Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 2, 1629-38. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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The Queen's Letter for the leavying of Mony against the Scots.
Heneritta Maria R.
We have so good a belief in the Loialty and Affection of his Majesty's Catholick Subjects, as we doubt not but upon this Occasion, that hath called his Majesty into the Northern Parts, for the Defence of his honour and Dominions, they will express themselves so affected, as we have always represented them to his majesty. So in this common consent which hath appeared in the nobility, judges, Gentry, and others, to forward his Majesty's Service by their Persons and States; we have made no difficulty to answer for the same correspondency in his Catholick Subjects, as Catholicks: notwithstanding they all have already concurred to this his Majesty's Service, according to the Qualities whereof they are, when others of the same Quality were called upon: for the believe that it became us, who have bin so often interested in the Solicitation of their Benefits, to shew our selves now in the persuasion of their Gratitudes. Therefore having already, by his Majesty and by other means, recommended to them this earnest desire of Ours, to assist and serve his Majesty by some considerable sum of Mony freely and chearfully presented: We have thought fit (to the end that this our desire may be the more publick, and the more authorized) hereby to give you Commission and Direction, to distribute Copies under your hand of this Testification thereof, unto those that have met in London by our Direction about this Business, and unto the several Collectors of every County. And as we presume the sum they will raise, will not be unworthy our presenting to the king; so shall we be very sensible of it, as a particular respect to our selves, and will endeavour, in the most efficacious manner as we can, to improve the Merit of it, and to remove any apprehension of Prejudice, that any (who shall employ themselves towards the Success of this Business) may conceive by this,. and be assured, That we will secure them from all such objected Inconveniencies. And we are very confident, that this our first Recommendation will be so complied withal, as may not only afford us particular satisfaction, but also facilitation towards thier own Advantages.
At this juncture of time, whene these Contributions were set on foot to raise Monies to supply the King against the Scots; there was delivered to the hands of the Author of these Collections, by one Mr. Audly, since deceased, a Copy of a Paper which he said he had from a Romish Recusant, averring it to be sent from the Pope to his Nuncio in England, which in reagard it relates to the Scotish Affairs, (though we have no other Voucher for the same) yet we thought fit to communicate a Copy thereof to the Reader, which followeth in these words.
A Letter from the Pope to his Nuncio in England, at the beginning of the War with Scotland, but badly translated.
You are to command the Catholicks of England in general, That they suddenly desist from makign such offers of Men towards this northern Expedition as we hear they have done, little to the advantage of their Discretion: And likewise it is requisite, considerint the penalty already imposed, that they be not too forward with Mony, more than what Law and Duty enjoyns them to pay, without any Innovation at all, or view of making themselves rather weaker Pillars of the kingdom than they were before.
Inform the Provincials of every Order, that it is expressy prohibited, no more Assemblies (of what nature soever) shall admit of the Laity to have either Voice or Session in it, being what will be urged for a Precedent, is but only an Vurpation.
Declare unto the best of the Peers and Gentlemen, by word of Mouth or Letter, That they ought not to express any averseness, in case the high Court of Parliament be called; nor shew any discontent at the Acts which do not point blank aim at Religion, being in general the most fundamental Law of that Kingdom.
Advise the Clergy to desist from that Swlish, nay rather illiterate and childish custom of Distinction in the Protestant and Puritan Doctrine. And especially this Error is so much the greater, when they undertake to prove that Protestantism is a degree nearer the Catholick faith than the other; for since both of them be without the verge of the Church, it's needless hypocrisy to speak of it, yea, it begets more malice than itw worth.
That the Provincials are herein required to give a general warning through all Orders, That no Religious Person ought to be seduced by an noble-men, either Officers of the Crown, or the like, (who pretend to be Ectismatick) into a Premunire. For he that dares not follow the Truth as his Conscience directs him, is not worthy to be sought or followed by any of our faith. But on the other side we give the like command, That whosoever is thought enclining to God in his heart, let no Man be so rash to boast and speak it abroad.
The inclosed Advices and Motives being so ample, (as you will perceive by persusing them) it will not be needful that we enlarge our selves upon any Particulars concerning the conduct of the business which they direct the way in. This therefore servethouly to convey them to you, (as we are entreated by those that have met here, and have undertaken to do it) and desire you to repair immediately unto those Persous to whom they be directed, and to deliver the same unto them in the Name of all the Noble-men and Gentry (together with our selves) assembled here at London, by the Queen's Commandment, to set forward this Work. And we pray you assure them, in the most efficacious manner you can, (engaging all our Credits for trust thereof) That it is the Sense of us all, both Ecclesiastical and Lay Persons, that by the discharging of their and our Duties to God and the King; it mainly importeth the good of Catholicks to have their Business take good success. Therefore intreat them to deal actively, and efficaciously, and speedily, according to these Advices and Motives. We are so well perswaded of their Devotion to put forwards so pious a Work, that we doubt not but they will be as well satisfied in the needfulness of the thing, and be as ready to employ themselves in it, (receiving the Assurance thereof, and Persuasions thereunto, only from our hands) as if they came by all the most formal ways that can be imagined; which in a business of this nature cannot be expected. And although the Advices and Motives be directed only to Lay-Gentlemen; yet we desire you (and have answered for you) that you will employ your selves, and all those that depend on you, sincerly to solicit and dispose all their minds that you have relation unto, as powerfully as you can, to contribute chearfully and bountifully upon this Occasion; which is the first that ever we laboured in of this kind, so we hope in God it will be the last, there being no probability of so pressing and urgent a necessity to occur any more.
