince may be long enough unmarried, for the advancement of their interest who desire he should so continue, or not match with Spain
The preparations for the Marriage go on chearfully, the Pope's Dispensation is hourly expected, with an intention to demand the powers immediately; and upon what pretext shall they be detained? Shall we alledge His Majesty's pleasure, that the Solemnity be performed in the Christmas holy days? but that is impossible, for the powers are then expired. Shall we urge the restoring of the Palatine? This was not made a condition, but was treated as a business apart. The delay of the Desponsario's will put a scorn upon the Infanta, and upon the King of Spain, who hath called himself the Infanta's Disponsado. And this cannot stand with that exact and honourable dealing which his Majesty hath hitherto used. Now upon these Inducemetns, in the result and close of all, the Ambassador humbly advised the King to return to the former state of the Treaty, and to nominate a day for the delivery of the Proxies, and resolved somewhat to protract the time for the receiving of his Majesty's further direction.
Sir Walter Aston endeavours to reconcile the Duke to Spain.
Thus did the Earl of Bristol endeavour to restore the business; and the better to bring it on, Sir Walter Asbton laboured to reconcile the Duke to Spain by this manner of Insinuation: He believed that his Grace was infinitely provoked to be an enemy to this Match, and might have many Reasons suggested, how much it concerned him to break it with all the force he hath, yet he could not believe that the Error of one man, can make him an enemy to that which carries in it so much content to the King and Prince, nor that his judgment can be led by their Arguments, which, under color of safety, would bring him into a dangerous labyrinth. For the most prosperous War hath misfortune enough to make the Author of it unhappy; and how innocent soever his Grace might be, yet the occasions which have been given him, will make him liable to such an aspersion. But if the Match proceed, and take effect, he will have the honour thereof, and the Infanta being duly informed, must needs acknowledge him to be the person unto whom, in that behalf, she is most obliged.
But these motions incensed Buckinghom: and now having the Prince linked to him, he could over-rule the King, and bear down all his Adversaries. The Prince and the Duke began to take a popular way, and to close with those of the Privy Council and the Nobility that were opposite to Spain, and best liked of by the Puritan Party: They projected also the calling of a Parliament to consult the Nation, and to clear the King's integrity, and to gain to themselves a great esteem in the hearts of the people.
Advice to the King touching the Duke.
And some there were that suggested to the King, that the Duke's design was to prevent the Prince's Marriage, not only with Spain, but any where else, that his own greatness might still be absolute. For, say they, were it love to his Country that led him to a breach and War with Spain there was as much reason for a breach of the Match and Peace, when the Parliament urged it, as now there is. And they faid, that the approaching Parliament was to Marry the Duke to the Common-wealth, that he might stand not only by the King, but by the people and popular humour which of late he hath courted earnestly; and so they warned the King to have more special care of his own preservation.
The Earl of Bristol is commanded by the King to follow the new Instructions.
But the Earl of Bristol was straightly commanded to follow the new Instructions; namely, before he deliver the Powers, or move to the Contract, to procure from the King of Spain, either by Publick Act, or by an Answer, under his Hand and Seal, a direct Engagement for the Restitution of the Palatinate, and the Electoral Dignity; by Mediation, or by the assistance of Arms, if Mediation fail; together with a limitation of the time, when the way of Mediation shall determine, and the assistance of Arms begin. And the King declared, That he had reason infinitely to think it requisite to deal plainly and clearly with his Brother of Spain, because the Berkstrot in the Palatinate, the prime flower of his Son-in-law's Revenue was taken by the Arms of Spain, and put into the possession of a Spanish Garrison, or under their Command; and the Country or Revenue thereof, was contrary to the Contract with the Infanta at Bruxels; and upon an old pretence, freshly delivered into the hands of the Bishop of Mentz, being none of those to whom Interest or Mediation had been formerly used, or thought of; who were only the Emperor, the King of Spain and Duke of Bavaria.
And concerning the Marriage Portion, he absolutely rejected both Jewels and yearly Revenue, as contrary to the first Agreement, and ex- pected the Total sum in Specie, at reasonable times of payment. As touching the Espousals, he commanded the suspension of the Powers left, and sent the Powers renewed by the Prince, for a larger time, that no blame might light on him, or his Son, in case that King could not give satisfaction in so short a time, as that wherein the former powers would become invalid. In the mean while, he said he was ready to propound good ways to satisfie the Duke of Bavaria in point of Title and Honour, and to continue the Negotiation for Matching the Palatine's Eldest Son with the Emperor's Daughter.
The Earl of Bristol had a difficult part to act in Spain, and in England the Duke set all his strength to crush him. The Surrender of the Palatinate to the King's contentment was not probable, after it was ransacked and alienated, and as a common Booty shared in parcels to several Princes.
King James puts the palatine in hope, by proposal of new Terms.
Nevertheless, as yet the King hoped by Treaty to compose the whole business, and to satisfie the several Interests. And having by his continued patience and industry reduced Matters to Circle of lesser extent than the former generalities, tendred to the Palatine these terms of hope. In the first place, That he make a due submission to the Emperor under convenient Limitations, which shall first be granted in Conformity to that which is Noble, with Assurance requisite for the free and safe going and return of his Person and Train. And that this being done, a Present and full Restitution of all the Palatinate shall be made to the person of his Son, and that he himself shall be his Administrator during life; and that after the Death of the Duke of Bavaria, his Son shall be established in the Electoral Dignity. Moreover, if the Marriage between his eldest Son, and one of the Emperor's Daughter should take effect, it would ensure the enjoyment of all according to the present contract, and make way for the bettering of the Conditions to his own person. In contemplation of which Marriage the other party have approached a degree nearer, to wit, That the Electorate shall return to his own person after the Death of the Duke of Bavaria. And as touching the many difficulties in the Treaty of this Marriage, to wit, the Education of his Son, he had devised a way for the satisfaction of parties, which was, That he should be brought up, neither at the Hague, nor in the Emperor's Court, but with his own Son the Prince of Wales, and in the presence of the Infanta of Spain, after her arrival in England. Upon these Overtures the King advised his Son-in-Law to have recourse to his own Wisdom, and after mature deliberation, to make a choice agreeable to the honour and safety of his estates. And he delivered his own opinion, That a ready entrance into the possession of his own estate, with a kind of present liberty, and an assurance in time to recover more, was to be chosen rather than his present bare condition and hazardous expectation upon other uncertain means.
Upon the tender of these Proposals, Letters of Consulation were sent to the King from his Son-in-Law, and from Sir Dudly Charlton to the Duke of Buckingham; who, for the greatness of his power, was to be courted and made a friend in all transactions.
The Palatine's Answer to those Terms proposed by the King.
To the submission in the first place required, reply was made, That in natural order, the restitution which was material and substantial, ought to precede the same, which was but a point of Ceremony, or at least, it is necessary that all things be resolved, and settled in such assurances as shall be held convenient, otherwise a submission might be yielded yielded and the Restitution never follow. Besides, if the Emperor's intentions be sincere, and real, and without any aims to take advantage upon the Palsegrave's person (as the Emperor, Charles the Fifth, did upon the Langrave of Hessen, under the subtle distinction of a syllable in the safe conduct) the Submission might as well be made by a Deputy; by which means he might be freed from those apprehensions, which the Executions at Prague, and other cruelties used by the Imperialifts, might impress in his mind. Moreover, a Submission under the specifick Condition of yielding the Electorate to the Duke of Bavaria, will prejudice his cause for ever: For the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburgh, who have always protested against the Translation, and the other Princes of Germany who have like-feeling, will disavow their own protestations in regard of him who shall abandon his own pretensions; and in stead of favouring him, may be made his enemies. The experience of things may shew what issue is like to follow a consent to the like Conditions; for the Emperor had manifestly abused him in two Overtures already.
First the Instrument signed for the Conditional Resignation of the Crown of Bohemia, in the year One thousand six hundred twenty and one, scrued the Emperor to accelerate the Treaty then on foot with Bethlem Gabor. Secondly, The Ratification of the Suspension of Arms the last Summer, served to intimidate the Electors of Brandenburgh and Saxony, that they may not undertake any thing against the Emperor. For both the one and the other, were for these very ends divulged by the Emperor before any thing was therein concluded: And so will the Emperor make his advantage of the present Proposition, both to hinder the Progress of Gabor, and to continue the intimidation of the Princes of Germany. Furthermore, in this Submission it were necessary to take care that his undue Proscription and Banishment, being to the prejudice of the Constitutions of the Empire, and held by the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburgh of no validity, may not be approved, and a mark of Infamy set upon the Palatine and his posterity. And lastly, shame and disgrace will be the end of this Submission, there being assurance of no better dealing than was used to the deposed House of Saxony by Charles the Fifth, and Emperor not worse than this; the Heir of which House, being one of the worthieft Princes in Germany, is now in hard conditions before the eyes of the exiled Palatine.
Unto the second point, the exclusion of the Palsgrave's person, and the settling up his Son, it was thus replied, That Spain had always given hope, and the Earl of Bristol great assurance even when the Marriage was not so far advanced as now it is: That in case of the Emperor's resusal, they would assist his Majesty, and Compel the Emperor to an entire Restitution. Besides, there is little ground of hope from these Treaties as they are managed, and wire-drawn by the House of Austria, from whom we have ever new overtures in Winter, and new ruptures in Summer: For the Emperor wanteth but two or three years leisure, which he will easily gain by a Treaty of Marriage, to establish in Germany the Translation of the Electorate and Palatinate without any hope of Recovery: Therefore sufficient Assurances should ever precede the Treaties: for the present season did offer a very fair opportunity of recovering the Estate and Dignity.
The Palatine's pretensions were not prejudiced by a long interposition of time, the memory of the undue proceedings in the Ban, and the Translation and the seisure of his Inheritance are fresh in the minds of the Princes, who by their own Interest are moved to a greater compassion. As for the hope of Restitution from the Match with Spain, there is little reason to put a difference between the Spaniards and Imperialists, who have with joynt consent conspired the ruine of the Palatinate, with the same Forces, Counsels and Designs: And whilst things have been some times upon terms, and always in talk of an Accommodation, the Electorate is given to the Duke of Bavaria, and avowed by a Congratulatory Message from the Arch-Duchess; the upper Palatinate is settled in the Bavarian's possession, and a Portion allowed the Duke of Newburgh for his Contentment. A principal part of the Lower Palatinate is given to the Elector of Mentz, by the consent of those at Bruxels, and the rest is promised to be parcelled among other Princes.
Now for the hopes of a surer way to regain an happy settlement, by the Concurrence of the King, his Allies and Consederates, and the whole Protestant Party in Europe; let these Matters be weighed in the balance of Common Judgment. The Electors of Saxony and Brandenburgh, and all the Princes, save those of the Catholick League, have declared, That the Peace of Germany depends upon the restoring of the Palatine: Besides, the Levies which were made in the beginning of the last Summer, (though by the unfortunate accident of Duke Christian of Brunsrvick, they were soon dismissed) do testisie the same affections still remaining in them, and the same Resolutions to embrace any good occasion for recovering the liberty of Germany. The number of those that have this conjoyned Interest, is great and mighty, yea, the greater part of the people, both Horse and Foot, which marched under the Catholick Banner, were of a contrary Religion and affection, and more inclined to the ruine, than preservation of the Catholick League: all that is wanting in the concurrence and conduct of some great Prince that may support them against the House of Austria: The King of Denmark being a Prince full of circumspection, and being unwilling to enter into play alone, made answer to all instances, That as other Princes have their eyes on him, so he bath his eyes on the King of Great Britain. Wherefore, although for these two or three years past, Affairs on this side have gone in a continual decadence, and a final ruin be now threatned, unless it be withstood by some Princely resolution, not of petty but of great Princes; yet there is no such despondency in the good party, but sufficient vigor yet, remaining not only to subsist, but to rise and flourish again. And one of those Kingdoms which are in his Majesty's possession having wrought great effects in the affairs of Europe, even when counterballanced by the other two, doth demonstrate what may be done by the joynt forces of all three together, especially when the people's affections are raised to the enterprise. Thus did the Palsgrave's Counsels dissent from our King's Proposals.
