Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 3, 1639-40. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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Historical Collections For the Year 1640. The Archbishop of Canterbury's Diary.
May 11. Monday night at Midnight my House at Lambeth was beset with five hundred Persons of the rascal routous Multitude; I had notice, and strengthned the House as well as I could, and God be blessed I had no Harm: siuce I have got Cannons, and fortified my House as well as I can, and hope all may be safe. But yet Libels are continually set up in all Places of Note in the City.
May 21. Thursday, One of the chief being taken was condemned at Southwark, and hang'd and quarter'd on Saturday Morning following May 23. Some of these mutinous People came in the day time, and brake the White-Lyon Prison, and let loose their Fellows, both out of that Prison and the King's Bench, and the other Prisoners out of the White-Lyon.
The Bishop of Glocester, Godfrey Goodman, suspended for notorious Scandal to the Church, in refusing first to subscribe to the Canons, and after to profess a Reservation. He had long before been suspected as inclining to Popery.
July 10. Friday, I took my Oath to the new Canons at the Council Table, and so did my Lord Bishop of London, and after him the Bishop of Glocester submitted himself, and took the Oath, and was released out of Prison by the King's Command.
September 21. I received a Letter from one John Rocket, a name and person unknown to me, he was among the Scots as he pass'd through the Bishoprick of Durham; he heard them inveigh and rail at me exceedingly, and they hop'd shortly to see me, as the Duke was, slain by one least suspected. His Letter and Advice to me, to look to my self.
September 24. A Great Council of the Lords was call'd by the King to York, to consider what way was best to be taken to get out the Scots, and this day the Meeting began at York, and continued till October 28.
October 22. Thursday, The High Commission sitting at St. Paul's, because of the Troubles of the Times, very near two thousand Brownists made a Tumult at the end of the Court, tore down all the Benches in the Consistory, and cry'd out, they would have no Bishop, nor no High Commission.
October 27. Tuesday Simon and Jude's Eve, I went into my upper Study, to see some Manuscripts, which I was sending to Oxford: In that Study hung my Picture, taken by the Life, and coming in I found it fallen down upon the face, and lying on the floor, the string being broken by which it hanged against the Wall. I am almost every day threatned with my ruin in Parliament. God grant this be no Omen.
Wednesday, the Convocation began at St. Paul's: the same day Thomas Viscount Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, accus'd to the Lords by the House of Commons for High Treason, and restrain'd to the Usher of the House.
December 2. Wednesday, A great Debate in the House that no Bishop should be so much as of the Committee for preparatory examinations in this Cause, as accounted causa sanguinis; put off till the next day.
December 16. Wednesday, The Canons condemn'd in the House of Commons, as being against the King's Prerogative, the Funda mental Laws of the Realm, the Liberty and Property of the Subject, and containing divers other things tending to Sedition, and of dangerous consequence. Upon this, I was made the Author of them, and a Committee put upon me, to enquire into all my Actions, to prepare a Charge. The same Morning in the Upper House I was named an Incendiary by the Scotish Commissioners, and a Complaint promised to be drawn up by to morrow.
December 18. Friday, I was accused by the House of Commons for High Treason, without any particular charge laid against me, which they said should be prepared in convenient time. Mr. Hollis was the Man that brought up the Message to the Lords; soon after the Charge was brought into the Upper House by the Scots Commissioners, tending to prove me an Incendiary: upon which I was presently committed to the Gentleman-Usher. I was permitted to go in his company to Lambeth, for a Book or two to read in, and such Papers as pertained to my Defence against the Scots. I staid at Lambeth till the Evening, to avoid the gazing of the People. I went to Evening-Prayer in my Chappel; the Psalms of the day 93 and 94, and Chap. 50. of Esay, gave me great comfort: God make me worthy of it, and fit to receive it.
December 21. I was fined 500 l. in the Parliament-House, and Sir John Lambe and Sir Henry Martin 250 l. a-piece, for keeping Sir Robert Howard close Prisoner, in the case of the escape of the Lady Viscountess Perbeck out of the Gate-house; which Lady he kept leudly, and had Children by her. In such a case, say the Imprisonment were more than the Law allowed, what may be done for Honour and Religion sake? Wednesday, the Lords ordered me to pay the Money presently, which was done. I was forced to sell Plate to pay where I borrow'd it. Thursday, a Parliament-Man of good Note, interested in divers Lords, sent me word, that by reason of my patient and moderate carriage since my commitment, four Earls of great power in the Upper House told him, that the Lords were not now so sharp against me as they were at first; and that now they were resolved only to sequester me from the King's Council, and to put me from my Archbishoprick: so I see what Justice I may expect, since here is a Resolution taken, not only before my Answer, but before my Charge was brought up against me.
February 26. Friday, This day I had been full ten Weeks in Restraint at Mr. Maxwell's House; and this day, being St. Augustine's-day my Charge was brought up from the House of Commons to the Lords, by Sir Henry Vane the younger. It consisted of fourteen Articles. These general, they craved time to prove in particular. The Copy of this general Charge is among my Papers. I spake something to it, and the Copy of that also is among my Papers. I had favour of the Lords not to go to the Tower till the Monday following.
March 1. I went in Mr. Maxwell's Coach to the Tower: no Noise till I came to the end of Cheapside; but from thence to the Tower I was follow'd, and rail'd at by the People and Rabble in multitudes to the very Tower-Gates; where left them, and I thank God he made me patient. March 9. Shrove Tuesday, &c. was with me in the Tower, and gave great Engagements of his Faith to me.
March 13. Saturday the Lord Brooks dined with the Lords at the new House built by the King at Lambeth. Three of the Lords in Boat together, one of them saying, he was sorry for my commitment, because the building of St. Paul's went slow on the while; the Lord Brooks reply'd, "I hope one of us shall live to see no one Stone lest upon another of that Building."
March 21. Monday, a Committee for Religion settled in the Upper House of Parliament, ten Earls, ten Bishops, ten Barons; so the Lay Votes will be double to the Clergy. This Committee will meddle with Doctrine as well as Ceremonies, and will call some Divines to them to consider of the Business, as appears by a Letter hereto annexed, sent by the Lord Bishop of Lincoln to some Divines, to attend this Service. Upon the whole matter, I believe this Committee will prove the National Synod of England, to the great Dishonour of the Church: and what else may follow upon it, God knows.
March ibid. Monday the Earl of Strafford's Tryal began in Westminster-Hall, and it continu'd till the end of April, taking in the variation of the House of Commons, who after a long Hearing, drew a Bill of Attainder against him.
We begin this Year with warlike Preparations for a second Expedition against the Scots; and being unwilling to give a short Abstract of those Preparations, we set down at large the very Orders made upon that occasion by the Lords of the Council, and others in Power and Authority.
Copies of Letters directed to the several Counties hereafter following, for the levying of Soldiers which are to march by Land to Newcastle upon Tine.
After, &c. to your good Lordship. By his Majesty's Letters sent herewith, your Lordship will understand his pleasure and intention for the levying of Foot within that County of your Lieutenancy, for the necessary Defence of the Realm. By which Letter your Lordship is referred to us for such Instructions and Directions as shall be requisite for that Service. We have therefore thought good to pray and require your Lordship, to give present and effectual Order to your Deputy-Lieutenants, forthwith to meet, and in the first place to distribute the number of Men to be raised in the several Hundreds of that County, and to take especial care that there be a very good choice made of the Men out of the Trained-Bands there, that they be of able Bodies, and Years meet for this Employment. Where any Freeholder hath used to have his Arms born by another Man, that other Man is to be pressed to serve, if he be of able Body; and where a Freeholder hath served with his own Arms, and is not fit or willing to serve himself, he is to find another able Man to serve in his place; and if he cannot procure another, then your Lordship or your Deputy-Lieutenants are to cause another able Man to be pressed to serve. And where any Man hath used to bear the common Arms of the Parish, if he be fit and able of Body, he is to be taken; but if he be unfit, a sufficient Man is to be pressed in his stead. Your Lordship is especially to take care, that in this liberty given to change Men to serve in the place of the Trained Soldiers, there be not any Rewards or Money taken, which was an Abuse too much practised the last Year, and now in examination, to receive condign Punishment. As for the choice of the Men, our very good Lord the Earl of Northumberland, Lord General of his Majesty's Army, will forthwith send into that County Commanders to assist your Lordship and your Deputy Lieutenants in the choice and listing of them. And when they shall be in such manner listed, your Lordship is to take effectual order, that there be no alteration of any of them, without a particular Warrant under the Hand of your Lordship, or two of your Deputy-Lieutenants. The Men to be raised, are to be appointed to meet in Companies of one hundred a-piece at particular Rendezvous in that County most convenient for each hundred Men, to the 10th of May next, to be weekly exercised with false Fires or no Fire, by such inferior Officers as the Lord General shall send down to instruct them in their Postures, and the use of their Arms: To which purpose, your Lordship is to cause the Arms of the Trained-Bands to be lent unto them, which shall be re-deliver'd back when they shall march out of that County. Your Lordship is likewise to take order, that there be press'd and sent with the said Soldiers, one Drum and Drummer to every hundred Men, who shall enter into his Majesty's Pay, as soou as the said Soldiers shall march out of that County. Besides the said particular Rendezvous where the several Companies are to meet in that County, your Lordship is to cause one General Rendezvous to be appointed on the Confines of that Shire, most convenient for the said Soldiers march towards Newcastle upon Tine; to which general Rendezvous in that County, the said Soldiers are to be brought the 10th of May, and to remain there till the 20th of the same Month, to be there exercised and put in order for their March towards Newcastle, by such Commanders and Officers as shall be sent thither by the Lord General, to whom your Lordship is to send present Advertisement, what Place you appoint for the said general Rendezvous of that County. The Soldiers are to be allowed at the Charge of that County 8 d. a-piece per Diem for every day they shall be exercised at the particular Rendezvous in that County. And from the 10th of May to the 20th. The Charge also of conducting the said Men to the general Rendezvous of the County, is to be born by that County. Your Lordship, or at least two of your Deputy-Lieutenants, are to be at the general Rendezvous of the County by the 10th of May, as well to assist in keeping of the Men in order, as to take care for the receiving back from them the Arms of the County, and to deliver the said Men over by Indenture to such Commanders and Officers as shall be appointed to receive and take charge of them: of which Indentures, one part is to be signed by your Lordship, or two of your Deputy-Lieutenants, and the other by the said Commanders or Officers that shall receive the Men; and Duplicates of the said Indentures are to be sent by your Lordship, one to this Board, and another to the Lord General. As his Majesty is graciously pleased, for the case of that County, that all the Soldiers shall enter into his Majesty's Pay as soon as they shall march out of the Confines of that Shire towards Newcastle; so he expects that the more Readiness and Care be used in the raising and keeping them together while they shall be there; and that they be sent away well clothed and coated at the Charge of that County. All which Charges and Allowances, as well for the coating, as for the entertainment of the said Men in their exercising, and conducting to their general Rendezvous of that County; his Majesty's pleasure and command is, that your Lordship do cause the same to be levied in that County, as hath been used heretofore in cases of less Importance. And the Counties are to be repaid the same upon Account thereof made out of his Majesty's Exchequer, in such manner as in former times, upon the like occasion. And lastly, we do expect and require the Justices of Peace, and other Officers in their several Divisions, to be aiding and assisting to your Lordship and your Deputy-Lieutenants in this Service, &c.
Letters directed to the several Counties hereafter following, for the levying of Soldiers which are to be sent to Sea.
After, &c. to your good Lordship. By his Majesty's Letters sent herewith, your Lordship will understand his pleasure and intention for the levying of three hundred Foot in the County of Cambridge, six hundred in the County of Suffolk, six hundred in the County of Dorset, and three hundred in the Cinque-Ports, for the necessary Defence of the Realm. By which Letter your Lordship is referred to us for such Instructions and Directions as shall be requisite for that Service. We have therefore thought good hereby to pray and require your Lordship to give present and effectual order to your Deputy-Lieutenants in each County respectively, forthwith to meet, and in the first place to distribute the numbers of Men to be raised in the several Hundreds of every particular County, and to take special care that there be a very good choice made of the Men out of the Trained Bands there, that they be of able Bodies, and Years meet for this Employment. Where any Freeholder hath used to have his Arms born by another Man, that other Man is to be pressed to serve if he be of able Body. And where any Freeholder hath served with his own Arms, and is not fit or willing to serve himself, he is to find another able Man to serve in his place; and if he cannot procure another, then your Lordship, or your Deputy-Lieutenants are to cause another able Man to be pressed to serve. And where any Man used to bear the common Arms of the Parish, if he be fit and able of Body, he is to be taken; but if he be unfit, a sufficient Man is to be press'd in his stead. Your Lordship is especially to take care, that in the liberty given to change to serve in the place of Trained Soldiers, there be not any Rewards or Money taken, which was an Abuse too much practised in the last Year in some Counties, and now in Examination to receive condign Punishment. As for the choice of the Men, our very good Lord the Earl of Northumberland, Lord-General of his Majesty's Army, will forthwith send into those Counties Commanders to assist your Lordship and your Deputy-Lieutenants in the choice and listing of them. And when they shall be in such manner listed, your Lordship is to take effectual order that there shall be no alteration of any of them without a particular Warrant under the Hand of your Lordship, or two of your Deputy-Lieutenants. The Men to be raised in each County, are to be appointed to meet in Companies of one hundred a-piece, at their particular Rendezvous in each County respectively; most convenient another to the Lord General. As his Majesty is graciously pleased for the Ease of the Counties that all the Soldiers shall enter into pay as soon as they shall march out of the Confines of each Shire towards the Ports and Places aforesaid of Newcastle, Yarmouth, and Gravesend: so he expects that the more Care and Readiness be used in the raising and keeping of them together while they shall be there, and that they be sent away well clothed and coated at the Charge of the Counties. All which Charges and Allowances as well for the coating as the entertainment of the said men, in the exercising and conducting to their General Rendezvouz of each County, his Majesty's Pleasure and Command is, that your Lordship do cause the same to be levied in each of those Counties respectively, as hath been used heretofore in cases of less Importance: And the Counties are to be repaid the same upon account thereof made, out of his Majesty's Exchequer, in such manner as in former times upon like occasion. And lastly we do expect and require the Justices of Peace and other Officers in their several Divisions to be aiding and assisting to your Lordship and your Deputy Lieutenants, in the performance of all this Service, as they are directed by his Majesty's Letters of Lieutenancy to you under the Great Seal, and as the Practice hath been in former times. Whereof the said Justices of Peace, and other Officers are to take notice upon your imparting these Letters unto them. And so we bid, &c. From White-Hall the twenty sixth of March 1640. Signed
- Lord Archbishop of Canterbury,
- Lord Keeper,
- Lord Goring,
- Lord Treasurer,
- Earl Marshal,
- Lord High Admiral,
- Earl of Salisbury,
- Earl of Berks,
- Lord Cottington,
- Mr. Treasurer,
- Mr. Comptroller,
- Mr. Secretary Windebanke,
- Lord Chief Justice of the Common-Pleas.
A List of the Number of Soldiers that are to go by Sea; and where to be Shipped.
Letters directed to the several Counties hereafter following, for the providing of Horses and Carts for Carriage of the Train of Artillery.
After, &c. to your good Lordship, Whereas the Necessity of the Defence of the Realm at this time doth continually require from Us a Care by all fit Means to provide for the Strength and Advancement of his Majesty's Service and Army, now in raising for the Northern Parts, and all things incident thereunto; for which purpose, there is nothing more necessary, than a fit Provision to be made of Horse for the Train of Artillery, and for the Carriage of Ammunition, and all other requisite Provisions: We have therefore thought fit, to pray and require your Lordship to take Order, that there may be provided strong and able Horses, and able Carters to take care of them within the Limits of your Lieutenancy, in such Places where they may be most conveniently had, to be ready at Newcastle upon Tine, by the fifteenth of June next. And for the Charge of sending the Horses and Carters to the Rendezvouz at Newcastle, the same is to be born by that County; but when they shall arrive there, they shall enter into his Majesty's Pay of 12 d. per diem for every Horse, and 8 d. per diem for every Carter, and shall be continued therein, so long as they shall remain in his Majesty's Service: and when they shall be discharged, an especial Care shall be had, and a convenient Allowance for their Return home again. And lastly, we do expect and require the Justices of Peace and other Officers in their several Divisions, to be aiding and assisting to your Lordship and your Deputy Lieutenants in the Performance of all this Service, as they are directed by his Majesty's Letters of Lieutenancy to you under the Great Seal, and as the practice hath been in former times. Whereof the said Justices of Peace, and other Officers are to take Notice upon your imparting these Letters unto them. And so, &c. Dated the twenty sixth of March 1640.
A Proclamation against libellous and seditious Pamphlets, and Discourses from Scotland.