It is sufficiently already known to every one the extraordinary Graces and Protections we owe the Queen's Majesty, to whose favourable Intercession we must ascribe the happy Moderation we live under; so as we doubt not but an occasion of the expression of our Gratitudes will joifully be embraced by every Body, which teh present estate of his Majesty's Affairs doth now offer us. We have already, by our former Letters, endeavoured to prepare you to a chearful Assistance of his Majesty, in his declared Journey to the Northern Parts, for securing of his Kingdom, and such other Purposes as his Roial Wisdom shall resolve of; that so you may really demonstrate your selves as good Subjects as God and Nature requires of you. Now her Majesty hath bingraciously pleased to recommend unto us the Expressions of our Duties and Zeal to his Majesty's Service, by some considerable Gift from the Catholicks. And to remove all Scruples, (that even well-affected Persons may meet with) she undertakes to secure us, and all that shallemploy themselves in this Business, from any inconvenience that may be suspected, by their or our forwardness and declaration in this kind; it will easily appear to every Body how much it imports us, in our sense of his Majesty's Desires, to press every Body to strain himsel, even to his best Abilities, in this Proposition, since by it we shall certainly preserve her graciousness to us, and give good Characters of our Devotion to the King and State; of whose benignity we have all reason to give Testimonies, and to endeavour to produce Arguments for the prosecution and encrease of it.
Now for the best expedition of this Business, (which is the chief Circumstance that importeth in it) we have thought fit to recommend it to your nominations of such Persons as shall in your Opinions be agreed, for the ablest and best disposed in every several County, not only to sollicit, but to collect such voluntary Contributions, as every Bodies Conscience and Duty shall proffer. And we shall desire you to give us an account of what acceptation it receives from Friends, which we can not but expect very successful, and answerable to the forwardness we meet with here about London; for which we shall offer up our Prayer to God.
We crave leave a little to digress in point of Time, and to insert something pertinent to what is before mentioned to be written by the Queen's Majesty to the King's Subjects of the Romish Religion, to encourage them to contribute Mony for the Service of the King against the Scots; for that when the Parliament met, Novemb. 1640. her Majesty understanding that the Parliament did take it ill for writing in that manner, and for that end mentioned in her Letter, did send a Message to the House of Commons by the Comptroler, which he delivered in these words.
'That at the request of the Lords, who petitioned the King for a Parliament, her Majesty at that time writ effectually to the King, and sent a Gentleman expressly to perswade the King to the holding of a Parliament.
'That she hath since bin most willing to do all good Offices between the King and the People, which is not unknown to divers of the Lords, and so shall ever continue to do, as judging it the only way of happiness to the King, her Self and Kingdom.
'That her Majesty having taken into consideration, that one being sent to her from the Pope is distastful to the Kingdom, she is desirous to give satisfaction to the Parliament within convenient time, and will remove him out of the Kingdom.
'That understanding likewise, that exception hath bin taken at the great resort to her Chappel at Denmark-House, she will be careful not to exceed that which is convenient and necessary for the exercise of her Religion.
'She further taketh notice, That the Parliament is not satisfied with the manner of raising Mony for the Assistance of the King in his Journey to the North, in the Year 1639, at her entreaty from the Catholicks; she says, That she was moved thereunto, meerly out of her dear and tender affection to the King, and the Example of other his Majesty's Subjects, she seeing the like forwardness in others for the Assistance of the King.
'If any thing be illegal, she was ignorant of the Law, and was carried therein only out of a great desire to be assisting to the King in so pressing an Occasion; but promiseth to be more cautious hereafter, and not to do any thing but what may stand with the established Laws of the Kingdom.
'Her Majesty being desirous to employ her own Power to unite the King and People, desireth the Parliament to look forwards, and pass by such Mistakes and Errors of her Servants as they may be guilty of formerly; and this your respect she promiseth, shall be repaied with all good Offices she can do to the House, which you will find with real Effects as often as there shall be occasion.
The Names of the Collectors for gathering the Recusants Mony, to maintain a War against the Scots.
|The sum of Foot||23670|
|The sum of Horse||2366|
|The Total of all the Foot in the ten Counties||19483|
|The Total of all the Horse||1233|
Whereas the Deputy Lieutenant of the County of Devon, returned a Certificate to the Earl of Bedford, Lord Lieutenant ofthat County, and his Lordship to the Board, of divers Defaulters in Arms in the said County. And namely among others, Mr. Pyne Clerk of Beersorris, Mr. Burnal Parson of Highbickington, Mr. Strode Rector of Dittisham, and the Parsons of Woulsworth, Puddington, Washford, East-Buckland, Bondly, Cleveborough, and Bittadon, for their Spiritual Livings; which ill Example of theirs, may prove very prejudicial to his Majesty's Service. We have therefore thought good hereby, to pray your Grace to send to the Lord Bishop of that Diocess concerning the same; that his Lordship calling the Parties aforesaid before him, may give effectual directions to them to conform themselves, and forthwith provide such Arms as by the Bishop of that Diocess have bin, or shall be set upon them; which if they, or any of them, shall refuse to do, in convenient time, after notice given them, then his Lordship is to require them, so refusing, to give their personal attendance upon the Board some day in Easter-Term next; And so, &c.
Whereas Sir Jacob Ashley hath advertised, that it is requisite there should be sent to Hull a proportion of Arms for Curassiers, and a good number of Partisans and Halberts, which together with some other Arms, both for Horse and Foot, He desires may (as he shall see cause to direct) be by Captain Legg, or such other as shall have charge thereof at Hull, sent thence to York, to be there fold to such Persons of that County as shall desire to buy the same for their use. We have therefore thought good hereby to pray and require your Lordships forthwith not only to send to Hull 200 Curassiers, 100 Partisans, and 200 Halberts, but also to give Order and Warrant to Captain Legg, and such other as have or shall have charge of his Majesty's Arms and Munition which are at Hull, or shall be sent thither, to send from time to time to York, or elsewhere thereabouts, such Arms and Munition, either for Horse or Foot, as Sir Jacob Ashley shall under his Hand direct, and to deliver the same into the Hands and Charge of such Persons as the Vice-President of York shall appoint to receive, fell, and deliver the same for the use of the Country; for which this shall be your Lordship's Warrant. And so praying your Lordship to give a speedy Order herein accordingly, we bid, &c.