And there were not wanting, both of the King's Counsel at home, and of his Agents in Foreign parts, such as frequently warned him of the disappointment and dishonour that would follow those ways of Treating with implacable, though flattering Enemies, and shewed him the sure and honourable way of re-establishing his Children in their Patrimony; not by their Enemy's courtesie; but by the united strength of the Protestant Arms in all parts of Christendom; of which party, the King might have made himself the head and great Commander.
The Nethertherlands appear ready to embrance the ancient Union with England.
In the languishing, and almost expiring Condition of the Spanish Treaty, the United Provinces in the Netherlands, appeared ready to embrace the Opportunity of renewing the ancient Union with England, in all mutual confidence, and strong assurance. And the King was moved to return to those old Confederates the surest supports of his Crowns and Family: For it hapned that in latter times, a distrust and strangenes had grown betwixt them. Bernevelt and the Arminian Faction had drawn the States to new Alliances, and commonly procured Answers to be given to King James, and his Ministers, in a harsh and peremptory stile. In like manner the King did not care to own them fully, esteeming them an evil example for a Monarch to cherish. Nevertheless, he did them many good turns worthy of acknowledgment, and particularly in opposing the Faction of Arminius and Vorstius, and the rest of that fort, who caused great distractions in the Belgick Church and State: Nay, he was thought to have done more then requisite, in rendring the Cautionary Towns, and in conniving with too much patience at the insolencies and misdemeanors of the Mariners. But the Prince of Orange expressed good will to an intire friendship with England, and assured the English Resident at the Hague,that whensoever the King would be to those Provinces, as Queen Elizabeth was in her time, they would be the same to him, as they had been to Queen Elizabeth: But as yet they keep themselves reserved, because they suspect that the Introduction, and Tentatives to a Union with them, have been to no other end, but to indear the English Merchandize, and to inhaunce its price to the King of Spain: For they conclude, that Spain will never Match with England, but for hope, or fear; hope of reducing those Provinces by the Match, or fear, if the Match proceed not, that the King will joyn with the Provinces in opposition to Spain; and in either of these cases they hold the Match as made: As for themselves, they represent this assurance of a firm Conjunction; for that instead of giving an ear to Overtures and Concession; which from day to day were presented to them, they have put themselves to the offensive, by preparing a strong Fleet, which is ready to set sail to the West-Indies, to the end they may at least interrupt the peaceable Annual return of the Gold and Silver of those parts, by which the House of Austria do continually advance their greatness. And this preparation, together with their Voyages into the East-Indies, will make them irreconcileable to Spain.
These enterprises were commended to the King, as approved by all good men, to be a principal means to cast down the fearful power of Spain: Only it was too vast a design for that little Country; but if the King were pleased throughly to close with them, their Affections and constant interest would so bind them to him that he might absolutely dispose of them, and by their Forces by Sea and Land, conjoyning with his own, be able to give the Law to Europe. And the present state of the Provinces might incite the King to this Conjunction. For the last Summer, if the Imperialists had joyned with the Spaniards, they had undoubtedly made an irruption into the borders of that State; and they are like to break in this next year, except some notable Turn shall intervene; and then our best Link for a Bond of Friendship is broken, and those Provinces of a strong Staff will become a broken Reed. Such representations were made to the Court of England; but the Counsels then prevailing were not propense to this Conjunction and Interest, although we were then breaking with Spain, and the House of Austria.
The Ratification come from he new Pope and when all is ready for the Espousals, then is the Match dasht by order from England.
About the beginning of December, when the Ratification came from the new Pope, Bonfires were made throughout all Spain, and the great Ordnance thundred out reports of joy: And that King, to satisfie his Oath made to the Prince of Wales, prepared for the Espousals, and a day was prefixed, and all things appointed for the Solemnity, according to the Magnificence of that Court. The Infanta's Family was settled, her Officers distinguished, and the beginning of March was the time for her journey into England. From the Prince's departure, she had applied herself to the learning of the English Tongue. The English Ambassadors carried themselves like Subjects towards her, as being their Master's Wife, or spouse. Many rich presents had she prepared for her future Lord and Husband. And the Earl of Bristol had provided many costly Liveries for his Attendants in the Solemnity of the Espousals. But all things were instantly discomposed by the opening of the new commands from England to the Earl, which were to procure an intire surrender of the Palatinate and Electorate, before he move one step further towards the Contract.
In the Court of Spain there was great resentment of these new delays, and they descerned a breah towards: The Infanta gave over the study of English, and was no more styled the Princess of England; but to the Demands from England, The King of Spain replied, That if a Treaty be set on foot, and the Emperor, and the Duke of Bavaria, will not come to Terms of Conformity, he will joyn Arms with England, to recover the Palatinate: The Spaniards confessing the Demand just, but unseasonable, professed the Desponsoria's past, the Infanta on her knees should have been a Suitor to the King to restore the Palatinate, making it thereby her act, and drawing the Obligation wholly to her. These offers did not satisfie, Bristol was called home, and all was dashed to pieces.
It was an amazement to the Christian World, that when the Match was brought to such persection, the motion should be rejected by that side which pursued it with so much eagerness and patience, as being the master-piece of all their designs.
In the latter part of this long tedious act, the Spaniard appeared real, but in the former part their reality was questionable: For our parts the business shall remain as we find it, a dark Riddle and Mystery.
Bristol sends his Apology to K. James for having demurred upon the new Instructions.
The Earl of Bristol having demurred upon the new Instructions, to prevent (as he desired) the embroyling of the whole Treaty, was to make his Apology to the King his Master, and for himself he thus pleaded, That he understood the Infanta was his young Master's Wife, or Spouse at least, and that both the King and Prince infinitely desired the Match; The powers were drawn by the intervention of both parties, The King of Spain accepting them, and the Prince legally delivering them, and they were deposited with him in trust, as the Ambassador of the King of Great Britain, with a Publick Declaration, how and when he was to deliver them; and this was drawn into an Instrument by the Secretary of State: According to the state of things, he appeals to any Censure, which were the more prudent, honest, and dutiful way; whether to put a disgrace upon so great and worthy a Prince's, who was to be his Master's Wife, and a scorn upon the King of Spain, by nominating a day for the Marriage, when the powers would be expired, and not at all to insist upon making good the Publick Trust reposed in him by two so great Monarchs, to the hazard and overthrow of so great and important a business; or contrariwise to represent to his Majesty the state of things in Truth and Sincerity with his humble opinion of the wrong and disgrace to the Infanta, by deserring the Marriage, and of the indignity offered to the King of Spain, and the danger of the whole Treaty, by the detention of the powers, without the pretence of some emergent cause: And after all this, when his Majesty had declared his pleasure, there was ready an exact obedience. Wherefore in the considence of his own innocency, he professed as great a considence of his Majesty's accustomed grace and favour.
Olivares offers Bristol large Preferments in the King's name, when he was to take his leave.
Bristol being called home, acquainted the Conde Olivares with the Letters of Revocation, and desired withal to have a day assigned him to take his leave of the King. Olivares answered, That he had much to say to him by his Majesty's order: and spake to this effect in the presence of Sir Walter Aston and the Conde Gondomar: That the King had receiv'd large advertisements, with what malice and rancor his Enemies did prosecute him, and how powerful they are in England; And in regard that the envy which was drawn upon him proceeded from his earnest endeavours to accomplish the Match; and that the particular fault laid to his charge, was, in point of delivering the Proxies deposited in his hands, that his Majesty takes it to heart, and judgeth himself touched in his honour, if for this cause his enemies shall prevail so far, as to work his ruin or disgrace: And therefore he will write to the King of Great Britain, and send a particular Ambassador, if it be needful, to mediate for him; for that he had ferved his Master with that exactness and sidelity, which deserved not only to be assisted by all good Offices, but to be rewarded and published: And his Majesty, for the example of his own Subjects and for encouragement of all such as should ferve their Princes with the like loyalty, had sent him a Blank, signed by himself, wherein he might set down his own conditions, both in point of Title and Fortune. And this he did in no wife to oblige another Prince's Subject, but only to give encouragement to honest and faithful proceedings: And therefore he would not make these offers in private, but open and justifiable to all the world: And would accompany all that he should do with a Declaration or Patent, That what he had done for the Earl of Bristol, was for the fidelity wherewith he had served his own Master.
Bristops Answer to those Profers.
Hereunto the Earl made answer, That he was sorry and much afflicted to hear such language; and desired that they should understand, that neither this King nor Spain were beholding to him; for, whatsoever he had done, he thought the same to be fittest for his Master's service, and his own honour, having no relation to Spain; and that he served a Master, from whom he was assured both of justice and due reward; and nothing doubted, but his own innocency would prevail against the wrong in tended by his powerful Adversaries: And were he sure to run into imminent danger, he had rather go home, and cast himself at his Master's feet and mercy, and therein comply with the duty and honour of a faithful Subject, though it should cost him his head, than be Duke or Infantado of Spain: And that with this resolution he would imploy the utmost of his power to maintain the amity between the two Kings and their Crowns, and to serve his Catholick Majesty.
After he had taken his leave, and was ready to come away, he had another profer made unto him, in private, of Ten thousand Crowns, to take with him in his purse, to make his way, and go through with his troubles, if haply his own monies might be seised upon: And it was told him, no body should know it. Yes, said he, one would know it, who, he was assured, would reveal it to his Majesty; viz. the Earl of Bristol himself; and it would make him not so clear in his own heart as now he was: And so he resused the offer.
The Spaniards prepare for a War with England.
The Match was now truly broken, but as yet the breach was not declared, nor the Treaty quite fallen to the ground, but continued after a languishing manner in the hands of Sir Walter Asbton. The Spaniards, by all advertisemetns from England were advised to expect a War; and accordingly they went seriously to work, and prepared themselves for what might happen; and Asbton being there upon the place, conceived it high time, that King James should resolve upon some course to allay the storm arising, or to go hand in hand with them in equal preparations. All that was left alive of the Marriage-business, was no more, than that those Jewels which the Prince had left at his Farewell, were not yet returned: But if the Letter then expected from England brought no better Answer to their last offer concerning the Palatinate, than such as they had hitherto recived, they will return the Jewels, and declare the Marriage broken. For by this time they had recived intelligence, of the Prince's treating a Marriage with a Daughter of France, the Lady Henrietta Maria. And so it was, that King James had lately sent the Lord Kensington, afterwards Earl of Holland, to enquire covertly, where the Match were feasible, before he would enter into a publick Treaty.
The Lord Kensington sent Ambassador into France, to feel the pulse of that Court touching a Match, renders an account of his acceptance.