'Whereas of late sundry late seditious and libellous Pamphlets and Discourses as well Manuscripts as in Print, have been sent from Scotland and other Parts of his Majesty's Dominions, and spread and published in divers Places of this Kingdom of England, especially in the City of London, which have been framed and contrived by factious Spirits, and such as endeavour to cast most unjust and false Aspersions and Scandals upon his Majesty and his Government, and upon his Proceedings with his Subjects in Scotland, and to distemperate and alienate from his Majesty the Hearts of his well-affected Subjects, and such as otherwise are no way inclined to such seditious and disloyal Courses: His Majesty having taken these Disorders into serious Consideration, and finding them of dangerous Consequence to his Government, if some timely Remedy be not applyed; hath, with the Advice of his Privy-Council, thought fit to publish and declare, and by these Presents doth publish and declare, that all and every Person and Persons, of what Degree or Quality soever, who now have, or hereafter shall have any such libellous and seditious Discourse or Pamphlet, either in Manuscript or Print, concerning his Majesty's Proceedings with his Subjects in Scotland, (other than such Relations and Discourses concerning the same, as have been published and printed by his special Licence and Authority) and shall not within ten Days after the Date of these presents, bring and deliver the same to one of his Principal Secretaries of State, all and every such Person and Persons shall incur the attermost of such Punishments and Penalties, as by the Laws of this Realm are to be inflicted upon those that keep such scandalous and seditious Pamphlets and Papers.
'And whereas there hath been of late a Pamphlet published in Print, entitled, An Information from the States of the Kingdom of Scotland to the Kingdom of England, containing many notorious Falshoods and Scandals, to the Dishonour of his Majesty's Proceedings with his Subjects in Scotland, sundry Copies of which printed Discourse have been sent from Scotland, to divers of his Majesty's Subjects in England, especially in the City of London.
'And whereas there have been very lately sundry Copies of that false and seditious Pamphlet re-printed and published in another Edition, and dispersed in the said City of London, and in sundry other Parts of this Kingdom: His Majesty having acquainted the Lords of his Council therewith, and caused the same to be read at the Board, and the said Lords in Detestation of so scandalous, seditious and false a Discourse, having made humble Suit to his Majesty with one Consent, that the same might be publickly burnt by the Hangman; his Majesty therefore holding it most necessary, that some such publick Demonstration should be made of so great and enormous an Insolency, tending to raise Mutiny and Sedition in the Kingdom, is pleased to declare by these Presents, That no Person or Persons hereafter, of what Degree or Condition soever, presume to keep any Copy of any of the Editions of the said Pamphlet, but that within ten Days after this Proclamation published, every such Person or Persons dwelling in the Country remote from London, shall deliver to the next Justice of the Peace adjoining to his or their Dwelling, all and every Copy and Copies thereof, of what Edition soever, the same to be by the said Justices of Peace immediately sent or brought to one of his Majesty's Principal Secretaries, upon Peril of incurring the uttermost of such Punishments and Penalties, as by the Laws of this Realm are to be inflicted upon those that keep such scandalous and seditious Pamphlets and Papers; his Majesty hereby pardoning and remitting unto such Persons, as have formerly had any Copy of the said Discourse in their Custody, and shall deliver the same according to this Proclamation, all their Offences in their former detaining thereof.
'And if hereafter any seditious and scandalous Pamphlets of like Nature, either Manuscripts or printed, concerning his Majesty's Proceedings in Scotland, or any other Relations or Discourses concerning the same, shall be published or divulged, other than such Relations or Discourses as shall be printed or published by his Majesty's special Licence or Authority, and that they shall come into the Hands of any of his Majesty's Subjects, who shall not within ten Days after bring the same unto one of his Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, if they into whose Hands they shall come, be or remain in London, or within twenty Miles distance of the same, or if they shall remain or be in Parts more remote, shall not bring the said seditious Pamphlets or Discourses to one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace, to be by him sent to one of his Principal Secretaries of State as aforesaid, his Majesty by the Advice of his Council doth declare, that then every Person so offending, shall incur his Majesty's high Displeasure, and the uttermost of such Penalties and Punishments, as by the Laws of this Realm are to be inflicted upon those that keep such scandalous and seditious Papers and Pamphlets, without Pardon or Remission.
A Copy of Letters directed to the Lord Lieutenants and Deputy Lieutenants of the several Counties, to be assisting to the Lord Conway, for the raising and levying of Men.
After, &c. to your good Lordship. Whereas a Commission hath been given by our very good Lord, the Earl of Northumberland, Lord General of his Majesty's Army and Forces sent into the Northern Parts, by which his Lordship by virtue of his Majesty's Commission under the Great Seal to him directed, hath constituted and appointed our very good Lord the Lord Conway, his Deputy for the Government of the said Army in his Absence, and of the Horse Troops already levied, and hath given to him sundry Powers, Directions and Authorities, as by the said Letters under the said Lord General's Hand and Seal more at length appeareth, We have thought fit hereby to pray and require your Lordship, and your Deputy Lieutenants, according to his Majesty's special Command, to be aiding and assisting unto the said Lord Conway in the Government of the said Army, and Troops of Horse, and for the raising and levying of the Trained Bands of Horse and Foot of your County, to make resistance to any Enemies, or to assail them according to the Tenor of his said Commission, and to be aiding unto him both by your Council, and all other fit Ways and Means as he shall desire, and as the Occasions shall require. Whereof you may not fail, for such is his Majesty's especial Direction and Command. Dated the last of March 1640. Signed
- Lord Archbishop of Canterbury.
- Lord Keeper.
- Lord Treasurer.
- Marquiss Hamilton.
- Earl Marshal.
- Lord Admiral.
- Lord Chamberlain.
- Earl of Salisbury.
- Lord Goring.
- Mr. Treasurer.
- Mr. Comptroller.
- Mr. Secretary Windebanke.
At the Court at White-Hall, the first of April 1640.
- Lord Archbishop of Canterbury.
- Lord Keeper.
- Lord Treasurer.
- Lord Duke of Lenox.
- Lord Marquiss Hamilton.
- Earl Marshal.
- Lord Admiral.
- Lord Chamberlain.
- Earl of Salisbury.
- Earl of Dorset.
- Earl of Holland.
- Earl of Berks.
- Earl of Traquaire.
- Lord Goring.
- Mr. Treasurer.
- Mr. Comptroller.
- Mr. Secretary Windebanke.
- Lord Chief Justice of the Common-Pleas.
This day his Majesty sitting in Council, was pleased to communicate to the Lords the Contentment he had received, as concerning the Proceedings of his Subjects of the Kingdom of Ireland there assembled in Parliament, and for their Lordships Information therein, did require Mr. Secretary Windebanke to read the Letters by him newly received from his Majesty's Council there, together with the Declaration of the House of Commons made upon the twenty third of March last past, touching the Grant of four Subsidies, and the unanimous Expression of their Loyal Affection to his Majesty's Service and Person, and their humble Acknowledgment of the great Favours and Benefits which they enjoyed through his Majesty's gracious and happy Government. Which Letters and Declaration having accordingly been read, his Majesty further acquainted the Board, that by other Letters he was advertised, that the Upper House of Parliament there, had likewise expressed the same Affection, and consented in all that had been agreed or declared by the House of Commons, they also desiring, that as much might likewise be signified to his Majesty on their Parts, and be made publick also to all the World. Their Lordships were thereupon filled with Joy, which they as fully expressed to his Majesty; and after Deliberation thereof had, it was by his Majesty with Advice of the Board ordered, that the said Letter from his Majesty's Council in Ireland, and Declaration of the House of Commons, should be enter'd in the Register of the Council Causes, to remain there as a Record unto Posterity, and that Copies of the Declaration should not be refused to any that desired the same. The Tenor of which Declaration and Letter was as followeth.
The Resolution taken this day in the Commons House of Parliament; and the observable Circumstances which occurred therein, in our View who have the Honour to serve his Majesty, as of his Privy Council here; and who as Members of the House of Commons, were present and co-operating in that Resolution, have render'd to us such inward Joy and Contentment, in the Apprehension of the entire Affections and great Loyalty of this People, abundantly testified thereby, as we esteem it our Duties to hasten the glad Advertisement thereof to his sacred Majesty.
After the Proposal of such Acts of Grace and Advantage to the Subject, as we conceived most fit to lead in order to the propounding of the Subsidies; six Subsidies were demanded for his Majesty. Whereupon divers Members of the House spake thereunto; some of the Natives declaring, That as six were granted the last Parliament, towards enabling the King to pay the Debts contracted for the Occasions of this Crown, and for the better Settlement of the Revenues, so at this time six or more are fit to be given, it being apparent that the Peace and Safety of the Kingdom are become so nearly concerned. Some also of the Natives shewing divers Precedents in antient Times, and among those, some, whereby the King by a Mandate from himself alone without a Parliament, caused Moneys and Goods to be taken in Ireland from Merchants and others, towards defraying the Charges of his Expeditions against the Scots, for Defence of his Kingdom: And those having enlarged themselves in that Point, mentioned the abundant Clemency and Piety of his Majesty, in being so indulgent to his Subjects, as to decline that Example of his Progenitors, and require Aid of his Subjects in a Parliamentary Way. Some of them said that his Majesty should have a Fee-Simple of Subsidies in their Estates upon like Occasions, others of them with great Chearfulness declared, that to answer his Majesty's Occasions for the Honour of his Person, and Safety of his Kingdoms, it was fit to be done though it were with leaving themselves nothing besides Hose and Doublet; some of them with much Earnestness, after forward Expressions of Readiness towards advancing the Business, concluded that as his Majesty is the best of Kings, so his People should strive to be ranked amongst the best of Subjects. Thus every of them in a manner, seeming to contend with one another who should shew most Affection and Forwardness to comply with his Majesty's Occasions, and all of them expressing even with Passion how much they abhor and detest the Scotish Covenanters, and how readily every Man's Hand ought to be laid on his Sword, to assist the King in the reducing of them by Force to the Obeatence and Loyalty of Subjects, they desired that themselves and others of this Nation might have the Honour to be employed in this Expedition, and declared with very great Demonstration of chearful Affections, That their Hearts contained Mines of Subsidies, for his Majesty; That twenty Subsidies, if their Abilities were equal with their Desires, were too little to be given to so sacred a Majesty, from whose Princely Clemency, by the Ministration of the Lord Lieutenant, so many and so gracious Favours are continually derived unto them; That the Promises made unto them by his Lordship the last Parliament on his Majesty's behalf, have been fully and effectually performed in all things to their Comfort and Contentment; That the Subjects of this Kingdom are infinitely bound to his Majesty for his gracious Favour in giving them the first Opportunity, thus early before others of his Subjects, to manifest their Faith and Loyalty to him; and in the end considering the present Condition of the Kingdom, and how unable they are without too much Pressure to advance more at this time, They humbly besought that by the Lord Lieutenant's Interposition to his Majesty, four Subsidies might be accepted from them at this time; yet with this Declaration made by them, with as much Demonstration of Loyalty as ever Nation or People expressed towards a King, That if more than these four shall be requisite, and the Occasions of the War continue, They will be ready to grant more; and to lay down their Persons, Lives and Estates at his Majesty's Feet, to further his Royal Designs for Correction of the disordered Factions in Scotland, and reducing them to a right Understanding of themselves, and for the Defence and Safety of his Majesty's Kingdoms and People. And they earnestly desired us of the Council then present, that immediately after the Rising of the House, we would represent this from the House to the Lord Lieutenant, which they did with General Acclamations and Signs of Joy and Contentment; even to the throwing up of their Hats, and lifting up of their Hands.
The Question being put for the granting of four Subsidies, with such a Declaration to be made, beside the Act of Subsidy, It was unanimously assented unto by the whole House, there being found therein not one Negative Voice; which we mention for the Glory of his Majesty that hath so good and loyal Subjects, and for the Honour of this Government and Nation; and at the Request of the House, select Committees were appointed to draw up the Declaration, which will be printed with the Act of Subsidy.
And we intreat you as speedily as you may to make known to his Majesty these Passages, which are (as we humbly conceive) of mighty Importance to the Honour of his Majesty, and Safety of his Dominions.
And because no Words are able fully to set forth the Chearfulness wherewith this People did in this Particular manifest their Sense of his Majesty's Occasions, by their Desires to further his Royal Intentions, and their entire Affections to preserve the Honour of his Person, and all with most lively Expressions of their Duty and Loyalty towards him; We of his Council could have wished, if it had been possible that his Majesty had been in his own Person an Eye-Witness of this Day's Carriage, which we humbly conceive would have been of much more Value in his Royal Estimation than twenty Subsidies. And so, Sir, we remain from his Majesty's Castle of Dublin the twenty third of March 1639.
- John Dillon.
- William Parsons.
- Ph. Mainwaring.
- Edward Trevor.
- William St. Leger.
- Chr. Wandesford.
- Cha. Coote.
- Geo. Radcliffe.
- Adam Loftus.
- John Borlasse.
- Tho. Rotherham.
- Ro. Meredeth.
'Whereas they have with one Consent chearfully given to his Majesty four entire Subsidies, towards his present Preparation to reduce his disaffected Subjects the Covenanters in Scotland to their due Obedience, They still hope that his Majesty's great Wisdom, and unexampled Clemency may yet prevail, even with the worse affected of those his Subjects, to bring them to that Conformity and Submission, which by the Laws of God and Nature they owe unto him. But if his Majesty shall be enforced to use his Power to vindicate his just Authority, this House for themselves, and the Commons of this Kingdom, do profess, that their Zeal and Duty shall not stay here at these four Subsidies. But they do humbly offer their Persons and Estates, even to the utmost of their Ability, for his Majesty's future Supply in a Parliamentary Way, as his great Occasions by the Continuance of that Distemper shall require. This they pray, that it may be represented to his sacred Majesty, by the Right Honourable the Lord Lieutenant, That it may be recorded as an Ordinance of Parliament; and that it may be published in Print for a Testimony to all the World and succeeding Ages, That as this Kingdom hath the Happiness to be governed by the best of Kings, so they are desirous to give his Majesty just Cause to account of this People amongst the best of his Subjects.
The Privy-Council was careful to provide all things necessary in order to the carrying on of the War in England against the Scots, whatever the Issue of the Parliament should prove to be, and took special Care for Provisions for the Horse, as by the Instructions and Orders following do appear.
First, You are to attend the Lord General of his Majesty's Army, and to take Direction from his Lordship from time to time what Quantities of Oats, Beans, Hay, and other Provisions for Horse will be requisite and wanting, and provide the same by virtue of your Commission, and cause them to be provided from time to time to such Places as his Lordship shall direct you; and for the present you are to provide the Quantity of six hundred Loads of Hay, and three thousand Quarters of Oats to be laid in at Berwick before the last of June.
You are to require the Assistance of the Justices of Assize, and Deputy Lieutenants, and likewise of the Peace jointly in Sessions, or severally as Occasion shall require, and as in your Discretion shall seem best for the Service; to which end Letters of Assistance are directed unto them.
For Conveyance and Carriage of those Provisions, you shall by virtue of your Commission, and your Letters of Assistance, provide the same both by Land and Water, that is to say, either Ships by Sea, or Boats by Rivers, as likewise all kind of Land Carriages, by Carts, Waggons, Horses, &c. at such moderate Prices as you can agree upon.
You shall from time to time give due Advertisement to the Lord General of his Majesty's Army, or such as his Lordship shall appoint, letting his Lordship know where you are, and how you proceed in the particular Services.
If in the execution of this Service you shall find any Persons either negligent in giving Assistance, or refractory in their Obedience, you shall give account thereof either to the Lord General, or to the Lords of the Council here, as you shall judge of the Reformation to be more speedily expected in respect of the Place and Distance.
You shall give your Pasports or Certificates to all such as you shall employ in carrioge of those Provisions you shall make, signifying that they are carried by your order, requiring all Persons to be aiding and assisting unto the Conveyers, and not to presume to divert or hinder them in their passage to those places you have directed them. And in those Pasports you shall require all his Majesty's Officers and Ministers to be aiding and assisting; and the like Pasports your Deputies shall give from those places where they shall make any Provisions sot your Direction.
If in the execution of this Service you shall find any defect in the Commission, Power and Instructions given you, or your Deputies, you shall further advertise the same unto one of the Principal Secretaries of State, that so it may be supplied.
Lastly, howsoever there is a Fee allowed you in the Establishment of the Army, yet because other Sums may peradventure be necessarily expended both in respect of the Charge of your Deputies, as many other ways, his Majesty hath given order that the same shall be from time to time paid unto you upon such Bills as you shall present unto the Lord Treasurer and Chancellor of the Exchequer, and which they shall allow of. Dated and Signed as the Warrants.
An open Warrant directed to all his Majesty's Lords Lieutenants of Counties, their Deputies, Justices of Assize, Justices of Peace, Sheriffs, Mayors, and all Admirals, Vice-Admirals, Bayliffs, Headboroughs, Constables, and all other his Majesty's Officers and loving Subjects whatsoever.