The King's Majesty caused a Proclamation and Declaration to be published, to inform his Loving Subjects of his Kingdom of England, of the seditious Practices of some in Scotland, seeking to overthrow his Regal Power, under false pretence of Religion.
Reciting, That whereas We have endeavoured now, for a long time together, by all calm and fair ways, to appease the Disorders, and tumultuous Carriages caused by some evil-affected Persons in Our Realm of Scotland, but hitherto all in bain; We have now thought it not only sit, but necessary in general, to inform all Our loving Subjects in this Our Realm of England, what the Truth is of Our Proceedings, what Our lenity and lenity and gentleness hath bin towards them, and what froward and perberse Returns they have made to Us, notwithstanding all their specious Pretences, the better to infinuate themselves and their obious Cause, into the minds of Our Loial subjects here. These Disorders and Tumults have bin thus raised in Scotland, and somented by fadious Spirits, and those traiterously affected, began upon pretences of Religion, (the common Cloak for all Disobedience) but now it clearly appears, the aim of these men is not Religion, as they falsly pretend and publish, but it is to shake all monarchical Government, and to bilisy Our Regal Power, justly descended upon us over them: Day, their malice reaches so far, both against Our Power and Person, as that in a most cunning and subtil way they have endeavoured to poison the bearts of Our good and loial Subjects of this Our Kingdom, and to reduce them (were it in their power) to the like Rebellious Courses with themselves. Now though we are most confident of Our Peoples Affections towards us (of which they have give us a clear testimony, by their ready and chearful assistance in this cause) and have not the least thought that those turbulent spirits shall any way prevail with them, yet we cannot but hold it requisite to give them timely notice of their traiterous Intentions, which very many ways appear unto us.
As first, By the multitude of their printed Pamphicts, or rather indeed infamous Libels, stuffed full of Calumnies against Our Regal Authority and Our most just Proceedings, and spreading of them in divers parts of this Our Kingdom.
Secondly, By their sending of Letters to private Persons, to incite them against us; and sending some of their fellow-Covenanters to be at private meetings in London and elsewhere, to pervert Our good People from their Dyty; and some of these Meetings We know, and some of those Letters (lewd enough) We have seen.
Fourthly, By their rejecting of the Covenant commanded by Our Authority, because it was commanded by us; whereas no Covenant or Band of that nature, in that Kingdom, hath ever bin, or can be legal and warrantable, which hath not bin commanded, or at least affented unto by Roial Authority. As for instance, That Covenant in Our dear Father's Time was condescended unto by him, and so the Subject (at the huumble Petition of the general Assembly it self) permitted by him to sign it; We say it again, That Our Covenant was rejected by them, because commanded by us; and this is manifest, because for matters of Religion Ours agreed in all things with their own Covenant. By which Covenant of theirs, they have treacherously induced many of Our People to swear to a Band against us: which Band and Covenant (or rather Conspiracy) of theirs, could not be with God, being against us the Lord's Anointed over them. But it was, and is, a Band and Covenant pretended to be with God, that they may with the better countenance do the Works of the Devil, such as all Treasons and Rebellions are.
And lastly, By their most hostile Preparations in all kinds, as if we were not their king, but their sworn enemy, for what can their intentions be, being thus prepared, but to invade this kingdom, should they not find us ready, both to resist their force, and to curh their insolencies? For many, and some of the chiefest a mongst them, are men, not only of unquiet Spirits, but of broken fortunes, and would be very glad of any occasion (especially under the colour of Religion) to make them whole upon the Lands and Goods of Our Subjects in England, who We presume (besides their Allegiance to us) will look better to themselves and their Estates, than to share them with such desperate hypocrites, who seek to be better and cannot well be worse. We demand again, what intentions else they can have? for we have already often assured them by Our published Proclamations, That We are so far from thinking of and Innovation r Alteration of Religion, that We are resolved to maintain the same constantly, and as it is established by Law in that Our Kingdom. Day, so desirous have we bin to give content un to them, as that We have in a manner condescended to all which they petitioned for: Day, Our Princely Elemency in these produced no better effect, than increasing and daring insolencies, to Our dishonour both at home and Abroad; ye we passed by all, till they struck at the very Root of kingly Government, for they have now assumed to themselves Regal Power. For whereas the Print is the king's in all kingdoms, these seditious men have taken upon them to print what they please, though we forbid it; and to prohibit what they dislike, though we command it; and with the greater assront, have forbid and dismist the Printer whom We established. Besides, they have taken upon them to convene Our Subjects, raise Armies, block up and beliege Our Castles; to lay Impositions and Cares upon Our People, threatning such as continue in Loialty to us, with force and violence. To this we shall add, That they have slighted the Directions and Power of Our Council-Table in that kingdom, and have set up Cables of their own, at which some of their Leaders sit under the name of Committees, from the late pretended general Assembly, or their Deputies; and thus they meet when and where they please, Treat and Conclude what they please, and send their Edicts through all parts of the kingdom without any consent, nay, without all knowledge of us, Our Commissioner, or Council, adn directly contrary to many standing Laws at this day in force in that kingdom, and yet pretend violation of their Laws, as one of the main Causes of their brain sick Distempers.
