Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 3, 1639-40. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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At the Day appointed, &c.
'Because we doubt not but your Lordships are well acquainted with our Proceedings, and the Reasons of our Demands: and since by our Commission We are not warranted to treat, but with the Noblemen named by his Majesty, with the advice of the Peers, and are particularly warranted to make exception against the Earl of Traquair for his Maleversation in the matter of the Assembly and Parliament, and for which his Lordship, and all such as have done evil Offices to divide betwixt the King and his Subjects, are demanded to be censured; therefore we expresly decline the Earl of Traquaire, and do not conceive that according to his Warrants granted to us in his Majesties Letter and our Commission, any Man can assist at the Treaty but the Noblemen expressed in his Majesties Letters.
- '1. We conceive that since our humble Desires and Demands are particularly expressed, the most convenient Order for bringing of matters speedily to a wished end, must be to treat upon the very Demands as they are expressed: And whatsoever from the Articles of the last Pacification, or any other grounds, may serve for expeding of matters, that it be brought in as sub venia.
- '2. If there be a Treaty of Pacification, and Arms shall cease, it is necessary that your Lordships first take into your Consideration, how our Army shall be maintained until the Treaty be ended and our Peace secured.
- '3. If it shall be found expedient that a greater number of Commissioners be sent to the Treaty, from the Commissioners of the Scotch Parliament; it is humbly craved, that the like safe Conduct may be given to them as is granted to us.
- '4. A safe Conduct is likewise demanded to all such as shall be sent from the Commissioners of the Parliament to us, or from us to them upon all occasions; and that the ordinary Post may be free for carrying of our Letters to Edinburgh, and from thence for giving of speedy Advertisement and Resolutions, because of the necessary intercourse and correspondence betwixt both the Committees.
- '5. That (for the benefit of the Subjects of both Kingdoms) Trade and free Commerce of importing and exporting of Commodities be allowed; especially, that Victuals from Scotland and other places may be transported to Newcastle, for the better ease of the English, and more convenient entertainment of our Army.
'That in regard the unequal condition which is conceived his Majesty's Affairs will be put into, if his Majesty should not make choice of such Assistants as he conceiveth be versed in them; we have order to offer it to your second Consideration, and to let you know, that the said Assistants are not any way authorized to confer or treat with the Commissioners of Scotland, nor to have any Voice or Vote in the debating or concluding of any thing; but to give us a right understanding of such things as can no otherwise fall under our Knowledge.
'We do thankfully acknowledge his Majesty's Goodness in granting the safe Conduct, and opening the Post-way; and that we may at all occasions make use thereof, we desire that so soon as may be, the same may be made known to the Posts all the way to Berwick, and Warrant given that there be no impediment to such as shall come and go.
'Concerning the Assistants, the reasons of our former Answer permitteth us not to take any new Resolution in our subsequent Considerations: And since your Lordships do declare, that it is not intended that they shall have any Voice in debating, and all Points material are to be committed to Writ. If your Lordships conceive their Advice to be necessary, it may be given to your Lordships by them, although they assist not openly in the Treaty.
After this, the Commissioners on both sides falling into speech of a Cessation of Arms during the Treaty; the English Lords pressed to have them particularize their Demands, and especially to set down in writing what they expected upon their Proposition of having their Army maintained during the Treaty.
It is propounded to your Lordships, that you give a particular of all your Demands under your Hands, and especially what you do expect for the Losses which you pretend to have sustained; as likewise for maintenance of your Army during the Treaty; and how you intend or would advise it should be raised or satisfied unto you.
It is our desire unto your Lordships, that such things which are preparative and necessary for the Treaty, may be distinguished from the matters and parts of the Treaty it self: And thus we shall be ready to give the Particular of that our Demand concerning our Losses and Charges which we have sustained, and of all our other Demands, each one in their own place: And we are willing to answer presently according to our Instructions, to that which is propounded by your Lordships concerning the maintenance of our Army; for by them we are warranted to demand the Sum of Forty thousand Pounds in the Month. But concerning the way of raising thereof, neither are we instructed, nor do we presume to advise; and your Lordships in your Wisdoms can best consider the ways how this may be done, that we may the better proceed in the intended Treaty.
Unto this Proposition the Earl of Bristol (by order of the rest of the English Lords Commissioners) demanded of the Commissioners of Scotland, whether the demand of Forty thousand Pounds a Month were positive, or such as upon debate and just reasons they might mitigate.
As we have (according to our Instructions) shewn your Lordships what is required for the maintenance of our Army, so it is our desire, that your Lordships may be pleased to express what Sum your Lordships think to be a Competency; and that as your Lordships think meet to make Remonstrance of our Proposition to his Majesty, we also may be enabled to make your Lordships minds known to the Committee of Parliament that sent us, for the better and more speedy accommodation.
To this Demand of the Scotch Commissioners, the Lords Commissioners of England (before they returned Answer) thought fit to send five of their own number, viz. the Earls of Hartford, Bristol, and Holland, and the Lords Wharton and Savil, to acquaint the King and the Great Council of the Peers therewith, and to receive direction how to proceed therein.
'We met with the Commissioners of Scotland this morning, being Friday the second of October, where the Earl of Bristol made a short Introduction. And in the first place we made your Majesty's Commission under the Great Seal of England to be read. In the next place, we desired to know how they came authorized. Whereupon they produced a Commission from the Commissioners of their Parliament of Scotland, a Copy whereof we send your Majesty. After this the Lord Lowdon said it was most needful to repeat their Demands; for the conclusion of the late Parliament, their printed Declarations, and their Letters to the Earl of Lanerick, contained the subject and substance of all their Demands. Hereunto, after consultation amongst our selves, we replied, That if their Demands had been set down in any Letter or Petition, we might have had certain grounds to treat of; but to have relation to all their printed Declarations, were to leave things to uncertainties. Hereunto they replied, That the word Printed Declarations was in the Letter to the Lord Lanerick, which they caused to be read. After this they propounded this Question, In what quality the Lords of their own Nation sat there? Whereupon, after private consultation among themselves, we declared, That we being nominated as Commissioners, humbly signified unto your Majesty, that we being mere Strangers to the Laws and Constitutions of Scotland, desired the Assistance and Information of some such as your Majesty knew to be well versed in those Affairs. So that in the matter it self, it was upon our humble request; but for the Persons, they were nominated by your Majesty, such as your Majesty held fit and best instructed in the Laws and Constitutions of that Kingdom. Whereupon the Lord Lowdon, in the name of the rest, said, That they were limited by their Commission to treat with such Lords as in your Majesty's Name were signified unto them by the Earl of Lanerick's Letter to be deputed to treat with them, and with no other. Whereupon desiring that there might be no misunderstanding, we intreated them to set down in writing the contents of their Instructions in this particular. Which they did accordingly; and herewith we send it your Majesty inclosed. Hereupon having debated amongst our selves and finding it necessary according to our Duties to hold our selves *** to your Majesty's Instructions; and it appearing doubtful unto us whether we might proceed without such Assistants as your Majesty hath assigned unto us by your Instructions under your Hand; we held it fit to have recourse unto your Majesty therein, to receive such further Instructions as your Majesty in your Princely Wisdom shall be pleased to give us; which we shall not fail to pursue with all the Loyalty and Affection as your Majesty may justly expect from
'Since the writing of this Letter the Commissioners of Scotland desired a meeting, although we had sent to discharge it until we had heard from your Majesty. They have made some Propositions to us, and have promised to deliver them to us in writing. But fearing lest we should retard this Dispatch too long, we have sent it away, and within few hours do hope to send unto your Majesty what hath since occurred.
The King's Letter to the Lords concerning the Scots Demands.
'Right trusty and right well-beloved Cousins, and Counsellors of our great Council now assembled, We perceive by your Letter of the second of this Month, That the Commissioners of Scotland alledge, they are not warranted to treat but with the Noblemen named by us, with the advice of the Peers; for which cause, besides the Exception they are warranted to make against the Earl of Traquair, they decline him, and conceive, that by the Warrant granted them in our Letter and Commission, none are to assist at the Treaty but the Noblemen expressed in our Letter. This we have imparted to such of our great Council as are left here, and by their unanimous Advice we return this Answer, That the Earl of Traquair, and the rest, with the advice of our Peers appointed to assist you, were not any way authorized to confer or treat with the Commissioners of Scotland, nor to have any Voice or Vote in the debating or concluding any thing; but only to give you a right understanding of such things as you could not otherwise be enabled to treat of or debate, in regard of your being Strangers, not only to the Laws and Customs of the Kingdom of Scotland, but altogether unacquainted in the passages of the Assembly and Parliament, without knowledge whereof the matters in difference cannot be so well cleared: And therefore, by the Advice of the Peers here assembled, we hold it very reasonable that the Earl of Traquair should be present, to whom all things that will require Debate are best known; and that you should press them to admit thereof, giving this and such other reasons for it as you shall think fit.
'Nevertheless, because we are willing the Treaty should go on with as little loss of time as may be, we have by like Advice of our Peers, and to the intent we may the better discern what need there will be of such Assistants, thought fit to give you this Direction, in case they refuse, that then without Assistants you should press the Commissioners of Scotland to give you a particular of all their Demands under their Hands, and especially what they do expect for their losses which they pretend they have sustained; and for maintenance of their Army during the Treaty, or how they intend or would advise how it should be raised and satisfied unto them, of which you are to make report to us.
'For the safe Conduct which they desire for such only as shall be sent to the Treaty from the Commissioners of the Scottish Parliament, and for all such as shall be sent from the Commissioners unto them, or from them to the Commissioners upon all occasions, with the freedom of the Post for carrying of all the Letters to and from Edinburgh; We are graciously pleased to grant the same during the time of all the Treaty. Touching the Trade, or free Commerce, of importing and exporting of Commodities, when the Business is a little further admitted, We shall the better resolve what Answer to give therein, as a thing more proper to the conclusion, than for the beginning of a Treaty.
'For the Cessation of Arms you have our Instructions already, whereby we and our Council are of opinion, That the disbanding of both Armies were much better than a Cessation; which therefore we would have you propound and endeavour with them: And so we bid you heartily farewel.
ON Wednesday the seventh of October his Majesty, with the Advice of his Peers, ordered to transfer the Treaty from Rippon, to the City of York, and Letters to that effect were sent to the Lords Commissioners of England; and they were to certify those of Scotland thereof with the Reasons; as first, The want of Health in that Place; secondly, That it will be a means to expedite the Treaty, by bringing it nearer to his Majesty.
'That his Majesty, in regard of the unhealthfulness of this Place, and for the expediting of this Treaty, hath been induced to this Resolution, That the Treaty be transferred from Rippon to York. His Majesty also expects that the Scottish Commissioners should send presently for order to come thither; and that they procure absolute and full power to conclude as well as to treat, and that they shall find the like power there: and to this end his Majesty hath sent such safe Conduct as they can desire.
Rippon, October 8. 1640.
'Nothing is so greatly desired of us, and those that sent us, as that this Treaty may begin timely and end happily; this moved us in our last Proposition to desire to know what your Lordships did conceive to be a Competency for the maintenance of our Army? And now his Majesty being acquainted therewith, we desire to know his Majesty's mind, that the Army being provided for in a competent manner, and so much being made known to those that sent us (according to the Instructions we have received from them, who make the maintenance of the Army previous to the Treaty) we may with all diligence shew them his Majesty's Pleasure concerning the change of the Place, and new power to us granted for concluding. And as we are warranted to give this Answer, so shall we not conceal our own thoughts about all this matter of the maintenance of the Army, and altering of the Treaty to York, and enlarging of our Power.
- '1. It is universally known that our Army was stayed in their march by his Majesty's special Command, without which they might before this time either have been better provided, or further advanced in their Petition and Intention; and that in hope of Provision to be made this way, they are kept from taking such ways and using such means as might serve for their necessary maintenance, which yet are not to lay any burden on the Nation, or good People of England, (whose Weal and Happiness we do seek as our own, and with whom we have determined, as we have declared, to stand and fall) but our meaning is, that necessary allowance being denied to our Army, we take our selves to the Papists and Prelates with their Adherents our professed Enemies, and the unhappy Instruments of all our Trouble, Charges and Hazard, these years by-past, who therefore in all equity ought to suffer in the same kind.