Whereas his Majesty by Commission under the Great Seal of England, bearing date the 1st of April, hath been pleased to nominate and appoint John Gibbon Esq; to be Commissary and Provider of all manner of Provisions for the Horse belonging to the Army, now going towards the Northern parts; as likewise for providing all manner of Carriages, as well by Land as by Water, and whatsoever else shall be incident and necessary for that Service, as more at large doth appear by the said Commission: and for that the due and diligent execution of this Service doth highly concern the Prosperity and good Success of his Majesty's Affairs, These shall be in his Majesty's Name, strictly to charge and require all those his Ministers whom it doth concern, and especially those to whom these Presents are directed, to be furthering, aiding and assisting unto the said John Gibbon, his Agents and Deputies, in the Execution of the said Commission. And in case any Person or Persons shall be found disobedient or refractory in the performance of whatsoever may conduce to the execution and discharge of the said Commission, and duly required from the said Commissary, they shall proceed by all lawful means and ways for the exemplary and speedy Punishment of such Offenders at their utmost Perils. Dated at Whitehall the 2d of April 1640.
- Lord Archbishop of Canterbury.
- Lord Keeper.
- Lord Treasurer.
- Marquess Hamilton.
- Earl Marshal.
- Lord High-Admiral.
- Lord Chamberlain.
- Earl of Salisbury.
- Lord Goring.
- Mr. Treasurer.
- Mr. Comptroller.
- Mr. Secretary Windebanke.
- Lord Chief-Justice of the Common-Pleas.
Apatent of Creation granted unto Sir John Finch Kt. Lord-Keeper of the Great Seal of England, of the Dignity and Honour of Lord Finch of Fordwich in the County of Kent, to him and the Heirs Males of his Body, with all Rights and Privileges to the same belonging. His testibus, &c. Datum per manum Domini Regis apud Palacium Westm. vii. die Aprilis Anno R. sui xvi.
You shall swear, That well and truly you shall serve out Sovereign Lord the King and his People in the Office of Chancellor, and you shall do right to all manner of People, poor and rich, after the Laws and Usages of this Realm; And truly you shall counsel the King, and his Counsel you shall lain and keep, and you shall not know nor suffer the hurt or disinheriting of the King, or that the right of the Crown be decreased by any means, as far forth as you may lett it: And if you may not lett it: you shall make it clearly and expresly known unto the King, with your true Advice and Counsel. And that you shall do and purchase the Kings Profit in all that you reasonably may, as God you help, and by the Contents of this Book.
Upon report of his Majesty's Attorney-General, that sundry Patents, Licences, and Commissions, which were last called in and declared void by his Majesty's Preclamation, were still detain'd and kept by the Patentees, and such unto whom those Licences and Commissions were granted, they refusing to bring in and deliver up the same, according as by Command and Order of the Board they were enjoined; which Order was sufficiently made known unto them by Edward Stockdale, one of the Messengers of his Majesty's Chamber, thereto expresly appointed. It was thereupon order'd, that the said Edward Stockdale should, by vertue hereof, give warning to all those Patentees, and others concerned in the Licences and Commissions, according to the Schedule set down at the foot of this Order, to bring in the said Patents, Licences and Commissions to the Council-Chamber, and with the same to attend personally on the Board on Friday next: whereof they may not fail, as they will answer the contrary at their Perils.
A Warrant directed to Thomas Adams one of the Sheriffs of the City of London, as followeth.
Whereas his Majesty finds cause to restrain the Person of the Lord Loudon, and hath made choice of your Service and of your House for that purpose, these are therefore in his Majesty's Name, to will and require you to receive the said Lord Loudon into your custody, and him safely to keep, until his Majesty's pleasure shall be further signified unto you in this behalf. Dated the 11th of April 1640. Signed,
- Lord Archbishop of Canterbury.
- Lord Marquess Hamilton.
- Lord High-Admiral.
- Earl of Traquaire.
- Lord Cottington.
- Mr. Treasurer.
- Mr. Secretary Windebanke.
On Monday April 13. the Parliament opened at Westminster. Now because we desire to keep strictly to point of Time, let military Preparations be postponed till the end of this Parliament, which was dissolved the 5th of May following,
The King's most Excellent Majesty doth straightly charge and command all manner of Persons, chosen for the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses, to attend in this present Parliament, that they, nor any of them, do presume to sit or take their Places in the Lower-House of Parliament, until they, and every of them, have first taken the Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance in the usual manner and place, nor until the Sheriff shall make return of his Writ according to Statute, unto the Clerk of the Crown in Chancery, and his or their Names be there entred in such manner as hath heretofore been accustomed, upon Pain of the Peril shall fall thereon.
The Names of the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses of the Counties Cities and Borough-Towns of England and Wales, and the Barons of the Ports now summoned to sit in Parliament holden at Westminster the 13th day of April 1640, in the 16th Year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord King Charles.
- Thomas Lord Wentworth.
- Oliver Luke Knt.
- Town of Bedford.
- Beauchampe St. John Knt.
- Samuel Luke Knt.
- John Hamden Esq;
- Arthur Goodwyn Esq; Town of Buckingham.
- Peter Temple Knt. and Bar.
- Alexander Denton Knt. Borough of Wiccombe.
- Edward Verney Knight-Marshal.
- Thomas Lane Esq; Borough of Alisbury.
- John Packington Bar.
- Ralph Verney Esq; Borough of Agmondesham, alias Amersham.
- William Drake Esq;
- Edward Walker Jun. Esq; Borough of Wendover.
- Walter Pye Knt.
- Robert Crooke Esq;
- Bennet Hoskins Esq; Borough of Merlowe.
- John Burlace Esq;
- William Hicks Knt.
- John Fettiplace Esq;
- Henry Marten Esq; Borough of New Windsor.
- Arthur Ingram Knt.
- Richard Harrison Knt. Borough of Reading.
- Francis Knoles Sen. Knt.
- Francis Knoles Jun. Knt. Borough of Wallingford.
- Edmond Dunch Esq;
- Unton Croke Esq; Borough of Abingdon.
- George Stonehouse Bar.
- Francis Godolphin Esq;
- Richard Buller Knt. Borough of Dunchevit alias Lanceston.
- Bevell Greynvill Knt.
- Ambrose Manaton Esq; Borough of Leskard.
- John Harris Esq;
- Sege Kekewich Esq; Borough of Lestwithiel.
- Richard Arundel Esq;
- Nicholas Kendall Esq; Borough of Truro.
- Francis Rows Esq;
- John Roll Gent. Borough of Bodwyn.
- q Richard Winn Knt. and Bar.
- Richard Prideaux Esq; Borough of Helston.
- Sidney Godolphin Esq;
- William Godolphin Esq; Borough of Saltashe.
- George Buller Esq;
- Francis Buller Esq; Borough of Camelford.
- Pierce Edgcombe Esq;
- Edward Reade Esq; Borough of Port-pigham alias Westlowe.
- Anthony Mildmay Esq;
- George Potter Esq; Borough of Grampound.
- Warwick Mohun Esq;
- John Trevanion Esq;
- William Coryton Esq; Borough of Eastlaw.
- William Scawen Esq;
- William Code Esq; Borough of Penrin.
- Joseph Hall Esq;
- Richard Vivian Knt. Borough of Tregony.
- Nicholas Burlace Esq;
- John Arundel Esq;
- John Seyntaubin Esq; Borough of Bossing.
- Anthony Nichols Esq;
- Edward Herle Esq; Borough of St. Ives.
- William Dell Esq;
- Henry Martin Knt. Borough of Fowey.
- Edwin Rich Esq;
- Jonathan Rashleigh Esq; Borough of St Jermins.
- William Scawen Esq;
- John Elliot Esq;
- John Elliot Esq; Borough of Michell.
- Peter Courtney Esq;
- William Chadwell Esq;
- Francis Basset Esq;
- Samuel Cosworth Esq; Borough of Newport.
- Nicholas Trefusis Esq;
- John Maynard Esq;
- Paul Specott Esq; Borough of St. Mawes.
- Jacob Sheffeild Esq;
- George Parry Doctor at Law. Borough of Killington.
- Samuel Roll Knt.
- Thomas Gardiner Esq;
- George Dolston Knt.
- Patrick Curwyn Bar. City of Carlisle.
- William Dalston Esq;
- Richard Barwis Esq;
- Dudley North Knt. and Bar.
- John Cutts Knt. Cambridge University.
- Thomas Eden Doctor at Law.
- Henry Lucas Esq; Town of Cambridge.
- Thomas Meautes Esq;
- q Oliver Cromwell Esq;
- William Brereton Bar.
- Thomas Ashton Bar. City of Chester.
- Thomas Smith Knt. and Alderman.
- Robert Brerewood Esq;
- John Manners Knt.
- John Curson Bar. Town of Derby.
- William Alostree Esq; and Record.
- q Nathaniel Hallowes Alderman.
- Thomas Wise Esq;
- q Edward Seymour Esq; City of Exeter.
- Robert Walker Esq; Mayor.
- Jacob Tucker Esq; Alderman. Borough of Totnes.
- Oliver St. John Esq;
- John Maynard Esq; Borough of Plimouth.
- Robert Trelawny Esq;
- John Waddon Esq; Borough of Barnstaple.
- George Peard Esq;
- Thomas Mathew Merchant. Borough of Plimpton.
- Richard Strode Knt.
- Nicholas Slanning Knt. Recorder.
- Thomas Hele Bar. Borough of Tavistocke.
- William Lord Russel.
- John Pym Esq; Borough of Dartmouth. Clifton Hardnes.
- John Upton Esq;
- Andrew Voysey Merchant. Borough of Bereaston.
- William Strode Esq;
- John Harris Esq; Borough of Tiverton.
- Peter Ball Esq; Queen's Attorny.
- Peter St. Hill Esq;
- Richard Rogers Esq;
- George Lord Digby. Town of Pool.
- John Pym Esq;
- William Constantine Esq; Borough of Dorchester.
- Denzil Hollis Esq;
- Dennis Bond Gent. Borough of Lyme-Regis.
- Walter Earle Knt.
- Edward Prideaux Esq;
- Richard Rose Gent. Borough of Weymouth.
- John Strangewayes Knt.
- Thomas Gier Gent. Melcomb-Regis.
- Giles Strangewayes Esq;
- Richard King Esq; Borough of Bridport.
- Thomas Trenchard Esq;
- John Miller Knt. Borough of Shaftsbury
- William Whitaker Esq; Recorder.
- Samuel Turner Esq; Borough of Wareham.
- John Trenchard Esq;
- Gilbert Jones Doctor of the Civil Law. Borough of Corfe-Castle.
- Henry Jermin Esq;
- Giles Green Esq;
- Thomas Barrington Knt. and Bar.
- Harbottle Grimston Knt. and Bar. Borough of Colchester.
- William Masham Knt and Bar.
- Harbottle Grimston Esq; Borough of Malden.
- Henry Mildmay Knt.
- John Porter Esq; Recorder, Borough of Harwich.
- Thomas Cheeke Knt.
- John Jacobs Knt.
- Robert Tracy Knt.
- Robert Cooke Knt. City of Gloucester.
- William Singleton Esq;
- Henry Brett Esq; Borough of Cirencester.
- Henry Poole Esq;
- John George Esq; Borough of Tewksbury.
- Anthony Ashley Cowper Bar.
- Edward Alford Knt.
- q Thomas Cotton Bar.
- Capell Beadle Bar. Town of Huntington.
- Robert Bernard Esq; Recorder.
- William Mountague Esq;
- William Litton Knt.
- Arthur Capel Esq; Town of St. Albans.
- John Jennings Knight of the Bath.
- Thomas Conningsby Esq; Town of Hartford.
- Charles Viscount Cranborne.
- Tho. Fanshaw Knight of the Bath.
- Robert Harley Knight of the Bath.
- Walter Pye Knt. City of Hereford.
- Richard Weaver Gent.
- Richard Seaborn Esq; Borough of Lempster:
- William Smaleman Esq;
- Walter Kirle Esq Borough of Webley.
- William Tomkins Esq;
- Thomas Tomkins Esq;
- Roger Twisden Knight and Bar.
- Norton Knatchbull Esq; City of Canterbury.
- Ed. Master Esq;
- John Nutt Esq; City of Rochester.
- Thomas Walsingham Knt.
- John Clerk Esq; Borough of Maidstone.
- George Fane Knt.
- Francis Barnham Knt. Borough of Quinborough.
- Edward Hales Knt. and Bar.
- John Wolstenholme Knt.
- John Wraye Knt. and Bar.
- Edw. Hussey Knt and Bar. City of Lincoln.
- John Farmery Doctor of the Civil Law.
- Thomas Grantham Esq; Town of Boston.
- Anthony Irby Knt.
- William Ellis Esq; Town of Grimesby.
- Gervase Holles Esq;
- Christopher Wraye Knt. Town of Stamford.
- Thomas Hatton Knt.
- Thomas Hatcher Esq; Borough of Grantham.
- Edward Bash Knt.
- Henry Pelham Esq;
- Arthur Haselrigge Bar.
- Henry Lord Graye of Ruthen. Town of Leicester.
- Simon Every Esq;
- Thomas Cooke Esq;
- Gilbert Houghton Knt. and Bar.
- William Farrington Esq;
- Borough of Preston n Andernes.
- Richard Shuttleworth Esq;
- Thomas Standishe Esq; Town of Lancaster.
- Roger Kirby Esq;
- John Harrison Esq; Borough of Leverpoole.
- Jacob Lord Cranfeilde.
- John Holcroft Esq; Borough of Wigan.
- Orlando Bridgeman Esq;
- Alexander Rigbie Esq; Borough of Clithero.
- Richard Shuttleworth Gent.
- Ralph Ashtón Esq; Borough of Newton.
- Richard Wynne Knt. and Bar.
- William Sherman Esq;
- Gilbert Gerrard Bar.
- John Franklyn Knt City of Westminster.
- John Glyn Esq;
- William Bell Gent. City of London.
- Thomas Soame Esq; Alderman.
- Isaac Pennynton Esq; Alderman.
- Matthew Cradocke Merchant.
- Samuel Vassel Merchant.
- Thomas Morgan Esq;
- Walter Rumsey Esq; Town of Monmouth.
- Charles Jones Esq; Recorder.
- William Watkins Esq;
- John Crewe Esq;
- Gilbert Pickering Knt. and Bar. City of Peterborough.
- David Cecil Esq;
- William Fitz-Williams Esq; Town of Northampton.
- Zouch Tate Esq;
- Richard Knightley Jun. Esq; Borough of Brackley.
- Thomas Wenman Knight.
- Martin Lister Knight. Borough of Higham Ferrers.
- Christopher Hatton Knight of the Bath.
- Thomas Hutchinson Knight.
- Robert Sutton Esq; Town of Nottingham.
- Charles Cavendish Knight.
- Gilbert Boone Serjeant at Law. Borough of East-Retford,
- Jervas Clifton Knight and Bar.
- Francis Pierepoint Esq;
- John Holland Baronet.
- Edward Moundeford Knight. City of Norwich.
- Thomas Atkins Citizen of Norwich.
- John Tooley Citizen and Alderman. Town of Lynne Regis.
- William Doughtie Esq; Alderman.
- Thomas Gurlyn Esq; Alderman. Town of Great Yarmouth.
- Edward Owner Esq; Alderman.
- Miles Corbett Esq; Recorder. Town of Thetford.
- Thomas Woodhouse Knight and Baronet.
- Framhugham Gawdy Esq; Borough of Castle-Rising.
- Thomas Talbot Esq;
- Nicholas Harman Esq;
- John Fenwick Knight and Baronet.
- William Widdrington Knight. Town of Newcastle upon Tyne.
- Peter Riddell Knight.
- Thomas Liddell Esq; Borough of Morpeth.
- Philip Manwaring Knight.
- Thomas Witherings Esq; Town of Berwick.
- Thomas Widdrington Knight
- Hugh Potter Esq;
- Jacob Fyennis Esq;
- Francis Wenman Knight. University of Oxford.
- Francis Windebank Knight, one of the principal Secretaries of State.
- John Danvers Knight. City of Oxford.
- Charles Viscount Andover.
- Thomas Cooper Gent. Alderman. Borough of Woodstock.
- William Lenthall Esq;
- William Fleetwood Knight. Borough of Banbury.
- Nathaniel Fyennis Esq;
- Richard Onslow Knight.
- Ambrose Browne Baronet. Borough of Southwark.
- Robert Holborne Esq;
- Richard Tuffnell Gent. Borough of Blechenley. q
- Edward Bishe Esq;
- Edmond Hoskins Esq;
- Francis Carew Knight of the Bath. Borough of Ryegate. q
- Thomas Thurland Esq;
- Thomas Bludder Knight.
- John Goodwyn Esq; Borough of Guilford.
- Robert Parkhurst Knight.
