Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 4, 1640-42. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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The presenting of the Remonstrance to the King.
This Day the House of Commons sent a Committee to wait upon his Majesty, (being then at Hampton-Court) and to present him with a Petition, and the large Remonstrance of the State of the Kingdom. The Persons appointed for this Service, were
- Mr. Pym,
- Sir Symon D'Ewes,
- Sir Arthur Ingram,
- Sir James Thyn,
- Sir Henry Bellasis,
- Lord Gray,
- Sir Christopher Wray,
- Lord Fairsax,
- Sir Ralph Hopton,
- Sir Richard Winn,
- Sir John Corbet,
- Sir Edw. Deering,
- Sir Arthur Haslerigg.
The presenting it was put upon Sir Edward Deering, but he avoided it by being absent, and so it was done by Sir Ralph Hopton, who the next Day made Report to the House as followeth.
Sir Ralph Hopton reports to the House, the Delivery of the Petition, and Remonstrance to the King Yesterday at Hampton-Court, being the first of December.
Sir Ralph Hopton's Report of presenting the Petition and Remonstrance, December 2. 1641.
He said, that the last Night, in the Evening, he and those that accompanied him, came into Hampton-Court, where meeting with Sir Richard Wynn, he went in to his Majesty, and gave him notice of our being there; and within a quarter of an Hour, the King sent a Gentleman Usher to call us in, with Directions none to come in but our selves; whereupon I did according to your Order and the rest with me, upon our Knees, present the Petition and Remonstrance, and begun to read it Kneeling, but his Majesty would not permit that, but commanded us all to rise, and so I read it.
The first thing that his Majesty spake at the reading thereof, was to that part of the Petition, that Charges a Malignant Party to be about his Majesty, with a design to change Religion; to which his Majesty with a hearty Fervency said, the Devil take him whosoever he be that has a design to Change Religion. Then I proceeded to read on, and when I came to that part of the Remonstrance of reserving the Lands of the Rebels in Ireland toward the suppressing them: His Majesty spake and said, We must not dispose of the Bears Skin till the Bear be Dead.
After the Petition was read, his Majesty said he desired to ask us some Questions, but I answered, we had no Power to speak to any thing, but wherein we had Commission; then said his Majesty, Doth the House intend to publish this Declaration? we said we could not answer to it; Well then, said his Majesty, I suppose you do not expect a present Answer to so long a Petition; but this let me tell you, I have left Scotland well in Peace; they are well satisfied with me, and I with them; and though I staid longer then I expected, I think if I had not gone, you had not been so soon rid of the Army: I shall give you an Answer to this Business, with as much speed as the weight thereof will permit. And so was pleased to give us all his Hand to Kiss; and thereupon we took our Leave, and afterwards Mr. Comptroller came to us with this Message, that the King desired there should be no publishing of this Declaration, till we had received his Answer: We were all that Night treated by Mr. Comptroller at Supper, and entertained with great Respect, and lodged by the King's Harbinger.
The said Petition and Remonstrance, then so presented, were as follows:
The Petition of the House of Commons, which accompanied the Remonstrance, of the State of the Kingdom, when it was presented to His Majesty at Hampton-Court, Decemb. 1st. 1641.
Most Gracious Sovereign,
YOUR Majesty's most humble and faithful Subjects, the Commons in this present Parliament Assembled, do with much Thankfulness and Joy, acknowledge the great Mercy and Favour of God, in giving your Majesty a safe and peaceable Return out of Scotland into your Kingdom of England, where the pressing Dangers and Distempers of the State, have caused us with much Earnestness, to desire the Comfort of your gracious Presence, and likewise the Unity and Justice of your Royal Authority, to give more Life and Power to the Dutiful and Loyal Counsels and Endeavours of your Parliament, for the Prevention of that imminent Ruin and Destruction wherein your Kingdoms of England and Scotland are threatened. The Duty which we owe to your Majesty, and our Country, cannot but make us very sensible and apprehensive, that the Multiplicity, Sharpness, and Malignity of those Evils under which we have now many Years suffered, are fomented and cherished by a corrupt and ill-affected Party, who amongst other their mischievous Devices for the Alteration of Religion and Government, have sought by many false Scandals and Imputations, cunningly infinuated and dispersed amongst the People, to blemish and disgrace our Proceedings in this Parliament, and to get themselves a Party and Faction amongst your Subjects, for the better strengthening themselves in their wicked Courses, and hindering those Provisions and Remedies, which might by the Wisdom of your Majesty, and Counsel of your Parliament, be opposed against them.