- '2. We cannot conceal what danger may be apprehended in our going to York, and surrendring our selves, and others who may be joined with us, into the Hands of an Army commanded by the Lieutenant of Ireland; against whom, as a chief Incendiary (according to our Demands, which are the subject of the Treaty it self) we intend to insist as is expressed in our Remonstrance and Declaration, who hath in the Parliament of Ireland proceeded against us as Traitors and Rebels, (the best Titles his Lordship in his common talk doth honour us with) whose Commission is to subdue and destroy us, and who by all means and upon all occasions desireth the breaking up of the Treaty of Peace; the Army being commanded also by divers Papists, who conceive our Pacification to be their Ruin and Dissolution; and when there be divers Godless Persons doing the worst Office about his Majesty, and waiting the occasion of expressing their malice and revenge against us and their own Nation.
- '3. The whole power of the Committee of Parliament cannot be transmitted unto us, and the want of Power neither hath been, nor needed it to be any hindrance to the speedy Progress and peaceable conclusion of the Treaty, since, we have already in the beginning of the Conference shewed your Lordships what is the subject and substance of all our Demands.
Edward Lord Herbert, commonly called the black Lord Herbert, unsatisfied with the Scots Demands of 40000 l. per mensem, upon the hearing thereof, first advised the King to fortify York, and secondly disswaded his Majesty from yielding to that demand, and he alledged his reasons for both, &c. Touching his first Proposition, he said;
- '1. First, That Newcastle being taken, it is necessary to fortify York, there being no other considerable place beiwixt the Scots and London, which might detain their Army from advancing forwards.
- '2. Secondly, That reason of State having admitted Fortification of our most Inland Towns against Weapons used in former times, it may as well admit Fortification against the Weapons used in these times.
- '3. Thirdly, That Towns have been observed always averse to Wars and Tumults, as subsisting by the peaceable ways of Trade and Traffick; insomuch, that when either great Persons for their private Interests, or the Commons for their Grievances, have taken Arms, Townsmen have been noted ever to continue in their accustomed Loyalty and Devotion.
- '4. Fourthly, That this agreeth with the custom of all other Countries, there being no Town of the greatness of York any where I know in Christendom, that hath not his Bastions and Bulwarks.
'As for the Charges, the Townsmen of York might undertake that by his Majesty's Permission: For since it is a Maxim of War, that every Town may fortify its circumference within the space of two Months, the Expences cannot be great.
'And for the manner of doing it, nothing else is needful, but that at the distance of every five and twenty score Paces round about the Town, ***the Walls should be thrown down, and certain Bastions or Bulwarks of Earth be erected by the advice of some good Engineer.
'For the performing whereof every Townsman might give his helping hand, digging and casting up Earth only, where the said Engineer (according to a Line given) should appoint. And for Ordnance, Ammunition, and a Magazine, the Townsmen likewise, for their Security, might be at the charges thereof in these dangerous times; it being better to employ some Money so to prevent the taking of the Town, than to run the hazard of being in that estate in which Newcastle Men now are. I could add something concerning an antient Law or Custom called Murage, by which Money was raised for fortifying of Inland Towns. But because I know not of what validity this Law or Custom is at this time, I shall refer the further consideration thereof to the learned in our Antiquities.
'I will conclude therefore with your Majesty's good Favour for the fortifying of York, as assuring my self, that if for want of Fortification it fall into the Scotchmens-Hands, they will quickly fortify it, as they have already done Newcastle.
- '1. First, That Treaties are like thin airy things, and have no real Being in themselves, but in the Imaginations of those who projected them, and might quickly dissolve and come to nothing: And to give so great a Sum of Money for the treating only of a Peace, might be loss both of the Money, Time, and many Advantages.
- '2. Secondly, That he never read that ever Prince bought a Treaty of his Subjects at so dear a rate; but it is true, that Princes have bought Peace at a great price of their Subjects, and that they have thought it a good Purchase, and found means at last to bring them to Reason.
- '3. Thirdly, That it would reflect upon the Honour of his Majesty abroad, when Foreign Nations should hear of such an Affront given to his Majesty and this Kingdom, that he could not find means to come to a Treaty with his Subjects for a Peace, but by giving that Money to defray the Charges of their Army, which should pay his.
- '4. Fourthly, It is probable that the Citizens of London, when they should hear that any of their Money was employed that way would derain the rest in their hands for defending themselves.
- '5. Fifthly, If his Majesty would try whether they meant really a Treaty or Invasion, the Commissioners should move for disbanding the Armies on both sides, all things else remaining in the state they now are, until the Treaty were ended; Howsoever the 40000 l. Monthly should be kept rather for paying the King's Army, and reinforcing it (if need were) than any other way whatsoever.
- 1. First, That the Scotch Army now lying in the Counties of Northumberland, Bisboprick of Durham, and Town of Newcastle, shall have for a competent maintenance the Sum of 850 l. per diem, being the Sum before agreed on by the Counties; and that the payment thereof shall begin upon the 16th of October, and to continue for two Months, in case the Treaty shall so long last; which payment to be made weekly upon the Friday of every Week, the first Friday being the twenty third day to be for the payment of the Week past.
- 2. The days of the returning of the Army to be numbred, within the days of the allowed maintenance.
- 3. That the Scotch Army shall content themselves with the aforesaid maintenance, and shall neither molest Papists, Prelates, nor their Adherents, nor any other Persons of whatsoever quality, during the time of payment, but shall keep themselves free of all other Taxes and Plundrings not only during their abode, but in their returns; and such security as is usual shall be given for the performance of the same, and this to be ordered upon the condition of the Treaty.
- 4. That the Inhabitants of the said Counties shall also have liberty to return peaceably to their own dwellings, and shall be refused no Courtesie, it being always presupposed that the fit Lodging of their Army shall be allowed.
- 5. That the Army be furnished with Coals in a Regular way, and not at the pleasure of the Soldiers, which is especially recommended to the care of the Scotch Commissioners.
- 6. That there be a Provision of Forage at the Prices to be set down in a Table, which must also contain the particular Prices of all sorts of Victuals, and other necessaries for the Army, to be indifferently agreed upon by Persons nominated on both sides.
- 7. That the Sea Ports be opened, and there be free Trade and Commerce by Sea and Land, as in the time of Peace; with this Proviso, that with the Victuals no Arms nor Ammunition be imported into Newcastle, or any Harbour of England: and this Free Trade and Commerce to be presently intimated, and not to be interrupted, but upon the warning of three Months, that there may be a sufficient time allowed for Ships to return, and for the disposing of their Commodities.
- 8. That Victuals and other Necessaries for the Army be free of Custom; and that his Majesties Custom of Coals, and other Ware be left free to be levied by his own Officers.
- 9. That all restraints be removed, and that there be a freedom to furnish necessaries for both Armies, in such sort as is agreed on by the Articles, and liberty be granted for Milling, Brewing, Baking, and other things of that kind.
- 10. That the Arrears be compleatly paid to Octob 16. and that such rents as are anticipate, and not yet due, be allowed in the Arrears.
- 11. That there be a Cessation of Arms according to the particulars to be agreed upon.
- 12. As for securing the Sum of 850l. per diem above specified, there is a Committee appointed by the Great Council of the Peers, who have power to treat with Northumberland, the Bishoprick of Durham, Newcastle, and (if need require) with other adjacent Counties, that there may be a real performance of what is agreed on by us: And for that we find many Difficulties of raising the Contribution out of the Counties of Northumberland, the Bishoprick, and Town of Newcastle, we have thought fit and necessary to add unto them the Counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, to assist towards the said Contribution according to their Abilities.
- 13. And further, the Lords will before their going from York settle a Committee who shall have charge to see the Contribution orderly raised and paid; and that there shall likewise be a Committee nominated of the Lords Commissioners, to whom either the Scotch Commissioners may address, or the Committees of the Country may weekly give an Accompt of the carriage of the Business. And that from thence there may further Order be given for the due Performance of that which is promised. Signed
- Ed. Mandevile.
- Ph. Wharton.
- Ro. Brook.
- J. Paulet.
- Ed. Howard.
- Fr. Dunsemore.
- Patrick Hepburne.
- W. Douglass.
- J. Smith.
- William Wedderbourn.
- Alex. Henderson.
- William Johnston.
The Scotish Commissioners were not satisfied with the Security tendred them for the raising of the said Provision; which they expressed in the ensuing Paper to the English Lords, who imparted it to his Majesty.
We make no question of the abilities of the prime Gentlemen of the County, and will not doubt but your Lordships have made them willing; Yet now after the delays of so many days, from the first to the 19th of this Month, and after the so often acknowledged necessity of the orderly provision of Maintenance, during the time of the Treaty, and our confident expectation thereof, We are sorry that your Lordships have not (according to the profession of the Will and Power of those Gentlem***n) given unto us a real Security, that we might have entred with your Lordships upon the Treaty, but that the performance of the Security is still suspended.
Divers other demands, as free Trade by Sea and Land, and other particulars contained in our last Papers, the satisfaction whereof was also necessary before the Treaty, are not at all touched by your Lordships in your Answer.
Concerning the Diminution of the Army propounded by your Lordships, we have received no Instructions, neither shall it be necessary upon the Reasons expressed, because competent Maintenance being secured, and the Seas opened, the Army we trust shall be easily kept in order. And for removing Jealousies and Doubts, we have made large Declarations, and given real Proofs, wishing in like manner that no cause of suspicion be given unto us by such Propositions, seconding the bitter Speeches of some Incendiaries who command in his Majesties Army.
We therefore earnestly intreat your Lordships to let us know at last what may be expected, at what time the promised Security shall be performed, and our previous demands satisfied, that we may have some certainty to shew to those who sent us, and who upon your Lordships Declaration do wait for it from us, and that we may proceed to the Treaty.
Remembrances for the English Lords Commissioners, to put them in mind of such things as have fallen in debate about the Demands of the Scots, for the maintenance of their Army during the Treaty.
- '1. THE first thing they are to endeavour is a present Cessation of Arms.
- '2. They are by all honourable, safe and convenient means to find out some ways for the relieving the Counties of Northumberland and Bishoprick of Durham from the hard condition in which they now are.
- '3. For the better effecting whereof, they are to consider how Berwick and Carlisle may be victualled out of Scotland, and the Army at Newcastle in proportion, if victualled out of England.
- '4. They are also for this purpose to take into consideration the opening of a free Passage and Trade between Scotland and Newcastle by Land and Sea, whereby the Army there may be better victualled from Scotland.
- '5. If besides the former means, there be urgent necessity, they are to take into consideration, what other adjacent Counties shall contribute, in what proportion, and in what manner.
- '6. They are to remember the great detriment his Majesty hath sustained in his Revenue, by bindring the Trade of Coals, to make what use they can thereof by lessening the Contribution.
- '7. They are to take into Consideration the lessening of both Armies.
- '8. They are to take further care, that upon the lessening or disbanding the Armies, or otherwise, there be no plundering of the Country, and that security be given for that purpose.
- '9. They are by all possible means to hasten the Treaty, and that there be no unnecessary delay therein.
- '10. For the better Encouragement of such Counties as their Lordships shall think fit to move to a Contribution, they are to declare unto them, That his Majesty and the Lords of the Great Council will recommend to the Parliament, as well the great Losses they have sustained, as the Charge they have or shall be at for the good and safety of the rest of the Kingdom.
'First, Concerning the 850 l. per Diem, we find it to be the utmost the Country can bear; And it is a Contribution fit for an Army only for safety and security, especially where any other means, by lessening the King's Army or otherwise, is offered to remove all doubts and jealousies, so that you may make your Army suitable to the means of maintaining it: besides, to give any greater Allowance whereby a greater Army shall be sustained, will cause a greater distrust and apprehension in the whole Kingdom of England, and therefore we do adhere to our former Proposition.
'As for allowance of Coals or Forage, if any thing be left to the Soldier's discretion, were to leave things to great uncertainty and occasions of difference; but for Money at reasonable Prices agreed upon, the Army is to be provided.
'Concerning the day of payment to be the first of October, we have already endeavoured to settle with the Counties for the payment of two Months from the 16th of October, and it would overthrow our former endeavours.
'Further, it is to be conceived no way prejudicial to the Scotch Army, since the same Sum of 850 l. per Diem is to be made good unto them upon the Arrears, even unto this Day. For the opening of the Ports, his Majesty is pleased to give way unto it, it being always to be understood that no Arms or Ammunition be imported.