The Lord Kensington returned this account of his Negociation: That there appeared in the face of that Court an extraordinary sweetness, smoothness, and clearness towards an Alliance with England; the Princess herself was observed seldom to have put on a more cheerful countenance, then she had done the first night of his appearance in that Court; The Queen, though a Daughter of Spain, wished this Match more, than that intened with her own Sister; and the Queen-mother, who will have the chief stroke in the business, expressed her good-will and favour, as much as might stand with her Daughter's honour. For the French observe the aspiring of the King of Spain to the Monarchy of Christendom, and his approaches to the Kingdom of France, and his incompassing it on all sides: and they discern'd, that an Alliance with England is the surest way to oppose the mightiness of that King: and upon the same account, they promised brave assistance to the United Provinces, gave great encouragement to Count Mansfeld and Duke Christian of Brunswick: A Gentleman of the Religion was sent to Liege, to offer them the King's protection, if that Town would feek it. Nevertheless they have not directly embraced this overture of Marriage, because we have not as yet wholly abandoned the Treaty with Spain; left they should lose the Friendship of a Brother in law, to gain another which may possibly fail them. But they say, that their hearts are not capable of more content, than to see this Motion upon a publick Commission, and all that may touch upon the way of Spain dissolved. Neither are they like to strain us to unreasonable Conditions, in favour of the Roman Catholicks in his Majesty's Dominions: For in that matter their pulse beat so temperately, as to promise a good Crisis therein: And, in case his Majesty be drawn to banish the Priefts and Jesuits, and to quicken the Laws against other Catholicks, to keep a good intelligence with his Parliament; yet, they say, they hope he will not tie his hands from some moderate favour, to slow hereafter from the mediation of that State, which is all they pretend unto for the saving of their honour, who otherwise would hardly be reputed Catholicks.
The King advised to call a Parliament.
Thus the Lord Kensington having rendred an account of his diligence, advised to go on roundly with the Match, left otherwise, though never so well affected, they be altered with the Arts of Spain: For (faith he) undoubtedly the King of Spain will resolve, if possible, to oblige one side; and, as the French do think, he may please England with the restitution of the Palatinate, so we may think, he will please the French with rendring of the Valtoline. But without the assistance of a Parliament, and compliance with the People, the King could not go through with those weighty works which he was now to take in hand. Now the things which troubled the People, were set forth to the King in three particulars: As, That for the Subsidies granted in the two last Parliaments, they received no retribution by Bills of Grace: That some of their Burgesses were proceeded against after the Parliament was dissolved: and that when they have satisfied the King's demands he will nevertheless proceed to the conclusion of the Spanish Match. Hereupon some of his nearest Counsel perswaded him to begin the work, by removing the people's jealousies, and to cast some crumbs of his Crown amongst them, and those crums would work miracles, and satisfie many thousands. And whereas the aim of the former Treaties was, the settling of an universal peace in Christendom, and since the malice of deceitful men hath crost those fair ways, abusing his Majesty's trust and goodness he must cast about, and fail by another point of the Compass, whereby he might securely and easily attain to his noble and pious ends. The means whereunto were these: First, that his enemies know the Lion hath teeth and claws: Next, that he embrace and invite a strict association and friendship with those, whom neighbourhood, alliance, and common interest of State and Religion had joyned to him. Feb. 19. the Parliament began at Westminster, the King being set in the Throne, spake thus:
The King's Speech to the Parliament.
"I Have assembled you at this time, to impart to you a secret and matter of great importance, as can be to my State, and the state of my Children:wherein I crave your best and safest advice and counsel, according as the Writ, whereby you were assembled, imports. That the King would advise with you in matters concerning his Estate and Dignity. And as I have ever endeavoured, by this and the like ways, to procure and cherish the love of my people towards me, so I do hope and my hope is exceeded by faish; for I fully now believe, that never any King was more beloved of his People; whom as you, my Lords and Gentlemen, do here represent, so would I have you truly to represent all their loves to me; that in you in atrue Mirror or Glass, I may perfectly behold it, and not as in a false Glass, that represents it not at all, or otherwise than it is indeed. Give me your free and faithful counsels in the matter propose, of which you have often heard, the Match of my Son: wherein, as you may know, I have spent much time, with great cost, in long Treaties, desiring always therein (and not without reason hoping to have effected my desires) the advancement of my State and Children, and the general Peace of Christendom, wherein I have always constantly laboured, depending upon fair hopes and promises At the earnest instance of my Son, I was contented (although it was of an extraordinary nature) to send him to prosecute his desires in Spain; and for his more safety, sent Buckingham (in whom I ever reposed most trust of my person) with him, with this command, Continually to be present with him, and never to leave him, till he had return'd again safely untome. Which he performed, though not with that effect in the business that I expected, yet not altogetger without profit; for it taught me this point of wisdom, Qui versatur in generalibus, is easily deceived, and that generality brings nothing to good issue; but that before any matter can be fully finished, it must be brought to particulars: For, when as I thought the affair had been before their going, produced to a narrow point, replying upon their general propositions, I found, when they came there, the matter proved to be so raw, as if it had never been treated of; the general's giving them easie way to invade, and affording them means to avoid the effecting of any thing.
"The particulars that passed in the Treaty, I mean not now to discover to you, the time being too short; I refer you to Charles and Buckingham, and the Secretary's Reports, who shall relate unto you all the particulars. And after that, super totam materiam, I desire your best assistance to advise me, what is best and fittest for me to do, for the good of the Common-wealth, and the advancement of Religion, and the good of my Son, and my Grandchildren of the Palatine. And of our Estate, I know you cannot but be sensible, considering that your welfare consists in ours, and you shall be sure to have your share in what misery shall be fall us: And therefore I need to urge no other Argument to you in this behalf, in offering me your wiseft and sureft counsel and furtherance. And I assure you in the faith of a Christian King, that it is res integra presented unto you, and that I stand not bound, nor either way engaged, but remain free to follow what shall be best advised.
"To plant is not not sufficient, unless, like good Gardiners, you pluck up the weeds that will choak your labours: And the greatest weeds among you, are Jealoufies; root them out. For my actions, I dare avow them before God; but Jealousies are of a strange depth. I am the Husband, and you the Wife, and it is subject to the Wife to be jealous of her Husband: Let this be far from you! I can truly say, and will abouch it before the feat of God and Angels, that never King governed with a purer, sincerer, and more uncorrupt heart, then I have done, far from all will and meaning of the least error or impersection of my Reign.
"I hath been talked of my remisness in maintenance of Religion, and suspicion of a Toleration: But, as God shall judge me, I never thought nor meant, nor ever in word expressed any thing that favoured of it. It is true, that at times, for reasons best known to my self, I did not so fully put those Laws in execution, but did wink and connive at some things, which might have hindred more weighty affairs; but I never in all my Treaties, ever agreed to any thing, to the overthrow and disagreeing of those Laws, but had in all a chief preservation of that Truth, which I have ever prosessed: And, as in that respect, I have a charitable conceit of you, I would have you have the like of me also, in which I did not transgress: For it is a good Horse-man's part, not always to use his spurs, and keep strait the reins, but sometimes to use the spurs, and suffer the reins more remiss; so it is the part of a wise King, and my age and experience in Government hath informed me, sometimes to quicken the Laws with streight executions, and at other times, upon just occasion to be more remiss. And I would also remove from your thoughts all jealousies, that I might, or ever did question or infringe any of your lawful Liberties or Priviledges; but I protest before God, I ever intened you should enjoy the fulness of all those that former times give good warrant and testimony of, which, if need be, I will enlarge and amplifie.
"Therefore I would have you, as I have in this place heretofore told you, as S. Paul did Timothy, aviod genealogies and curious questions, and nice querks and jerks of Law, and idle innovations; and if you minister me no just occasion, I never yet was, nor ever shall be curious or captious to quarrel with you: But I desire you to avoid all doubts and "hindrances, hindrances, and to compose your selves speedily and quietly to this weighty affair I have proposed; for that I have found already, delays have proved dangerous, and have bred distraction of this business; and I would not have you by other occasions to neglect or protract it. God is my Judge, I speak it as a Christian King, Never any wayfaring man, that was in the Defarts of Arabia, and in danger of death for want of water to quench his thirst, more desired water, then I theirst and desire the good and comfortable success of this Parliament, and blessing upon your Counsels, that the good issue of this may expiate and acquit the fruitless issue of the former. And, pray I God, your Counsels may advance Religion, and the Publick weal, and the good of me and my Children.
Febr. 21. The Commons presented Sir Thomas Crew for their Speaker, who prayed an excuse; which being denied, he made this Speech.
The King approves Sir Tbocrew for Speaker, who made this Speech.
"Since I cannot bring an Olive-branch in my mouth, as a sign of my peace, and that God (in whose hands are the hearts of kings) without whose providence a Sparrow doth not fall to the ground, whom no man can resist, hath inclined your Majesty to cast your eye of grace on me, and to confirm me in this place. I am taught in the best School, that Obedience is better then Sacrifice. And will only say with a learned Father, Da Domine quod jubes, & jube quod vis. Otherwise I have great cause to be afraid of such a Charge, to be executed before so great a Majesty, and in so great an Assembly, but that I hope your Majesty will extend your Scepter of grace, as Ahasuerus did, to sustain me in my fainting.
"Your Majesty is Princeps Hereditarius, descended from both the Roses, and hath united both the kingdoms. At your first entrance you wrought a wonder in the tumult of our cares, and cloud of our fears, hapning upon the death of the late Queen, by the bright beams of your Sunshine; which a Poet elegantly expressed, Mira cano, sol occubuit, nox nulla secuta est. There was a David in Hebron, and no Ishbosheth to distrub your peaceable entrance, but the Acclamations of all your subjects and Commons, concurring to express their great contentment. This was no sudden flash of joy, but a constant blessing, by the continuance of the Gospel and true Religion, maugre the malice and hellish invention of those, who would have blown up all at once; but God laughed them to scorn, and they fell into their own trap. These things I leave to your Majesty's Royal remembrance, as a duty to be practisfed, and to be expressed by our thankfulness to our holy God; for it is a good thing to be thankful: Nonest dignus dandis, qui non agit gratias pro datis.
"Since my designment to this place, I called to mind these Statutes of late times, and find two of especial note: the first of 32 H. 8. which was called Parliametnum doctum, for the many good Laws made for the fettling of Possessions. The other 39 Eliz. which by a Reverend Divine was called, Parliamentum pium, because the Subjects thereby were enabled to found Hospitals without licence of Mortmain, or Ad quod damnum; and other charitable Laws, which I omit, being not perpetual. And I likewise called to mind many glorious offers made by your Majesty, and other good Provisions at the two last Meetings. Now your Majesty hath stretch'd forth your Scepter to call us to you again, and hath hath made Declaration, that all Jealousies and Distractions might be removed, and the memory of Parliament-Nullities might be buried. And my desire is, that your Majesty's insluence may distil upon us, and you proceed in such a sweet harmony and conjunction, that Righteousness and peace may kiss each other; and that Mercy and Truth may meet; and the world may say, Ecce quam bonum & quam jucundum Regem & Populum convenire in unum.
"And, for perfecting of this work, the good Bills against Monopolies, Informers, and Concealers may now pass, and receive strength, with General, Liberal, and Royal Pardon, according to the bounty of the late Queen, That so this Parliament may be called, Felix, Doctum, & Pium; which will be good to your Subjects, and no diminution to your Revenue, or derogation to your Prerogative, which in your Majesty's hands is a Scepter of Gold, but in others hands is a Rod of Iron. I need not speak in the praise of the Fundamental Common Laws: Veritas temporis filia, time hath sufficiently justified them. Monarchy is the best Government; and of Monarchies, those which are Hereditary. The best supply of your Majesty's wants is in Parliament, where the Subject is bound by his own consent; other courses of Benevolence come heavily. The Subjects enjoy the Gospel freely by your protection, and your Majesty may be safe in their Loyalty: other safeties are but as Ajax his Shield, a weight rather than a defence. Their desire is, that the good Laws for Religion may be confirmed; and that the generation of Locusts, the Jesuits and Seminary-Priests, which were wont to creep in corners, and do now come abroad, may be, by the execution of these good Laws, as with an East-wind, blown over the Sea. Our late Queen Elizabeth lived and died in peace; the Pope cursed her, but God blessed her: And so shall your Majesty, having God to your Friend, find safety in the Ark of true Religion, and when you are old and full of days, land you in Heaven; and then your hopeful Prince, which sprang out of your own loyns, shall sway that Scepter, which you must leave, to enjoy a Crown Celestial: And God in his due time will restore the distressed Princess, her Husband and Royal Issue, to that Inheritance, which is now possessed by the usurping Sword of their Enemies. Whereof we are the more confident, because that Country was heretofore a Sanctuary in our distress, when Religion was here persecuted. Cato was wont to say, Hoc sentio, & Carthago destruenda est: But I say, Hoc sentio, & Palatinatus recuperandus est.