here therefore we take God and the World to witness, we hold Our self forced and constrained to arm, not only to reclaim them, and to set Our kingly Authority right again, in that Our Ancient and native Kingdom, but also for the Safety of this Kingdom, Our Loial Subjects in it, with their wives, Children, and Goods, as well as Our own, against the Rage and sury of these men and their Covenant. And this we think fit to let you further know, that we hope in time to make the best of then see, that we will endure no such Covenant and Band in Our kingdom to which we shall not consent. So the Question is not now, whether a Service-Book is to be received or not? nor whether Episcopal Government shall be continued, or Presbyterial admitted? But whether We are their king or not? For though in some of their Libels they give us good words, and speak us fair for their own ends, especially in the last printed at Edinburgh, Februarii quarto 1639; yet some of them refused both the Dath of Allegiance and Supremacy, and publickly maintain, That they are not obliged to take the same. Now how can we think these men are Dutiful and Loial in their hearts, that broach such dangerous Opinions? or religiously minded, that teach such rebellious Doctrine, and so contray to all, which Protestant Divines teach towards the king and the Civil Magistrate? Day, they have infected divers of their Country-men which are come into other parts with the same denom; for three Scots-men taken in Wales, are at this day imprisoned, for dired denial of our Supremacy and their Allegiance, saying, They cannot take those Oaths, because they have sworn to the Covenant. But though we have bin thus mild towards them, and continued so long, yet we would not have any of them, or any of Our other Subjects think, that we can or will permit Episcopal Government, established by many Acts of Parliament in that Our kingdom, to be abolished, seeing it is known to the whole Christian World, that the same is most Christian in it self, and most peaceable for the Civil State, and most consonate to monarchical Government.
And further we think fit to declare unto you, and to teh Christian world, That by Our intention of introducing the Service Book into that kingdom, we had not the least thought of innovation of Religion in this or that, but meerly to have a conformity with that worship of God, which is observed within both Our other kingdoms, though ill-minded men have wressed some things in it to a sinister sense.
We further give you to understand, That there is a large Declaration coming forth, containing all the particular Passages which have occurred in this Business, from the very beginning, attestted with their own soul Acts, to disanul and shame their fair, but false words. But because this cannot so soon be made ready, we hold it most expedient to let this short Declaration forerun it, that Our false, wicked, specious, but most seditions informations: For Example sake, in their last Pamphlet (besides divers other false, hase, and sawning Passages) there are these scandalous and most notorious Untruth: As first, they say, That we have committed the Arms we now take, and the Armies we now raise, into the hands of prosessed Papists; which is not more dishonourable to Our self, and the Noble Persons intrusted by Us, than odiously and notoriously false. Again, they say, That some of Power in the Hierarchy of England, have bin the Cause of Our taking Arms to invade Our Native Kingdom, and of medding with their Religion: whereas it is most certain, that no one of them have done any thing therein, but by Our own Princely Direction and Command. And for Arms, it is notoriously known to all Our Council then present, That their counfess were for Peace, and have bin the Perswaders (as much as in them lay) of the undeserved Moveration wherewith we have hitherto proceeded towards so great Dssenders.
And further they say, That they intend no Act of Hostility against England, unless they shall be necessitated in their own Defence. We would sain know, Defence of what? Is it of Disobedience? Defence against whom? Is it not against Us their True and Lawful Sovereign? If they will defend against Us, it ought to be by Law, and not by Arms; that Defence we shall never deny them, this by Arms we shall never permit them. Now Our Laws which they seem so much to value, are in a manner opprest by them, in so much that Our Judges are so awed, as that they dare hardly proceed according to Law.
With these and the like mutinous Libels, we desire our good Subjects should not be infected, but that all of them might know the present necessity we have to Arm Our Self, which is for no other End, save only for the Safety and Security of this Our Kingdom, the re-establishment of our Authorities in that, and the supperssing of such as have misted and abused Our Subjects there, and would (if not prevented) do the like here, but is no way to inforce any Innovation of Religion established in that Kingdom, or any ways to insringe the Laws thereof, or any of their Liberties whatsoever, which are according to Law.
These are therefore to Will and Command all Our Loving Subjects of this Our Kingdom, that they receive no more of their seditious Pamphlets sent from Scotland, or any other place concerning those Affairs, which can have no other use or influence, than to draw the Hearts of our Loial People to the like Rebellious Courses; and that such of Our Subjects here, as have already received any of these Rebellious Pamphlets, do presently deliver them to the next Justice of Peace, that he may send them to one of Our Secretaries, as doth they and the Justices of Peace will answer it at their utmost perils.
And Our further Will and Pleasure is, That this Our Proclamation and Declaration be read in time of Divine Service in every Church within the Kingdom, that all our People, to the meaness, may see the notorious Carriages of these Men, and likewise the Justice and Mercy of all Our Proceedings.
'After, &c. Whereas his Majesty, by his Letters sent in February last, hath formerly required you to take order, that there be timely care used, not only to hinder the exportation of all sorts of Grain, Butter, Cheese, and other Victuals out of that County, but to see that there be a good quantity of those Provisions, as also of Hay and Straw for Horse, provided in store in several parts of that County for supply of his Majesty's Army, which is intended to lie in the Northern Parts for Defence and Preservation of the same upon all occasions. And whereas for encouragement of such as should make any Provisions in that kind, his Majesty was pleased, by his said Letters, to give you Directions to assure all Men, that they shall be duly paid whatsoever shall be received from them.