'Whereas your Lordships propounded as a competency for the maintenance of an Army 30000 l. per mensem at 30 days the Month, we leave unto your Lordships as a fitting competency, as we conceive, the continuance of those Contributions, which have been formerly settled by the County of Northumberland and the Bishoprick of Durham, and the Town of Newcastle, amounting to the Sum of 850 l. per diem: but so as for the raising of the said Sum of the Bishoprick, Dean and Chapter, Clergy and Papists, shall be no otherwise charged or taxed, but by the ordinary way of levying of the said Contribution; and that the said Scotch Army, in respect of the said 850 l. per Diem, forbear to take any Exaction, Tax, Provision or Forage whatsoever from the said Counties, or any other place; as likewise leave free to his Majesty the Customs of Coals, and all other; the true meaning being that for all pretences and demands whatsoever, the said Scotch Army shall be fully satisfied with the payment of the said 850 l. per diem, and that the Bishop and other Clergy Men, and all other Inhabitants of the Bishoprick and Northumberland, return unto their dwellings, and to enjoy their own, without any molestation: and in regard of the said Contributions paid by these Counties, the said Scotish Army is to give security, that both whilst they stay, and likewise when they shall disband or march back with their Army, they shall keep and save the said Counties from all spoil and plundering; and that upon settling and perfecting the Payment and Contribution, there be presently declared on both sides cessation of Arms, and certain Limits and Bounds, which neither side shall pass in hostile manner; and for securing of the said payments all reasonable satisfaction shall be given them, and the said payments to begin from the 16th of October 1640. and to continue for the space of two Months, if the Treaty shall so long last, and be paid weekly parata. And so soon as this Accommodation for the maintenance of the Scotch Army, shall be settled and signed by the Commissioners on both sides, there shall be a present Entry upon the Treaty.
'As with all due respect we acknowledge the Benefit of the condescending to the Maintenance of our Army, are glad that your Lordships have begun to think on the Competency, we represent that neither the 850 l. per diem which those Countries were moved to grant, nor the Thirty Thousand Pounds moved by us, were conceived by us to be a full Maintenance, the one being so much as we could with the consent of the Country obtain, and the other joined with all other Supplies that can be made by our selves being reckoned, is not a Competency: and therefore lest contrary to our hopes, the Army be put on worse condition than before the Treaty, we desire your Lordships to consider that besides the 850 l. per diem, they had the time past the Benefit of the Customs, and Provision of Coals, and of such proportion of Forage. We indeed desire that his Majesties Customs may be lest free, but we hope your Lordships will think on some Supply of that Want, and will also provide that the Army be still furnished with Coals and other necessary Forage. We do not deny the difference to be wide between the former Loan and allowed Maintenance; but touching the point of present Provision of the Army, which in case of Necessity is principally
and above all considerations to be looked into by us, the inequality betwixt that which we had, and which is now allowed, is very considerable. When Competency shall be condescended unto, we shall content our selves therewith, and neither molest Papists, or Prelates, or their Adherents, during the time of the Payment of the Maintenance: and as it was grievous unto us, that the Inhabitants of Newcastle or any other whatsoever should have left their dwellings, so shall we be glad of their return, and will refuse them no kindness or courtesies, which can stand with the accommodation of the Army. We also promise what security is usual in like cases, that during the aboad of the Army, and in their return, none of these Counties shall be plundered or spoiled, but so far as is possible, be saved from all harm and damage; and withal it is supposed, that the days of our return be numbred within the compass of the time of our allowed maintenance. Concerning the Cessation of Arms, and the limits of both Armies, we heartily agree unto both.
'It is declared that the security of Payment promised by your Lordships be condescended in all particulars, that the Payment of the Maintenance to be agreed upon, begin the first of October, and continue during the Treaty, until our Peace be secured by Parliament; and that the said Payment be made weekly; that all Arrearages which are resting unpaid, preceding the first of October, of the allowed Maintenance, be agreed upon.
'That these be free Trade by Sea and Land as in time of Peace, and that Victuals and other necessaries for the Army be free of Custom; that all restraints be moved, and the Subjects of the Country made free to furnish us with necessaries for our Army, and also all sorts of Commerce allowed, and liberties granted of milling, brewing, baking, and other things of that kind.
'Our constant desires against all suspicions and jealousies, to obtain our own demands, and to have a firm and well-grounded Peace concluded. And for the end the Treaty may be continued, and our hopes of supply by opening of the Sea Ports and freedom of Trade by Sea and Land, doth so far prevail with us, that we resolve rather to burden our selves with a great part of the Maintenance, and to accept of the 850 l. per diem, than that the Treaty should be broken up, and the dangerous consequences to both Kingdoms should follow, which we earnestly desire for our parts to prevent.
'Although the beginning of the Payment the first of October, hath been still pressed and expected by us, and transferring thereof to the 16th of October, importeth no small prejudice; yet lest in any point we should cross your Lordships laudable endeavours already taken for the setling of the Payment of the Biruns, and sufficient security for afterwards, we receive also the conditions.
'And as we desire there be no need of new Arms and Ammunition, so do we not crave liberty that any should be imported during the Treaty. In this point we are satisfied with the Liberties of Trade and Commerce by Sea and Land, as in the time of Peace, which may be profitable to both Kingdoms, and prejudicial to neither of us.
'Since both desire and have accorded, that the Security be settled in the particulars, and signed before we entred upon the Demands, it were fit we should now agree upon all the particulars of the Security, that there be no more question about it.
'We desire also your Lordships Answer to such particulars as is expressed in our payment given in yester-night, which are not yet answered; and that the point of Cessation, the Limits to be offered to both Armies, and the matter of Coal and Forage may be made so plain and clear, that there be no misunderstanding.
A Letter to the Gentlemen and Freeholders of the County of Northumberland for their Relief.
AFter our hearty Commendations unto you, His Majesty and the Great Council of Peers now assembled, much commiserating the great Losses which your County hath sustained by the Scotish Army, and the utter Plundering thereof, which would in all probability follow, unless some present Remedy be taken for preventing of the same, commended it to the Care of the Lords Commissioners remaining at Rippon, that some course might be taken for your Relief; who finding no other better way, thought fit, That all you of the said County should continue your former Contributions of Three Hundred Pounds per diem; which if you shall cheerfully and readily do, the said Lords will so agree with the Scotish Commissioners, that you may be free in your Persons, and safe in your Estates, during the continuance of that Contribution. And you shall likewise be recommended by his Majesty and this Great Council to the now approaching Parliament, that you may have Reparation made you, not only for such Contributions as now you shall agree unto, but for your former Contributions, and other losses sustained by you from the Scotish Army. And since the Gentlemen here attending this Business for your County, would not conclude you without your own Consents, We have thought fit to let you receive from them the Advice and Direction of this Great Council, which for your own good and safety We recommend unto you, and wish you to listen unto, that greater inconveniencies fall not upon you. And so We bid you heartily Farewell, and rest
A Second Letter to the Lord Mayor of London, Octob. 19.
AFter our hearty Commendations to your Lordship and the rest; By our Letters of the twenty fifth of September last, and by those Lords which were the Bearers of them, We made known unto you, in what condition the County of Northumberland and the Bishoprick of Durham stood, and how much it concerned the adjacent Counties, and in consequence the whole Kingdom, that his Majesty should continue his Forces together, till by the happy success of the present Treaty, or the great Wisdom of the Parliament, some course might be taken for a firm Peace or just War: Being satisfied that his Majesty was altogether unprovided of Money for keeping of his Forces together, till the Parliament might have time to settle a Course therein agreeable to their Wisdoms. And having all resolved, That it was necessary for his Majesty to be supplied with the Sum of Two Hundred Thousand Pounds, as well for continuing his Forces together, as for orderly dismissing of them, when it should be fit so to do; We made it our hearty and affectionate request unto you, that you would not at this time be wanting to assist his Majesty, and oblige the whole Kingdom by lending that Sum: for which we then offered (as we still do, and shall be ever ready to perform) to joyn with his Majesty in, any such Security, as should be agreed upon by those Lords and your selves. We then gave you our Reasons and Opinions, how much it imported the publick Preservation both of King and Kingdom, assuring our selves, that the consideration thereof, with your own affections and love of the publick, would incline you to lend willing ears to our Requests, wherein we find we have not been deceived; your cheerfulness and forwardness herein, having been represented unto us by those Lords that came unto you from this Great Council, for which we give your Lordship and the whole City very hearty thanks; his Majesty making every day his Grace and Goodness so appear unto us, that we cannot but take infinite comfort in the knowledge and confidence of his gracious Resolutions, of which we doubt not, but you and the whole Kingdom will very quickly find the comfortable and happy effects. We are now in a hopeful way of making this Treaty successful to the Content of both Kingdoms. But in Affairs of so great weight and importance, time and mature deliberation are requisite, lest by precipitate Counsels the danger might be increased, instead of being prevented: so as we cannot yet find any Reason to advise the disbanding his Majesties Forces; especially since by the Wisdom of the Lords Commissioners deputed by his Majesty and this Great Council to treat with those of Scotland, care is taken for relieving the Counties of Northumberland and the Bishoprick of Durham, by a Contribution to the Scots Army, during the Treaty; that so by a present Cessation of Arms, those greater Inconveniencies may be avoided, which otherwise would light upon his Majesties Subjects in those Parts. And as the keeping together of his Majesties. Forces till those of Scotland disband, cannot but facilitate and advance the Treaty; so it were dishonourable and unsafe, that his Majesties Army should not in the mean time be well provided for: therefore we once again earnestly and heartily pray you, as you tender the publick good and safety, to make all possible speed in supplying his Majesty presently with the remainder of the Two Hundred Thousand Pounds, that it be not useless to his Majesty and the Kingdom, by the too late furnishing of it. For should his Majesty for lack of means to pay his Army, be inforced to dissolve it, the whole Kingdom would be in apparent and eminent danger. The care of preventing this publick Danger, wherein we are all so deeply concerned, hath been the cause of these our second Letters, that you might truly understand the necessity of your speedy Aid and Assistance. By those Lords, which we sent unto you with our first Letters, we gave you notice of those Days of Payment which his Majesty's Occasions did require, which were the 12th of this Month for Fifty Thousand Pounds, the 15th of November for One Hundred Thousand Pounds, and the first of December for the last Fifty Thousand Pounds. And upon consideration of the State of his Majesty's Army, we plainly foresee, That if you should fail his Majesty, and our very earnest Desires herein, it would be impossible for his Majesty to hold his Forces together; which we all with one Heart earnestly wish and advise his Majesty should do: And cannot but again and again very affectionately commend the same to your Loves and Care. And so we bid you heartily farewell, and rest
May it please your Majesty,
'We have thought it fit to give your Majesty a perfect Account of the Estate of your Affairs at this present, which we conceive will best be done by transmitting unto your Majesty the Papers themselves, which go herein inclosed; your Majesty will see, that the Scotch Commissioners are not fully and finally satisfied with the Security which we have been yet able to propound unto them for the raising of the Eight hundred and Fifty Pounds a day, which was the Contribution formerly settled by the Country with them. But finding that they are very clearly dealt withal, and that all possible Endeavours are used for their Satisfaction in this point, they think it fit to represent the true State of the Business to those of Newcastle: and in the interim, altho their Instructions be, not to enter into the main Treaty, until the Competency for the maintenance of their Army be fully secured; yet for the beginning of time, they are contented to enter upon a debate of their Demands, and so to prepare them, that they may be in a readiness for a conclusion when rhey shall receive Power; and this day (God willing) we shall give a beginning unto that Work. But we entring into a due consideration of the multitude of the Articles to be treated of, and of the Intricacy and Difficulty of many of them, and likewise that divers of the said Articles cannot be settled before the Parliament, the time whereof approacheth so fast, that there will be few days left to be employ'd in the settling of this Treaty, before there will be a necessity for us to undertake our Journey towards the Parliament; we have holden it our Duties to represent this straitness of time unto your Majesty, and with it our most humble Opinion, that as you were formerly pleased, that this Treaty might have been transferred from Rippon to York, so you will be now pleased that it be transferred from hence to London, without breaking or dissolving of the Treaty; and that you would be pleased to give us power to treat and settle the said Removal with the Scotch Commissioners. All which we must humbly submit to your Majesty's great Wisdom.
'One thing further we presume to represent unto your Majesty, which is the present opening of the Ports; being a thing as much desired by your Majesty's Subjects of England, as by the Scots. And that it is already agreed by the Articles of the Cessation, and likewise assented unto by your Majesty by the Advice of the Peers, that both the Ports and Trade by Sea and Land might be set free upon the first Entrance into the Treaty. Many other Reasons there are, especially concerning the Coal, which are represented unto us, both for the Benefit of London and the whole Kingdom; by which it is made apparent unto us, that much more disadvantage would redound unto your Majesty's good Subjects, than to the Scots, if any such Stop of Trade should be continued. God have your Majesty in his holy keeping.