"The question was put to a Lacedemonian, Why their City wanted Walls? who answered, Concord was their Walls. Your Majesty, under God, is a sole and entire Monarch, whose Walls are the Ocean with out, and sortified within with a Wall of Brass, the bond of Unity and Religion: And happy in that place, of which it may be said, as of Jerusalem, It is a City at Unity within it self. Neither is your Government confined within the limits of this Kingdom, but extends it self to Ireland, where you Majesty's care and pains, in our late employment, gave divers provident Directions for the setting forth of Religion, the reforming of Courts of Justice, and the inflicting punishment on the Disturbers of the publick Peace: And I was Ocularis testis, that you have made these ample endowments of Churches out of your own Excheated Revenue, as will be to your honour in all posterity. But my desire is, as well in the beginning, as in all other our proceedings, our words may be, Vera, Pauca, & Ponderosa.
"Therefore with your gracious favour, according to antient Presidents, we are humble Suitors, that you would be pleased to allow our antient Priviledges. And that for our better attendance, our Persons, Goods, and necessary Attendants, may be free from Arrests; and that we may have liberty of free speech, not doubting but we shall consine our selves within the limits of Duty. And because this great business may give us occasion often to resort to your Majesty, that upon our publick Suit, you will be pleased to give us your own fit time of access: and that all our actions may have a benign interpretation, and a good acceptation and opinion.
"Lastly, that I may not only be a Speaker, but an humble Suitor, protesting by the great God, by whom Kings do reign, That what soever I have said, hath proceeded form a Loyal heart; I therefore desire, that may be covered with the veil of your gracious Construction or acquitted by gracious pardon.
The King having referred the whole business of the Spanish Match to the advice of Parliament, the Duke of Buckingham made, to both Houses, in the Palace at Whiteball, a long Narration of all the Transactions in Spain, which was accompanied with the Prince's Attestation.
The Duke's Narrative.
In the Narration it self, his Grace observed six distinct and several parts. The first was, The Motives of the Prince his Journey to Spain. The second, The Treaty of the Marriage set on foot in Spain, severally and by it self. The third, The Treaty of the Marriage and Restitution, united together by a reciprocal Subordination. The fourth, The Prince his Highness return from Spain. The fifth, His Majesty's subsequent proceedings in both Treaties, since the return. The last was, The stating of the Question, fuper totam materiam, wherein both the Houses were to offer unto his Majesty their humble Advice and Counsel. Of these parts, his Grace Spake very distinctly and orderly.
I. The Motives of the Prince's Journey to Spain.
The Negociation of Master Chancellor of the Exchequer with the Arch-dutchess, which ministred unto his Majesty the first occasion of jealousie, and made a kind of discovery of the Spaniards indirect dealing with this State: Then was read the aforementioned Letter of the third of October, 1622. from the King to the Earl of Bristol, wherein Bristol was required to let the King of Spain know, how sensible King James was of the Emperor's proceedings towards him; and that he should demand of the King of Spain a promise, under Hand and Seal, that Heidelbergh should be delivered within seventy days after Audience, and the like for Manheim and Frankendale, if they be taken; and if this be denied, to press to have leave to march through the King of Spain's Territories with an Army, for the recovering of his Children's Patrimony; and that the King of Spain should assist us with his Forces.
The Duke desired the Houses to take for truth whatever he should say, granted and attested by the Prince's presence; and declared, That this Letter was not put home to the uttermost of Bristol. Hereupon a Dispatch was sent away to my Lord of Bristol, expresly commanding him to press his directions more home than yet he had done, and in case he should be denied or delayed by the King of Spain, then to take his leave and come away: This was not so fully exacted by my Lord of Bristol.
Porter, that carried these Letters, was commanded not to stay above Ten days, who after he had been there some four or five days, and faw nothing towards a Dispatch, went himself to the Conde Olivares, (having been his Creature) and desired him that he would speed his Dispatch. Olivares asked him what he would have? Who replied, No more than what had been formerly promised, that in case the Emperor should deny the Restitution of the Palatinate, the King of Spain should assist our King by Arms to recover it, or else give way to our Eorces to march thither through his Country. Olivares replied, That this was a preposterous demand; What, to assist with Arms against the King's Uncle, and the Catholick League! Porter speaking to him of the Marriage of our Prince with the Infanta of Spain, he told him, That he unstood not a word of it.
Porter acquainted Bristol herewith, he said, He would call Olivares to an account, if he held this Language with him, and would make him understand, That an Earl of England was as good a man, as a Conde of Spain. But sending for Porter the next morning, he changed his resotion, and concluded to carry the business more calmly, and said, the Conde was so reserved, because he was slie and dainty to report those Mysteries with that freedom to him, who was not qualified as a Publick Minister. The Conde was angry with Porter for communicating what he said to Bristol. Mr. Porter returned with a Dispatch fraught with Generalities, without any one particular or certainty at all made in relation to the Prince's Highness; who thereupon took his resolution to go in Person to Spain, and gave himself these reasons for the enterprise.
He saw his Father's Negotiartion plainly deluded, Matters of Religion gained upon, and extorted; his Sister's cause more and more desperate; and that this was the way to put things off or on; and that in this particular, delay was worse than a denial; and that according to the usual Proverb, A desperate disease must have a desperate remedy.
Hereupon the King commanded the Duke to accompany his Highness in his Journey.
II. The Treaty of the Marriage Severed, and by it self.
WHen the Prince had arrived at Madrid, the Conde gave him a visit, magnisied exceedingly the Prince's Journey, amplified the Obligations his Highness had put upon that King; and said, That now without all peradventure, it must be a Match, and we must part and divide the whole world between us.
The next day the Conde taking the Duke into his Coach, and Mr. Porter for his Interpreter, falling into discourse of the Match, he said unto the Duke, Let us dispatch this Match out of hand, and strike it up without the Pope: The Duke answered, He liked the manner very well, but desired to understand the Means. The Means, quoth the Conde, is very easy; it is but the Conversion of the Prince; which we cannot conceive but his Highness intended upon his Resolution for this Journey.
The Duke answered forthwith, That with freedom they came thither, and with freedom they would return again, they were no Juglers, neither came they to Spain to make new bargains: that the Prince was settled in his Religion; his Conscience was troubled with no scruples in that king :if they struck any more upon that string, they would mar all the harmony. Then said the Conde, there is no way but to send to Rome to hasten the Dispensation; to which the Duke assented. Hereupon the Conde wrote his Letter to the Cardinal Lodovisia, the Pope's Nephew; which being shewed to the Duke, seemed to him to be very heavy; the Duke therefore desired to quicken it with this Postscript, That now the Prince being arrived, must not be sent back without a Wife; That delay to a Suitor is a kind of refusal; that Clogging Instructions would amount to a Denial, and new Conditions to an absolute Breach. The Conde fell into choler, said directly it could not be done. This the Prince affirmed to be acted in his presence: But the Earl of Bristol made a more benign construction thereof, the Duke a right-down conclusion, That this people never intended either Match or Restitution; and so wished his Highness fairly at home again: However the Messenger was dispatched to Rome.
Four or five days after his Highness was placed to see his Mistress in her passage through the streets, as the made her visits from Church to Church: but pressing for access, he was delayed, but at last obtained a visit; But a very strange one. He was not suffered to speak unto her, but as they had set it down in words and syllables in writing, saying, They were no Astrologers, and could not foresee the event of this Marriage: and therefore they resolved to admit him as a Prince only, and not as a Suitor. But the Conde salved this up with a Complement, That if the Dispensation were once returned, he should lie with her even that very night; nay, have her he should upon any terms. If he could not be qualified to enjoy her as a Wife, yet he should have her as a Mistress.
Soon after riding in a Coach, it was urged by the Conde, That the Infanta was of a tender Conscience, and if the should come into England, and find the Prince an Enemy to her Religion, it would quite dishearten her. His Highness consented to hear her upon this Subject, because he was as like to convert her, as she was to pervert him. A Conserence with Divines was pressed upon his Highness, which he refused, and said: if after disputation with them, they should not prevail against a young Man, they would remain much disgusted and ill-affected to the whole Negotiation; This king of importunity was still used toward the Prince, till the return of the Dispensation.
Six weeks after the Princes's arrival came the Dispensation; but his Highness understood from Rome by Mr.Gage, that the Dispensation was returned much clogged in Matter and Manner, especially with the annexed new Condition. The King of Spain before the receiving of the Dispensation, was to take an Oath to see all the Articles performed; whereupon Faculty was issued, really performed, or else to make War, in case of any failure, upon the King of England.
His Highness singnified his Resolution unto them, that he neither could nor would add or alter any thing of the first Articles sent to England.
A Juncto of Divines are appointed to meet and consider, whether the King might safely take the Oath. By this time the Prince had gone through all the Articles, sitting in person with the Committee; only leaving three undiscussed, That of the Church, that of the Nurse, and that of the Education of the Children; which his Highness reserved till he should speak with the King. Then said the Conde, Now the business is in a better way than ever it was, a Match, and without more ado she was his Wife.
But the next day came Gondomar and spake unto the Prince of the same Match, as of a new thing, and told him plainly, that unless his Highness came to all the Conditions of the Dispensation as they were sent from Rome, clearly and intirely, nothing would be done; for they had no power to remove or alter a word of false Latine. Whereupon his Highness was justly distasted, and offered to break. Then they pressed the Prince, that he would be pleased to stay twenty days, until the King of Spain might receive an Answer from England. The Prince resolved to stay, upon condition that Sir Francis Cottington might be dispatched away within two days, and some Messenger that might overtake him with the Articles that should be sent after, as soon as ever they could be made ready: But the two days of their hammering spun out to twenty; at the end thereof they brought them with new Additions.
The Articles being at last sent to England, the Juncto of Divines delivered their opinions, that the Infanta could not be sent over before the Spring; at which his Highness was offended, but the Conde prevailed with him to stay until their Ambassador should certisie out of England, that the Articles were assended unto by King James, and put in execution, and then the Lady should go with the Prince.
The Bishop of Segovia was pleased to say to the Duke, That he had heard something of the estate of our Kingdom, and had received it from good hands; that our King could not make a Toleration without a Rebellion, and easily believed it; because the King of Spain is not able in his Dominions to effect the least enterprise, without incurring the like danger; therefore he concluded, it was unsafe to send the Lady thither at thistime, because we having granted as much in effect as a Toleration, it was very probable she should be welcomed with a rising and rebellion. To which the Duke, replied, That if the favours which the King his Master had exhibited to his Catholicks at the Mediation of that King, and the Advice of that very Committee of which that Bishop was one, be of so dangerous a consequence; it seems their Lordships who gave the Advice for that Article, though they pretended Religion, intended plain and open rebellion. But you must know, quoth the Duke, if his Highness had been of my Lord Bishop's opinion, That these Conferences had amounted to a Toleration; he had never accepted of these Articles to have gained any allowance: For what was agreed unto, was but a Temporary Suspension of penal Laws, but no Toleration; for that could not be done, but by consent of Parliament. Then Gondomar hereupon said, that for his part, he did not hold it fit to send the Infanta thither, before the Articles be perfectly put in execution. And Gondomar privately insused to the Prince his Highness, being incensed against the Duke, That the Duke was in heart (as he said all his kindred were) a Roman Catholick; and he said to a Jesuit of great account and zeal in those parts, That the Duke was a most obstinate, perverse and refractory Puritan.