'Forasmuch as some Persons ill-affected to his Majesty's Service and just Resolutions, have endeavoured (as it is informed) to put causless doubts into the heads of some in those parts, whereby to deter them from making any such store of Provisions as they would otherwise have made and reserved for that purpose. We are by his Majesty's express Command, hereby to require you again publickly to declare and make known, in all fitting Places; and not only in the County of York, but in all other the Northern Counties, to all Persons that either have in their Hands, or shall make any Provisions of Corn, Meal, Butter, Cheese, or other Victuals for Souldiers, or Hay, Oats, Pease, Beans, or Straw, for Horses, that they shall be duly paid whatsoever shall be received from them, according to the price of the Market. To the end that the Country may take notice, that his Majesty intends this Army for their Defence and Preservation, and not for their Prejudice, as ill-affected Persons endeavour by false Tales to insinuate. Hereof his Majesty and this Board doth expect to receive an Accompt of your effectual Endeavours before the 18th of this present March; and so we bid you farewel. Dated the third of March.
Charles by the Grace of God, of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. To Our Right Trusty, and Right well-beloved Cousin and Counsellor, Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey, and Earl Marshal of England, and Knight of the most Noble Order of the Garter, Greeting.
Know be, that me reposing special trust and considence in your approved Wisdom, fidelity, Valour and great Ability, have assigned, made, constituted, and ordained you to be the General of Our Army intended forthwith to be raised: and over all Our Men, which be, or shall be levied in all Our Counties of this Our Realm, or Dominion of Wales; and assembled, or to be assembled to any Army, or Armies, to resist and withstand all Invasions, Cumults, Seditions, Conspiracies, or Attempts that may happen to be made against Our Person, or State; and to Rule, Govern, Command, Dispose and Employ the same Army, and all Officers so emploied, or to be emploied concerning the same, with all such farther Forces, of what Dation soever, as shall be hereafter joined there-unto for their supply, for the accomplishment of such Executions, Defences, Offences, and other Services as are or shall be by Us from time to time directed, limited, and appointed, in or by such private Instructions as are herewith delivered unto you under Our Signet Manual. And farther, we have given you full Power and Authority, Chat the same Persons so levied or assembled, or so to be levied or assembled by you, or sent, conducted, or brought, or that otherwise shall come to you, either by our several Orders, or by Authority of this our Commission as aforesaid, to try, array, and put in readiness; and them, and every of them after their Abilities, Degrees, and faculties, well and sufficiently cause to be Weaponed, and Armed; and take, or cause to be taken, the Musters of them, or any other our Crained Bands, which within this our Realm of England, and Dominion of Wales, from time to time, in Places most meet for that purpose, after your good Discretion. And also the same our Subjects so Arrayed, Cryed, and Armed, as well Men of Arms, as Borse-men, Archers, and Foot-men of all kinds and degrees, meet and apt for the Wars, to Govern, Lead, and Conduct, against all and singular our Enemies attempting any thing against Us, Our Crown and Dignity; and Our said Army to divine, distribute, and dispose, and the same, or any part thereof, to convey by Land, or by Water, as occasion shall require, according to your good discretion; and with the same Enemies, Rebels, and Craitors, to sight, and them to Invade, Resist, Repress, Pursue, and follow into any Our Dominions; and them to subdtle, and to do, fulfil and execute all, and singular other things which shall be requisite for the Leading, Government, Order, and Rule of our said Armies and Subjects, and for conservation of our Person and Peace. And farther to do, offer, and execute against the said Enemies, Rebels, Craitors, and their Adherents, and other Desinquents and Offenders, as need shall require, by your Discretion, by the Law Martial, as our General: And of such apprehended and brought into subjeaction, to save whom you shall think good to be saved, and to slay, destroy, and put to execution of Death, such and so many of them as you shall think meet by your discretion, to be put to death by any manner of means, to the terror of all other Offenders. And me do farther give unto you our General, full Power and Authority, for Us, and in our Dame, as occasion shall require, according to your good discretion, by publick Proclamation, to make tender of our Roial Grace and Pardon, to all such Craitors, Rebels, and all other Offenders as shall submit to Us, and design to be relieved by our Mercy. And further, our Will and Pleasure is, and by these Presents We do give you full Power and Authority, that in case any Invasion of Enemies, Insurrection, Rebellion, Riots, Routs, or unlamful Assemblies, or any like Offences shall happen to be moved, Chat then, as often as you shall perceive any such Misdemcanours to arise, You, with all the Power you can make, shall with all diligence repair, and send convenient forces to the Places where any such Attempt, Invasion, unlawful Assembly, Insurrection, or Rebellion shall happen to be made; and subdue, repress, and reform the same, as well by Battel, or other kind of Force, as otherwise by the Law of the Realm, or the Law Martial, according to your good discretion. And for the better execution of this our Commission, We do farther give you Power and Authority, from time to time, to command and require of all our Lieutenants special, and their Deputy Lieutenants of the several Counties of this our Realm, or Dominion of Wales, to send to you such number of Able Men for the Wars, as well Horse-men as foot-men of the Crained-Bands, or other, sufficiently armed and furnished, to such Place and Places, and at such Cime and Cimes, as you in your Wisdom shall appoint and require: Which said forces you are to govern, order, and dispose, as your present Occasions shall require, for the advantage of our Service, according to your good discretion. And farther, for your better assistance in this our Service, We do hereby assign, make, constitute, and ordain, our Right Crusty, and Right Well-beloved Cousin, Robert Earl of Essex and Eme, Dicount Hereford and Bourchier, Lord Ferrers of Chartley, Lord Bourchier, to be our Lieutenant General of this our Army; and our right Crusty, and right Well-beloved Cousin and Counsellor, Henry Earl of Holland, Lord Chief Iusrice and Iussice of Eyre of all our forests, Chaces, Parks, and Warrens on this side