For preventing whereof, and the better Information of your Majesty, your Peers, and all other your Loyal Subjects, we have been necessitated to make a Declaration of the State of the Kingdom, both before and since the Assembly of this Parliament, unto this Time, which we do humbly present to your Majesty, without the least Intention to lay any Blemish upon your Royal Person, but only to represent how your Royal Authority and Trust have been abused, to the great Prejudice and Danger of your Majesty, and of all your good Subjects.
And because we have Reason to believe that those malignant Parties, whose Proceedings evidently appear to be, mainly for the Advantage and Increase of Popery, is composed, set up and acted by the subtile Practice of the Jesuits, and other Engineers and Factors for Rome, and to the great Danger of this Kingdom, and most grievous Affliction of your Loyal Subjects, have so far prevailed, as to corrupt divers of your Bishops, and others in prime Places of the Church, and also to bring divers of these Instruments to be of your Privy-Council, and other Employment of Trust and Nearness about your Majesty, the Prince, and the rest of your Royal Children.
And by this Means have had such an Operation in your Council, and the most important Affairs and Proceedings of your Government, that a most dangerous Division, and chargeable Preparation for War betwixt your Kingdoms of England and Scotland, the increase of Jealousies betwixt your Majesty and your most obedient Subjects, the violent Distraction and Interruption of this Parliament, the Insurrection of the Papists in your Kingdom of Ireland, and bloody Massacre of your People, have been not only endeavoured and attempted, but in a great measure compassed and effected.
For preventing the final Accomplishment whereof, your poor Subjects are enforced to engage their Persons and Estates to the maintaining of a very expenceful and dangerous War, notwithstanding they have already, since the beginning of this Parliament, undergone the Charge of 150000 l. Sterling, or there abouts, for the necessary Support and Supply of your Majesty in these present and perilous Designs. And because all our most faithful Endeavours and Engagements will be ineffectual for the Peace, Safety, and Preservation of your Majesty and your People, if some present, real and effectual Course be not taken for suppressing this wicked and malignant Party.
We your most humble and obedient Subjects, do with all Faithfulness and Humility, beseech your Majesty,
- 1. That you will be graciously pleased to concur with the humble Desires of your People in a Parliamentary Way, for the preserving the Peace and Safety of the Kingdom from the malicious Designs of the Popish Party.
- For depriving the Bishops of their Votes in Parliament, and abridging their immoderate Power usurped over the Clergy, and other your good Subjects, which they have perniciously abused, to the Hazard of Religion, and great Prejudice and Oppression of the Laws of the Kingdom, and just Liberty of your People.
- For the taking away such Oppressions in Religion, Church Government, and Discipline, as have been brought in and fomented by them.
- For uniting all such your Loyal Subjects together, as join in the same Fundamental Truths against the Papists, by removing some Oppressions and unnecessary Ceremonies, by which divers weak Consciences have been scrupled, and seem to be divided from the rest, and for the due Execution of those good Laws, which have been made for securing the Liberty of your Subjects.
- 2. That your Majesty will likewise be pleased to remove from your Council all such as Persist to favour and promote any of those Pressures and Corruptions wherewith your People have been grieved, and that for the future, your Majesty will vouchsafe to employ such Persons in your great and publick Affairs, and to take such to be near you in Places of Trust, as your Parliament may have cause to confide in; that in your Princely Goodness to your People you will reject and refuse all Mediation and Sollicitation to the contrary, how powerful and near soever.
- 3. That you will be pleased to forbear to alienate any of the forfeited and escheated Lands in Ireland, which shall accrue to your Crown by Reason of this Rebellion, that out of them the Crown may be the better supported, and some Satisfaction made to your Subjects of this Kingdom, for the great Expences they are like to undergo this War.