- George Abbot Esq; Borough of Gatton.
- Samuel Owfield Esq;
- Edward Sanders Esq; Borough of Haslemere.
- John Jaques Baronet.
- William Elliot Knight.
- Edward Littleton Baronet.
- William Bowyer Knight. Borough of Litchfield.
- Walter Devereux Knight.
- Richard Dyot Knight. Town of Stafford.
- Ralph Sneyde Gent.
- Richard Weston Esq;
- Borough of Newcastle under Lyne.
- John Merrick Knight.
- Richard Loyd Esq; Borough of Tamworth.
- George Abbot Esq;
- Simon Archer Knight.
- William Pierpoint Esq;
- Vincent Corbet Esq; Borough of Salop.
- Francis Newport Esq;
- Thomas Owen Esq; Bruges alias Bridgenorth.
- Thomas Whitmore Esq;
- Edward Acton Esq; Borough of Ludlow.
- Ralph Goodwyn Esq;
- Charles Baldwyn Esq; Great Wenlock.
- Thomas Littleton Esq;
- Richard Cresset Esq; Bishops Castle.
- Robert Howard Knight and Bar.
- Richard Moore Esq;
- Henry Wallop Knight.
- Richard Whitehead Esq; Borough of Winton.
- John Lisley Esq;
- William Ogle Knight Town of Southampton.
- John Mill Baronet.
- Thomas Levingston Esq; Borough of Portsmouth.
- William Hamilton Esq; of Lanrick.
- Henry Percie Esq; Borough of Yarmouth.
- Philip Lord Lisle.
- William Oglander Esq;
- John Bulkley Esq;
- Borough of Peterfield.
- William Lewis Baronet.
- William Udal Knight. Newport alias Medena.
- Lucius Viscount Falkland.
- Henry Worsley Baronet. Borough of Stockbridge.
- William Jephson Esq;
- William Heveningham Esq; Borough of New-town.
- Nicholas Weston Esq;
- John Meux Esq; Christ-Church.
- Arnold Herbert Knight.
- Henry Tulse Esq; Borough of Whitchurch.
- Thomas Jervoyse Knight.
- Richard Jervoyse Esq; Borough of Limmington.
- John Dodington Esq;
- John Kempe Esq; Borough of Andover.
- Richard Wyn Baronet.
- Robert Wallop Esq;
- Nathaniel Barnardiston Knight.
- Philip Parker Knight. Borough of Ipswich.
- William Gage Esq;
- John Gurdon Esq; Borough of Dunwich.
- Henry Coke Esq;
- Anthony Bedingfield Esq; Borough of Ortford.
- Charles le Grosse Knight.
- Edward Duke Esq; Borough of Aldburgh.
- William Raynborow Esq;
- Squire Bence Merchant. Borough of Sudbury.
- Robert Crane Knight and Baronet.
- Richard Pepys Esq; Borough of Eye.
- Frederick Cornwallis Knight and Baronet.
- Roger North Knight.
- q Borough of St. Edmondsbury.
- Thomas Jermyn Knight.
- John Godbold Recorder.
- Ralph Hopton Knight of the Bath.
- Thomas Smith Esq; City of Bristol.
- John Glanvil Serjeant at Law.
- Humphrey Hook Esq; Alderman. City of Bath.
- Charles Berkley Knight.
- Alexander Popham Esq; City of Wells.
- Edward Rodney Knight.
- John Barber Esq; Borough of Taunton.
- William Portman Baronet.
- Roger Hill Gent. Borough of Bridgewater.
- Edmond Windham Esq;
- Robert Blake Gent. Borough of Mynhead.
- Alexander Popham Esq;
- Francis Windham Gent.
- Arthur Ducke Doctor of the Civil Law. Borough of Ilchester.
- Henry Berkley Knight.
- Edward Philips Esq; Milborne Port.
- Edward Kirkton Esq;
- Thomas Earle Esq;
- Thomas Pelham Baronet.
- Anthony Stapley Esq; City of Chichester.
- Christopher Lewkner Esq;
- Edward Dowse Esq; Borough of Horsham.
- Thomas Middleton Esq;
- Hall Ravenscroft Esq; Borough of Midhurst.
- Thomas May Esq;
- Robert Long Esq; Borough of Lewes.
- Herbert Morley Esq;
- Jacob Rivers Esq; Borough of Shoreham.
- William Marlot Gent.
- John Alford Esq;
- Borough of Bramber.
- John Suckling Knight.
- Thomas Bowyer Baronet. Borough of Steyning.
- John Leeds Knight.
- Thomas Farnefold Knight. Borough of Eastgrimsted.
- Henry Compton Knight of the Bath.
- Robert Goodwyn Esq; Borough of Arundel.
- Henry Garton Esq;
- Henry Goring Esq;
- Philip Musgrave Baronet.
- Henry Bellingnam Knight and Baronet. Borough of Appleby.
- q Richard Viscount Dungarven.
- Richard Lowther Esq;
- Philip Lord Herbert.
- Francis Seymour Knight. Borough of Salisbury.
- Robert Hide Esq; and Recorder.
- Michael Oldsworth Esq; Borough of Wilton.
- Henry Vane Knight.
- Benjamin Rudyard Knight. Borough of Downton.
- Edward Griffin Knight.
- William Eyre Esq; Borough of Hyndon.
- Miles Fleetwood Knight.
- George Gerrard Esq; Borough of Heytsbury.
- John Berkley Knight.
- Thomas Moore Esq; Borough of Westbury.
- Thomas Penestone Knight.
- John Ash Esq; Borough of Calne.
- William Maynard Esq;
- Walter Norborne Esq; Borough of Vize.
- Edward Baynton Esq;
- Henry Danvers Esq; Borough of Chippenham.
- Edward Hungerford Knight and Baronet.
- Edward Baynton Knight. Borough of Malmsbury.
- Nevill Poole Knight.
- Anthony Hungerford Esq; Borough of Kricklade.
- Robert Jenner Esq; Borough of Bedwyn.
- Richard Harding Esq;
- Charles Seymour Esq; Borough of Ludgershall.
- William Ashburnham Esq;
- John Evelin Knight. Borough of Old Sarum.
- Edward Herbert Esq; Sollicitor.
- William Howard Knight. Wotten-Basset.
- Thomas Windebanke Esq; Borough of Marlborough.
- William Carnaby Knight.
- Francis Baskervile Esq;
- Thomas Littleton Knight and Baronet.
- John Packington Baronet. City of Worcester.
- John Cowcher Esq;
- John Nash Esq; Borough of Droitwich.
- John Wilde Sergeant at Law.
- Samuel Sandys Esq; Borough of Evesham.
- William Sandys Esq;
- William Moreton Esq; Borough of Bewdley.
- Henry Herbert Knight.
- Thomas Lucy Knight.
- William Combe Esq; Borough of Coventry.
- William Jesson Alderman.
- Simon Norton Alderman. Town of Warwick.
- William Purefoy Esq;
- Godfery Bossevile Esq;
- Henry Bellasis Esq;
- William Savile Baronet City of York.
- Edward Osborne Baronet.
- Roger Jaques Knight. Town of Kingston upon Hull.
- John Lister Knight.
- Henry Vane Esq; Borough of Knasborough.
- Henry Slingsby Baronet.
- Henry Benson Esq; Borough of Scarborough.
- Hugh Cholmley Knight.
- John Hotham Esq; Borough of Rippon.
- William Mallory Esq;
- Paul Neile Knight. Borough of Richmond.
- William Pennington Baronet.
- Major Norton Esq; Borough of Heydon.
- Philip Stapleton Knight.
- John Allured Esq; Borough of Borough-bridge.
- Ferdinand Fairfax Knight.
- Francis Nevill Esq; Borough of Thurske.
- John Bellasis Esq;
- William Franckland Esq; Borough of Aldburg.
- Richard Aldburgh Esq;
- Brian Palmes Esq; Borough of Beverley.
- John Hotham Knight and Baronet.
- Michael Wharton Esq; Borough of Pomfret.
- John Ramsden Knight.
- George Wentworth Knight.
- Borough of Hastings.
- John Baker Baronet.
- Robert Reade Esq; Borough of Winchelsey.
- Nicholas Crispe Knight.
- John Finch Esq; Borough of Rye.
- John Culpeper Knight.
- John White Esq; Borough of Rumney.
- Thomas Godfrey Esq;
- William Steele Esq; Borough of Hyeth.
- Henry Heyman Esq;
- John Wandesford Esq; Borough of Dover.
- Edward Boys Knight.
- Peter Heyman Knight. Borough of Sandwich.
- John Manhood Knight.
- Nathaniel Finch Serjeant at Law.
- John Wogan the elder Esq; Town of Hartfordweston.
- Hugh Owen Esq; Town of Pembroke.
- John Stepney Baronet.
Monday the 13th of April, 1640. the Parliament opened.
My Lords and Gentlemen,
There was never a King that had a more great and weighty Cause to call his People together than my self: I will not trouble you with the Particulars; I have informed my Lord Keeper, and commanded him to speak and desire your Attention.
'You are here this Day assembled by his Majesty's gracious Writ and Royal Command to hold a Parliament, the general, antient, and greatest Council of this renowned Kingdom. By you, as by a select Choice and Abstract, the whole kingdom is presented to his Majesty's Royal View, and made happy in the beholding of his excellent and sacred Person. All of you, not only the Prelates, Nobles and Grandees, but in your Persons that are of the House of Commons, every one, even the meanest of his Majesty's Subjects, are graciously allowed to participate and share in the honour of those Counsels that concern the great and weighty Affairs of the King and Kingdom. You come all armed with the Votes and Suffrages of the whole Nation; and I assure my self, your Hearts are filled with that zealous and humble Affection to his Majesty's Person and Government, that so just, so pious, and so gracious a King hath reason to expect from all his Subjects. I doubt not but you rejoice at this Day's meeting, and methinks you should do so too; and good reason you have to do so, and with all humbleness of Heart to acknowledge the great Goodness of his Majesty, who sequestring the memory of all former Discouragements in preceding Assemblies, is now of a Fatherly Affection to his People, and a Confidence that they will not be failing in their Duty to him, who is pleased graciously to invite you and all his loving Subjects to a sacred Unity of Hearts and Affections in the Services of him and of the Common-wealth, and in the execution of those Counsels that tend only to the Honour of his Majesty, and to the good Preservation of you all. His Majesty's Kingly Resolutions are seated in the Ark of his sacred Breast, and it were a presumption of too high a nature for any Vzzah uncalled to touch it: yet his Majesty is now pleased to lay by the shining Beams of Majesty, as Phœbus did to Phaeton, that the distance between Sovereignty and Subjection should not bar you of that filial freedom of access to his Person and Counsels; only let us beware how with the Son of Clymene, we aim not at the guiding of the Chariot, as if that were the only Testimony of Fatherly Affection: And let us ever remember, that though the King sometimes lays by the Beams and Rays of Majesty, he never lays by Majesty it self.
'In former Parliaments you have been advised with, for the preventing and diverting of those Dangers, which by foreign and more remote Counsels might have tended to the dishonour and ruin of this Nation; therein his Majesty's great Wisdom and Providence hath for many years eased you of that trouble, his Majesty having with great Judgment and Prudence, not only seen and prevented our Danger, but kept up the Honour and Splendor of the English Crown, of which at this Day we find the happy and comfortable Experience, Almighty God having vouchsafed such Success to his Majesty's Counsels, that our Fleece is dry when it raineth Blood in all the Neighbour States. But what availeth this the Kingdom? Si for as hostem non inveniat, si modo domi inveniet. You are now summoned to Counsels and Resolutions that more nearly concern you, to prevent a Danger and Dishonour that knocks at our Gates, and that moves from such, from whom we had little reason to suspect it. It's well known upon what happy and solid Counsels one of our wisest Kings made a Match with Scotland for his eldest Daughter. We cannot forget (I'm sure we should not) the blessed Success that waited upon those Counsels, when the Crown of England descended upon King James of ever blessed and famous Memory, who with the fulness of Joy to all true English Hearts, made his Entry not by Bloodshed. The Wall of Separation was thereby taken away; and that glorious King, to make his Word good, facsam eos in Gentem unam, made all England rejoyce, and Scotland I'm sure had no reason to be sorry for it: They participated of English Honours, the Wealth and Revenue of this Nation they shared in, and no good thing was withholden from them, such was the largeness of Heart in that most excellent King, and such was the comfort we took in this Fraternity, or rather Unity: When both of us had but one brazen Wall of Fortification to look unto, the Sea, and all things so equally and evenly carried between us, that Tros Tyriusque nullo discrimine habentur. His Majesty, our most gracious Sovereign, became Heir, as well to his Father's Virtues as to his Kingdoms, Pacatumque Regis, &c. and in his gracious and tender Affection to that Nation, hath given as many indulgent Testimonies of Love and Benignity, as they could expect. Thus became we both like a Land flowing with Milk and Honey, Peace and Plenty dwelt in our Streets, and we have had all our Blessings crown'd with the sweet hopes of Perpetuity. God found out for my Lord the King a Companion meet for him, his Royal Confort our most gracious Queen, who, as she is not to be parallel'd for her Person and Virtue, so hath she made his Majesty and the whole Kingdom most happy and blessed, in the sweetest Pledges of their Love and our Hopes, which ever stood like Olivebranches about the Throne or Table: But which I sorrow for, Civiles furores patriq nimia infelicitas, and when his Majesty had most reason to expect a grateful return of Loyalty and Obedience from all the Scotish Nation, some Men of Belial, some Zeba hath blown the Trumpet there, and by their Insolencies and rebellious Actions drawn many after them, to the utter desertion of his Majesty's Government; his Majesty's and his Kingly Father's Love and Bounty to that Nation quite forgotten, his Goodness and Piety unremembred.
'They have led a Multitude after them into a course of Disloyalty and rebellious Treason, such as former Times have not left in mention, nor this present Age can any where equal: They have taken up Arms against the Lord's Anointed, their rightful Prince and undoubted Sovereign; and following the wicked Counsels of some Achitophel, they have seized on the Trophies of Honour, and invested themselves with Regal Power and Authority; such and so many Acts of Disloyalty and Disobedience, as (let their Pretences be what they will) no true English or Christian Heart but must acknowledge them to be the effects of foul and horrid Treason.
'The last Summer his Majesty at his own Charge, and at the vast Expence of many of his faithful and loving Subjects of England, went with an Army, and then they took upon them the boldness to outface and brave his Royal Army, with another of their own raising: Yet for all this, his Majesty's Goodness was not lessened by that, nor could his gracious Nature forget what he was to them, nor what they were to him; but considering with himself they were such, quos nec vincere, nec vinci gloriosum fuerat, out of his Piety and Clemency chose rather to pass by their former Miscarriages, upon their humble Protestations of future Loyalty and Obedience, than by just Vengeance to punish their Rebellions.
'But his Majesty (who is ever awake for the good and safety of all his Subjects) hath since too plainly discovered, that they did but prevaricate with him to divert the Storm which hung over their Heads, and by gaining time to purchase themselves more Advantage for pursuing their rebellious Purposes.
'For since his Majesty came from Berwick it is come to his certain knowledge, that instead of performing that Loyalty and Obedience which by the Laws of God, of Nature, and Nations, they owe unto him, they have addressed themselves to Foreign States, and treated with them, to deliver themselves up to their Protection and Power, (as by God's great Providence and Goodness his gracious Majesty is able to shew under the Hands of the prime Ring-leaders of that Faction) than which nothing could be of more dangerous consequence to this and his Majesty's other Kingdoms. Whosoever they be that do or shall wish England ill, they may know it to be of too tough a Complexion and Courage to be assailed in the Face, or to be set upon at the Fore-door: and therefore it is not unlikely but they may (as in former times) find out a Postern-gate.
'Ireland, through his Majesty's just and prudent Government, is not only reduced from the distemper of former times, but settled in such a condition of Peace, and during his Majesty's happy Reign, so altered and civilized, that instead of being a charge to him (as it was to his Predecessors) hath yielded to him some Revenue, and his Subjects there do daily give very acceptable Testimonies of their loyal and dutiful Affection, both to his Person and Government. And now lately at the Parliament assembled, they have not only with full and free consent, made his Majesty a chearful Aid towards his present preparations, to reduce his disaffected Subjects in Scotland to their due obedience, but they have also professed and promised, that they will be ready with their Persons and Estates, to the uttermost of their Ability, for his Majesty's future Supply, as his great Occasions by the continuance of his Forces against that Distemper, shall require; so that the hopes of hurting England that way are quite extinct.
'His Majesty hath taken all these and much more into his Princely Consideration, and to avoid a manifest and apparent mischief threatned to this and his other Kingdoms, hath resolved by the means of a powerful Army to reduce them to the just and modest Conditions of Obedience.