Trent, first Gentleman of our Bed-Chamber, and Knight of the most noble Order of the Garter, to be our General of our Crmps of Borse, to serve in Our said Army for the Execution of this our Commission, according to such Directions as from time to time you shall think fit to give unto them. And farther, We do give you Power and Authority, to appoint within our said Army, a Provost-Marshal, to use and exercise that Office, in such case as you shall think fit to use the said Law Martial. And We do also give you our General full Power and Authority by these Presents, to bear, Eramine, and Debate, as well by your self, as by your sufficient Deputy, or Deputies, all Criminal Causes growing and arising within Our said Army, as well concerning the Death of any Person, as loss of Member, and all Causes Civil, whatsoever they be, that shall happen or chance within this Our said Army. And also We give you full Power and authority to make, Constitute, and ordain Ordinances and Proclamations, from time to time, as the Case shall require, for the good Government, Rule, and Order of Our said Army; and the same, and every one of them Causes, to be duly proclaimed, performed, and executed: and whomsoever you shall find contemptuous, disobedient, or disorderly in our said Army, to attach, apprehend, and imprison, and them and every of them to chastise and punish: and such as shall be imprisoned, you shall cause them to be proceeded against according to the quantity of the Offence, as well by pains of Death, as loss of Member, or otherwise, according to your discretion; and to deliver and set at liberty any Person so imprisoned, as by you shall be thought convenient. And for encouragement of fit and deserving Persons, We do give you full Power and Authority in Our absence, to reward and honour with the Order of Knighthood, and of Knights Demerits, such as in your discretion shall deserne the same in this our present Service; and to grant and assign them Arms, and Ensigns of Arms as is need, and to the Office of a General appertaineth. And We do farther give Power and Authority to you Our General, for Causes especially moving you, by your Letters under your Seal, from time to time, when, and as often as to you shall seem meet, to grant safe Conduct, general and special, in all places, by Land or by Water, to any Persons whatsoever; and generally to do and execute all and every thing and things, which to the Office of a General of Our said Army doth belong and appertain; and which for the good and safe Government of Our Army, and Subjects, shall be thought expedient and necessary. And for the better execution of this Our Service, We do further give you Our General, full Power and Authority, as occasion shall require, to Command all Our Forts and Castles now Fortisied, or hereafter to be Fortified, in or near the Parts or Places where Our said Army from time to time shall be; and to amove, displace, and continue the Captains, Lieutenants, and Souldiers and Garrisons there, as cause shall require; and to furnish the same Castles and Forts with other Captains, Lieutenants, and Souldiers, as you shall think meet, for the safety and good of the Army, and the advantage of this Our Service. And We will and Command you, Our General, that with all speed you do execute the Premises with effect. Wherefore we will and Command all and singular Lieutenants special, Dukes, Marquesses, Earls, Dicounts, Barons, Baronets, Knights, Sheriffs, Mayors, Baisiffs, Constables, Captains, petty Captains, Souldiers, and all other Officers, Ministters, and Loving Subjects, of what Effate, Degree, or Condition soever be or they shall be; Chat they, and every of them, with their Power, and Servants, from time to time, be attendant, aiding and assitting, counselling, helping, and at your Commandment, at the due executionhereof, as they and every of them tender Our Pleasure, and will answer the contrary at their Perils. And farther, Our Pleasure is, Chat whatsoever you shall do by virtue of this Our Commission and Private Instructions, and according to the Cenor and Effect of the same, touching the execution of the Premiles, or any part thereof, you shall be discharged in that behalf against Us, Our beirs, Successors. Yet nevertheless Our Intent and meaning is, Chat this Our present Commission, or any thing therein contained, shall not impeach or infringe the Office of Earl-Marshal of England, on any Right or Iurisdiction incident or belonging to the same. In Witness whereof We have caused these our Letters to be made Patents, and to continue during our Pleasure.
May it please your most Ercellent Majesty, Chs containeth your Majesty's Commission to Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl-Marshal of England: Whereas your Majesty doth appoint him General of your Majesty's Army; Robert Earl of Esses to be your Majesty's Lieutenant General, and Henry Earl of Holland your Majesty's General of your Croops of Borse, to serve in the Army with their sundry Powers and Iurisdictions, the said Lord General of the Army; which have been seen and approved of by your Majesty;
Whereas divers of the Nibility and Gentry of this Kingdom, who are to attend and serve His Majesty in the Expedition now in hand2 are by his Majesty's express Command to attend with Horses according to their several Qualities. And whereas it is in-formed, that divers Horse-coursers do usually either forestal the Markets, or ingross into their hands the Horses which come to Fairs and Markets, and thereby inhaunce the prices of Horses to unreasonable rates. And whereas wooborn Fair, which is usually a great Horse-Fairs , falls out to be some fix days hence. These are therefore to will and require you to have especial care, that no Horse-Courser, nor any for them, shall be permitted to buy any Horses within that Fair, or Town, and the Precincts and Liberties thereof, until the last day of the said Fair, to the end the Nobility and Gentry having such number of Horses for his Majesty's service, as they shall think fit to buy there. And lest by any practice or combination of the Horse-coursers, or out of any other by respect in the Seller, it should happen that men refuse to sell their Horses at reasonable and usual prices, you are at the beginning of the said Fair, to make known and publish, (and accordingly see it put in execution) that no person shall be permitted to sell any Horse, Either to a Horse-Courser, 'or any other imployed for them at any lower rate or price than that Which he had bin offered by those imploied as aforesaid for his majesty;s service. And These are futher to signify unto you, that the Bearer hereof, John ward, Gentleman of my Horse, is by me pur-posely sent to see the due execution of these Directions, whom I require you to assist in the furtherance of this Service, as you will answer the contrary at your peril.