My very good Lords,
'His Majesty calling this day the Great Council, was pleased to acquaint them with those Papers your Lordships sent, together with a Letter to his Majesty from yourselves. Upon some Debate had, his Majesty and my Lords commanded me to write thus much to your Lordships, that they held it most necessary, that a Cessation of Arms be absolutely concluded and agreed on before his Majesty or your Lordships depart hence. Upon which Cessation, and not before, the Ports to be opened, and free Trade permitted: but not for bringing in of Ammunition to Newcastle, as your Lordships may remember was always insisted upon. Their Lordships are likewise of Opinion, that your Lordships should endeavour to procure the Scotish Commissioners presently to clear their Demands, by delivering the Particulars thereof in Writing to your Lordships, and explaining them, so as it may be fully understood what it is they expect; and especially in point of Satisfaction for their Costs and Damages. This his Majesty and the Lords believe will be a very easy Work, and take but little time, since it is in effect offered by the Scotish Commissioners in one of their Papers dated the twentieth of this Month. This done, his Majesty and my Lords will take into Consideration the adjourning the Treaty to London, and let your Lordships receive his Majesty's Pleasure therein. I rest
To the Lord Keeper, October 23.
Our very good Lord,
'We have received your Lordships Letter, and give your Lordship many thanks for your Care in giving us so speedy an Answer; we have now sent our humble Advice to his Majesty, that we all conceive it most conducing to his Majesty's Service, that the Treaty be transferred to London: and do humbly beseech his Majesty, that we may receive Power and Directions to treat and settle with the Scots all Particulars belonging to the same. We do intreat your Lordship to afford your Assistance for the expediting of this dispatch; for if it be delayed, we shall not well be able to reach York to morrow Night; which would fall out very prejudicial to us in point of time for our Journey to London. Thus we commit your Lordship to the Protection of the Almighty, and rest,
Right Trusty and Right Well-beloved Cousins and Counsellors of our Great Council, and Right Trusty and Well-beloved Counsellors of our said Great Council, We greet you well. Whereas We have received your unanimous Advice, That it will most conduce to Our Service, that the present Treaty with our Subjects of Scotland, be transferred from Rippon to London, We are so confident as well of your Judgments and Discretions, as of your Fidelity to Our Service, That we cannot but condescend thereunto. And do therefore hereby give you or any ten or more of you, full Power and Authority to treat and settle with Our said Subjects of Scotland, all Particulars belonging to the said Removal. For which this shall be your sufficient Warrant. Given at our Court at York this three and twentieth day of October in the sixteenth Year of Our Reign.
The time of meeting for the Parliament approaching, his Majesty's Commissioners concluded to adjourn the Treaty from Rippon to that City, and sent the Powers and Directions to that purpose signed with his own Hand to the said Lords, by which he impowered any ten or more of them, to treat and settle with his Subjects of Scotland all Particulars concerning the said Removal: his Majesty leaving the Circumstances to their Lordships Wisdoms; only he recommended two things to their Care. First, The settling the Cessation of Arms. And Secondly, The procuring from the Scotish Commissioners, as full and clear a setting forth of their Demands as possibly they could.
In the mean time his Majesty did deliberate about the Increase of his Forces at Stockton Castle, a Place of great Importance, situate on the River of Tees the Border of the Bishoprick and Yorkshire, in regard the Scots had brought in more Men to Newcastle, and placed more at Durham, than were at the beginning of the Treaty. However, to avoid all Suspicion and Jealousy, his Majesty was pleased to wave those Intentions.
Articles agreed on concerning the Cessation of Arms, betwixt the English and Scotish Commissioners at Rippon the twenty sixth day of October.
- 1. 'THAT there be a Cessation of Arms both by Sea and Land from this present.
- 2. 'That all Acts of Hostility do henceforth cease.
- 3. 'That both Parties shall peaceably retain, during the Treaty, whatsoever they possess at the time of the Cessation.
- 4. 'That all such Persons who live in any of his Majesty's Forts beyond the River of Tees, shall not exempt their Lands which lie within the Counties of Northumberland and the Bishoprick from such Contribution, as shall be laid upon them for the Payment of the 850 l. a day.
- 5. 'That none of the King's Forces upon the other side of Tees, shall give any Impediment to such Contributions, as are already allowed for the Competency of the Scotch Army, and shall take no Victuals out of the Bounds, except that which the Inhabitants and Owners thereof shall bring voluntarily to them: And that any Restraint or Detention of Victuals, Cattle and Forage, which shall be made by the Scots within those Bounds for their better Maintenance, shall be no Breach.
- 6. 'That no Recruits shall be brought unto either Army from the time of the Cessation, and during the Treaty.
- 7. 'That the Contribution of 850 l. a day, shall be only raised out of the Counties of Northumberland, the Bishoprick, Town of Newcastle, Cumberland and Westmoreland; and that the not Payment thereof shall be no Breach of the Treaty; but the Counties and Town to failing, it shall be left to the Scotch Power to raise the same, but not to exceed the Sum agreed upon, unless it be for the Changes of driving to be set by the Commissioners of the Forage.
- 8. 'That the River of Tees shall be the Bounds of both Armies excepting always the Town and Castle of Stockton, and the Village of Eggscliffe: And that the Counties of Northumberland *** the Bishoprick of Durham be the Limits, within the which the Scotish Army is to reside; saving always Liberty for them to send such Convoys, as shall be necessary for the gathering up only of the Contributions which shall be unpaid by the Counties of Westmoreland and Cumberland.
- 9. 'If any Persons commit any private Insolencies, it shall be no Breach of the Treaty, if (upon Complaint made by either Party) Reparation and Punishment be granted.
- 10. 'If Victuals be desired upon that Price which shall be agreed upon, and ready Money offered for the same, and refused; it shall be no Breach of the Cessation, to take such Victuals, paying such Price.
- 11. 'No new Fortifications to be made during the Treaty, against either Party.
- 12. 'That the Subjects of both Kingdoms, may in their Trade and Commerce freely pass to and fro, without any Pass at all; but that it be particularly provided, that no Member of either Army shall pass without a formal Pass under the Hand of the General, or of him that commandeth in Chief.
- Ed. Mandevile.
- Ph. Wharton.
- Ro. Brook.
- J. Paulett.
- Ed. Howard.
- F. Dunsmore.
- Patrick Hepburne.
- William Douglass.
- J. Smith.
- William Wedderburn.
- Alex. Henderson.
- William Johnstown.
The Reasons of the Lords Commissioners for giving of their Advice to his Majesty for the Confirmation of the Treaty at Rippon, the 27th day of October 1640.
'On the twenty seventh of October the Lords Commissioners returned to York, and in the Afternoon waited upon the King in his Great Council of the Peers. The Earl of Bristol by Direction of the Lords, gave a short Account of the Proceedings in the Treaty. And then were read both the Articles for the Cessation of Arms, and the Articles of easing of the Counties under the Scotish Power, and for a Competency for the Maintenance of the Scotish Army during the Treaty. After the Narration and Examination of some particular Articles, it was declared by his Majesty and the Peers then present, That the Commissioners had in all things proceeded punctually according to their Instructions.
'His Majesty then demanded of the Lords, Whether they would counsel him to confirm the said Treaty, and required them that they would therein give their Advice. Whereupon it was replied in the name of the Commissioners, that as they had served his Majesty in this Treaty with exact Fidelity, so in their Advice and Counsels they would be glad to serve him according to their Consciences; the first being an Act of pure Obedience, the other of their Judgments and Opinions. And therefore they humbly besought his Majesty, that they might retire and confer among themselves; which his Majesty was graciously pleased to assent unto. Upon their debating and weighing of the Particulars of the said Treaty, they found that it could not but be held derogatory to the Honour of the King and Kingdom, to treat at all with Subjects, and such as had already actually possessed themselves of several Provinces of this Kingdom. They found likewise many of the Articles unfit to have been condescended unto by any Army, that had been but in a probable condition of Defence. They therefore thought it not fit for them, absolutely to give the King any such Advice, unless they might jointly with it obtain his Majesty's leave, to make unto him a Declaration of such Reasons and Motives as induced them to give the said Advice; which being assented unto by his Majesty, they caused a short Declaration to be read, to the effect of that which followeth.
'That they must crave his Majesty's leave to reduce into his Memory those Reasons and Motives which first induced the Lords of the great Council to advise his Majesty to admit of a Treaty, then of a Cessation of Arms, and lastly of a Competency towards the maintenance of the Scottish Army, thereby to save the Countries under the Scotch Power from plundering. For that the same Motives which had produced the former unanimous Counsel of the Peers, were likewise now to be the grounds of their present Advice, which they held fit to be set down by way of Declaration, for the better justifying of this their Advice, both towards his Majesty, and towards the World.
'They then declared, that at the first assembling of the Great Council, his Majesty propounded two things unto them: The one, how his Majesty's own Army might be held together, until it might be helped by those Supplies which were hoped for by Parliament? The Peers with great Alacrity and Affection fell presently into debate, how a considerable Supply might speedily be raised. And conceiving no means so effectual, as by a Loan of Two hundred thousand Pounds by the City of London; they chearfully and unanimously offered their Security by Bond, to be joined with such as should be offered on his Majesty's behalf, if need should so require. And to that effect they wrote their Letters to the Mayor and Citizens of London, and dispatched away divers of the Peers, to solicite and take care of the said Loan.
'The second Proposition made by his Majesty was, What answer he should give unto the Scots, and in what way he should treat with them? having formerly promised an Answer to their Petition presently upon the Meeting of the Great Council. Hereunto the Peers made answer, that they could not well give any Advice herein, without a perfect Information of the State of his Majesty's Affairs, and the present Condition of his Army; which Points falling then naturally under debate, it was upon Examination found, that the Scotch Army had passed the River of Tyne; and that upon disputing the Passage at Newborne, our Horse were put to the worst, and had retired in disorder. That his Majesty's Army of Foot then in Newcastle, had likewise retired from thence unto York; whereby that Town fell the next day into the Hands of the Scots without resistance: so likewise did the whole Countries of Northumberland and the Bishoprick; which were presently drawn into Contribution; Newcastle paying Two hundred Pounds per diem, Northumberland Three hundred Pounds, and the Bishoprick Three hundred and fifty. And it was declared by Mr. Secretary Vane, that these Contributions were not condescended unto by the Countries, until they were put out of all hope of Protection by the King's Forces. For he delivered it in the Great Council, that the chief Gentlemen of the Bishoprick addressing themselves unto him, he carried them to his Majesty, who was pleased to refer them to the Lord Lieutenant; who positively declared unto them, that they could not expect any Relief from his Majesty; and therefore left them to make the best Conditions they could for themselves and their Estates.
'The Lord Lieutenant likewise declared in the Great Council, That it was not possible to keep the Counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland out of the Scotish Power, whensoever they should endeavour to take them in: And for the Town of Newcastle, he said it was not to be gotten out of the Scots Hands this Winter, although his Majesty had an Army of One hundred thousand Men. He further declared, That (unless it were by the Difficulties of an Army to march in Winter) the Scotch Army could not be hindered from passing forwards into England; for that the Passages of the River of Tees, which is the Boundary of Yorkshire, was not to be defended, being in many Places fordable by forty Horses in Front; neither could the said Army be kept from marching up unto York, without the adventuring to give them Battle; which his Lordship said he would not advise: neither conceives he his Majesty's Army for the present, to be in a fitting Posture to fight. For although it consisted of a considerable Number, and very good Bodies of Men; yet, for want of use of their Arms, he held it not fit to rely upon them, especially where so much was to be hazarded, and so little to be gained.
'Upon these Grounds, the Great Council formerly gave their Advice unto his Majesty for the Treaty concerning a Cessation of Arms, and easing of the Counties under the Scotch Power, by settling a Competency by Agreement. And upon the same Grounds, the Commissioners (finding no Cause by any Alteration in his Majesty's Affairs for the better, but rather some Doubts and Uncertainties about the Supplies from the City of London (as was publickly declared unto the Great Council of the Peers) and that there was not means for the Payment of the Army for one Fortnight longer) the said Commissioners upon these Grounds, (as likewise, there
being no reason to question his Majesty's Powers granted unto them under the Great Seal of England, by which they had treated and concluded the Articles by them signed, did give their Advice to his Majesty to confirm the said Articles, and all that had been signed and condescended unto by the said Commissioners; conceiving it to be great Wisdom in a Prince (in cases of necessity) to dispense with the strict Rules of Honour, for the Safety and Preservation of his Estate and People.