About this time it was reported that the Prince intended to steal away; whereupon they laid wait to intercept him: Hereupon the Duke was sent to tell them, That although they had stolen thither out of love, they would never steal thence out of fear.
About this time the Prince sent a Message to his Father, That if he should receive any Advertisement, that he was detained by that State as a Prisoner, he would be pleased for his sake, never to think upon him any longer as a Son, but reflect upon the good of his Sister, and the safety of his own Kingdoms.
III. The Treaty of the Match and Restitution reciprocally subordinated.
IT is fit to observe this passage, which is the thing whereupon all his Highness subfequent Actions are turned and moved. He had never staid a sevennight longer in Spain; he had never left any Proxy with Bristol; he had never taken any Oath at the Efcurial; or ever so much as written a Letter of complement to the Lady; but that he had still before his eyes, as his Cynosure, the promise made by the Conde, for the Restituion of the Palatinate.
To hasten the delivery of the Lady, the Duke presented unto the Conde, how his Master was now in years, the Prince his only Son; and he would suffer in Honour and Reputation, to return home without his Wife. The Conde confented hereunto, and desired the Prince would name a day for his deparature.
This news came to the Infanta, who seemed to be apprehensive of the Prince's going away, and prevailed with his Highness to return this Complement unto her, That rather than he would give her Alteza any disgust, he would stay for seven years.
By this time Sir Francis Cottington is arrived with all things perfected by the King, and Letters from the Ambassadors of full satisfaction, and a command from the King to his Highness, to make his return within one month.
Now began the Conde to enter into the Treaty for the Restitution of the Palatinate, saying; The Lady should by no means go to England, before that business was accomodated. And it was projected, That there should be a Restituion of the Land to the Prince Palatine, upon a Condition of Marriage with the Emperor's Daughter, and that he should bebred in the Emperor's Court. The Prince demanded of the Conde, whether in case the Emperor proved refractory, the King his Master would assist him with Arms to reduce him to reasonable terms? The Conde answered Negatively; because they had a Maxim of State, that the King of Spain must never fight against the Emperor; for they would not employ their Forces against the House of Austria.
Hereupon his Highness made his Protestation to the Conde; Look to it Sir, for if you hold your self to that, there is an end of all; for without this you may not rely upon, either Marriage or Friendship.
By this time the Prince is grown cheap and vulgar in the Court of Spain, so that they will scarce bestow a visit upon him, and the Conde came very seldom to him: and two Letters came to the Duke's hands, which shewed, that all that the Conde did, was nothing but flashes and lightning; not with standing he seemed at this time to be in a good humour, and told the Duke, that now certainly it must be a Match, and the Devil could not break it: The Duke replied, he thought so, and the Match had need be very firm and strong, it had been seven years in Soadering. The Conde denied, and said plainly, it had not been really intended seven months; and said, I will setch that out of my Desk, that shall assure you thereof; and so produced two Letters, the first was written with the King of Spain's own hand, Dated the Fifth of November, 1622. And the other from the Conde Olivares of the Eighth of November, 1622. Both which Letter are mentioned before,
IV. The Prince's return from Spain.
And now the Prince returning for England, being engaged to leave his Proxy, did deposite the same in the hands of the Earl of Bristol, who was to keep it, and use it as his Procurator; that is, As he should receive his Highness's Direction, from time to time: His words for the present were (said the Duke) That if the Confirmation came from Rome clear and intire, (which it did not) then within so many days he should deliver it to the King of Spain.
The second Direction sent to him, was by a Letter which his Highness sent him between his departure from the Escurial and coming to the Sea side, to this effect; That for fear a Monastery should rob him of his Wife, he should stay the delivery of the powers until the doubts were cleared; and that his Highness would send him in the Premises some further Directions; Here because my Lord of Bristol in his Letter of the First of November, 1623, doth press so vehemently the Prince his Highness concerning this Proxy, and the Prince vowed openly before both Houses, that he had never by Oath or Honour engaged himself not to revoke the Powers more than by the clause De non revocando Procuratore, inserted in the Instrument it self, and that he conceived the clause to be matter of From; and although Essentially of no binding power, yet usually thrust into every such Instrument; and that the Civilians do hold, That it is lawful by the Civil and Canon Law, for any Man to revoke his Proxy of Marriage, notwithstanding it hath the clause De non revocando Procuratore inserted in it: Therefore as to this point the Duke concluded, That the Earl of Bristol in charging this matter so highly on the Prince had much forgot himself.
V. The subsequent Proceedings of His Majesty in both the Treaties, since the return of his Highness.
THe Prince by the Mercy of God came to Royston, and made his Relation to the King of all that had passed. His Majesty was glad and told him, that he had acted well the part of a Son; and now the part of a Father must come upon the Stage, which was to provide with all circumspection, That his only Son should not be Married with a Portion of Tears to his only Daughter. And therefore his Majesty commanded by an express dispatch, the stay of the Proxy in the Earl of Bristol's hands, until he had some better assurance of the restitution of the Palatinate.
Then was read his Majesty's Letter to the Earl of Bristol, dated the Eighth of October, 1623. wherein the Earl of Bristol was postively required by the King, That before he deliver the Powers, or move to the Contract, to procure from the King of Spain a direct Restitution of the Palatinate, and the Electoral Dignity, or to assist with Arms within a time limited.
You would perceive that by this Dispatch, Bristol would lay hold on all hints and emergent occasions to put off the Desponsarios without this required Assurance by Arms first obtained; but the truth is, he did no so.
For first, the Comfirmation came from Rome clogged and mangled; and instead of challenging thereupon, he labors with no small strength of wit to hide and palliate the same.
Secondly, In the Temporal Articles, the Portion was altered, Six hundred thousand pounds in ready cash, to some Eighty thousand pounds, in money, and a few Jewels, and a Pension of two thousand pounds per annum. Instead of quarrelling with this main alternation, he seems to approve and applaud the payment.
Thirdly, for the Assurance of Restitution of the Palatinate, the main Foundation both of Match and Friendship, he is so far from provideing for it before (which was the Method prescribed him by the King) that he leaves it to be mediated by the Infanta after the Marriage.
Lastly, instead of putting off the Contract, as any Man in the world (upon the Dispatch from Royston) would have done,he comes to prefix a precise day for the Desponsarios.
Now from this rash fixing of the day for the Desponsarios in Spain, which was controled again by an Express, from hence issued an unnecessary discourtesie put upon the King, and in a manner upon the Infanta, by the Earl of Bristol: From that proceeded a greater affront put upon the Prince, the taking away the tile Lay Princesa from the Infanta,and the debarring of our Ambassadors from any further Access to her person.
Then was produced an Answer of the King of Spain to the Memorial of the Ambassador, implying a resufal to assist by Arms for the recovery of the Palatinate, in case the Emperor consent not to a Restitution which we have inferted in series of time.
VI. The Stating of the Question super totam Materiam.
THis Question the Duke stated on this manner, Whether this being the full effect and product of all the Negotiation, which I have opened unto you, be sufficient Super totam Materiam, for his Majesty to rely upon with any safety; as well for the Marriage of his only Son, as for the relief of his only Daughter: Or, that these Treaties fet aside, his Majesty were best to trust in his own strength, and to stand upon his own feet? So the Duke ended with this conclusion, That if the bringing us from darkness to light, did deserve any thanks, we owe it, and must wholly ascribe it to the Prince his Highness.
The Prince was present at this Narration and assisted the Duke of Buckingham therein, and certified many particulars thereof; and it being reported the same day to the House, his Highness approved thereof there also.
The Spanish Ambassador took great offence at the Duke's Relation as reflecting upon his Master's honour, and demanded his Head for satisfaction.
The House of Lords by a general Vote acquitted the Duke from the Accusation of the Spanish Ambassador, and justified his Relation, and intended to signifie as much to his Majesty by a Committee of the whole House, That the Duke may be encouraged to proceed in his faithful service to the State: Unto which, the Commons so directly and fully answered, as if the two Houses had been twins; and what one had said, thought and done, the other had thought, said, and done the same. And the Commons desired to joyn with the Lords in signifying this to his Majesty, which was done by the ensuing Address.
Both Houses of Parliament justisie the Duke in his Narrative.
"Your Majesties most Loyal Subjects, the Lords, Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses, Assembled at this time in both Houses of Parliament, being informed of a Complaint made unto your most Excellent Majesty against the Duke of Buckingham, That in the Narrative, which by your Majesty's command, he made unto both Houses the four and twentieth of February last, he should let fall some passages, grievous to the Honour of the King of Spain, and inferred to be of so high a nature, as if the same had been delivered by any Subject of that King against your Majesty, it could not otherwise have been expiated than with the loss of his head that spoke it: Taking this into their mature deliberation, and conceiving that this Accusation doth in an oblique manner fasten an Aspersion upon themselves also; do in all submission and humility make unto your Majesty a Threesold Represention: First, Concerning that great King; secondly, Concerning that eminent Lord; thirdly, concerning themselves.
"First, Concerning that King, they do with that unanimous Vote of both Houses, absolutely acquit, and clear the Lord Duke from letting fall any words at all derogatory to the Honour of that King.
"For the second, That concerns my Lord, they do in the like humility attest unto your most sacred Majesty, That if my Lord the Duke had omitted any matter represented unto them that day, he had for so much failed in the performance of that duty and fidelity which he oweth unto your Majesty, and to the business, and unto both Houses.
"For the last, which concerneth themselves, they make bold in like humility to represent unto your Majesty, That they do much honour my Lord the Duke for that Narration, and do render unto him all possible thanks, for that fidelity and industry expressed therein; and so without your further trouble, Do humbly beseech your most Excellent Majesty, to interpret fair of this their Representation, which they held themselves bound to offer unto your Majesty, for the clearning of so eminent a person, who, as they verily believe, hath in his Negotiation, well deserved of your Majesty and the Common-wealth: So they heartily pray unto God to preserve of your most Excellent Majesty.
To which Representation his Majesty returned this Answer,
His Majesty's Answer to that Justification.
"My Lords and Gentlemen all, I might have reason to speak nothing in regard of the person whereof you speak; but in regard of your Motion, it were not Civil: For it I be silent, I shall wrong neither my self, not that Nobleman, which you now speak of, because he is well known to be such an one, as stands in no need of a Prolocutor, or Fidejussor, to undertake for his sidelity, or well carrying of the business: and indeed to send a Man upon so great an Errand, whom I was not resolved to trust for the carriage thereof, were a fault in my discretion scarce compatible to the love and trust I bare him. It is an old and true saying, That he is a happy Man that serves a good Master; and it is no less truth, That he is a happy Master that enjoys a faithful Servant.
"The greatest fault (if it be a fault) or at leastwise the greatest error I hope he shall ever commit against me, was his desiring this Justification from you; as if he should have need of any Justification from other towards me, and that for these Reasons.
"First because he being my Disciple and Scholar, he may be assured I will trust his own Relation.
"Secondly, Because he made the same Relation unto me, which he did afterwards unto both Houses; so as I was formerly acquainted both witht he matter and manner thereof: And if I should not trust him in the carriage, I was altogether unworthy of such a Servant. He hath no Interest of his own in the business; he had ill thoughts at home for his going thither with my Son, although it was my command, as I told you before. And now he hath as little thanks for his Relation on the other part; yet he that serveth God and a good Master, cannot miscarry for all this.