'Whereas Robert Smith, Leonard Stockdale, Hugh Care, and Nathaniel Fox, are lawfully deputed and authorized, by the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Company of Starch-makers, according to the Power and Authority given to the said Corporation by his Majesty's Letters Patents and Proclamation, to search for (with the assistance of a Constable, and other lawful Officers) in all suspected Places, and to seize and carry away all White Starch, and Materials prepared for making of White Starch, as likewise all White Starch imported from Foreign Parts, contrary to the said Letters Patents, and his Majesty's Proclamation. And to break, deface, and destroy all Pans, Cisterns, and other Vessels imploied or set up for the making of White Starch, or Materials belonging to the making of White Starch, contrary to the said Letters Patents, and his Majesty's Proclamation. These are therefore in his Majesty's Name, straitly to charge and command you, and every of you, when and as oft as need shall require, to help and assist to the uttermost of your Power, the said Robert Smith, Leonard Stockdale, Hugh Care, and Nathaniel Fox, or any of them, in the searching for, seizing, and carrying away, to his Majesty's use, of all White Starch, and Materials prepared for the making of White Starch. As likewise all White Starch imported from Foreign Parts; and in doing and performing every Act and other thing directed by his Majesty's said Letters Patents and Proclamation. And in like manner to aid and assist them, or any of them, in the breaking and forcing open the Doors or Houses (when they cannot otherwise enter) where any prohibited White Starch, or Materials prepared for making of White Starch is suspected to be made or kept: And furthermore to apprehend all and every the wilful Offenders against his Majesty's said Letters Patents and Proclamation.
This following Advertisement was mislaid, when it should have bin inserted in its proper Place and Time, nevertheless we thought fit to insert it, because it brings some Intelligence in reference to the Scotish Affairs.
After Marquess Hamilton's arrival in Scotland, in the beginning of June this Year, as the King's High Commissioner, to settle the distracted Affairs of that Kingdom, he found (as is mentioned more fully in the Narrative we have already given of the Commotions in Scotland) great Opposition by the Covenanters, and more particularly by their Protestation against the King's Declaration of June the 28th, That his Majesty will not press the practice of the Service Book and Canons, &c.
At this time the Church of Rome had Agents in Scotland as well as in England, one of them who subscribes a Letter, probably was Cardinal Richleu's Chaplain, by name Chambers, or Chamberlain, who was then present in Scotland, blowing the Coles of Fire there kindled; which Letter concerned the Affairs of Scotland, and was to the effect following, dated June 28.
My Reverend Father,
I Have not bin at London five days in all since I came from France, else I had not failed to salute your Reverence, &c. I know not what to say of Mortimer the Superior of as knowing not whether he hath leave to go or not, nor yet their Procurer who resides in this Court. Scotland is in a very ill posture, and in evident danger to sever it self from this Crown.
By all these Proceedings, theK ing evidently seeth, that they (the Scots) will not submit themselves to Reason, by fairness or Sweetness, and therefore be hath taken a Resolution to tame them by Force, and to this purpose goeth about to raise an Army in Ireland, not daring to trust himself with the English, who already are much irritated against him, by reason of the (fn. 2) Monies which he pretends to raise to maintain his Fleet, the which they refuse down-right to pay. This counsel of raising an Army, has been suggested unto him by the Bishop of Canterbury, and the President of Ireland, which are they alone that govern him, for he hath never yet opened his Mouth, or spoken one sole word of it to his Council of State, but Seeks very much to keep all close from them. The which highly displeaseth all these Lords; and Men bold this Counsel of the Army for Ireland, a most pernicious Counsel: But I know not what better he could take, for it is most dangerous to raise it in England, where all the World is discontent; and for to raise an Army here, it were to give them the Sword in their bauds to defend themselves; for the part of the Puritans is so great, and they have such a correspondence with the Scots, that they begin already to break the Altars which the Bishops had erected, and to accuse the Bishops of Crimes, and to demand the re-establishment of many silenced Ministers, with a thousand other Insolencies, &c.
At the same time there was another Letter of the same date writ to one Monsieur Ford, by some Priest or Romish Recusant, to the effect following: All which said Letters were found amongst the Papers of one of his Majesty's Privy-Council.
Our Scots Busines troubles us sbrewdly, and grows worse and worse; they will have a Parliament,and the King (for the Consequence of it in this Kingdom) will never permit it, and so they have taken a Resolution to levy an Army in Ireland, so to trouble them and subdue them; which is held there by wise Men to be a very desperate Counsel. But the King consults with none but the Arch-Bishop and the Deputy of Ireland;which disgusts all, and makes Men see more weakness in him than was ever imagined; other News we have none. Fitten (the Agent for the Secular Priests at Rome)is here, and was presented to the King by my Lord Arundel,to whom he had sent from Italy many little Toys, but now he knows be is a Priest. Pray tell my dear Amiable, I thank him heartily for his Note, and have seen his Man Jaques Depuis,who is a good Cutter or Graver in Stone, and continues Catholick, Honest, and known to the Capucins.
Having ended this Year as to English Affairs, we shall return to the Transactions of Affairs in Scotland, where we lest, and to give an Account of the whole Proceedings of the Assembly at Glasgow; and the first that comes in Order of Time, is his Majesty's Letter to the Privy-Council of Scotland, to assist the Marquess at the said Assembly at Glasgow as followeth.