'And upon the same Reason, the rest of the Peers there present, concurred in their Advices unto his Majesty. And thereupon his Majesty was pleased the same day, in the presence of the said great Council, to confirm under his Hand and Signet, all that had passed and been agreed upon betwixt his Majesty's Commissioners and the Commissioners of the Scotch Army.
Whilst the King was at York in the Month of September, the Archbishop of Canterbury thought fit to acquaint his Majesty by Letter of a great Plot and Design tending to the Destruction of his Majesty and Protestant Religion; which being a thing of great Concern, the Author thinks fit to communicate the same as it is confirmed by the Archbishop of Canterbury's own Hand-writing.
Sir William Boswell's first Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, concerning the Plot.
May it please your Grace,
The Offers (whereof your Grace will find a Copy) here inclosed towards a further and more particular Discovery, were first made unto me at the second hand, and in Speech, by a Friend of good Quality and Worth in this Place; but soon after (as soon as they could be put into order) were avowed by the principal Party, and deliver'd me in Writing by both together, upon Promise and Oath, which I was required to give, and gave accordingly, not to reveal the same to any other Man living but your Grace, and by your Grace's Hand unto his Majesty.
In like manner they have tied themselves not to declare these things unto any other but myself, until they should know how his Majesty and your Grace would dispose thereof. The Principal giving me withal to know, that he puts himself and this Secret into your Grace's power, as well because it concerns your Grace so nearly after his Majesty, as that he knows your Wisdom to guide the same aright, and is assured of your Grace's Fidelity to his Majesty's Person, to our State, and to our Church.
First, Your Grace is humbly and earnestly prayed to signify his Majesty's Pleasure (with all possible speed) together with your Grace's Disposition herein, and purpose to carry all with silence from all but his Majesty until due time.
Secondly, When your Grace shall think fit to shew these things unto his Majesty, to do it immediately, not trusting to Letters, or permitting any other Person to be by or in hearing; and to entreat and counsel his Majesty, as in a case of Conscience, to keep the same wholly and solely in his own Bosom, from the knowledge of all other Creatures living but your Grace; until the business shall be clear, and sufficiently in his Majesty's and your Grace's hands to effect.
Thirdly, Not to enquire or demand the Names of the Parties from whom these Overtures do come, or any further Discoveries and Advertisements in pursuit of them which shall come hereafter, until due Satisfaction shall be given in every part of them. Nor to bewray unto any Person but his Majesty in any measure or kind, that any thing of this nature, or of any great Importance, is come from me.
For as I may believe these Overtures are verifiable in the way they will be laid, and that the Parties will not shrink; so I make account that if never so little a glimpse or shadow of these Informations shall appear by his Majesty's or your Grace's Speech or Carriage unto others, the means whereby the business may be brought best unto trial, will be utterly disappointed; and the Parties who have in Conscience towards God, and Devotion to his Majesty, Affection to your Grace, and Compassion of your Country, disclosed these things, will run a present and extreme hazard of their Persons and Lives. So easily it will be conjectur'd (upon the least occasion given upon his Majesty's or your Grace's parts) who is the discoverer; by what means, and how he know so much of these things, and where he is. These are the Points, which together with the Offers they have pressed me especially to represent most seriously unto your Grace.
Fifthly, Whether I shall not rather take the Parties Answers and Discoveries sealed up by themselves, and having likewise put my own Seal upon them, without questioning what they contain, so to transmit them to his Majesty or your Grace.
Sixthly, Whether I may not insinuate upon some fair occasions, that there will be a due regard held of them and their Service, by his Majesty and your Grace, when all Particulars undertaken in these general Offers, and necessary for perfection of the Discovery and Work intended, shall be effectually deliver'd to his Majesty or your Grace.
Upon these Heads, and such other as his Majesty and your Grace shall think proper in the business, I must with all humility beseech your Grace to furnish me with Instructions, and Warrant for my Proceedings under his Majesty's Hand, with your Grace's Attestation, as by his Majesty's Goodness and Royal Disposition is usual in like cases.
May it please your Grace to entertain a Cypher with me upon this occasion. I have sent the counter-part of one here enclosed; in the vacant Spaces, whereof your Grace may insert such Names more, with numbers to them, as you think requisite.
If these Overtures happily sort with his Majesty's and your Grace's mind, and shall accordingly prove effectual in their Operation, I shall think my self a most happy Man to have had my Oblations in so pious a Work for my most Gracious Sovereign and Master; more particularly in that your Grace under his Majesty shall be Opisex rerum & mundi melioris origo. Which I shall incessantly beg in my Prayers at his hands who is the giver of all good things, and will never forsake or fail them who do not first fail and fall from him, The God of all Mercy and Peace: with which I shall remain ever
Andreas ab Habernfield's Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury concerning the Plot revealed to him, dated at the Hague, Septemb. 14. New Stile, 1640. which he sent enclosed in Sir William Boswell's first Letter, Sept. 14. 1640.
Most Illustrious and most Reverend Lord,
All my Senses are shaken together as often as I revolve the present Business, neither doth my Understanding suffice (to conceive) what Wind hath brought such horrid things, that they should see the Sun-shine by me; for besides expectation this good Man became known unto me, who when he had heard me discoursing of these Scotish Stirs, said, that I knew not the Nerve of the Business, that these things which are commonly scattered abroad are superficial. From that Hour he every day became more familiar to me, who acknowledging my Dexterity herein with a full Breast, poured forth the Burdens of his Heart into my Bosom, supposing that he had discharged a Burden of Conscience wherewith he was pressed. Hence he related to me the Factions of the Jesuits, with which the whole earthly World was assaulted, and shewed, that I might behold how through their Poison, Bohemia and Germany were devoured, and both of them maimed with an irreparable Wound; that the same Plague did creep through the Realms of England and Scotland, the matter whereof revealed in the adjacent Writing he discovered to me: which things having heard, my Bowels were contracted together, my Loins trembled with Horror that a pernicious Gulph should be prepared for so many thousands of Souls, with Words moving the Conscience; I inflamed the Mind of the Man, he had scarce one hour concocted my Admonitions, but he disclosed all the Secrets, and he gave free liberty that I should treat with those whom it concerned, that they might be informed hereof. I thought no delay was to be made about the things; the same hour went to Sir William Boswell the King's Leger at the Hague, who being tied with an Oath of Secrecy to me, I communicated the business to him; I admonished him to weigh those things by the Balance, neither to defer but act, that those who were in danger might be speedily succoured; he as becomes an honest Man, mindful of his Duty, and having nearer looked into the Business, refused not to obey the Monitions; moreover he forthwith caused that an Ex press should be dispatched, and sent word back again what a most acceptable Oblation this had been to the King, and your Grace, for which we rejoiced from the heart, and we judged that a safe and favourable Deity had interposed itself in this business, whereby you might be preserved.
Now that the verity of the things related might be confirmed, some principal Heads of the Conspiracy were purposely pretermitted, that the knowledge of them might be extorted from the circumvented Society of the Conspirators.
Now the things will be speedily and safely promoted into act, if they be warily proceeded in at Bruxels. By my Advice, that Day shall be observed wherein the Packet of Letters are dispatched, which under the Title of To Mons. Strario Arch-Deacon of Cambray, tied with one Cover are delivered to the Post-Master; such a Packet may be secretly brought back from him, yet it will be unprofitable, because all the enclosed Letters are written Characterstically; likewise another Packet coming weekly from Rome, which is brought under this Subscription. To the most Illustrious Lord Count Rosetti, Legat for the time; these are not to be neglected; to whom likewise Letters writ in the same Character are included; That they may be understood, Read is to be consulted with. The forenamed Day of dispatch shall be expected. In Read's House an accumulated Congregation may he circumvented, which succeeding, it will be your Grace's part to order the business. The intestine Enemy being at length detected by God's Grace, all bitterness of Mind which is caused on either side may be abolished, delivered to Oblivion, deleted and quieted, the Enemy be invaded on both parts: Thus the King and the King's Friends and both Kingdoms near to danger shall be preserved, delivered from imminent danger.
Your Grace likewise may have this Injunction by you, if you desire to have the best Advice given you by others, that you trust not overmuch to your Pursuivants, for some of them live under the Stipend of the Popish Party: How many Rocks and how many Scylla's, how many displeased Charybdes appear before your Grace, in what a dangerous Sea the Cockboat of your Grace's Life, next to Shipwreck is tossed, your self may judge, the Foredeck of the Ship is speedily to be driven to the Harbour,
The general Overture and Discovery of the Plot sent with Sir William Boswell's first Letter, Sept. 6. 1640. Foreign Stile.
- 1. 'That the King's Majesty and Lord Archbishop are both of them in great danger of their Lives.
- 2. 'That the whole Commonwealth is by this means endanger'd, unless the Mischief be speedily prevented.
- 3. 'That these Scotish Troubles are raised, to the end, that under this Pretext the King and Archbishop might be destroyed.
- 4. 'That there is a means to be prescribed, whereby both of them in this case may be preserved, and this Tumult speedily composed.
- 5. 'That altho those Scotish Tumults be speedily composed, yet that the King is endanger'd, and that there are many ways by which Destruction is plotted to the King and Lord Archbishop.
- 6. 'That a certain Society hath conspired, which attempts the Death of the King and Lord Archbishop, and Convulsion of the whole Realm.
- 7. 'That the same Society every Week deposits with the President of the Society, what Intelligence every of them hath purchased in eight days Search, and then confer all into one Packet, which is weekly sent to the Director of the Business.
- 8. 'That all the Confederates in the said Conspiracy may verily be named by the Poll, but because they may be made known by other means, it is thought meet to defer it till hereafter.
- 9. 'That there is a ready means whereby the Villany may be discovered in one moment, the chief Conspirators circumvented, and the primary Members of the Conjuration apprehended in the very Act.
- 10. 'That very many about the King, who are accounted most faithful and intimate, to whom likewise the more secret things are entrusted, are Traitors to the King, corrupted with a foreign Pension, who communicate all Secrets of greater or lesser moment to a foreign Power.
- 11. 'These and other most secret things, which shall be necessary to be known for the Security of the King, may be revealed if these things shall be acceptable to the Lord Archbishop.
- 12. 'In the mean time, if his Royal Majesty, and the Lord Archbishop desire to consult well to themselves, they shall keep these things only superficially communicated unto them, most secretly under deep silence, not communicating them so much as to those whom they judge most faithful to them, before they shall receive by name in whom they may confide, for else they are safe on no side. Likewise they may be assured, that whatever things are here proposed are no Figments, nor Fables, nor vain Dreams, but such real Verities which may be demonstrated in every small tittle: for those who thrust themselves into this Business are such Men who mind no Gain, but the very Zeal of Christian Charity suffers them not to conceal these things, yet both from his Majesty and the Lord Archbishop some small Exemplar of Gratitude will be expected.
'All these Premises have been communicated under good Faith, and the Sacrament of an Oath, to Mr. Leiger, Ambassador of the King of Great Britain at the Hague, that he should not immediately trust or communicate these things to any Mortal besides the King and the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury.
May it please your Majesty,
As great as the Secret is which comes herewith, yet I chuse rather to send it in this silent covert way, and I hope safe, than to come thither, and bring it my self. First, because I am no way able to make haste enough with it. Secondly, because should I come at this time and antedate the meeting Sept. 24. there would be more jealousy of the Business, and more enquiry after it; especially if I being once there, should return again before that day, as I must if this be followed, as is most fit.
The Danger, it seems, is imminent, and laid by God knows whom, but to be executed by them which are very near about you (for the great Honour which I have to be in danger with you, or for you, I pass not, so your Sacred Person and the State may be safe.) Now, may it please your Majesty, this Information is either true, or there is some mistake in it: if it be true, the Persons which make the Discovery will deserve Thanks and Reward; if there should be any mistake in it, your Majesty can lose nothing but a little silence.
I concur totally with you in opinion, assuring you that no body doth or shall know of this business, and to shew my care to conceal it, I received this but this Afternoon, and now I make this dispatch before I sleep. Herewith I send his Warrant as you advise, which indeed I judge to be the better way.