"I have noted in his Negotiation these three markable things, Faith, Diligence, and Discretion, whereof my Son hath born record unto me; yet I cannot deny, but as he thought to do good service to his Master, he hath given ill example to Ambassadors in time to come, because he went this long journey upon his own charges. This would prove an ill example, if many of my Ambassadors should take it for a President. He ran his head into the yoke with the people here, for undertaking the journey; and when he there spent above forty or fifty thousand pounds, never offered his accompt, nor made any demand for the same, or ever will. I hope other Ambassadors will do so no more. Iam a good Master, that never doubted of him; for I know him to be so good a Scholar of mine, that I say without vanity, he will not exceed his Master's Dictates: and I trust the report not the wose he made, because it is approved by you all; yet I believe an honest man, as much as all the World, and the rather, because he was a Disciple of mine. And Iam glad he hath so well satisfied you, and thank you heartily for taking it in so good part, as I find you have done.
The Lords having debated those high Matters of State, which the King put into their hands, delivered their opinions, That His Majesty cannot with honour and safety, and with the conveniency of State and Religion proceed any further in the Treaty of the Princes Marriage, nor relie any longer upon the Treaty for the recovery of the Palatinate; in which Vote the Commons concurred with them.
And in this manner both Houses Addressed themselves to the King:
May it please your most Excellent Majesty,
Both Houses of Parliament concur, that the King may not honourably proceed in the Treaty of the Treaty of the Prince's Marriage, and the Palatinate.
"We are come unto you, employed from your most faithful Subjects, and Servants, the Lords and Commons assembled in this present Parliament.
"And First, They and we do give most humble and hearty thanks unto Almighty God, that out of his Gracious Goodness he hath been pleased now at last to dispel the Clouds and Mists which for so many years have dimmed the eyes of a great part of Christendom, in the business whereof we do now consult.
And secondly, we acknowledge our selves most bound unto your Majesty, that you have been pleased to require the humble Advice of us your obedient Subjects in a Case so important as this is, which hitherto dependeth between your Majesty and the King of Spain, which we joyntly offer from both Houses, no one person there dissenting or disagreeting from the rest. And it is upon mature consideration, and weighing many particulars of sundry natures that finding so much want of sincerity in all their proceedings, We, super totam Materiam present this our humble Address unto your Majesty; That the Treaties both for the Marriage and the Palatinate may not any longer be continued with the honour of your Majesty, the safety of your People, the welfare of your Children and Posterity, as also the assurance of your ancient Allies and Consederates.
Reasons were also presented, to fortisie this Vote.
"Whereas the Propositions of the Match were at the first no more than Liberty of Conscience to the Infanta and her Family, which the King might in honour grant; the Spantard, taking advantage of the Prince's being in Spain, importuned a General Connivance of Religion, to the diminution of the King's Soveraignty, and against the usage of other Catholick Princes in the like Treaties, and to the discouragement of all his well-affected Subjects. And this they have laboured with the Pope, being of mischievous consequence. During this Treaty, the Popish Faction hath mightily increased: and whereas heretofoer they were wont to be divided, some taking part with the Secular Priests, and some with the Jesuites, they are united; which is a matter of great consequence, considering they do as well depend on Spain for Temporal matters, as on Rome for Spiritual: And they can not be suppressed, as long as the Treaty holds.
"They have by this Treaty devoured our Allies, and the Protestant Party in Germony and elsewhere, to the decay of true Religion, and to the jealousie of our Friends beyond the Seas. During this Treaty of Love, they have spoiled his Majesty's Son-in-Law of his Lands and Honours; and notwithstanding promises of Restitution, still invaded his Rights, and at length turned pretented Difficulties into apparent Impossibilities. They have deluded our King, and offered indignity to our Prince, by importuning him again and again to a Conversion, contrary to the Law of Hospitality, and the Priviledge of Princes.
"The insincerity of their Proceedings is to be seen by that former Overture of Marriage for the late Prince Henry, which after many specious Motions, was followed with a disavowing of their own Ambassador, and a feornful Proposition made to the King, of the Prince's altering his Religion. As also by the Treaty of Bruxels, where the Lord Weston found nothing but delays and deceit; and after divers peremptory Commands from Spain for his Majesty's satisfaction, it wrought no other effect then the besieging and taking of Heidelburgh; insomuch that the Ambassador was forced to Protest, and return.
To these things were added, the Translation of the Electorate to the Duke of Bavaria, and the Letter of the King of Spain to Conde Olivares, with the Conde's answer, which imported, that the Match was never intended. And also, after the Prince had taken a hazardous Journey, they devised a shift, by a Juncto of Divines, to let him come home without the Lady.
These Reasons were presented to the King by the universal consent of the Houses of Commons. Hereupon the King came to Parliament, and made a Speech deliberative, enquiring into the Condition of the War which they advised, and the means to uphold and carry it on.
My Lords and Gentlemen all,
The King's Speech to the Parliament, perswading them to break off the two Treaties, of the Match, and of the Palatinate.
"I Have cause first to thank God with all my heart, and all the faculties of my mind, that my Speech which I delivered in Parliament hath taken so good effect amongst you, as that with an unanimous consent you have freely and speedily given me your advice in this great Business, for which I also thank you all as heartily as I can.
"I also give my particular thanks to the Gentlemen of the Lower House, for that I heard, when some would have cast jealousies and doubts between me and my People, they presently quelled those motions, which otherwise might indeed have hindred the happy Agreement I hope to find in this Parliament. You give me your advice to break off both Treaties, as well concerning the Match as the Palatinate: And now give me leave, as an old King, to propound my Doubts, and hereafter to give you my Answer.
First, it is true, that I, who have been all the days of my life a peaceable King, and have had the honour in my Titles and Impresses to be stiled Rex Pacificus, should be loth, without necessity, to embroil my self with War, far from my Nature, and from my Honour, which I have had at home and abroad, in endeavouring to avoid the effusion of Christian blood, of which, too much hath been shed, and so much against my heart; I say, that unless it be upon such a necessity, that I may call it, as some say merrily of Women, Malum necessarium, I should be loth to enter into it. And I must likewise acquaint you, that I have had no small hope given me of obtaining better Conditions for the Restitution of the Palatinate; and that even since the sitting down of the Parliament: But be not jealous, nor think me such a King, that would, under pretence of asking your advice, put a scorn upon you, by disdaining and rejecting it: for you remember, that in my first Speech unto you, for proof of my love to my People, I craved your advice in this great and weighty affair; but in a matter of this weight, I must first consider how this course may agree with my Conscience and Honour; and next, according to the Parable uttered by our Saviour, after I have resolved of the necessity and justness of the Cause, to consider how I shall be enabled to raise Forces for this purpose.
"As concerning the Cause of my Children, I am now old; and as Moses saw the Land of Promise from an high Mountain, though he had not leave to set his foot on it, so it would be a great comfort to me, that God would but so long prolong my days, as if I might not see the Restitution, yet at leaft I might be assured that it would be; that then I might, with old Simeon, say, Nunc dimittis servum tuum, Domine, &c. Otherwise it would be a great grief unto me, and I should die with a heavy and discomforted heart. I have often said, and particularly in the last Parliament, and I shall ever be of that mind, That as I am not ambitious of any other Men's Goods or Lands, so I desire not to enjoy a Furrow of Land in England, Scotland, or Ireland, without restitution of the Palatinate: And in this mind I will live and die.
"But let me acquaint you a little with the Difficulties of this Cause. He is an unhappy Man, that shall advise a King to War; and it is an unhappy thing to seek that by Blood, which may be had by Peace. Besides, I think your intentions are not to engage me in War, but withal you will consider, how many things are requisite thereunto.
"I omit to speak of my own necessities, (they are too well known:) Sure I am, I have had the least help in Parliament of any King that ever reigned over you this many years. I must let you know, that my disabilities are increased by the charge of my Son's Journey into Spain, which I was at for his honour, and the honour of this Nation: By sending Ambassadors, by maintaining of my Children, and by assisting of the Palatinate, I have incurred a great Debt to the King of Denmark, which I am not able yet to pay.
"The Low-Countries, who, in regard of their nearness, are fittest to help for the Recovery of the Palatinate, are at so low an ebb, that if I assist them not, they are scrace able to subsist. The Princes of Germany, that should do me any good, are all poor, weak, and disheartned, and do expect assistance from hence. For Ireland, I leave it to you, whether that be not a back door to be secured. For the Navy, I thank God, it is in a better case than ever it was, yet more must be done; and before it can be prepared as it ought to be, it will require a new Charge, as well for its own srength, as for the securing of the Coasts.
"My Children, I vow to God, eat no bread but by my means; I must maintain them, and not see them want. In the mean time, my Customs are the best part of my Revenues, and, in effect, the substance of all I have to live on; all which are farmed out, upon that condition, That if there be War, those Bargains are to be disannulled, which enforce a great defalcation.
"Subsidies ask a great time to bring them in: Now if you assist me that way, I must take them up before-hand upon Credit, which will eat up a great part of them. This being my Case, to enter into War, without sufficient means to support it, were to shew my teeth, and do no more. In the mean time, I heartily thank you for your advice, and will seriously think upon it; as I pray you to consider of those other parts.
"My Treasurer, to whose Office it appertains, shall more at large inform you of those things that concern my Estate. Thus freely do I open my heart unto you: and having your hearts, I cannot want your helps; for it is the heart that openeth the purse, not the purse the heart. I will deal frankly with you: shew me the means how I may do what you would have me, and if I take a resolution by your advice to enter into a War, then your selves, by your own Deputies, shall have the disposing of the Money; I will not meddle with it, but you shall appoint your own Treasurers; I say not this with a purpose to invite you to open your purses, and then to slight you so much as not to follow your counsel, not engage you before I be engaged my self. Give me what you will for my own means: but I protest, none of the Monies which you shall give for those uses, shall be issued but for those ends, and by men elected by your selves. If, upon your offer, I shall find the means to make the War honourable and safe, and that I resolve to embrace your advice, then I promise you in the word of a King, that although War and Peace be the peculiar Prerogatives of Kings, yet, as I have advised with you, in the Treaties on which War may ensue, so I will not treat not accept of a Peace, without first acquainting you with it, and hearing your advice; and therein go the proper way of Parliament, in conferring and confusing with you: and happily, the conditions of Peace will be the better, when we be prepared for War; according to the old Proverb, That Weapons bode Peace.
"Your kind carriage gives me much content; and that comforts me, which my Lord of Canterbury said, That there was not a contrary voice amongst you all; like the Seventy Interpreters, who were led by the breath of God. I am so desirous to forget all rents in former Parliaments, that it shall not be in my default, if I am not in love with Parliaments, and call them often, and desire to end my life in that entercourse between me and my People, for the making of good Laws, forming of such abuses as I cannot be well informed of but in Parliament, and maintaining the good government of the Common wealth. Therefore go on chearfully, and advise of these points, and my resolution shall then be declared.
Hereupon the House of Commons took immediately into consideration the matter of supply: and Sir Edward Sackvile, afterwards Earl of Dorset, spake thus to that subject.
Sir Edward Sackvile's, Speech.
"Since Supply unto his Majesty is now in question, of which, I hope, there will be no question, I humbly ask leave of this Honourable Assembly to speak my opinion; assuring you, that when a Treaty of Grievances shall be on foot, it shall appear I will not sit silent, if I find my self able to say any thing that may lend an hand to unload my Country of the heavy burthen it now groans under, by reason of the innumerable number of Monopolies, which, like so many Incubusses, and Succubusses, exhaust the Vital Spirits, and so press down those parts, which ought to enjoy free respiration, as without some speedy remedy, is like to run to extreme hazard. But this I refer to its proper time, and reserve my self for it, and now proceed to the matter in hand.