'It is a course his Majesty takes no delight in, but is forced unto it; for such is his Majesty's Grace and Goodness to all his Subjects, and such it is and will be to them (how undutiful and rebellious soever they now are) that if they put themselves into a way of Humility becoming them, his Majesty's Piety and Clemency will soon appear to all the World: But his Majesty will not endure to have his Honour weighed at the common Beam, nor admit any to step between him and his Virtue; and therefore as he will upon no terms admit the mediation of any person whatsoever, so he shall judge it as high presumption in any person to offer it, and as that which he must account most dangerous to his Honour, to have any conceit that the sollicitation of others can by any possibility better incline him to his People than he is, and ever will be, out of his own Grace and Goodness.
'The charge of such an Army hath been throughly advised, and must needs amount to a very great Sum, such as cannot be imagined to be found in his Majesty's Coffers, which how empty soever, have neither yet been exhausted by unnecessary Triumphs or sumptuous Buildings, or other Magnificence whatsoever; but most of his own Revenue, and whatsoever hath come from his Subjects, hath been by him employed for the common good and preservation of the Kingdom; and like vapours arising out of the Earth and gathered into a Cloud, are fallen in sweet and refreshing showers upon the same ground. Wherefore his Majesty hath now at this time called this Parliament, the second means under God's blessing to avert these publick Calamities threatned to all his Kingdoms, by the mutinous behaviour of them.
'And as his Majesty's Predecessors have accustomed to do with your Fore-fathers, so his Majesty now offers you the honour of working together with himself, for the good of him and his, and for the common preservation of your selves and your posterity.
'Counsels and Deliberations that tend to benefit or profit, may endure disputes and debates, because they seem only accompanied with persuasions; But deliberations that tend to preservation, are waited upon by necessity, and cannot endure either debate or delay; of such nature are the bleeding evils that are now to be provided against.
'His Majesty doth therefore desire, upon these pressing and urgent occasions, that you will for a while lay aside all other debates, and that you would pass an Act for such and so many Subsidies as you in your hearty affection to him, and to your common good, shall think fit and convenient for so great an Action, and withal that you would hasten the payment of it as soon as may be: And his Majesty assures you all, that he would not have proposed any thing out of the ordinary way; but that such is the straitness of Time, that unless the Subsidies be forthwith past, it is not possible for him to put in order such things as must be prepared before so great an Army can be brought into the Field.
'And indeed, had not his Majesty upon the credit of his servants, and security out of his own estate, taken up and issued between three and four hundred thousand Pounds, it had not been possible for his Majesty, to have provided those things to begin with, which were necessary for so great an Enterprize, and without which we could not have secured Berwick and Carlisle, or avoided those Affronts which the Insolency of that Faction might have put upon us, by injuring the persons and fortunes of his loyal Subjects in the Northern parts.
'To avoid all question and dispute that may arise touching his Majesty's taking of Tonnage and Poundage, his Majesty hath commanded me to declare unto you, that he hath taken it only de facto, according to the example of former Kings, from the death of their past Predecessors until the Parliament had passed an Act for it themselves. That in like manner, his Majesty desires not to claim it, but by grant of Parliament; for this purpose his Majesty hath caused a Bill to be prepared in the same form as it passed to his Royal Father of blessed memory, adding only words to give it him from the first of his Majesty's Reign.
'This and the Bill of Subsidies his Majesty expects (for the pressing reasons before delivered unto you) may be dispatched with all speed, which his Majesty commanded me to tell you he shall graciously accept as the welcome Pledges of your loving, happy, and dutiful Affection to him, his Person and Government.
'And his Majesty is most graciously pleased to give you his Royal Word, that afterwards he will give you time for considering of such Petitions as you shall conceive to be good for the Common-Wealth, even now before you part, according as the season of the Year and the great Affairs in hand will permit; and what is now omitted, his Majesty will give you time to perfect towards Winter, when your own leisure and conveniency may better attend it, he knowing well that these Subsidies can be of little use without that more ample Supply, which his Majesty expects upon the happy conclusion of this Session, and therein his Majesty is graciously pleased (according to the antient way of Parliaments) to stay till your just Grievances be heard and redressed.
'And his Majesty assures you, that he will go along with you for your advantage, through all the gracious expressions of a just, a pious, and gracious King, to the end there may be such a happy conclusion of this Parliament, that it may be a cause of many more meetings with you.
And because it may touch a Neighbour of mine, whom I will say nothing of, but that which is just (God forbid I should); for my part, I think it was never accepted of by him: indeed it was a Letter to the French King, but I know not that ever he had it; for by chance I intercepted it as it was going unto him; and therefore I hope you will understand me right in that.
'For the nature of which Superscription, it is well known to all that know the style of France, that it was never written by any French Man to any, but to their own King; and therefore being directed (AU ROT) it is to their own King, for so in effect they do by that Superscription acknowledge.
Your Majesty being the refuge and sanctuary of afflicted Princes and States, we have found it necessary to send this Gentleman, Mr. Colvil, by him to represent unto your Majesty the Candor and Ingenuity, as well of our Actions and Proceedings as of our Intentions, which we desire should be engraven and written to the whole World, with the Beams of the Sun, as well as to your Majesty. We most humbly beseech you therefore to give Faith and Credit to him, and all he shall say on our part concerning us, and our affairs: being most assured of an assistance equal to your accustomed Clemency heretofore, and so often shewed to this Nation, which will not yield to any other whatsoever, the Glory to be eternally
Of these Gentlemen that have set their hands to this Letter, here is one, and I believe you would think it very strange if I should not lay him fast; and therefore I have signed a Warrant to lay him close Prisoner in the Tower.
My Lords, I think, (but that I will not say positively, because I will not say any thing here but what I am sure of) I think I have the Gentleman that should have carried the Letter, fast enough; but I know not, I may be mistaken.
'You of the House of Commons, his Majesty's Pleasure is, that you do now repair to your own House, there to make choice of your Speaker, whom his Majesty will expect to be presented to him on Wednesday next, at two of the Clock in the Afternoon.
The 15th of April 1640.
May it please your Majesty,
'The Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses, of your Commons-house of Parliament, in conformity to most antient and most constant usage (the best guide in great solemnities) according to their well-known privileges, (a sure warrant for their proceedings) and in obedience to your Majesty's most gracious Counsel and Command (a Duty well becoming loyal Subjects) have met together in their House and chosen a Speaker, one of themselves, to be the Mouth, indeed your Servant, of all the rest, to steer watchfully and prudently in all their weighty Consultations and Debates, to collect faithfully and readily the genuine sense of a numerous Assembly, to propound the same seasonably, and in apt questions of their final Resolutions, and so represent them and their Conclusions, their Declarations and Petitions, upon all urgent occasions, with Truth, with Right, with Life and with Lustre, and with full Advantage to your most excellent Majesty. With what Judgment, what Temper, what Spirit, what Elocution ought he to be endowed and qualified, that with any hope of good success should undergo any such Employment? Your Majesty in your great Wisdom is best able to discern and judge, both as it may relate to your own peculiar and most important affairs of State and Government, and as it must relate to the proper business of your House of Commons, which was never small nor mean, and is like at this time to be exceeding weighty.
'Had your House of Commons been as happy in their choice (as they were regular, well warranted, and dutiful) of my self, who stand elected yet to be their Speaker, and am now presented by them to your Majesty for your gracious and royal Approbation, I should not have needed to become troublesome to your Majesty in this Suit for my Releasement or Discharge, which now in duty to your Majesty, and care for the good, prosperity, and success of your affairs, I hold my self obliged to make. My imperfections and disabilities are best known to my self, to your Majesty I suppose not altogether unknown, before whom in the course of my practice and profession, I have divers times had the honour and favour to appear and bear a part, as an ordinary Pleader.
'It is a learned Age wherein we live, under your Majesty's most peaceful and flourishing Government; and your House of Commons (as it is now composed) is not only the representative body, but the abstracted quintessence of the whole Commonalty of this your noble Realm of England; there be very many amongst them much fitter for this place than I am, few or none, in my opinion, so unfit as my self.
'I most humbly beseech your Majesty, as you are the Father of the Common-wealth and Head of the whole Parliament, to whom the care of all our Welfare chiefly appertains, have respect to your own Ends, have regard to your House of Commons, have compassion upon me the most unworthy Member of that Body, ready to faint with fears, before the burden light upon me.
'In the fulness therefore of your Kingly Power, your Piety and your Goodness, be graciously pleased to command your House of Commons once more to meet together, to consult and deliberate better about the choice of a mete Speaker, till they can agree of some such person as may be worthy of their chusing, and of your Majesty's acceptation.
Many reasons from your self he hath taken, to approve and agree to the Choice and Election made by the House of Commons; he finds none from any thing that you have said to dissent or disagree from it: you have set forth your Inabilities with so much Ability, you have so well deciphered and delineated the parts, duties, and office of a good Speaker, which is to collect the sense of the House judiciously, to render it with fidelity, to sum it up with dexterity, and to mould it with fit and apt questions for resolutions, and those, as occasion shall serve, to present with vigour, advantage, and humility to his Majesty, he doubteth not but you, that are so perfect in the Theory, will with great ease perform the Practick part, and with no less Commendation.
His Majesty hath taken notice, and well remembers, your often waiting on him in private Causes, wherein you have always so carried your self, and won so much good opinion from his Majesty, as he doubteth not but that now, when you are called forth to serve him and the Publick, your affections and the powers of your soul, will be set on work with more zeal, and more alacrity. It's that for which the Philosophers call a man happy, when men that have ability and goodness do meet with an object fit to bring it into Act: and such at this time is your good fortune, an occasion being ministred unto you, to shew your ability and goodness, and your fidelity to his Majesty's Service, to shew the candor and clearness of your heart towards those of the House of Commons. In all which, his Majesty nothing doubteth but you will so discharge your self, as he may to his former favours find occasion and reason to add more unto you; That the House of Commons may rejoice in this election of theirs, and that the whole Kingdom, by your good, clear, and candid service, may receive fruits that may be comfortable unto all.
Most gracious Sovereign,
'My Profession hath taught me, that from the highest Judge and and highest seat of Justice there lieth no Writ of Error, no Appeal. Your Majesty in full Parliament hath been pleased by the mouth of the Lord Keeper to declare your Royal Judgment in affirmation of the Election of your House of Commons, whereby I'm become their Speaker, and their Servant. What is there therefore left unto me, but in the first place devoutly to beseech Almighty God, the Author and Finisher of all good Works, to enable me by his Blessing to discharge honestly and effectually so great a Task, so great a Trust?
'And in the next place, humbly to acknowledge (as I do) the great Grace and Favour that is done unto me by your Majesty, and readily to conform my self to your good Pleasure and Command, to which I now submit with all possible chearfulness, lest else my too much diffidence to undertake the service might add a further disadvantage to my performance, than peradventure would arise out of my other Imperfections.
'Two Enemies I might fear, the common Enemies of such Services, Expectation and Jealousy: I'm not worthy of the former, and I contemn the latter. Time that tryeth Truth, shall let the whole World see and know, that I am and will be found an equal Freeman, zealous to serve my gracious King, and zealous to serve my dearest Country.
'Monarchy, Royal and Hereditary, is of all sorts of Government the most compleat and excellent, whether we regard the Glory, the Wealth, or the Safety of the Governor or of the People, or of both. And I hope there are not of this Nation any that are of Antimonarchical Spirits or Resolutions, no, nor Dispositions, nor Friends to such as are so. If there be, I wish no greater Honour to this Parliament than to discover them; and by all means possible to assist your gracious Majesty to suppress them, or to confound them.
'I remember well, I heard your Majesty's most Royal and Learned Father, our late dear Sovereign King James of sacred memory, speak to that purpose of himself and of Kings in general; his Majesty sitting then in Parliament, upon that Throne which by descent from him, and from innumerable Royal Ancestors, is now become your Majesty's lawful Seat and rightful Inheritance.
'To behold you thus in peace and safety, upon this great and good occasion, after full fifteen years experience of your most peaceful Government, yields most compleat Joy to all your Majesty's loyal and well-affected Subjects, who cannot but concur with me in this desire, serus in Cœlum redeas diuq; lœaetus intersis populo Brittanno. England is your Seat of Residence, not made a Province, nor governed by a Vice-Roy. God open all our Eyes and Understandings to discern and value the great Blessings and Benefits we enjoy, by your Majesty's gracious Presence and immediate Influence of Life and Cheerfulness to all the parts of these your noblest Kingdoms.
'Ireland begins apace to imitate England, in a great and quick progression in civility of Manners and Conversation, by many sedulous plantations and improvements of the Soil, by their receiving and enacting of the more wholesom Laws and Statutes of this Kingdom, and by many other good effects and fruits of Peace and blessed Government.
'The Prerogative of a King is as necessary as it is great: without it, he should want that Power and Majesty which is, and ought to be, inseparable from the Crown and Scepter. Nor can there any danger result from such Prerogative in the King to the Liberty of the Subject, so long as both of them admit the Temperament of Law and Justice: Especially under such a King as your Majesty, who, to your immortal Glory, among your printed Laws, have publish'd this to the whole World for your Maxim, The Liberty of the People strengthens the King's Prerogative, and the King's Prerogative is to defend the People's Liberty. Apples of Gold in Pictures of Silver.
'Kings, as they are Kings, are never said to err, only the best may be abused by mis-information. The highest point of Prerogative is, the King can do no wrong. If therefore by the subtilty of mis-informers, by the specious false pretences of publick Good, by cunning and close contrivance of their ways to seduce, the Sacred Royal Person shall at any time be circumvented or surprized, or over-wrought and drawn to command things contrary to Law, and that the same be done accordingly; These Commands will be void, and the King innocent even in his very Person, being defended by his Prerogative: Nevertheless the Authors in such mis-informations, and Actors in those abuses, will stand liable and exposed to strict examination and just censure, as having nothing to defend themselves but the colour of a void Command, made void by just Prerogative, and by the fundamental and true reason of State and Monarchy. And what difference is there, or can be, in Law, between a void Command and no Command at all?
'If Religion, Justice and Mercy, all happily assembled and graciously lodged together in your Royal Breast, may give to your well-affected Subjects a good hope of the good Success of this Parliament, I know not why we should not all of us expect it with much confidence. Some few particulars pertaining to these general Heads, I humbly beg of your Majesty, that without offence to your Sacred Ears, I may have leave to mention and observe, for the further comfort of my self and all that hear me.
'What Prince of this Land was ever known to keep the hours and times set for Prayer and for the Service of Almighty God, with that regularity and constancy as your Majesty? Nay more, have you not ever since your access to the Crown, had one day in every week, besides the Lord's Day, dedicated and applied to preaching and devotion? I may not stay here, there is another particular equalling, nay much excelling both the former, and that is your Majesty's great Care, to educate those Pledges of conjugal and most abundant mutual Love, that is between your Majesty and your most gracious Consort, the best Queen and Woman, and the Foundation of our future Hopes, the most illustrious Prince Charles, and the rest of your Royal Progeny, in the true Religion of Almighty God, publickly professed, and by Law established in this Kingdom; what Tongue is able to express the great Joy and Comfort, which all your Majesty's most loyal and loving Subjects do derive unto themselves, in contemplation of your Majesty's great Piety and Prudence in this one Act expressed, extending itself not only to the present time, but to the Good of Succession and all After-Ages!
'Touching Justice, there is not any more certain Sign to discern an equal Judge, than by his Patience to be well informed before he give his Sentence; and I may boldly say all your Judges throughout all your Kingdoms, may take Example by your Majesty, and learn their Duty, from your Practice in this kind, I myself have been witness of it, to my no little Admiration and Content.
'From your patient hearing, let me pass on to your righteous Judgment; and therein bring but one Instance, but it shall be a great one. When your Lords and your People in your last Parliament, presented to your Majesty a Petition, concerning divers Rights and Liberties of your Subjects; the Petition being of no small Weight and Importance, as by the same may well appear, your Majesty after meet Deliberation, in few but most effectual Words (soit droit fait comme est desire) made them such an Answer, as shall renown you for just Judgment, in this Age and to all Posterity.
'I make haste to come to your Mercy, whereof I cannot but have need again and again, before I have finished that Service to which I am enjoined, and am not altogether in despair of obtaining it; nevertheless, the Mercy which I mean to celebrate, is not only concerning single or particular Persons, but whole Nations; that unexampled Mercy and Clemency, which (in your Royal Wisdom and abundant Goodness, happily met together) your Majesty vouchsafed to shew to us and all your Kingdom, in not drawing your Sword of Justice the last Summer, against your People of Scotland, though your Armies were much the better and the stronger.
'It seems your Majesty remember'd with more Tenderness of Heart than they do, that they were Christians and your Subjects, and that your Power was posse & nolle nobile. Whatsoever might be the Rule that inclined you to Mercy, I am sure the Benefit redounds to us and ours, who by this Means are still in Peace and Tranquillity, not without good Hope of long Continuance; a Blessing peradventure undervalued by us, we have had so much of it, under your Majesty's most gracious Father's Royal Government.