The Business (if it be) is extream foul, the Discovery thus by God's Providence offered, seems fair. I do hereby humbly beg it upon my Knees of your Majesty, that you will conceal this Business from every Creature, and his Name that sends this to me. And I send his Letters to me to your Majesty, that you may see his Sense both of the Business and the Secrecy. And such Instructions as you think fit to give him, I beseech you let them be in your own hand for his warrant, without imparting them to any. And if your Majesty leave it to his Discretion to follow it therein in the best way he can, that in your own hand will be Instruction and Warrant enough for him. And if you please to return it herewith presently to me, I will send an Express away with it presently.
In the mean time I have by this Express returned him his Answer, that I think he shall do well to hold on the Treaty with these Men with all Care and Secrecy, and drive on to the Discovery so soon as the Business is ripe for it; that he may assure himself and them, they shall not want Reward, if they do the Service; that for my part he shall be sure of Secrecy; and that I am most confident your Majesty will not impart it to any. That he have a special eye to the Eighth and Ninth Proposition.
Sir, For God's sake and your own Safety, Secrecy in this Business; and I beseech you send me back this Letter, and all that comes with it, speedily and secretly, and trust not your own Pockets with them, I shall not eat nor sleep in quiet till I receive them. And so soon as I have them again and your Majesty's Warrant to proceed, no diligence shall be wanting in me to help on the Discovery.
This is the greatest Business that ever was put to me; and if I have herein proposed or done any thing amiss, I most humbly crave your Majesty's pardon. But I am willing to hope I have not herein erred in Judgment, and in Fidelity I never will.
These Letters came to me (saith the Archbishop) on Thursday Septem. 10. at Night, and I send these away according to the Date hereof, being extreamly wearied with writing this Letter, copying out these other which come with this, and dispatching my Letters back to him that sent these, all in my own Hand. Once again, Secrecy for God's sake and your own. To his most blessed Protection I commend your Majesty and all your Affairs, and am
(fn. 1) York 13th. Lambeth, Sept. 11. 1640.
(fn. 2) As I had ended these, whether with the Labour or Indignation, or both I fell into an extream faint Sweat; I pray God keep me from a Fever, of which three are down in my Family at Croyden.
Sir William Boswell's second Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
May it please your Grace,
This Evening late I have received your Grace's Dispatch, with the Enclosed from his Majesty, by my Secretary Oveart, and shall give due Account with all possible speed of the same according to his Majesty's and your Grace's Commands, praying heartily that my Endeavours, which shall be most faithful, may also prove effectual to his Majesty's and your Grace's Content: with which I do most humbly take leave, being always
Sir William Boswell's third Letter to the Archbishop, sent with the larger Discovery of the Plot.
May it please your Grace,
Upon Receipt of his Majesty's Commands, with your Grace's Letters of the 9th and 18th of September last, I dealt with the Party to make good his Offers formerly put in my hand, and transmitted to your Grace. This he hopes to have done by the Enclosed, so far as will be needful for his Majesty's Satisfaction; yet if any more particular Explanation of Discovery shall be required by his Majesty or your Grace, he hath promised to add thereunto, whatsoever he can remember and knows of Truth. And for better Assurance and Verification of his Integrity, he professeth himself ready (if required) to make Oath of what he hath already declared, or shall hereafter declare in the business.
His Name he conjures me still to conceal, tho he thinks his Majesty and your Grace, by the Character he gives of himself, will easily imagine who he is, having been known so generally thro Court and City, as he was for three or four Years in the Quality and Employment he acknowledgeth (by his Declaration enclosed) himself to have had.
Hereupon he doth also redouble his most humble and earnest Suit unto his Majesty and your Grace to be most secret and circumspect in the business, that he may not be suspected to have discovered, or had a hand in the same.
I shall here humbly beseech your Grace to let me know what I may further do for his Majesty's Service, or for your Grace's particular Behoof; that I may accordingly endeaour to approve myself, as I am,
A large particular Discovery of the Plot and Treason against the King, Kingdom and Protestant Religion, and to raise the Scottish Wars.
Most Illustrious and Reverend Lord,
'We have willingly and cordially perceived, that our Offers have been acceptable both to his Royal Majesty, and likewise to your Grace. This is the only Index to us, that the Blessing of God is present with you, whereby a Spur is given, that we should so much the more cheerfully and freely utter and detect those things whereby the hazard of both your Lives, the Subversion of the Realm and State both of England and Scotland, the tumbling down of his most Excellent Majesty from his Throne, is intended. Now lest the Discourse should be enlarged with superfluous Circumstances, we will only premise some things which are meerly necessary to the business.
'They may first of all know, that this good Man, by whom the ensuing things are detected, was born and bred in the Popish Religion, who spent many Years in Ecclesiastical Dignities, At length, being found fit for the expedition of the present Design, by the Counsel and Mandate of the Lord Cardinal Barbarino, he was adjoined to the Assistance of Master Cuneus (Cun) by whom he was found so diligent and sedulous in his Office, that hope of great Promotion was given to him; yet he, led by the instinct of the good Spirit, hath, howsoever it be, contemned sweet Promises, and having known the Vanities of the Pontifician Religion (of which he had sometime been a most severe defender) having likewise noted the Malice of those who fight under the Popish Banner, felt his Conscience to be burdened; which Burden that he might ease himself of, he converted his Mind to the Orthodox Religion. Soon after, that he might exonerate his Conscience, he thought fit, that a desperate Treason machinated against so many Souls, was to be revealed, and that he should receive ease if he vented such things into the Bosom of a Friend; which done, he was seriously admonished by the said Friend, that he should shew an example of his Conversion and Charity, and free so many innocent Souls from imminent danger. To whose monitions he willingly consented, and delivered the following things to be put in writing, out of which the Articles not long since tendered to your Grace may be clearly explicated and demonstrated.
'1. First of all, That the hinge of the business may be rightly discerned, it is to be known, that all those Factions with which all Christendom is at this day shaken, do arise from the Jesuitical offspring of Cham, of which four Orders abound throughout the World.
- '1. Of the first Order are Ecclesiasticks, whose office is to take care of things promoting Religion.
- '2. Of the second Order are Politicians, whose office it is by any means to shake, trouble, reform the state of Kingdoms and Republicks.
- '3. Of the third Order are Seculars, whose Property it is to obtrude themselves into Offices with Kings and Princes, to insinuate and immix themselves in Court-businesses, Bargains and Sales, and to be busied in Civil Affairs.
- '4. Of the fourth Order are Intelligencers, (or Spies) Men of inferior condition, who submit themselves to the services of great Men, Princes, Barons, Noblemen, Citizens, to deceive or corrupt the minds of their Masters.
- '2. A Society of so many Orders the Kingdom of England nourisheth: for scarce all Spain, France and Italy can yield so great a multitude of Jesuits as London alone; where are found more than fifty Scotish Jesuits. There the said Society hath elected to it self a seat of Iniquity, and hath conspired against the King, and the most faithful to the King, especially the Lord Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, and likewise against both Kingdoms.
- '3. For it is more certain than certainty it self, that the fore-named Society hath determined to effect an universal Reformation of the Kingdom of England and Scotland. Therefore the determination of the end necessarily infers a determination of means to the end.
- '4. Therefore to promote the undertaken villany, the said Society dubbed it self with the title of, The Congregation of propagating the Faith; which acknowledgeth the Pope of Rome the Head of the College, and Cardinal Barbarino his Substitute and Executor.
- '5. The chief Patron of the Society at London is the Pope's Legat, who takes care of the business; into whose bosom these dregs of Traitors weekly deposit all their Intelligences. Now the Residence of this Legation was obtained at London in the name of the Roman Pontif, by whose mediation it might be lawful for Cardinal Barbarino to work so much the more easily and safely upon the King and Kingdom. For none else could so freely circumvent the King, as he who should be palliated with the Pope's Authority.
- '6. Master Cuneus did at that time enjoy the office of the Pope's Legat, an universal Instrument of the conjured Society, and a serious Promoter of the business; whose secrets, as likewise those of all the other Intelligencers, the present good Man, the Communicator of all these things, did receive and expedite whither the business required.
'Cuneus set upon the chief Men of the Kingdom, and left nothing unattempted, by what means he might corrupt them all, and incline them to the Pontifican Party: he inticed many with various Inticements; yea, he sought to delude the King himself with gifts of Pictures, Antiquities, Idols, and of other Vanities brought from Rome, which yet would prevail nothing with the King.
'Having entred familiarity with the King, he is often requested at Hampton-Court, likewise at London, to undertake the Cause of the Palatine, and that he would interpose his Authority, and by his intercession perswade the Elector of Colen, that the Palatine, in the next Diet to treat of Peace, might be inserted into the Conditions, which verily he promised, but performed the contrary. He writ, indeed that he had been so desired by the King concerning such things, yet he advised not that they should be consented to, lest peradventure it might be said by the Spaniard, that the Pope of Rome had patronized an Heretical Prince.
'In the mean time, Cuneus smelling from the Arch-Bishop most trusty to the King, that the King's mind was wholly pendulous (or doubtful) resolved that he would move every Stone, and apply his Forces, that he might gain him to his Party: Certainly confiding that he had a means prepared, for he had a Command to offer a Cardinal's Cap to the Lord Arch-Bishop, in the name of the Pope of Rome, and that he should allure him also with higher Promises, that he might corrupt his sincere mind. Yet a fitting occasion was never given whereby he might insinuate himself into the Lord Arch-Bishop (for the Scorpion sought an Egg.) Free access was to be impetrated by the Earl and Countess of Arundel, likewise by Secretary Windebank: The intercession of all which being neglected, he did fly the company or familiarity of Cuneus worse than the Plague. He was likewise perswaded by others of no mean rank, well known to him, neither yet was he moved.
'7. Another also was assayed who hindred access to the detestable wickedness, Secretary Cook, he was a most bitter hater of the Jesuits, from whom he intercepted access to the King; he entertained many of them according to their deserts; he diligently enquired into their factions; by which means every incitement breathing a magnetical attractive Power to the Popish Party, was ineffectual with him; for nothing was so dear unto him that might incline him to Wickedness: hereupon being made odious to the Patrons of the Conspiracy, he was endangered to be discharged from his Office; it was laboured for three years space, and at last obtained. Yet notwithstanding there remained on the King's part a knot hard to be untied, for the Lord Arch-Bishop by his constancy interposed himself as a most hard Rock.
'When Cuneus had understood from the Lord Arch-Bishop's part, that he had laboured in vain, his malice and the whole Society's waxed boiling hot: soon after ambushes began to be prepared, wherewith the Lord Arch-Bishop, together with the King, should be taken.
'Likewise a Sentence is passed against the King (for whose sake all this business is disposed) because nothing is hoped from him, which might seem to promote the Popish Religion; (but especially when he had opened his mind, that he was of this opinion, that every one might be saved in his own Religion, so as he be an honest pious Man.)
- '8. To perpetrate the Treason undertaken, the criminal Execution (fn. 3) at Westminster, caused by some Writings of Puritans, gave occasion of the first Fire; which thing was so much exasperated and exaggerated by the Papists to the Puritans, that if it remained unrevenged, it would be thought a blemish to their Religion, the flames of which Fire the subsequent (fn. 4) Book of Prayers encreases.
- '9. In this heat a certain Scotish Earl, called (fn. 5) Maxwell, if I mistake not, was expedited to the Scots by the Popish Party; with whom two other Scotish Earls, Papists, held Correspondency: he ought to stir up the People to Commotion, and rub over the injury afresh, that he might enslame their Minds, precipitate them to Arms, by which the hurtful Disturber of the Scotish Liberty might be slain.
- '10. There, by one Labour, Snares are prepared for the King: for this purpose the present business was so ordered, that very many of the English should adhere to the Scots: That the King should remain inferior in Arms, who thereupon should be compelled to crave Assistance from the Papists: which yet he should not obtain, unless he would condescend unto Conditions, by which he should permit universal liberty of the exercise of the Popish Peligion; for so the affairs of the Papists would succeed according to their desire. To which consent, if he should shew himself more difficult, there should be a present remedy at hand: For the King's Son growing now very fast to his youthful Age (who is educated from his tender Age, that he might accustom himself to the Popish Party) the King is to be dispatched; for an Indian Nut stuffed with most sharp Poyson, is kept in the Society (which Cuneus at that time shewed often to me in a boasting manner) wherein a Poyson was prepared for the King, after the example of his Father.