"Sure I do think, there are very few that serve in this House (if there be any) who do not considently believe, that the chief Motive which induced his Majesty at this time to assemble this Parliament, was a mere Necessity to be by us enabled for the Recovery of the Patrimony belonging to the King of Bohemia, now almost traversed from him, and in the possession of a powerful Enemy. If there be any who doubt of this truth, I hope he may easily rest satisfied, when I shall assure him (out of my own knowledge) that many days before this Session, his Majesty commanded a select number of Noblemen and Gentlemen, the most part whereof have been Commanders in the Wars, and some yet are, to consult together of what Number of Men an Army ought to be composed, which might be able to recover the Palatinate, and protect it from a second Invasion. These, according to his Majesty's good pleasure, divers days met together at one appointed place, and there contributed their best endeavours: At least they have finished their task; advised the King of the number of Soldiers; they have estimated the present Charges his Majesty must be at for the relieving, arming, clothing, munition and habiliments of War; these have likewise calculated the annual Expence for the maintenance of them.
"The first I will now inform you; and for the last point, because of a greater Charge and Consequence, I will allow more time of consideration. Twenty five thousand Foot, and Five thousand Horse, is the portion they all agree on; and less they could not consider to be sent, considering they were to combat with an Enemy so far from hence, already in possession of a great part of the Country, well fortified in many places, Master of an Army, composed with Twenty thousand Foot and Four thousand Horse, most Veteran Soldiers, commanded by the best Captains now known in the Christian World, except the Prince of Orange; after whom, to be esteemed second, is the highest praise: I say, all these respects duly weighed, there could not in their judgments be abated of this proportion: And this Army was framed on that mould, which the Secretaries of State gave them of the Enemy's strength.
"The issue of Battels is in the hand of God: The eyes of humane providence cannot fee beyond its Horizon; it cannot ascertain future Contingents, it can only judge of what seems sit to be done, guided by the Rules of Probability and Reason. Events happen often contrary, and never more contrary than in matters of Warfare: Yet, admit a sinister success to happen, a Counsel wisely taken, ought not therefore to lose the due commendations.
"Sirs, I have told you the number; you now expect to know the present Charge, in which I shall deal most truly with you. Believe me his Majesty must disburse Thirty thousand pounds for provision of Necessities to furnish such an Army to be sent; the most part of the Provisions must be made beyond the Seas, for there Arms are best, and best cheap: This Army must (if such an Army) go by the end of April.
"It was God that said, Let there be light, and it was so: Kings (though they be styled Gods) enjoy no such power, incommunicable to any Kings. Whatever their ends or desires are, they must allow time to the consummation of them: They be Sovereigns over us, but subject unto time. But what need I add Spurs to a forward Horse? In my Conscience, there are few Members in this House, that to that Holy War (as I may justy style it) would not as willingly and as heartily contribute the service of their Persons, as the assistance of their Purses. I know I speak the Language of all your hearts, let us shew our faith by our works: Time was, to have done much better than now we can; time is, that we may do well; but if we attend somewhat longer, time will be past, so as all we do then will be so out of season, as it can produce neither any great nor any good effect. But stay, methings I hear somesay, Why, his Majesty told us, that by way of Treaty he hoped to prevail, as the Palatinate should be restored. I consess I heard so too; and Heaven be pleased to crown his actions with success, as the piousness of his intentions deserves. But I must be excused, if I doubt it, if I fear it, if I despair of it: For, it is no Article of my Faith to believe in Miracles. But suppose this might be brought to pass, what then, shall this gift of ours be lost, or cast away? No sure, it will be well bestowed, if as a Sacrifice of our thankfulness we offer it unto his Majesty, by whose wisdom that is regained; which certainly by any other course must needs have exposed our persons to great danger, and our Purses to much more expence. And in this we shall do, as he that receiveth a rich present, and returns a small reward. Perhaps this way may not quadrate with every man's conceit; if not, then let this which his Majesty demands, to make Provision for a foreign Army, be employed in rearing a Magazin here at home, since so great is the want of Munition, as I wonder we all cry out for want of Money, and never think how to bestored of that, which, of the two, is more necessary; seeing by the one, we are only enabled to live more plenteously and sumptuously; and by the other, our lives are preserved free from misery and slavery. In matters of moment, I know it is as laudable to use Deliberation before a Resolution, as after that once taken, Celerity in Execution. Counsel is the Compass by which all great Actions ought to be guided; it is the Star, by which wife Men do shape their courses. I allow it, I commend it, I advise it; yet to be so slow, so discussive, so long in resolving, all we then can do, will be no more worth, than a Physician after death. Sure such a dulness must needs accuse us of much weakness, if it admit of no worse construction (bis dat, qui cito dat) freeness in giving graceth the gift: Dimidium facti qui bene cœpit habet. We have a long journey to go, and to set forward is half the way. How pressing the occasion is, my Tongue saints to tell, (vox saucibus hœret) The Foxes have holes, and the Birds of the air have nests, but the Daughter of our King and Kingdom scarce knows where to lay her head, or if she do, not where in safety.
"Lastly, When we had no other object in our Contemplations, but the memory of her virtue, (which remaineth in durable Characters in the heart of every honest man) what a forwardness and serventness did we express in these our voluntary contributions, notwithstanding that some base, fordid, and a varitious men, who adored their Mammon, deterred men from that noble and pious work. They were then but Panick terrors, clouds cast before the Sun, which now shines out so bright, as all those mists are vanished. His Majesty calls to us for aid, he invites us to it; and he that was born to command, now vouchsafes to entreat us: now if ever, now is the time to do our Country good. Do we desire to sweep all Grievances out of this Land? Do we desire to extinguish the care of them, that they may never more germinate in this Common-wealth? Do we desire to destroy those Spiders that spin this Net; Now if ever, now is the time to effect it. And to arrive at this blessing, me-thinks I discover a plain and easy way; let us please the King first, and I speak it with Faith he will be graciously pleased to reward us: Prove rich Merchants, and make a brave Return. Great and generous Spirits, are then most apt to make requests, when first they have obtained their own. In the Region of Kings, the way to conquer is to submit; and nothing more obligeth an honest heart to persorm what is expected, then to believe and trust in him.
"This is the way to make his Majesty not only love, but fall in love with Parliaments: this is the way to recal them home from exile, and again render them frequent amongst us: This is the way to fix this, untill we have purchased present ease, and future happiness to our Country. Let his Majesty have hearts-ease among us, and we shall receive from his Royal hand that Dictamnum, which must expel these Arrows that hang in the sides of the Common-wealth.
"Thus have I delivered my opinion, which, if it be not the same with every one here present, I shall beg that favourable censure which Charity commands me to afford to all. Let him believe, I have spoken my Conscience, as I shall of him, though he happen to dissent from my opinion: For, from what Circumference soever the Lines be drawn, the Centre is the same, which is our Country's good; at which, the desire of every man ought to aim, and the duty of every man ought to desire.
"He that would take another course, and have grievances first preferred; if he wished that out of a good to his Country, as unwilling to innovate antient proceedings; of this man I will only say, Optime sentit Cato, sed nocet interdum Reipublicœ: But if there be any other, who out of a corrupt and imposthume heart, looking to false and foreign ends, would endeavour to put a Partition-wall between the King and his People, this Man I dare pronounce, neither good Subject nor good Englishman, nor good Christian; but the Agent of base and beggarly Promoters, needy and greedy Projects, and a friend to those Monsters, which I hope have no generation; who not born to any Fortune, nor have Virtue nor Industry, by which they might hope to obtain any, yet, like Harpies, greedy to devour other Men's Possessions care not what way they take to become Masters of them, slighting the latter day of Judgment, so they may rest secured from yielding any account in this world.
"I have no more to say, but that God would be pleased to incline our hearts to do that, which may be most for his glory; next, for the King's service; then, for the Country's happiness.
To the doubts which the King propounded, the Parliament gave Solution by a Committee of both Houses, in the Declaration following, delivered by the Archbishop of Canterbury, with this Introduction.
May it please your Sacred Majesty.
The Parliament's Answer to the King's Speech.
We are come to you again, from your most faithful Subjects, and loyal Serbants, the Lords and Commons assembico in this present Parliament.
And first, we humbly let your Majesty know, how much we hold our selves bounden unto Almighty God, that he hath sent a king to rule and reign over us, who is pleased in the greatest and weightiess causes, to speak and to be spoken to in Parliament by his good and loving people, which causeth the king to understand them, over whom be heareth rule, and them again to understand him: And is a true Bond that tieth the heart of the Sovereign to the Subject, and of the Subject reciprocally to the Leige Lord and Sovereign. And next we rejoyce, that your Majesty hath shewed your self sensible of the insincerity of the King of Spain, with whom, of late, you have had a double Treaty; and of the indignities offered by them unto your blessed Son, the Prince, and to your Royal Daughter. And that your kingly heart is filled with an earness desire to make reparation to her noble confort, and herself, of the Palatinate, their Patrimonial possession, which is agreeble to justice, and to all Laws of God and Man.
For the effecting whereof, to certifie with what alacrity, with what exvediteness and uniformity of heart, both your houses of Parliament, in the name of your whole kingdom, have born themselves unto your Majesty, with offer to give their Loyal assistance, we have digessted it into writing; left, by the verbal or local delivery of any person, it may miscarry; or the expression of our zeal be weakned or diminished. Which we humbly pray your Majesty to give leave to be read unto you.
Most Gracious Sovereign,
The Parliament offer his Majesty Three Subsidies, and Three Fifteens, if he break off both Treaties.
We your Majesty's most humble and loyal Subjects, the Lord's and Commons in this present Parliament assembled, do first render to your most Sacred Majesty our most dutiful thanks, for that, to our unspeakable comfort, you have vouchsafed to express your self to well satisfied with our late Declaration made unto your Majesty, of our general resolution, in pursuit of our humble advice to assist your Majesty in a Parliamentary way with our Persons and Abilities.
And whereas your Majesty, in your great wisdom and judgment, foreseeing that it will make a deeper impression, both in the enemies of that Cause, and in your friends and Allies, if they shall not only hear of the chearful offers, but also see the real performance of your Subjects towards so great a Work. Your Majesty was pleased to descend to a particular proposition, for the advancing of this great butiness. We therefore, in all humbleness, most ready and willing to give your Majesty and the whole World, an ample testimony of our sincere and dutiful intentions herein, upon mature advice and deliberation, as well of the weight and importance of this great affair, as of the present estate of this your kingdom (the Weal and safety whereof is, in our judgments, apparently threatned, if you Majesty's Resolution, for the dissolving of the Treaties now in question, be longer deferred; and that provision for defence of your Realm, and aid of your Friends and Allies, be not seasonably made) have, with a chearful consent of all the commons (no one diffenting) and with a full and chearful consent of the Lord's resolved, That upon your Majesty's publick Declaration, for the dissolution and utter discharge of both the said Treaties, of the marriage, and of the Palatinate, in pursuit of our advice there in, and towards the support of that War which is likely to ensue, and more particularly for those four points proposed by your Majesty; namely, for the defence of this your Realm, the securing of Ireland; the assistance of your Neighbours, the States of the United Provinces, and other your Majesty's friends and Allies, and for the setting forth of your Royal Baby, we will grant for the present the greatest Aid which ever was given in Parliament; That is to say, Three entire Subsidies, and Three fifteens, to be all paid within the compass of one whole year, after your Majesty shall be pleased to make the said Declaration, the Money to be paid into the hands, and expended by the direction of such Committees or Commissioners, as hereafter shall be agreed upon at this present Session of Parliament.