'As by Our Letter We find how well you are satisfied with Our gracious Pleasure, expressed in Our late Proclamation and Declaration, so We do expect the continuance of your Care, by your best Endeavours, to bring all Our good People to a true sense of Our Roial Intentions, and real Care of preferring and advancing the Good and Peace of that Church and Kingdom, which hath always bin, and still is one of Our chiefest Cares; We give you hearty thanks for your Affection and Pains in this Service, and do approve of your Course in subscribing of the Consession and Band, and order taken by you for publishing, and requiring the like due and thankful acceptance of Our gracious Pleasure by all Our good Subjects. And seeing the time of the Assembly doth now approach, We require you to attend diligently upon Our Commissioner, until the time appointed for the down-fitting of the said Assembly, and further, to the final ending thereof, that from time to time you may be assisting to him with your best Opinions and Advices, for preparing and digesting every thing that may conduce to bring this Business to be treated upon in the Assembly, to the wished, peaceable, and happy end: And although We will not doubt but that all Our good Subjects will be careful of every thing that may concern Us, or Our Soveraign Authority; yet because that at such publick and general Meetings, it is not to be expected that all Mens Dispositions will be alike, and of one temper, We require you, that in a more particular manner, according to the Trust and Considence We have in your Affections to Our Service, carefully to advert, That if any Proposition shall be made which may seem to derogate from Soveraignty, or that true state of Monarchical Government already established within that Kingdom, or which may impede the peaceable conclusion of this Assembly, that as good Subjects, and faithful Counsellors and Servants to Us, you assist Our Commissioner to withstand the same to the uttermost of your Power. To whom We will you to give absolute Trust in every thing, which he in our Name shall deliver or impart to you, or any of you, in publick or in private. And so We bid you farewel.
The City of Glasgow being much filled and thronged with all sorts of People; on the 21 of November 1638, the day designed by the King's Proclamation, the General Assembly begun, and was opened, and the Proceedings were as followeth.
After Sermon in the Morning, they assembled in the Afternoon, and begun with the chusing of a Moderator. The King's Commissioner (who fat upon a Seat, raised in a Place eminent above the rest, with his Assessors about him conveniently seated below) told them that there was something else to be done before the choice of the Moderator, viz. That his Commission was first to be read, that it might be known by what Authority he fat there; which was done accordingly, bearing date at Oatlands the 29th of July 1638. The Commission followeth in these words.
Marquess Hamilton's Commission as to the Assembly; Oatlands, July 29, 1638.
Carolus Dei Gratia, Magnæ Britanniæ, Franciæ, & Hyberniæ, Rex, Fideique Defensor. Omnibus probris hominibus suis adquos prœsentes literœ pervenerint, salutem. Sciatis nos considerantes magnos in hoc Regno nostro Scotiæ non it a pridem exortos tumultus, ad quos quidem componendos multiplices Regiœnostrœ voluntatis declarationes promulgavimus, quœ tamen minorem spe nostra effectum bactenus sortitœ sunt & nunc Statuentes ex pio erga dictum antiquum Regnum nostrum affectum, ut omnia gratiose Stabiliantur & instaurentur, quod(per absentiam nostram) non alia ratione melius effici potest quam fideli aliquo delegato constituto, cui potestatem credere possimus tumultus hujusmodi consopiendi aliaque officia prœstandi. quœ in bonum & commodum dicti antiqui Regni nostri eidem delegato nostro imperare nobis videbitur, cumque satis compertum habeamus obsequium, diligentiam & fidem prædilectinostri consanguinei & consiliarii, Jacobi Marchionis Hamiltonii, Comitis Arraniæ & Cantabrigiæ, Domini Aven & Annerdail, &ch. eundemque ad imperatanostra exequenda sufficienter instructum esse, idcirco fecisse & constituisse, tenoreque prœsentium facere & constituere prœfatum prœdilectum nostrum consanguineum & consiliarium Jacobum Marchionem de Hamiltoun, &c. nostrum Commissionarium ad effectum subscriptum, cum potestate dicto Jacobo Marchioni de Hamiltoun, &c. dictum Regnum nostrum adeundi, ibidemque prœfatos tumultus in dicto Regno componendi, aliaque officia a nobis eidem committenda in dicti Regni nostri bonum & commodum ibi prœstandi, eoque Consilium nostrum, quibus locis & temporibus eivisum fuerit convocandi, ac rationem & ordinem in prœmissis exequendis servandum, declarandi & prœscribendi, & quœcunque alia, ad Commissionis hujus capita pro commissa ipsi fide exequenda, eandemque ad absulutum finem, perducendam & prosequendam conferre possunt, tam in Concilio quam extra Consilium nostro nomine efficiendi & prœstandi, idque similiter & adeo libere, ac si nos in Sacro-Sancta nostra persona ibidem adessemus. Prœterea cum plena potestate dicto Jacobo Marchioni de Hamiltoun prout sibi videbitur nostro servitio & bono dicti Regni nostri conducere, conventum omnium ordinum ejusdem Regni nostri judicandi, ac publica Comitia & conventus eorumdem or dinum eorumve alterius velutriusque quibus temporibus & locis sibi visum fuerit statuendi, & ibidem nostram sacratissimam Personam, cum omnibus honoribus & privilegiis, supremo Commissionario nostri Parliamenti & publici Conventus incumbend. Similiter adeoque ample, sicut quivis supremus Commissionarius in quocunque tempore retroacto gavisus est gerendi, nec-non cum potestate prœfato Jacobo Marchionide Hamiltoun Synodos Nationalis Ecclesiœ dicti Regninostri tenendus temporibus & locis quibus sibi visum fuerit indicendi, & ibidem & seipsum tanquam nostrum Commissionarium gerendi, omniaque eisdem tenendis inservientia secundum leges & praxin prœdictœ Ecclesiœ & Regni nostri prœstandi: Et hac prœsenti nostra Commissione durante nostro beneplacito duratura & semper donec eadem per nos expresse inhibeatur. In cujus rei testimonium prœsentibus Magnum Sigillum nostrum una cum privato nostro Sigillo (quia prœfatus Marchio de Hamiltoun in prœsentiarum est Magni Sigilli custos) apponi prœcepimus Apud Oatlands vicesimo nono die mensis Julii, Anno Dom. millesimo sexcentesimo tricesimo octavo, & Anno Regni nostri decimo quarto.