- '11. In this Scotish Commotion, the Marquess of Hamilton was often dispatched to the Scots in the Name of the King, to interpose the Royal Authority, whereby the heat of Minds might be mitigated; returned notwithstanding as often without fruit, and without ending the business: His Chaplain at that time repaired to us, who communicated something secretly with Cuneus. Being demanded of me in jest, Whether also the Jews agreed with the Samaritans? Cuneus thereunto answered, Would to God all Ministers were such as he. What you will may be hence conjectured.
- '12. Things standing thus, there arrived at London from Cardinal Richlieu, Mr. Tho. Chamberlaine, his Chaplain and Almoner, a Scot by Nation, who ought to assist the College of the confederate Society, and seriously to set forward the business, to leave nothing unattempted, whereby the first heat might be exasperated; for which Service he was promised the reward of a Bishoprick. He cohabited with the Society four Months space; neither was it lawful for him first to depart until things succeeding according to his wish, he might be able to return back again with good News.
- '13. Sir Toby Mathew, a Jesuited Priest, of the Order of Politicians, a most vigilant Man of the chief Heads, to whom a Bed was never so dear that he would rest his Head thereon, refreshing his Body with sleep in a Chair for an Hour or two, neither day nor night spared his Machinations; a Man principally noxious, and himself the Plague of the King and Kingdom of England; a most impudent Man, who slies to all Banquets and Feasts, called or not called, never quiet, always in action, a perpetual motion; thrusting himself into all conversations of Superiors; he urgeth Conferences familiarly, that he may fish out the minds of Men: Whatever he observeth thence, which may bring any Commodity or Discommodity to the part of the Conspirators, he communicates to the Pope's Legat; the more secret things he himself writes to the Pope, or to Cardinal Barbarino. In sum, he adjoins himself to any Man's company; no word can be spoken that he will not lay hold on, and accommodate to his Party. In the mean time, whatever he hath fished out, he reduceth into a Catalogue, and every Summer carrieth or conveyeth it to the general Consistory of the Jesuits Politicks, which secretly meets together in the Province of Wales, where he is an acceptable Guest. There Counsels are secretly hammered, which are most meet for the convulsion of the ecclesiastick and politick estate of both Kingdoms.
- '14. Captain Read a Scot, dwelling in Long-acre Street near the Angel Tavern, a Secular Jesuit; in his House the business of the whole Plot is concluded, where the Society which hath conspired against the King, the Lord Arch-Bishop, and both Kingdoms, meet together, for the most part every day: but on the day of the Carriers (or Posts) dispatch, which is ordinarily Friday, they meet in greater numbers; for then all the Intelligencers assemble and confer in common, what things every of them hath fished out that week; who, that they may be without suspicion, send their Secrets by Toby Matthew, or Read himself, to the Pope's Legate, he transmits the compacted Packet which he hath purchased from the Intelligencers to Rome.
'With the same Read the Letters brought from Rome are deposited under feigned Titles and Names, who by him are delivered to all to whom they appertain, for all and every of their Names are known to him.
'There is in that very House a publick Chappel, wherein an ordinary Jesuit consecrates, and dwells there. In the said Chappel Masses are daily celebrated by the Jesuits; and it serves for the baptizing of the Children of the House, and of some of the Conspirators.
'Those who assemble in the forenamed House come frequently in Coaches, or on Horseback, in Lay-mens Habits, and with a great Train, wherewith they are disguised, that they may not be known; yet they are Jesuits, and conjured Members of the Society.
- '15. All the Papists of England contribute to this Assembly, lest any thing should be wanting to promote the undertaken Designs; upon whose Treasury one Widow, Owner of the Houses wherein Secretary Windebank now dwelleth, dead above three years since, bestowed Forty thousand English Pounds, so likewise others contribute above their Abilities, so as the business may be promoted unto its desired end.
- '16. Besides the foresaid Houses, there are Convents kept also in other more secret places, of which verily they confide not even among themselves, for fear lest they should be discovered. First, Every of them are called to certain Inns (one not knowing of the other:) hence they are severally led by Spies to the place where they ought to meet, otherwise ignorant where they ought to assemble, lest peradventure they should be surprized at unawares.
- '17. The Countess of Arundet, a strenuous She-Champion of the Popish Religion, bends all her Nerves to the universal Reformation; whatsoever she hears at the King's Court that is done secretly or openly in words or deeds, she presently imparts to the Pope's Legat, with whom she meets thrice a day, sometimes in Arundel-house, now at the Court, or at Tart-hall. He scarce sucks such things by the Claw.
- '1. The Conspiracy against the King and Lord Arch-Bishop is detected, and the means whereby Ruin is threatned to both demonstrated.
- '2. The imminent Dangers to both Kingdoms are rehearsed.
- '3. The Rise and Progress of the Scotish Fire is related.
- '4. Means whereby these Scotish Troubles may be appeased are suggested; for after the Scots shall know by whom and to what end their Minds are incensed, they will speedily look to themselves; neither will they suffer the Forces of both Parts to be subdued, lest a middle Party interpose, which seeks the Ruin of both.
- '5. With what Sword the King's Throat is assaulted, even when these Stirs shall be ended, Cuneus his Confession and a visible Demonstration sheweth.
- '6. The place of the Assembly in the House of Captain Read is nominated.
- '7. The Day of the eight days Dispatch by Read and the Legat is prescribed.
- '8. How the Names of the Conspirators may be known.
- '9. Where this whole Congregation may be circumvented.
- '10. Some of the principal unfaithful Ones of the King's Party are notified by Name; many of whose Names occur not, yet their Habitations are known, their Names may be easily extorted from Read.
'If these be warily proceeded in, the strength of the whole Business will be brought to light; so the Arrow being foreseen, the Danger shall be avoided: Which that it may prosperously succeed, the Omnipotent Creator grant.
Whereas the said large Discovery gives a particular Character of Sir Toby Mathew an English Man, a Jesuit and Priest, we shall offer to the consideration of the Reader the Pope's Bull granted unto him, a Copy of which was found among the Papers of Mr. Secretary Windebank. By which Bull it doth appear, that Count Rossetti, the Pope's Nuncio, was committed to take the Care and Tutelage of Sir Toby; hoping that the Nuncio, assisted by his Counsels, would produce no small Fruits to the Catholick Church through the help of the Female Amazons there, to restore the Authority of the See Apostolick in the Kingdom of England; the Copy whereof followeth.
'They who will diligently compare this Information with what hath conformably occurred in the preceding parts of these Annals, and shall withal well consider the practices, both antient and modern, of those pragmatical Spirits, will find cause enough to think there was in it somewhat more than Fiction; and that it may make some impression upon Faith, without setting it upon the Rack. Only one Objection I shall rid out of the way, which may seem to discredit the truth thereof. And it is this.
'The Arch-Bishop of Canterbury stands aspersed in common Fame as a great Friend (at least) and Patron of the Romish Catholicks, if he were not of the same Belief: And it were a Policy mis-becoming such subtile Serpents causelesly to plot the death of their so eminent Well-wisher. To which I answer, by concession: True it is, he had too much and long favoured the Romish Faction; but as upon what account he favoured them, is uncertain, so was it but the Romish Faction (not the Romish Faith) he favoured. He tampered indeed to introduce some Ceremonies bordering upon Superstition, disused by us, and abused by them; from whence the Romanists collected such a disposition in him to their Tenets, as they began not only to hope, but in good earnest to cry him up for their Proselyte. Upon this Hypothesis, this Supposition, they grew excessive proud and insolent, as well they might (knowing how grand a Confident and Trustee he was of the King's) had not their Perswasion mis-led them. But the Arch-Bishop finding that his tacit reservedness in point of Opinion, and former compliance with the Papists, was no longer expedient for his designs, and did begin to create ill boding Jealousies in another Party, resolved to speak out, and unbeguile them both. And first, in the Year 1637. openly at the Council-Table, he passionately complained to the King of their audacious resort to Denmark-house, using some expressions of vehemency; more particularly against the haughty deportment of Mr. Walter Montague and Sir Tobias Mathew. But that which most despighted them, was his publishing the next year the Relation of his Conference with the Jesuit Fisher; wherein he declared himself so little theirs, as he hath for ever dis-abled them from being so much their own as they were before; it being the exactest Master-piece of Polemique Divinity of all extant. Pity it is his Thoughts, which were in other affairs a thought too high, had so fatal a diversion from his Studies. But what one is excellent in every thing? Now the Arch-Bishop thus professedly owning the Protestant Cause, and having so potent an influence upon the King, it was no wonder if he became formidable to the Romanists, as Hannibal was to the Romans; (and where Hannibal was, there his Enemies judged the Life and Soul of the Carthagenian strength to reside; and so by consequence his destruction, the main concernment of their Interest.
Whereas the large Discovery before-mentioned takes notice, that the Pope had given a Command to his Nuncio sent into England, to make offer of a Cardinal's Cap to the Arch-Bishop of Canterbury in the Name of the Pope; which offer, till this discovery, was not known: but the Arch-Bishop in his Diary (found among his Papers in the Tower about two Years after the said discovery) doth make some mention concerning the same: viz. August 4. 1633, At Greenwich, saith he, there came one to me seriously, and that avowed Ability to perform it, and offered me to be a Cardinal.
And likewise August 17. Saturday, I had a serious offer made me again to be a Cardinal. I was then from Court, but as soon as I came thither (which was Wednesday August 21.) I acquainted his Majesty with it: But my Answer again was, That somewhat dwelt within me, which would not suffer that, till Rome were otherwise than it is.
The Arch-Bishop having refused the Cardinals Cap, and the King having opened his Mind so far, as that he was of Opinion, that every one might be saved in his own Religion, so as he be an Honest and Pious Man; they hastened to pass Sentence against the King, who was to be cut off by Poyson.
In January 1640, Sir Kenelme Digby was called into the House of Commons, and being demanded several Questions concerning the Instructions dispersed to the Papists throughout England to lend Money to maintain the War against the Scots, and what Money was levied thereupon, and who were the Collectors, and how the Pope's Nuncio came to be the chief Man employed therein.
The Answer which he returned was to this purpose; 'That he did consider before whom he did appear, and in whose Presence he spake, the gravest and wisest Assembly in the whole World, whose Majesty is so great, that it might well disorder his Thoughts, and impede his Expressions; That he was suddenly surprised with unexpected Questions; and apprehended there might be some dislike in that honourable House, of that which once he did conceive was an Act of Service and Merit. But since he is askt of things apart, he shall humbly represent what he can remember upon this occasion, and what may be satisfactory to the House. So he related the beginning of the business, and took along the Series as it went from step to step.
there much to the disadvantage of his Majesties Affairs; insomuch that his Majesty with the advice of his Council, declared a War against the Scots. And his Majesty did generally intimate, that his Necessities did require to be supplied in the going on with the War. This intimation of his Majesty was communicated to the several Judges of the Kingdom, to the Societies of the Inns of Court, to the Judges and others of the Civil Law, and to the City of London likewise; and more especially to the Clergy of London. Having these Examples before our Eyes, we considering our selves as dutiful Subjects though Recusants, might as Subjects in this case follow the good Examples of Loyalty to our Prince, which the Learned and others of the Land had done before us. The Queen hereupon was pleased to recommend to these who were Catholicks of this Kingdom, to shew themselves as forward as others were in serving of the King; and to each Catholick to speak to his acquaintance to do the like. I was one of those her Majesty spake unto; whereupon I confess I did both in Example and Speeches with others, encourage them to make what Contribution they could. But how to convey this Money that should be thus contributed to the Army, I found it very difficult; considering it was to be gathered in several places of the Nation, and I had but little Correspondency among the Catholicks of this Kingdom. There was a Gentleman that did take upon him to supply that care of mine; and that was Seigneur Con, who was Resident here from the Pope, I conceive to attend the Queen; whose acquaintance with the particular Persons of the Recusants was beyond any others; and meetings were generally kept at his House, in order to the advancement of this business: he also took upon him to name the Persons in every County, who should be the Collectors of the Money: and therefore we discoursed of Motives to induce them freely to contribute, (the chief whereof was, that his Majesties Grace and Goodness had been much extended to Catholicks, considering how sharp and Penal the Laws were against them) and so to seek by way of gratitude upon this occasion to make return answerable. Other Motives there were, which were drawn by Seign. Con, which I was not acquainted with; but he told me, he had sent down such Motives and Instructions as he thought were fit inducements upon that occasion. And as to the Question, What Persons I consulted withal, there were at the meeting several times Sir John Winter the Queen's Secretary, Sir Basil Brookes, Mr. Mountague, and one Mr. Foster, who was a Person Seigneur Con had particular confidence in. For the particular Sums received, I am not able to give a particular account, for my attendance was not long upon that Service. I remember Ten Thousand Pounds at one time paid into the Exchequer, and Two Thousand Pounds at another time (for which Tallies were struck) collected from Recusants in these Southern Parts; and Sir Basil Brookes was nominated Treasurer; he kept the account, and managed the business. He said he had dealt clearly and candidly with the Parliament, and declared as much as he knew in this business.