'I have yet no Instructions from your House of Commons, therefore can propound nothing as by Warrant from them; but if I may have leave to present to your Majesty my own most humble and most hearty Wishes and Desires, they be directed upon Religion, and Chivalry, Commerce, Justice, and Unity: That this Parliament may be famous for the Care and Contentment of God's true Religion in this World and that to come; and to that Purpose, that the Most Reverend Prelates your Majesty's Archbishops and Bishops, sitting on the Right Hand of your Throne, will be therein most forward, to whom it is most proper.
'That the Lords Temporal girt with their Swords in their Creation, as more specially rewarded or desired for Actions Military, would call to mind the most Noble and most Valiant of their Ancestors, whose Lands and Honours they inherit; and how famous this Land hath been at home and abroad, for Deeds of Arms and Acts of Chivalry, and to labour to restore it by all means to its antient Glory. The best way to preserve Peace, is to be ready prepared and well fitted for War.
'That your Majesty would be pleased to command, that your Grave and Reverend Judges, whose Observations should exceed all other Mens, though they be but Assistants in this Service, to contribute the best and utmost they can, to explain, to execute, to advance our good old Laws, and to propound such things for the enacting of wholesome and plain new Statutes, that every Subject of this Realm may be enabled to know and understand himself clearly, both what he hath to do, and what he may possess, and what not. There are no considerable Mines Royal in this Kingdom: Trade and Commerce, the Exportation of our Wools in Manufactures and native Commodities, is that which furnisheth us with Gold and Silver, the Materials of our Moneys, and hath only Power to enable us to supply your Majesty, for the defending of our selves, and the offending of others. That Merchants and Tradesmen therefore, should have all meet Encouragement, is a most special Interest of this Island.
'But were we never so valiant, never so wealthy, if Love and Unity be not amongst us, what good will our Wealth do to our selves, or to your Majesty? He that commands a Heart in Love, he and he only commands assuredly the Purse to pay, and the Hands to fight. I pray God therefore, that we may all endeavour to knit such a Knot of true Affection betwixt the Head and Members, that all Jesuited Foreign States, who look perchance with envious and malignant Eyes upon us, and would be glad to rejoice in our Divisions, may see themselves lost and defeated of all their subtil Plots and Combinations, and of all their wicked Hopes and Expectations, to render us (if their Endeavours might prevail) a People inconsiderable at home, and contemptible abroad.
'Religion teacheth us, Si Deus nobiscum, quis contra nos? and Experience I hope will teach us, Si sumus inseparabiles sumus insuperabiles. It was wont to be, and I hope it ever will be the Tenet and Position of your House of Commons, That the Good of the King and of the People cannot be severed, and cursed be every one that shall go about to divide them.
'I fear I have adventured too far on your Royal Patience, though yet I confess, I never knew it wearied; nevertheless, I will here conclude. Only first beseech your gracious Majesty, in the Name and Right of the whole House of Commons, that in your Justice you would be pleased to grant and confirm to them (for their better Encouragement to proceed in their great Business) these their antient and just Liberties, which time out of mind they have rightfully enjoyed.
Thursday April the 16th.
As soon as the House of Commons had this day settled the Grand Committees for Religion, Privileges, Courts of Justice and Grievances, Mr. Secretary Windebanke acquainted the House, that he had been by the King's Commandment at the Tower, to examine the Lord Loudon: who said, he did believe that to be his hand-writing which was subscribed to a Letter, mentioned in his Majesty's Speech, and did conceive the other Names subscribed to the same Letter, were of the hand-writing of the Persons therein named.
1. The Speaker received a Command from the King, That his Majesty's Speech should be enter'd in the Journal of the Commons House of Parliament; whereupon the House passed a Declarative Vote, That they did not expect, that this should be performed by other Speakers, but upon the like special Command, or by the Order of the House.
2. A Fast was agreed upon by the House of Commons; to which purpose, this Message was sent to the Lords, 'That they had taken into Consideration the great and weighty Affairs now in Agitation in both Houses of Parliament, concerning the Welfare of his Majesty and this whole Kingdom: and because the principal Way and Means to attain to a happy and prosperous Conclusion in the same, is to beg the Divine Assistance and Direction of Almighty God, in all their Consultations, by solemn Humiliation; therefore they desired the Lords to join with them, to move his Majesty for his gracious Allowance of so pious a Work: and that he would be pleased to grant and appoint a Fast throughout the whole Kingdom.
Several Petitions were read, presented by the Knights of the Shires, for the Counties of Middlesex, Hertford, &c. Arthur Capell Esq; delivered in the first Petition given in by the Freeholders of the County of Hertford, complaining of Ship-Money, Projects, Monopolies, Star-Chamber, High Commission Courts, &c. setting forth the Grievances of the People by the Church and State: which being read, several of the Members delivered their Sense of the present State of Affairs; and he who stood up first, was Harbottle Grimston Esq; who spake to the Effect following.
'We are called by his Majesty, to consult together of the great and weighty Affairs of the State and Kingdom. There hath now a great and weighty Business been presented to this House, and a Letter hath been read, importing (according to the Interpretation which hath been collected out of it) a Defection of the King's Natural Subjects. This is a great Cause, and very worthy of the Consideration and Advisement of this great Council: But I am very much mistaken, if there be not a Case here at home of as great Danger, as that which is already put. The one stands without at the Back Door (for so Dangers from thence in all our Histories have ever been termed) but the Case we will put, is a Case already upon our Backs. And in these great Cases of Danger, (which so much concern the Welfare of the Body Politick) we ought to do like skilful Physicians, that are not led in their Judgments so much by outward Expressions of a Disease, as by the inward Symptoms and Causes of it. For it fares with a Body Politick, as it doth with a Natural Body. It is impossible to cure an ulcerous Body, unless you first cleanse the Veins, and purge the Body from the Obstructions and pestilent Humours that surcharge Nature; and that being once done, the Botches, Blanes and Scabs which grow upon the Superficies and Outside of the Body, will dry up, shed, and fall away of themselves. The Danger that hath now been presented to the House, it standeth at a distance; and we heartily wish it were further off: yet as it stands at a distance, it is so much the less dangerous. But the Case that I shall put, is a Case of great Danger here at home; and is so much the more dangerous, because it is home-bred, and runs in the Veins.
'The Case is this, the Charter of our Liberties called Magna Charta, was granted unto us by King John, which was but a Renovation and Restitution of the antient Laws of this Kingdom. This Charter was afterwards in the Succession of several Ages, confirmed unto us above thirty several times; and in the third Year of his Majesty's Reign that now is, we had more than a Confirmation of it: for we had an Act declaratory past: and then to put it out of all question and dispute for the future, his Majesty by his gracious Answer, Soit Droit fait comme est desire, invested it with the Title of Petition of Right. What Expositions contrary to that Law of Right, have some Men given to the undermining the Liberty of the Subjects, with new invented subtil Distinctions, and assuming to themselves a Power (I know not where they had it) out of Parliament, to supersede, annihilate and make void the Laws of the Kingdom? The Commonwealth hath been miserably torn and massacred, and all Property and Liberty shaken, the Church distracted, the Gospel and Professors of it persecuted, and the whole Nation over-run with Swarms of projecting Canker-worms and Caterpillars, the worst of all the Egyptian Plagues. Then (as the Case now stands with us) I conceive there are two Points very considerable in it. The first is, What hath been done any way to impeach the Liberties of the Subjects, contrary to the Petition of Right? The second is, Who have been the Authors and Causes of it?
'The serious Examination and Discussion of these two Questions, do highly concern his Majesty in point of Honour, and his Subjects in point of Interest. And all that I shall say to it, are but the Words that Ezra used to King Artaxerxes of the Settlement of that State, which at that time was as much out of Frame and Order, as ours is at this present; that which cured theirs, I hope will cure ours: his Words are these, Whosoever, saith he, hath not done the Laws of God and the King, let Judgment be speedily executed upon him, whether it be unto Banishment, or to Confiscation of Goods, or to Imprisonment. It may be some do think this a strange Text, and 'tis possible some may think it as strange a Case: As for the Text, every Man may read it that will; and for the Case, I am afraid there are but few here, that do not experimentally know it, as bad as I have put it: and how to mend a bad Case, I take it is part of the Business we now meet about.
'His Majesty yesterday did graciously confirm unto us our great and antient Liberties of Freedom of Speech; and having his kingly Word for it, I shall rest as confidently upon it, as the greatest Security under Heaven, whilst I have the Honour to have a Place here, and I shall with all Humility be bold to express my self like a Freeman.
'The Diseases and Distempers that now are in our Bodies Politick, are grown to that Height, that they pray for and importune a Cure. And his Majesty, out of his tender Care and Affection to his People, like a Nursing Father, hath now freely offered himself to hear our Grievances and Complaints. We cannot complain we want good Laws; the Wit of Man cannot invent better than are already made: there want only some Examples, that such as have been the Authors and Causes of all our Miseries and Distractions in Church and Commonwealth, contrary to these good Laws, might be Treacle to expel the Poison of Mischief out of others.
'But my Part is, but ostendere partem; therefore having put the Case, I must leave it to the Judgment of this House, Whether our Dangers here at home, be not as great and considerable, as that which was even now presented?
'There is a great Door opened unto us of doing good, if we take the Advantage thereof: We are here met, by the Blessing of God and our King: Parliaments have of late Days become unfortunate; it is our Duty by our good Temper and Carriage, to restore them to their antient Lustre.
'There be some here present, who can remember the Breaking up of the last Parliament; a Business certainly from which the Papists are not exempt, who now by the Discontinuance of Parliaments, are come to that Arrogance and Boldness, that they contend with us, who are the better Subjects. Their Envy I like, but their Presumption is not to be born. I wish them no harm, but good; for I desire their Conviction: and the way to do that, is to set up better Lights, who have warmth in them, and are not luke-warm in Religion. Surely they that quarrel betwixt Preaching and Prayer, and would have them contend, never meant well to either: But both must have their due. And yet I know not how it comes to pass, but it happeneth to us, which is in no other Religion in the World, that a Man may be too religious: and many one by that Scandal, is frighted into a deep Dissimulation. It is Wisdom in us, to preserve Temper and Moderation: for breaking of Parliaments makes dangerous Wounds in the Body Politick; and if the Splinters be not pulled out with a gentle Hand, we may hereafter despair of Cure.
'In 17 Edw. 3. he called another Parliament, to procure an Atonement with his Subjects, which took good Success by their humble Carriage to him, and his Willingness to ratify their Liberty, whereby all Breaches were then made up.
'A Parliament is the Bed of Reconciliation between King and People; and therefore it is fit for us, to lay aside all Exasperations, and carry ourselves with Humility: howbeit the King's Prerogative may go far, yet if it be swayed with Equanimity, it may be the better born.
'Princes are, and will be as jealous of their Power, as People of their Liberties; though both are then best, when kept within their several Bounds. Levying of Moneys is a great Disturbance to the Subject; and so will be the Scarcity of the King's Revenues, until they be supplyed. And where the Power of the King and Necessity meets in one hand, he will not long be disappointed. But before the ending of this Parliament, (the untimely Breaking whereof would be the Breaking of us) I doubt not but his Majesty's Revenues may be so settled, that he may live plentifully at home and abroad; and without taking any thing from his Majesty, save that which of itself would fall away.
'In former Parliaments, the Carriage of some have been so haughty, as though Parliaments would last always; and the Carriage of others, as if there would be never any again. And therefore a Moderation (if we love ourselves) is requisite.
'The Delays of Remedies are well known, how dangerous they are to the Commonwealth and Religion, seeing during this Vacation of Parliaments, so many Disorders have been committed, by Innovations in Religion, Violation of Laws, and intruding upon Liberties.
'To set all which aright, is now our Task: and if in these tempting Provocations we bear a temperate Moderation, we shall not miss of our End, but shall vindicate God in his Religion, the King in his Honour, and the Commonwealth in its gasping Extremities.
'Men and Brethren, What shall we do? If it were for my Life, I would desire nothing more, than that we proceed with Moderation, that so we may have many happy Parliaments, and that no dismal Events may happen to any: for when Parliaments are gone, we are lost.
The House the next day April 17. falling again upon the Debate of Grievances in general, occasioned by Petitions brought in by the Knights of the Shires for Essex, Suffolk, &c. thereupon several other Members spake their Sense; but Mr. Pym spake more fully than the rest, to this effect.
He that takes away Weights from the Motions, doth as good Service, as he that adds Wings unto them. These Weights are old Grievances. He therefore will do a good Work for the King, who to expedite his Designs, will set good Rules and Patterns for effecting thereof.
'I shall therefore offer you a Model of the Grievances which afflict the Commonwealth, and which have disabled us to administer any Supply, until they be redressed, and will still disable us; which Grievances may be reduced to three Heads.
'Which Grievances I will first propound, and secondly, Shew that the Permission of them is as prejudicial to his Majesty, as to the Commonwealth: and thirdly, I will shew what way they may be remedied.
'And First, I will begin with the Grievances against the Privileges and Liberties of Parliament. We all know, that the intellectual Part, which ought to govern all the rest, ought to be kept from Distemper; for it is that which purgeth us from all Errors, and prevents other Mischiefs for time to come.
'A Parliament is that to the Commonwealth, which the Soul is to the Body, which is only able to apprehend and understand the Symptoms of all such Diseases, which threaten the Body Politick. It behoves us therefore, to keep the Faculty of that Soul from Distempers.
'I shall briefly therefore give you a View of such Occurrences, as have altered the happy and healthful Constitution of it: and in the first place, I must remember the Breaches of our Liberties and Privileges of Parliament, which are,
'First, In that the Speaker the last Parliament, (the last Day of it) being commanded to put the Question, the House was commanded they should not speak. These are conceived to be the Grounds of whatsoever befell those Gentlemen, which so lately suffered. 'Tis true, the House was commanded to adjourn presently, Yet whilst the House sate, God forbid we should be barr'd from offering the last Sighs and Groans to his Majesty.
'Secondly, In that the Parliament was then dissolved, before our Grievances had redress, or before we could make our Wills known, which is the Privilege of dying Men; and to be heard before condemned, is not denied to private Persons.
'Thirdly, That the Judges presume to question the Proceedings of this House: it is against Nature and Order, that inferiour Courts should undertake to regulate superiour. The Court of Parliament is a Court of the highest Jurisdiction, and cannot be censured by any other Law or Sentence, but by its own.
'Fifthly, That inferiour Courts should be informed to punish Acts done in this Court, whereby divers Members of the House were so kept in Prison, till they had put in Security for their good Behaviour; and some of them died in Prison, others not released, until Writs came from this Parliament.
'Lastly, (which I conceive to be the greatest) That the Parliament was published, without being suffered to make its own Defence. I call the Dissolution of the Parliament a Punishment, and justly: The breaking of the Parliament, is Death to a good Subject.
'But it is to be observed, that in this and the other Grievances, though the King be no Party (for his Highnesses Prerogative is to do no Wrong) yet most of these Distempers of State, arise and do invade the Subjects, by means of misinforming him: As the Celestial Bodies of themselves send forth nothing but Wholesomeness to Man; but by the ill Distemper in inferiour Bodies, much Hurt ariseth from them.
'Wherein I will first observe, the great Encouragement which is given to them of the Popish Religion, by an universal suspension of all Laws that are against them, and some of them admitted into publick places of trust and power.
'I desire not to have any new Laws made against them (God be thanked we have enough) nor a strict execution of the old ones, but only so far forth, as tends to the safety of his Majesty, and such a practice of them, that the Religion that can brook no Corrival, may not be the destruction of ours, by being too concurrent with it.
'I observe as a great Grievance, there are divers Innovations in Religion amongst our selves, to make us more capable of a translation; to which purpose Popish Books have been publisht in print, and Disputations of Popish Points are, and have been used in the Universities and elsewhere with privilege, and preached in the Pulpit, and maintained for found Doctrine, whereby Popish Tenets are maintained.
'The introducing of Popish Ceremonies, as Altars, bowing towards the East, Pictures, Crosses, Crucifixes, and the like, which of themselves considered, are as so many dry Bones, but being put together, make the man. We are not now contented with the old Ceremonies, I mean such as the Constitution of the Reformed Religion hath continued unto us: But we must introduce again many of those superstitious and infirm Ceremonies, which accompanyed the most decrepit age of Popery, bowing to the Altar and the like.
'I may not forget, that many of the Ministers are deprived, for refusing to read the Book for Sports and Recreation upon the Sabbath, which was a device of their own heads: which Book I may affirm hath many things faulty in it.