And we most humbly beseech your Majesty to accept of these first-fruits of our hearty Oblation, dedicated to that work which we infinitely desire may prosper and be advanced. And for the future, to rest confidently assured, That we your loyal and loving Subjects will never fail in a Parliamentary way to assist your Majesty in so Royal a design, wherein your own honour, and the honour of your most noble Son, the Prince, the ancient renown of this nation, the welfare, and bevy subsistence of your noble and only Daughter, and her Confort, and their Posterity, the safety of your own Kingdom and People, and the Posterity of your Neighbours and Allies, are so deeply engaged.
Hereunto his Majesty replied.
My Lords and Gentlemen all,
His Majesty's reply.
"I Have nothing to say to the Preamble of my Lord of Canterbury, but that he intimated something in it, which I cannot allow of: For whereas he said, I have shewed my self sensible of the insincerity of those, with whom I had lately to deal, and of the indignity offered to my Children: In this you must give me leave to tell you, that I have not expressed my self to be either sensible or insensible of the good or bad dealing; it was Buckhingham's Relation to you which touch'd upon it but it must not bar me, nor make Jupiter speak that which Jupiter speaks not; for when I speak any such thing, I will speak it with that reason, and back it with that power, which becomes a King. As for the matter of the Declaration unto my Demands, which you have couched in that Paper, which I now heard read unto me, I consess, it is without example, that any King hath had such an offer. And, with your favour, I need fear nothing in this World, having so much the hearts of my People. For the large offer of assistance, I hold it to be more then Millions of Subsidies; and indeed, it is an ample reward for the trust and freedom which I have used with you.
"But, my Lords and Gentlemen, you must give me leave on the one side, to consider the possibility of the Action: For in this case I must do, as a Man that maketh a Fortification, which must have Out-works and In-works; so I must not deal only with mine own People, but with my Neighbours advice, to assist me in so great business for recovery of the Palatinate. And in this case it is not sufficient to have the hearts of my Subjects, without the help of my Neighbours and Allies: On the other side, unless particular means be set down, it will neither be a Bridle to our Enemies, nor a comfort to my Friends, who shall joyn with me. General words will not carry it, therefore I must resort to particular means, and follow the Counsel of our Saviour Christ in the Gospel, before I begin a War, to see how I can maintain it, God knows it is a longsome work, yet I desire with Moses, as I said before, but to see the Land of Promise, though I live not till it be recovered. But unless particular means be discovered, it is little to the point: Therefore since you give me such fair general promises, I will deal freely with you, I will tell you in particular, the way I will propose, either by way of Subsidies or otherwise; which being done in Parliament, is a Parliamentary way. I would requrie you to be pleased to bestow upon me Five Subsidies, and Two Fifteens to every Subsidie, for the War: And for mine own necessities, my crying debts are so heavy, that no man can bear them with a greater grief of heart, and sting of conscience, then I have done and do. And I now growing old, would be glad to see a means for the satisfying of my debts, before I go out of the world. And for this end, I desire you would give me one Subsidy and two Fifteens yearly, until my debts be paid.
Here the Prince his Highness taking notice of an Objection made that this might seem contradictory to that which his Highness had told the Committee of both Houses, That the Kings Majesty would ask nothing for his own particular, till the Wars were provided for:
The Prince said, That the Duke of Buckhingham in his absence hath moved this doubt unto the King.
Whereupon the Duke affirmed, that speaking with the King about it, his Majesty was peased to say, if he would add one Subsidy and two Fifteens to make it up fix Subsidies and twelve Fifteens for the War, he was well content to quit that which he had asked for his own necessities.
The King proceeded. "If this may be done, or that I may see a fair way for it, I will follow your advice; for I would never have asked your Advice to reject it, or to put a scorn upon you. For the levying of these Subsidies and Fifteens, I would have you consider how to clear these two difficulties. If you levy them too suddenly, it may be heavy for the people; if you stay too long, it will not serve the turn. But this I leave to your consideration: And since I leave it to your selves to receive the Money, and expend it by your own Committees of both Houses, you may be the more secure. And yet I would not have you to be too hasty in the levying of it, that no extremity be shewed to my People by imposing too heavy a burthen upon them, which God forbid; On the other side, the business will not suffer too long lingring about it. I told you before, I had in this great business, to look to my Conscience and Honour, as well as to the Means: For the means, I must have it from you; my Conscience and Honour is mine own, of which I have thought, and do think daily; And how I shall be able to discharge them as a King ought to do, yet not without taking help of your Advice, which I would never have moved, unless I had meant to follow it.
Here again the Prince, said he, had spoken with his Father, to know of him whether he were satisfy'd in Honour and Conscience that he might in this case undertake a War; and that his Majesty answered, He was already satisfied and resolved therein; but for the manner of publishing it, he would take your Advice.
Then the Duke of Buckhingham, said, the reason why his Majesty used these words, was, That having formerly spoken of his Honour and Conscience, if he should now have left them out, it might have been thought that Money only had drawn him to it: But the King said, He was already satisfied, and, resolved, yet would have your Advice for the manner of declaring of it.
The King again proceeded. " I told you before, that this was the way to make me in love with Parliaments, and to shew mine inclination to continue them still. My Resolution is to make this a Session for the passing of as many good Laws, as in convenient time may be prepared; and at Michaelmas, or within a few days after, to have a new Session and another at the Spring. And in the mean time, you may go down and acquaint your selves with the grievances of my people; and you shall see my care to make good Laws, and to reform abuses; that so my Subjects may find the good fruits of Parliaments, and rejoyce in them: And I protest, as I have asked your Advice in these Points, which I needed not to have done; so I will never enter any Agreement or Treaty of Composition for Peace, which is the end of War (else it is unjust and unchristian) without your Advice; and I will help you my self, if we enter into a War, to make it allowable to the World, and Honourable for me.
So the King resolved and declared his Resolution to dissolve the Treaties. Hereupon Bonfires were made in London, and the Bells rung for joy.
The King declares his Resolution to dissolve the Treaties.
Then the Parliament made haste to pass the Act for the grant of three Subsidies, and three Fifteens, to be employed to the use aforesaid; and by the same Act, Treasurers were appointed to receive and disburse the Monies, and a Council of War to manage the Design.
The King made the ensuing Declaration to both Houses of Parliament.
The King accepts the aid profered him
"My Nobles and Gentlemen, the last time I spake to you anent this great business, I told you what in my opinion was necessarily required to the beginning of it. The Reasons whereof you have truly set down out of my last Speech, wherein I shewed you what good it would do, and what harm it might free us from; to express particular Aids at this time as well as general Promises, It is true, I must confess that how far you declare your selves, is sufficient for the present enterance into the business, though a great deal short of what I told you it would require. But as God bears me record, and I think the hearts of all my loving Subjects will testifie for me, I never did stick for money but only desired you to clear your selves by particulars, that I may see how I may be able to go through so great a matter, at least to make a good beginning of the War; for what the end will be, God knows.
"So on the other part, I gave you thanks for your general offer, by which you did engage your selves in your Lives and Estates, which is more than Forty Subsidies, if you had named them, and more worth than a Kingdom; for the strength of a King, next under the Protection of God, stands in the hearts of his people: And I must needs say, in this particular, it is without example, that ever any Parliament for a beginning, gave to a King so great a Supply to be levied in so short a time: This may well serve for a preparation. And for my part, first, considering your general offer (which is ten times more to me than all Subsidies) and next considering that these particulars coming from you, be as much as at once you are able to pay in so short a tiem, being with in a year, and as much as may be well expected: Therefore with as much love, and as great thanks, as a loving and kind King can give to so loving and dutiful people. I thank you for your offer, and do accept it.
"I told you before, that I would never have craved your advice to reject it, and so to put a scorn upon you: Think me not the Man.
"It is true, I think no wise King can undertake so great a bargain, but he must well be-think himself before-hand; and I account it better that a King advise well before he take a Resolution, than advise rashly, and after repent. Therefore my Lords and Gentlemen, I declare unto you, That as I am willing to follow your Advice in the annulling and breach of the Two Treaties, both of the Match and of the Palatinate; so on the other part, I assure my self, you will make good what you have said, That what you advise me unto, you will assist me with your Wisdom, and Council, and Forces, if need require.
"I pray you have a charitable opinion of me, as you are to have of a King who hath so long ruled and governed over you, and I may vaunt my self thus far to have done it with Justice and Peace. But as I told you before, all my forbearance hath been for sparing the effusion of Christian Blood, and as the most easy and probable way for recovering the Palatinate for my Children. It is true I have been so long delayed and payed with Generals, that I dare not longer trust unto that which made me err. The Duke of Buckingham made a particular relation unto you, of all that business; and I am sure such an account was never before given in Parliament, that thereby you may know what to trust to. I could in this case have resolved my self, but I thought it could not but be both a strength and honour to me to have the advice of my People.
"My Lords, in the late Parliament I then declared it unto you, that I was resolved, without respect of Friendship, or Match, or whatsoever, to have the Palatinate one way or other: I hope you remember it.
"God is my Judge and Saviour, I never had any other end, and it is pity I should live to have any other end; and for my part, except by such means as God may put into my hands, I may recover the Palatinate, I could with never to have been born. I am old, but mine only Son is young, and I will promise for my self and him both, that no means shall be unused for the recovery of it; and this I dare say, as old as I am, if it might do good to the business, I would go in mine own person, and think my labor and travel well bestowed, though I should end my days there. For if I should spare any means possible for the recovery of it; then let me be thought not worthy to Reign over you; and in good faith, I never resolved to live with other mind; and I will say more, there was never any Enemy of my Son-in-Law, with whom I talked on of the business, or any that ever I spake with of the same, which did not say, and consess I had reason to have the Palatinate, one way or other: And when they say that it is good reason and themselves allowed it, it is a good spur to him to think on it.
"My Lords and Gentlemen, thus far assure your selves, I will go chearfully about it, to prepare all things possible for it; and as you have given the means, so will I employ them toward it.
"In the next degree, I hope you will think of me, but that I leave to your own council and consideration, But I protest to God, a penny of this Mony shall not be bestowed but upon this Work, and by your own Committees; and I assure my self, you will think of me for a Double Reason, My Customs are likely to fall, by accasion of the War, and my Charges increase; but undertaking the War, I must go through with it one way or other, though I fell my Jewels and all.
"In the next Session you will consider how this hath been husbanded and according to that, think what is next to be done; and it will spur you the more to enable me for the rest, whereof I spake to you before.
His Majesty further said, "I will clear you in some things; for I will not deal with you in any thing, but fairly and clearly as a King: though I have broken the Necks of three Parliaments, one after another, I hope that in this Parliament you shall be so resolved of the sincerity of my heart, and of your duties and affections, that this shall be a happy Parliament, and make me greater and happier than any King of England ever was.
"In my last Speech I promised you, that if I accepted your offer, I would follow your Advice, and would not hearken to any Treaty of Peace, without first acquainting you, and requiring your Advice; and I likewise promised nothing should be spent of your Monies, but by your own Committees. But I desire you to understand, That I must have a faithful secret Council of War, that must not be ordered by a multitude for so many designs may be discovered before hand; and one penny of this Mony shall not be bestowed, but in light of your own Committees. But where I shall send twenty Thousand pounds or ten Thousand pounds; whether by Sea or Land, East or West, by Diversion, or otherwise by Invasion upon the Bavarian or Emperor you must leave that to your King.
"Assure your selves, my delay hitherto was upon hope to have gotten it without a War. I held it by a hair, hoping to have gotten it by a Treaty; but since I see no certainty that way, I hope that God who hath put it into your hearts thus to advise me, and into my heart to follow your Advice, will so bless it, That I shall clear my Reputation from obloquy; and in despight of the Devil, and all his Instruments, shew that I never had but an honest heart. And I desire, that God would bless our labours for the happy Restitution of my Children; and whosoever did the wrong, I deserve better at their hands.