'Mr. Walter Mountague being afterwards called in and examined at the Bar of the House of Commons, did acknowledge much of what was said by Sir Kenelme Digby for the Motives and inducements to the raising of these Moneys; and that the whole Transaction of the Business was at Seigneur Con's House; and said, that it is true, he is called the Pope's Nuntio; but Mr. Montague did not believe he was Commissionated by the Pope in that capacity; but rather that he comes from the Pope particularly to attend the Queens Person, in order to Matters of their Religion in reference to her Majesty alone.
About two days after Sir Kenelme Digby was again called into the House, and demanded in what capacity Seigneur Con came into England, and how it came to pass, he coming immediately from the Pope, should be the principal in that Business, and should so willingly undertake the Engagement of two Kingdoms in a bloody War?
To this he made Answer, 'How his acquaintance came to be so great in the Nation he could not tell; but sure he was, that his Interest was greater than any Interest Sir Kenelme Digby had to advance the Business; for the Application was great unto him from Catholicks all over the Nation; that he doth not know of any particular Authority or Jurisdiction he had by any Power from the Pope over the Catholicks of England, but as they say, he is a Nuntio or Legate of the Pope's; though Nuntio is a word doth imply a different Sense; for if he do but come to keep a Civil Correspondency between the Pope and the Queen, in that case he may be said to be a Nuntio: But whether he was an Agent, so as to carry any Jurisdiction from the Pope, he doth not know, he cannot speak it positively: he was willing to keep himself ignorant as much as he might of many things, having much less acquaintance with Catholicks, than is imagined he had. But as for Count Rozetti, he hath heard say, that he came with some Jurisdiction from the Pope; but heard him (Rozetti) likewise say at White-Hall, that he did particularly renounce any such Jurisdiction in England as was reported he had from the Pope.
Henrietta Maria R.
We have so good a belief of the Loyalty and Affection of his Majesties Catholick Subjects, as we aoubt not but upon this Occasion that hath called his Majesty into the Northern Parts for the Defence of his Honour and Dominions, they will express themselves so affected as We have always represented them to his Majesty: So in this Common Consent which hath appeared in the Nobility, Judges, Gentry and others, to forward his Majesties Service by their Persons and Estates, We have made no difficulty to answer for the same Correspondency in his Catholick Subjects as Catholicks, notwithstanding they have already concurred to this his Majesties Service according to the quality whereof they are, when others of the same quality were called upon: For We believe that it became Vs, who have been so often interessed in the solicitation of their Benefits, to shew Our selves now in the Perswasion of their Gratitudes. Therefore having already by his Majesty by other means recommended to them this earnest desire of Ours to assist and serve his Majesty by some considerable Sum of Money freely and cheerfully presented, We have thought fit (to the end that this Our desire may be the more publick and more authorised) hereby to give you Commission and Direction to distribute Copies under our hand of this testification thereof unto those that have met in London by our direction about this Business, and unto the several Collectors of every County. And as We presume, the Sum they will raise, will not be unworthy Our presenting to the King; so shall We be very sensible of it as a particular respect to Our selves, and will endeavour in the most efficacious manner we can, to improve the Merit of it, and to remove any apprehension of Prejudice that any (who shall employ themselves towards the success of this business) may conceive: By this they may be assured that We will secure them from all such objected Inconveniencies. And We are very confident, that this Our first Recommendation will be so complied withal, as may not only afford us particular satisfaction, but also facilitation towards their own Advantages.
'It is sufficiently already known to every one, what extraordinary Graces and Protections we owe the Queen's Majesty, to whose favourable intercession we must ascribe the happy Moderation we live under: So as we doubt not, but an occasion of the expression of our Gratitudes will very joyfully be embraced by every body in this present estate of his Majesties Affairs. We have already by our former Letters endeavoured to prepare you to a cheerful assistance of his Majesty in his declared Journey to the Northern Parts, for the securing of this Kingdom, and such other purposes as his Royal Wisdom shall resolve of, that so you may really demonstrate your selves as good Subjects as God and Nature requires of you. Now her Majesty hath been graciously pleased to recommend unto us the expressions of our duties and zeal to his Majesties Service, by some considerable Gift from the Catholicks; and to remove all scruples (that even well affected Persons may meet with) she undertakes to secure us and all that shall employ themselves in this Business, from any inconvenience that may be suspected by their or our forwardness and declaration in this kind. It will easily appear to every body, how much it imports us in our sense of his Majesties desires, to press every body to strain himself even to his best abilities in this Proposition, since by it we shall certainly preserve his gracefulness to us, and give good Characters of our devotion to the King and State, of whose benignity we have all reason to give testimonies, and to endeavour to produce Arguments for the prosecution and encrease of it.
'Now for the best expedition of this Business (which is the chief Circumstance that importeth in it) we have thought fit to recommend it to your Nominations of such Persons as shall in your Opinions be agreed for the ablest and best disposed in every several County, not only to solicite, but collect such voluntary Contributions, as every bodies Conscience and Duty shall proffer. And we shall desire you to give us an Account of what acceptation this finds; which we cannot but expect very successful and answerable to the forwardness we meet with here about London; for which we shall offer up our Prayers to God.
Another Letter was sent from those assembled at London to some of the Romish Clergy, with Instructions inclosed to be delivered by them to such Persons as they concerned in order to the same business.
'The inclosed Advices and Motives being so ample, as you will perceive by perusing them, it will not be needful that we enlarge our selves upon any particulars concerning the Conduct of the Business which they direct the way in: this therefore serveth only to convey them to you (as we are intreated by those that have met here, and have undertaken to do) and desire you to repair immediately unto those Persons unto whom they be directed, and to deliver the same unto them in the Name of all the Noblemen and Gentry (together with our selves) assembled here at London by the Queens commandment, to set forward this work. And we pray you assure them in the most efficacious manner you can (engaging all our Credits for the Trust thereof) that it is the sense of us all, both Ecclesiastical and Lay Persons, that besides the discharging of their and our Duties to God and the King, it mainly importeth the good of the Catholicks, to have their business take good success. Therefore intreat them to deal actively and efficaciously and speedily according to these Advices and Motives. We are so well perswaded of their Devotion to put forward so pious a Work, that we doubt not, but they will be as well satisfied in the needfulness of the thing, and be as ready to employ themselves in it, receiving the assurance thereof, and perswasions thereunto, only from our hands, as if they came by all the formal ways that can be imagined, which in a business of this nature cannot be expected. And although the Advices and Motives be directed only to the Lay Gentlemen, yet we desire you (and have answered for you) that you will employ your selves, and all those that depend upon you, sincerely to solicite and dispose all their Minds that you have relation unto, as powerfully as you can, to contribute cheerfully and bountifully upon this occasion; which as it is the first that ever we laboured in of this kind, so we hope in God it will be the last; there being no probability of so pressing and urgent Necessity to occur any more.
The Remonstrance of both Houses of Parliament unto the King, delivered by the Lord Keeper, January, 29. 1640.
May it please your Majesty,
'Your Loyal Subjects, the Lords and Commons now assembled by your Majesties Writ in the High Court of Parliament, humbly represent unto your gracious Consideration, That Jesuits and Priests ordained by Authority from the See of Rome, remaining in this Realm, by a Statute made in the Twenty Seventh Year of Queen Elizabeth, are declared Traytors, and to suffer as Traytors.
'And for further assurance of the due execution of these Laws, the Statute of the third Year of King James invites Men to the discovery of the Offenders, by rewarding them with a considerable Part of the Forfeiture of the Recusants Estate.
'That considering the State and Condition of this present Time, they conceive this Law to be more necessary to be put in strict execution, than at any time before; and that for divers weighty and considerable Reasons: viz. for that by divers Petitions from the several Parts of this Kingdom, Complaints are made of the great encrease of Popery and Superstition, and the People call earnestly to have the Laws against Recusants put in Execution; Priests and Jesuits swarm in great abundance in this Kingdom, and appear here with such boldness and confidence, as if there were no Laws against them.
'That it appears unto the House of Commons by Proof, That of late Years about the City of London, Priests and Jesuites have been discharged out of Prison, many of them being condemned of High Treason.
'The Papists, as publickly, and with as much confidence and importunity resort to Mass at Denmark House and at St. James's, and the Embassadors Chappels, as others do to their Parish Churches: They conceive the not putting of these Statutes in execution against Priests and Jesuits, is a principal cause of the encrease of Popery.
'That the putting of these Laws in execution, tendeth not only to the preservation and advancement of the true Religion established in this Kingdom, but also the safety of your Majesties Person, and security of the State and Government, which were the principal causes of the making of the Laws against Priests and Jesuits, as is manifestly declared in the Preamble of the Laws themselves, which are the best Interpreters of the Minds of the Makers of them.
'And because the words being penned by the Advice and Wisdom of the whole State, are much more full and clear, than any particular Man's Expression can be; they were therefore read as they are vouched; those of the twenty seventh Year of Queen Elizabeth being thus: viz.
'That the Priests and Jesuits come hither, not only to draw the Subjects from their true Obedience to the Queen; but also to stir up Sedition, Rebellion and open Hostility within the Realm, to the great endangering of the safety of her Royal Person, and to the utter ruin, desolation and overthrow of the whole Kingdom, if not timely prevented. And the tenour of the words of the third Year of King James are in this manner: viz.
'Whereas divers Jesuits and Priests do withdraw many of his Majesties Subjects from the true Service of Almighty God, and the Religion established within this Realm, to the Romish Religion, and from their loyal obedience to his Majesty; and have of late secretly perswaded divers Recusants and Papists, and encouraged and emboldned them to commit most damnable Treasons, tending to the overthrow of the whole State and Commonwealth; if God of his goodness and mercy had not within few Hours of the intended execution thereof, revealed and disclosed the same.
'The Houses did further inform, that some Jesuits and Priests had been executed in the time of Queen Elizabeth and King James of happy Memory; and when any of them have received mercy, it was in such a time, and upon such Circumstances, as that the same might be extended to them without danger; whereas now of late, there hath been a great apprehension of endeavours by some ill Agents to subvert Religion: and at this present both Kingdoms have a general expectation of a thorough Reformation.
'And there is already found so ill a consequence of the late Reprieve of John Goodman the Priest; that the House of Commons having sent to the Citizens of London for their assistance in the advancement of Money, for the present and necessary Supply of his Majesties Army, and the Relief of the Northern Counties; upon this occasion, they have absolutely denied to furnish the same: and how far the like discontent may be effused into other Parts of the Kingdom, to the interruption of the levying of the Subsidies, the Houses leave to your Majesties consideration. It is found that Goodman the Priest hath been twice formerly committed and discharged: That his residence now about London, was in absolute contempt of your Majesties Proclamation, as the Houses are credi bly informed; that he hath been sometimes a Minister in the Church of England, and consequently is an Apostate: both Houses are very sensible, that any Man should presume to intercede with your Majesty in a case of so high a Nature.
'They humbly desire, that a speedy course may be taken for the due execution of the Laws against the Priests and Jesuits, that all mischiefs before mentioned may be timely remedied by your Majesties great Wisdom.
That he is resolved to provide against Jesuits and Papists, by setting forth a Proclamation speedily, commanding them to depart the Kingdom within one Month; of which if they fail, or shall return, then they shall be proceeded against according to Law.
Concerning the Pope's Nuncio Rossetti, he hath no Commission, but only to retain Correspondency between the Queen and the Pope, in things requisite for the exercise of her Religion, which is warranted to her by the Articles of Marriage, which gave her a full liberty of Conscience: yet he hath perswaded her, that since the misunderstanding of that Persons condition gives offence, she will within a time convenient remove him.
Lastly, Concerning Goodman, because he will avoid the inconvenience of giving so great discontent to his People, as his mercy may produce; therefore he doth remit his particular case to both Houses. But he desired them to take into their considerations, the inconvenience that may upon this occasion fall upon his Subjects, and other Protestants abroad; especially, since it may seem to other States to be a severity.