'Then the encroaching upon the King's Authority by Ecclesiastical Courts, as namely the High Commission, which takes upon it to fine and imprison men, enforcing them to take the Oath Ex Officio, with many of the like Usurpations, which are punishments belonging only to Temporal Jurisdiction: And it hath been resolved in the time of King James, that the Statute of 1 Eliz. cap. 1. gives them no such power: moreover the power which they claim, they derive not from the King, nor from any Law or Statute; but they will immediately have it from Heaven Jure Divino. Divers particular Ordinaries, Chancellors and Arch-Deacons take upon them to make and ordain Constitutions within their particular Limits: all these things are true to the knowledge of most that hear me. I now come to the general Head of Grievances, which is the Grievances belonging to our Goods, and are in Civil matters, the heads thereof are too many.
'There are divers antient Customs due to the King, but they are certain what they are, and are due by prescription: These Customs being too narrow for his service, and the affections of the People growing stronger and stronger to their Prince, Tonnage and Poundage were granted for years to the King; and afterwards by this House granted for Lives; but never were taken by the King's own Act without a Parliament; for doing which, there is no precedent, unless in a year or two in the latter end of Queen Elizabeth.
'In the next place of these Grievances, I rank Knighthood, the Original whereof was, that persons fit for Chivalry might be improved. But this after was stretched for another end, for money, and extended not only to Terre-tenants, but to Lessees and Merchants, who were first to appear, and then to plead for themselves at the Council Board; but were delayed from day to day, to their great charge and inconvenience: and notwithstanding the just defence they have made for themselves, there have been infinite distresses laid upon them until the Fines were paid, which were imposed not by Courts, but by Commissioners assigned for that purpose: and this being a continuing offence, they are by the same Rule, as lyable now to Fines, as ever.
'Monopolies and inundations of them, whereby a burthen is laid not only upon foreign, but upon Native Commodities; as Soap, Salt, Drink, &c. the particulars whereof are fit for the Committee of Grievances.
'Fourthly, Ship-Money; and although there be a Judgment for it, yet I dare be bold to say it's against all former Precedents and Laws, and not one Judgment that ever maintained it. This is a Grievance that all are grieved at, having no Limits either for time or proportion: If therefore any shall endeavour to defend this, he must know, that both his Reputation and Conscience lie at stake in the Defence.
'The Enlarging the bounds of the Forest. Though our Ancestors were heretofore questioned for the same thing, yet upon the satisfaction of all the objections that were, or could be made; they then saved themselves; yet now the same things are turned upon us.
'The Sale of publick Nusances, for so they are pretended to be. Many great Nusances have been complained of; But when there hath been money given, and Compositions made, then they are no more Nusances, as Buildings and Depopulations.
'Military Charges and Impositions upon Counties, by Letters only from the Council Table, whereby Soldiers Conduct-money and Coats are to be provided at the Countreys charge; and Horses also provided without ground or Law; many things in this kind being done by Deputy Lieutenants of their own accord.
'Extrajudicial Judgments and Impositions of the Judges without any cause before them, whereby they have anticipated the Judgment which is legal and publick, and circumvented one of the parties of just remedies, in that no Writ of Error lyes, but only upon the Judicial proceedings.
'The next sort of Grievances is, that the great Courts do countenance the oppressions, as I may instance in the Court of Star-Chamber advancing and countenancing of Monopolies, which should be instead of this great Council of the Kingdom; and the Star-Chamber now is become a Court of Revenue; Informations there being put in against Sheriffs, for not making returns of Money upon the Writs of Ship-Money: It was not used, that meum & tuum should be disputed there.
'The Privy Councellors should be Lights of the Realm: Sure in them is the greatest trust, and they by Magna Charta, are to do Justice (as was urged by one in this House the last Parliament) but now if these Councellors should so far descend below themselves, as to countenance, nay to plot projects and Monopolies, what shall we think of this? Surely it is much beneath their dignity: this is a great Grievance, but I must go higher.
'I know the King hath a transcendent power in many Cases, whereby by Proclamation he may prevent and guard against sudden accidents: But that this power should be applyed to countenance Monopolies (the projectors being not content with their private Grants without a Proclamation) is without president. But yet I must go higher than this; It hath been in the Pulpit applyed, and also published in Books and Disputations, asserting a power unlimited in the King, that he may do what he pleaseth.
'This Grievance was complained of in the last Parliament, in the case of Dr. Mainwaring, who for maintaining that opinion in a Sermon, That a Subject had no Propriety in his goods, but that all was at the King's pleasure, made his submission upon his knees in this place; and was then brought so low, that I thought he would not have leapt so soon into a Bishoprick.
'I have by this time wearied you as well as my self; but I am come to the last Grievance, which is the fountain of all these, and that is the Intermissions of Parliaments, whereas by two Statutes not repealed nor expired, a Parliament ought to be once in a year.
'The Breach of Parliaments is much prejudicial; for by this means the great Union and Love, which should be kept and communicated betwixt the King and his subjects, is interrupted: They cannot make known their Petitions, nor the King his Wants, to have supplies. Where the intercourse of the spirits betwixt the head and the members is hindred, the Body prospers not.
'The not observing of Laws, but countenancing of Monopolies and such like, breed Jealousies in the minds of many, and may prepare a way for Distempers, though (thanks be to God) as yet there have been none; our Religion having preserved us. But if any thing but well should happen, one Summers Distempers would breed great Change, and more than all unlawful Courses would recompense.
'We are not content to multiply Impositions upon Merchants Goods, which are exported and imported into the Kingdom: But now there is a growing mischief in plotting for an Imposition upon such Goods as never see England, but are conveyed from France to Spain, or the like, by English Merchants. A course before this time never heard of: and such illegal things are badly accounted for to the King; whereas Legal things will soon be discovered, if not accounted for.
'The King hath Thirty Thousand Pounds per Annum upon them, where the Wines in the gains by the Patent come to Eighty Thousand Pounds at the first, from the time of their Arrival: and being drawn come to Two Hundred and Thirty Thousand Pounds per Annum; and the same proportion holds in all other Monopolies, whereby it appears, how much the subject is damnified, and how little the King gains.
'First, I advise to present them to the House of Peers, that they may joyn with us to go to the King, and pray that these Grievances being clear in fact, may be Voted; if any thing in the Vote be stock upon, that it may be debated and drawn according to the course of the House, into a Remonstrance, with an humble Petition of both Houses for redress. And I hope the Wisdom of this House will prepare such a Remedy, as will make the King a great King, and the people happy.
Saturday, April 18. spake divers other Members, and thereupon the House Voted, That the proceedings remaining upon Record in the Upper Bench and Court of Star-Chamber against Sir John Elliot, Mr. Hollis, and the imprisoned Members of the Parliament (3 & 4 Caroli) should be sent for, ad that it be also reserred to a Committee to consider of the Breach of the Priviledge of Parliament; and more particularly, what was done by the Speaker of Parliament, when he refused to put the question by the command of the House; the Committee was ordered to state matter of fact, and to report.
They also appointed another Committee to collect and dispose the material points of the Grievances mentioned in the several Petitions, and other grievances of the like nature; and ordered that the Records in the case of Ship-Money which concerned Mr. Hampden, should be brought into the House.
Monday April the 20. The business concerning Sir John Finch in the Parliament 3 Car. was presently examined, and it was Reported by Mr. Treasurer upon Examination, that he did not say, he would not put the Question, but that he said, he durst not put it. That he left the Chair not to disobey the Parliament, but to obey his Majesty.
The House thereupon resolved, that it was a breach of priviledge of the House, for the Speaker not to obey the Commands of the House; and that it appeared the Speaker did adjourn the House by the command of the King, without consent of the House, which is also a breach of the priviledge, it was therefore ordered that this should be presented to his Majesty.
Tuesday April 21. The King sent a Message to both Houses, to attend his Majesty in the Banqueting-House at two of the clock this afternoon, and they went accordingly, to whom the Lord Keeper spake to this purpose, the King being present.
You may well remember, upon the beginning of this Parliament his Majesty commanded me, to deliver unto you the causes of calling of it, which was, for the Assistance and supply of his Majesty in so great, weighty, and important affairs, as ever King of England had to require at his Subjects hands.
'I am now to put you in mind what I then said unto you, and withal to let you know, that such and so great are his Majesties occasions at this time, that if the supply be not speedy, it will be of no use at all: for the Army is now Marching, and doth stand his Majesty in at least one hundred thousand pounds a month, and if there be not means used to go on with this as is fitting, his Majesties design will be lost, and the charge all cast away. It is not a great and ample supply for the perfecting of the work, that his Majesty doth now expect, but it is such a supply (as without which) the charge will be lost, and the design frustrated, being built upon those weighty reasons which tend to the infinite good of the Kingdom, and preservation of you all.
'This done, his Majesty will give you scope and liberty to present your just grievances unto him, and he will hear them with a gracious ear, and give them such an answer, as you and all the Kingdom shall have reason to joy therein.
'His Majesty taketh notice of one particular, and that is concerning Ship-Money; wherein his Majesty hath commanded me to declare thus much unto you: First, His Majesty never had it in his Royal heart, to make an annual Revenue of it, nor ever had a thought to make the least benefit or profit of it: But whatsoever he did or intended in it, it was for the Common good of you all; for the honour, glory and splendor of this Nation, and that every one of us are made sharers and partakers in the benefits, fruits, and successes of it, which otherwise you would have felt the woes of it. He hath been so far from making the least benefit of it, that he hath expended great Summs of Money out of his own Coffers to work with, to those necessary ends I have named unto you.
'The Accompts of such Moneys so received, have been brought to the Council Table, the Moneys delivered to Sir William Russel the Treasurer of the Navy, and by them all it may appear whether there hath been a fulness and clearness of truth in the disbursements thereof, for the good and safety of the Kingdom.
'It is true, his Majesty had once intended this year not to have taken that course, but an Army which his Majesty so just a King for the preservation of the Kingdom hath now taken into Consideration; And I must tell you, that his Majesty prizeth nothing more than his honour, and he will not lose for any earthly thing, his honour in the least; They cannot make those expressions of love, duty and affection to him, which the graciousness of his nature will not exceed in.
'Of all his Kingdoms, this ought to be the nearest and dearest unto him, yet for his Kingdom of Ireland the last Parliament before this, the very second day of the Parliament they gave him six Sub sidies, they relyed upon his gracious words, the success was that before the end of the Parliament, they had all that they did desire granted, and had it with an advantage. This last Parliament there, it is well known unto you all, what a cheerful supply they have given unto his Majesty, for their hearts went with it; and let it not be apprehended, that Subsidies there are of small Value; there is not a Subsidy that is granted, but it is worth fifty or sixty thousand pounds at the least: Consider that Kingdom, what proportion it holdeth with this of England, and you will find, that it is a considerable Gift, as hath been given in many years. It hath wrought this effect, That certainly his Majesty will make it apparent to all the world, what a good construction, and how graciously he doth esteem and interpret this Act of theirs. I have directed hitherto my Speech to you that are of the House of Commons; Now I shall address my self to your Lordships.
'It is true, the proper and natural Supply proceeds from the House of Commons, yet in aide at this time, his Majesty hath called you hither; and hopeth he shall not find the House of Commons backward to his desires, nor your Lordships to concur with them.
'To you of the House of Commons, I did forget one thing, of an Objection that might perhaps be made; That Tonnage and Poundage is given towards the maintenance of a Fleet at Sea, let me tell you, that Tonnage and Poundage was never intended but for ordinary preservation of the Sea, not that that should be to defend the Dominion of the Narrow Seas, when the Navies of all the Princes of Christendom are so increased as they are. It is fit for his Majesty (as things now stand) to have such a strength at Sea, as may be a terror to others abroad.
'His Majesty was once resolved that no Shipping Writs should have issued out this year, but he was enforced for your good, and the good of the Kingdom, and for his Honour, upon necessary and weighty reasons to send forth Writs; and those reasons were these.
'It was of necessity for his Majesty to prepare an Army to reduce his diss-affected Subjects of Scotland to their due Obedience. This very year all the Neighbouring Princes are preparing with great Fleets of Ships, so as it is time for his Majesty to put himself into a strength that he may be able to preserve the Dominion of the Narrow Seas, without which this Kingdom will be lost, he not able to maintain his right of being the Moderator of the Sea, whereby there may be Freedom and Commerce of Trade, which adds exceedingly to the flourishing of this Kingdom. Another reason for Shipping-Writs this year is, That those of Argier are grown to that insolency, that they are provided of a Fleet of sixty sail of Ships, and have taken divers Ships, and one called the Rebecca of London (well known to the Merchants upon the Exchange) taken upon the Coasts of Spain, worth at the least two hundred and sixty thousand pounds. And therefore the Writ having gone out upon those weighty reasons, before it was possible the Parliament could give any supply to provide for those things, his Majesty cannot this year forbear it, but he doth expect your Concurrence in the Levying of it for the future. I shall speak that unto you by his Majesties Command, which may comfort any English heart; His Majesty hath no thoughts of inriching himself by the monies coming in upon these Writs; he doth desire but to live as it behoves a King of England, able to defend you and this Nation in honour and in lustre, which is famous abroad, and glorious at home, and to live but like such a King, as every true English heart desireth their King should be.
'Be masters of your own way, settle it so secure and so safe, that it may never come to the least benefit and advantage to himself, but for the common good, and those necessary ends wherein you shall all share in your plenty, peace, honour, and whatsoever any English man can glory in.
'His Majesty commands me to tell you, You shall propound nothing wherein you may receive all security for the property of your Goods, and nothing for securing your own Liberties, wherein he will not most readily listen unto you; and be as willing to grant, as you to ask. His Majesty doth now offer unto you the reasons, occasions, and the way to make this the most blessed and most happy Parliament that ever was, and that may produce such effects, that the King may delight in his people, and the people in their King. And the layeth before you not only the Counsel to do so; but he will tell you the way, and that is by putting an obligation of trust and confidence upon him, which shall more secure you, than all that you can invent; or Fears, or Jealousies can imagine to be provided for. It is a course that good Manners, Duty, and Reason should require of you, to take into consideration.
Wednesday April 22. Upon the Report made to the House of the King's Speech in the Banquetting-house yesterday, Edm. Waller Esq; then a Member of the House (and of every Parliament since that time to the Dissolution of the Parliament in the year 1678.) spake as followeth;
'I Will use no preface, as they do who prepare men for something in which they have a particular Interest. I will only propose what I conceive fit for the House to consider, and shall be no more concerned in the Event, than they that shall hear me.
'Two things I observe in his Majesties demands, First the Supply, Secondly, your speedy dispatch thereof. Touching the first, his Majesties occasions for money are but too evident; for to say nothing how we are neglected abroad and distracted at home, the calling of this Parliament and our sitting here (an effect which no light cause in these times hath produced) is enough to make any reasonable man believe, that the Exchequer abounds not so much in money, as the State doth in occasions to use it: and I hope we shall appear willing to disprove those, who have thought to dissuade his Majesty from this way of Parliaments, as uncertain; and to let him see it is as ready, and more safe for the advancement of his affairs, than any new or pretended old way whatsoever. For the speedy dispatch required, which was the second thing; not only his Majesty, but res ipsa loquitur, the occasion seems to importune no less; necessity is come upon us like an Armed man.
'And it hath ever been the Custom of Parliaments, by good and wholesome Laws, to refresh the Common-Wealth in general; yea and to descend into the Remedies of particular Grievances, before any mention made of a Supply. Look back upon the best Parliaments, and still you shall find, that the last Acts are for the free gifts of Subsidies on the peoples part, and General Pardons on the King's part: even the wisest Kings have first acquainted their Parliaments with their designs, and the reasons thereof; and then demanded the assistance both of their Counsel and Purses. But Physicians, though they be called of the latest, must not stomach it, or talk what might have been, but apply themselves roundly to the Cure; let us not stand too nicely upon Circumstances, nor too rigidly postpone the matter of Supply to the healing of our lighter wounds; let's do what possibly may be done with reason and honesty on our part, to comply with his Majesties desires, and to prevent the imminent Evils that threaten us. But consider, that they who think themselves already undone, can never apprehend themselves in danger, and they that have nothing left can never give freely; nor shall we ever discharge the trust of those that sent us hither, or make them believe that they contribute to their own defence and safety, unless his Majesty be pleased first to restore them to the property of their goods and lawful liberties, whereof they esteem themselves now out of Possession. One need not tell you the Propriety of Goods is the Mother of Courage and the Nurse of Industry; it makes us valiant in War, and industrious in Peace. The Experience I have of former Parliaments, and my present observation of the care the Country has had to chuse Persons of Worth and Courage, make me think this House like the Spartans, whose forward Valour required some softer Musick to allay and quiet their Spirits, too much moved with the sound of martial Instruments. 'Tis not the fear of Imprisonment, or (if need be) of Death it self, can keep a true-hearted English-Man from the care to leave this part of his Inheritance as entire to Posterity, as he received it from his Ancestors
'This therefore let us first do, and the more speedily, that we may come to the matter of Supply. Let us give new force to the old Laws, which have been heretofore for the maintaining of our Rights and Privileges, and endeavour to restore this Nation to the fundamental and vital Liberties, the propriety of our Goods and the freedom of our Persons; no way doubting but that we shall find his Majesty as gracious and ready as any of his Royal Progenitors have been to grant our just desires therein: For not only the People do think, but the wisest do know, that what we have suffered in this long vacancy of Parliaments, we have suffered from his Ministers; that the Person of no King was ever better beloved of his People, and yet that no People were ever less satisfied with the present ways of levying Moneys. These are two Truths which may serve, the one to demonstrate the other; for such is the opposition to the present Courses, that neither the admiration they have of his Majesty's natural inclination to Justice and Clemency, nor the pretended consent of the Judges, could make them willingly submit themselves to this late Tax of Ship-money; and such is their natural Love and just Esteem of his Majesty's Goodness, that no late Pressure could provoke them, nor any Example invite them to Disloyalty or Disobedience. But what is it then that hath bred this Misunderstanding betwixt the King and his People? how is it that having so good a King, we have so much to complain of? Why, Mr. Speaker, we are told of the Son of Solomon, that he was a Prince of a tender Heart, and yet by the Advice of violent Counsellors, how rough an Answer he gave to his People, That his finger should be as heavy as his Father's loyns: This was not his own, but the Voice of some Persons about him that wanted the Gravity and Moderation requisite for the Counsellors of a young King. I love not to press Allegories too far, but the resemblance of Job's Story with ours holds so well, that I cannot but observe it unto you. It pleased God to give his Enemy leave to afflict him more than once or twice, and to take all that he had from him, and yet he was not provoked so much as to rebel with his Tongue (altho he had no very good Example of one that lay very near him, and felt not half that he suffered;) I hope his Majesty will imitate God in the benigner part too; he was severe to Job only while he discoursed with another concerning him; but when he vouchsused to speak himself to him, he began to rebuke those who had mistaken and misjudged his Case, and to restore the patient Man to his former Prosperity: So now that his Majesty hath admitted us to his Presence, and spoken face to face with us, I doubt not but that we shall see fairer days, be restored again to the possession of our Property and Liberty, and that his Majesty will frown upon those who have given the ill Counsel.
'His Majesty's wants are not so great, but that we may find means to supply him, nor our desires so unreasonable or incompatible with Government, but that his Majesty might well satisfy them; for our late Experience, I hope, will teach us what Rocks to shun, and how necessary the use of moderation is: And for his Majesty, he has had experience enough how that prospers that is gotten without the concurrent good will of his People; never more Money taken from the Subject, never more want in the Exchequer. If we look upon what has been paid, it's more than usually the People of England were wont to pay in such a time; if we look upon what has been effected therewith, it shews as if never King had been worse supplied, so that we seem to have endeavoured the filling of a Sieve with Water: Whosoever gave advice for these Courses, has made good the saying of the wise Man, Qui conturbat domum suam possidebit ventum; by new ways they think to accomplish wonders, but in truth they grasp the wind, and are at the same time cruel to us and to the King too: for let the Common-wealth flourish, and then he that hath the Soveraignty can never want, nor do amiss, so as he govern not according to the intrest of others, but go the shortest and easiest ways to his own and the Common Good.
'The Kings of this Nation have always governed by Parliaments, and if we look upon the success of things since Parliaments were laid by, it resembles that of the Grecians, Ex illo fluere & retro sublapsa referri Res Danaum; especially on the Subjects parts: for though the King hath gotten little, they have lost all; but his Majesty shall now hear the truth from us, and we shall make appear the Errors of Divines, who would perswade us that a Monarch must be absolute, and that he may do all things ad Libitum; receding not only from their Text, (though that be a wandering too) but from the way their own Profession might teach them, Stare super vias antiquas; and remove not the antient Bounds and Land-marks, which our Fathers have set. If to be absolute were to be restrained by no Laws, then can no King in Christendom be so; for they all stand obliged to the Laws Christian, and we ask no more; for to this Pillar is our Government fix'd, our Kings at their Coronation taking a sacred Oath to secure us.
'I am sorry these Men take no more care to gain our belief of those things which they tell us for our Souls health, while we know them so manifestly in the wrong in that which concerns the Liberties and Privileges of the Subjects of England: but they gain Preferment, and then 'tis no matter though they neither believe themselves, nor are believed by others: but since they are so ready to let loose the Consciences of their Kings, we are the more care fully to provide for our Protection against this Pulpit-Law, by declaring and reinforcing the municipal Laws of this Kingdom. It is worthy the observing how new this opinion, or rather this way of rising is, even amongst themselves; for Mr. Hooker, who was no refractory Man (as they term it) thinks, that the first Government was arbitrary, until it was found that to live by one Man's Will becomes all Mens Miseries. These are his Words, concluding that this was the original of inventing Laws. And if we look further back, our Histories will tell us that the Prelates of this Kingdom have often been the Mediators between the King aud his Subjects, to present and pay redress of their Grievances, and had reciprocally then as much Love and Reverence from the People: but these Preachers (more active than their Predecessors, and wiser than the Laws) have found out a better form of Government.
'The King must be a more absolute Monarch than any of his Predecessors, and to them he must owe it, though in the mean time they hazard the Hearts of his People, and involve him into a thousand difficulties; for suppose this form of Government were inconvenient, (and yet this is but a Supposition, for these five hundred years it hath not only maintained us in safety, but made us victorious over other Nations:) But suppose they have another Idea of one more convenient; We all know how dangerous Innovations are, though to the better; and what hazard those Princes must run, that enterprize the change of a long establish'd Government? Now of all our Kings that have gone before, and of all that are to succeed in this happy Race, why should so pious and so good a King be exposed to this trouble and hazard? besides, that Kings so diverted can never do any great matter abroad.
'But whilst these Men have thus bent their wits against the Law of their Country, whether they have neglected their own Province, and what Tares are grown up in the Field which they should have tilled, I leave it to a second Consideration; not but that Religion ought to be the first thing in our purposes and desires, but that which is first in dignity, is not always to precede in order of time: For well-being supposes a being, and the first impediment which Men naturally endeavour to remove, is the want of those things without which they cannot subsist.
'God first assigned to Adam maintenance of Life, and gave him a Title to the rest of the Creatures, before he appointed him a Law to observe. And let me tell you, that if our Adversaries have any such design, as there is nothing more easy than to impose Religion on a People deprived of their Liberties, so there is nothing more hard than to do the same upon Freemen.
'And therefore, Mr. Speaker, I conclude with this Motion, that there may be an Order presently made, That the first thing this House will consider of, shall be the restoring of this Nation in general to the fundamental and vital Liberties, the property of our Goods, and freedom of our Persons; and that then we will forthwith consider of the Supply desired.
'And thus shall we discharge the Trust reposed in us by those that sent us hither. His Majesty will see that we make more than ordinary haste to satisfy his Demands; and we shall let all those know that seek to hasten the matter of Supply, that they will so far delay it, as they give interruption to the former.
Afterwards the House proceeded to consider of Grievances, and a Committee being appointed to consider of Mr. Smart's Petition (who was sentenced in the High Commission at York) complaining of Dr. Cousins and others, the report was ordered to be made with all expedition.
A Report was made from the Committee appointed to consider of the Commission to the Convocation, that it was not enrolled nor went forth by order from the Signet or Privy Seal, but by an immediate command of his Majesty; that they found the Dockets of it remaining with the Clerk of the Crown, by which it appears that by this Commission power is given to alter or amend the old Constitutions and Canons, &c.
Saturday April 25. The Lords desired a Conference with the Commons, the Subject-matter whereof the Commons conceived to be of a high nature, and so adjourned the debate thereof until Monday following.
'That it pleased his Majesty to honour the Lords House so much as to come thither in Person, and to make many gracious Expressions; and that he put them in mind of what had been by my Lord Keeper in his Majesty's Name delivered, first in the Lords House, and after to both Houses in the Banqueting-house in White-hall; and then he gave us his Royal Word and Assurance, that he would not depart from one tittle of that which in his Majesty's Name had been delivered to the House of Commons, but perform it really to the utmost.
'He gave us to understand, that the necessity of his affairs was such as would bear no delay, and a delay would be as good as a denial, both in regard of the affairs themselves, and of the dangers that did attend them, as well as of his Honour in Foreign States, which so much concerned him to uphold, as he held it as dear as his Life, and of as great importance to maintain.
'There must be a Trust, and whether it begin with him or you in the execution, the total trust must be in him; the difference is but in point of time; though we trust him in the beginning, yet it is but in part, he must trust us in all before the end of this Parliament.
'It is but a present Supply that he expects at this time, to go on with the things in hand, or else all the things which have been told us will be lost; and that a very little time delayed will make it impossible for my Lords and us to recover the same.
'That the Lords commanded him to tell us of the necessity of the affairs, and the urgency of the danger of somewhat that is lately come to their knowledge. The War is begun, and the Men in Scotland have pitched their Tents at Dunce, and threaten an Invasion in Northumberland, and have taken some of the Troopers of Sir William Brounkara's; so as their intention is plain, besides the Letter, which may shew their purpose to put themselves into the protection and defence of Foreign States.
'The necessity is such, that his Majesty could not transfer the Trust to us, to begin with us, or otherwise he would most willingly let you go on in your own course, to begin with redress of your Grievances; but his Majesty's necessity requires a present supply for this purpose, after which he will let us go on with our Grievances, and doth promise a Princely and Gracious Care, and will relieve you therein as far as in Justice and Reason you can ask.
'His Majesty did express, that he holds nothing so glorious as that he is King of a rich and free People; and if he do not secure you in your Liberties and property of Estate, he cannot account you a rich and free People, and consequently himself not Glorious: And therefore his Majesty declared, That for those three Things, Religion, Property of Estate, and Privileges of Parliament, he would graciously listen unto you.
'For Religion, his Heart and his Conscience doth stand with the Religion of the Church of England, and as he hath lived in it, so he would die in it; and no Man can be more careful to keep out Innovations than his Majesty will be; and for that purpose he would lay a great charge upon his Arch-Bishops and Bishops, that they should take order accordingly.
'For Ship-money, his Majesty declared it was never in his thoughts to make the least profit or benefit of it, and that he never did make advantage of it; but contrarily, had laid out many thousand Pounds out of his own Treasury, towards that Defence for which that was intended, as many of the Lords can witness.
'All his Majesty's care and aim was for the preservation of your safety, peace and plenty, and his own honour abroad: That he may reign among you a great and glorious King, as you ought to desire he should: Therefore think you of any other way for the guard and preservation of the Seas, which (considering the great Naval preparations abroad) doth so much import, that he may be able to maintain a Navy, whereby he may be Moderator and keep dominion of all the narrow Seas, without which it is impossible for us to subsist. Keep the Sea, which is the way by which God hath enabled his Majesty to protect and defend us; put it into what way you will, his Majesty will joyn with us in it.
'The Lords have taken into consideration his Majesty's gracious Expression; we have the Word of a King, and as some of the Lords were pleased to say, not only of a King, but a Gentleman; and they would no more be guilty of distrusting him, than they would be of the highest undutifulness towards him.
'And upon all these Considerations, though my Lords would not meddle with matters of Subsidy, which belong properly and naturally to you, no not to give advice therein, but have utterly declined it; yet being Members of one Body, Subjects of the same King, and all concerned in the common Safety, their duty to his Majesty, and in their Zeal and natural Love to their Country, themselves and their Posterity, they have declared by Vote, that they hold it most necessary and fit that the matter of Supply should have the precedence before any other matter or consideration whatsoever, and therefore desired a Conference with you, to let you know their reasons for the same.
'This taken into consideration, and done by you, trusting in his Majesty's Promise, (which they hold the greatest obligation upon him, and the greatest security to your selves) they will freely joyn with you in all that concerns matter of Religion, property of Estate, and privilege of Parliament. This course being followed, their Lordships are of opinion we shall have a most happy and blessed Parliament.
'2. Resolved, That the Lords propounding a Supply, is a breach of Privilege. And it being referred to a Committee, to prepare Heads for a Conference to be had with the Lords concerning that matter, they were agreed on to this effect.
'That a Message be sent to the Lords, wherein the House desires Conference with their Lordships upon the subject matter of the Conference on Saturday last, which they conceive doth intrench upon the Privileges of the Commons House.
'That at the Conference it being admitted by their Lordships, That matters of Subsidy naturally and properly belong to this House, and that their Lordships would not meddle therewith, or give advice therein, but had declined it; the Committee therefore conceives, that this House shall not need to labour therein, or to think of precedents or reasons for the maintaining of this Privilege.
'That notwithstanding this Declaration, their Lordships meddled with, and advised concerning both the matter of Supply and the time when, and that before such time as the same was moved to them by the Commons. It appears by their Lordships Declaration (viz.) that they had voted, That they held it most necessary and fit the matter of Supply should have the precedence before any other matter or consideration whatsoever; and therefore desired that Conference with the Commons, to let them know their Lordships Reasons; and that being taken into consideration, and done by the Commons, their Lordships would freely joyn with them in all that concerns matter of Religion, property of Estate, and privilege of Parliament.
'The course the Committee doth offer for repair of this breach of Privilege, is, That their Lordships be desired in their Wisdom to find out some way of Reparation of their Privileges for the present, and of prevention of the like Infringement for the future.
'And whereas the Committee was induced to conceive, that their Lordships had been informed that the Commons upon debate thereof had taken into consideration the matter of Religion, property of Estate, and privileges of Parliament, and that they mean to let the same have the precedency before the Supply, they humbly offer that the same may be presented to their Lordships in words to this effect.
'That in case their Lordships have taken notice of any Orders, or Proceedings of the Commons concerning matters of Religion, property of Estate, and privilege of Parliament, that they were to have precedency before the Supply, which they seem to conceive by these words, That this being done, then their Lordships will freely joyn to the avoiding of all mis-understanding between their Lordships and the Commons for time to come: They desire their Lordships to take no notice of any things that shall be debated by the Commons, until they shall themselves declare the same to their Lordships, which the Commons will always observe towards the proceedings of their Lordships.
'That the Lords voting the propounding and declaring matter of Supply in such sort as was contained in this Report, before it was moved from the House of Commons, was a breach of the Privilege of the said House. And the Commons at a Conference with the Lords (which ensued upon this occasion) desired their Lordships in their wisdom to find out some way for the reparation of their Privileges broken by the matter delivered at the last Conference, and to prevent the like infringement for the future; and that the Lords would not take notice of any thing which shall be debated by the Commons, until they shall themselves declare the same to their Lordships, which the Commons shall always observe to their Lordships Proceedings.
And the Manager of the Conference much enlarged himself upon the subject matter contained in the said Report from the Committee, which we here omit, being repeated and answered by the Lords at another Conference which was afterwards had upon this occasion at the desire of the Lords.
'First, As to Innovation in matters of Religion: that in this Conference with the Lords, there shall be a Protestation and Saving made to preserve and keep entire the Right of the Commons not to be bound by any Canons that are or should be made upon any Commission granted to the Convocation without their consent in Parliament; and that there be also represented to the Lords, the Complaints arising from the several Petitions brought in by the several Members of the House from divers Counties, against Innovations in matters of Religion.
'The molesting, suspending and depriving of many godly and conformable Ministers for not yielding to Matters enjoyned without Warrant of Law. And to instance in such contained in the several Petitions as have been deprived for not reading the Book of Recreations on the Lord's Day.
'Secondly, As to property of Goods. Resolved, That one Head of this Conference shall be the Complaints which have been made by the Petitions from the several Counties, touching the multitude of Monopolies and restraint of Trade. Also the Complaines which have been made by several Petitions from the Counties, touching the Grievances of Ship-money.
'The Complaints which have been made concerning Military Charges, viz. Coat and Conduct-money, Wages, and Arms taken from the Owners, forcing the Country to buy and provide at their charges, Horses and Carts by way of Tax.
'Thirdly, As to the Liberty and Privilege of Parliament, Resolved, That one Head shall be the Complaints that have been made touching the punishing the Men out of Parliament for things done in Parliament, in breach of the Privileges of Parliament.
The first part of which Conference concerning Innovations in matters of Religion, was managed by Mr. Pym; the second part, as to Property of Goods and against Monopolies and Projects, was managed by Mr. St. John; and the third part of the Conference as to the Liberty and Privilege of Parliament, was managed by Mr. Holborn, which held the Lords a long time in hearing.
Thursday, April 30. the House was turned into a Grand Committee concerning Ship-Money, upon a Report made of that business by Mr. Maynard: and the Records where the Judges Opinions were entered, were ordered to be sent for.
In the midst of this Debate, the Lords sent to the Commons for a Conference, concerning the subject of the former Conference. The House was divided, whether to yield to a present Conference or no: The greater part seeming to be unwilling to be diverted from the Debate of the Grand Business of Ship-Money then under consideration.
This Division of the House fully discovered the temper thereof; for they that were against the present Conference were for Redress of Grievances forthwith, and to postpone Supply. But this Day's Debate produced no Resolution.