Which humble Desires of ours being graciously fulfilled by your Majesty, we will by the Blessing and Favour of God, most chearfully undergo the Hazard and Expences of this War, and apply our selves to such other Courses and Counsels, as may support your Royal Estate with Honour and Plenty at Home, with Power and Reputation Abroad, and by our Loyal Affections, Obedience and Service, lay a fare and lasting Foundation of the Greatness and Prosperity of your Majesty, and your Royal Posterity in future Times.
A Remonstrance of the State of the Kingdom presented to the King at Hampton Court, 1. Dec. 1641. in the Name of the Commons House of Parliament.
The Commons in this present Parliament assembled, having with much Earnestness and Faithfulness of Affection and Zeal to the publick Good of this Kingdom, and his Majesty's Honour and Service, for the space of twelve Months, wrestled with great Dangers and Fears, the pressing Miseries and Calamities, the various Distempers and Disorders, which had not only affaulted, but even overwhelmed and extinguish'd the Liberty, Peace, and Prosperity of this Kingom, the Comfort and Hopes of all his Majesty's good Subjects, and exceedingly weakened and undermined the Foundation and Strength of his own Royal Throne.
Do yet find an abounding Malignity and Opposition in those Parties and Factions who have been the cause of those Evils, and do still labour to cast Aspersions upon that which hath been done, and to raise many Difficulties for the Hinderance of that which remains yet undone, and to foment Jealousies betwixt the King and Parliament, that so they may deprive him and his People of the Fruit of his own gracious Intentions, and their humble Desires of procuring the publick Peace, Safety, and Happiness of this Realm: For the preventing of those miserable Effects which such malicious Endeavours may produce, we have thought good to declare;
The Root and the Growth of these mischievous Designs.
The Maturity and Ripeness, to which they have attained before the beginning of the Parliament.
The effectual Means which have been used for the Extirpation of those dangerous Evils, and the Progress which hath therein been made by his Majesty's Goodness, and the Wisdom of the Parliament.
The Ways of Obstruction and Opposition, by which that Progress hath been interrupted.
The Courses to be taken for the removing those Obstacles, and for the accomplicomplishing of our most dutiful and faithful Intentions and Endeavours of restoring and establishing the ancient Honour, Greatness, and Security of this Crown and Nation.
The Root of all this Mischief we find to be a malignant and pernicious Design of subverting the Fundamental Laws and Principles of Government, upon which the Religion and Justice of this Kingdom are firmly establish'd. The Actors and Promoters hereof have been,
- 1. The Jesuited Papists, who hate the Laws, as the Obstacles of that Change, and Subversion of Religion, which they so much long for.
- 2. The Bishops, and the corrupt Part of the Clergy, who cherish Formality and Superstition, as the natural Effects and more probable Supports of their own Ecclesiastical Tyranny and Usurpation.
- 3. Such Counsellors and Courtiers as for private Ends have engaged themselves to further the Interests of some Foreign Princes, or States, to the Prejudice of his Majesty and the State at Home.
The common Principles by which they mouled and governed all their particular Counsels and Actions were these:
First, To maintain continual Differences and Discontents betwixt the King and the People, upon Questions of Prerogtive and Liberty, that so they might have the Advantage of siding with him, and under the Notions of Men addicted to his Service, gain to themselves and their Parties, the Places of greatest Trust and Power in the Kingdom.
A Second, To suppress the Purity and Power of Religion, and such Persons as were best affected to it, as being contrary to their own Ends, and the greatest Impediment to that Change which they thought to introduce.
A Third, To conjoin those Parties of the Kingdom which were most propitious to their own Ends, and to divide those who were most opposite, which consisted in many particular Observations.
To cherish the Arminian Part in those Points wherein they agree with the Papists to multiply and enlarge the Difference between the common Protestants, and those whom they call Puritans, to introduce and countenance such Opinions and Ceremonies as are fittest for Accommodation with Popery, to increase and maintain Ignorance, Looseness, and Prophaneness in the People.
That of those three Parties, Papists, Arminians and Libertines, they might compose a Body fit to act such Counsels and Resolutions as were most conducible to their own Ends.
A Fourth, To disaffect the King to Parliaments by Slanders and false Imputations, and by putting him upon other Ways of Supply, which in Shew and Appearance were fuller of Advantage than the ordinary Course of Subsidies, though in truth they brought more Loss than Gain both to the King and People, and have caused the great Distractions under which we both suffer.
As in all compounded Bodies the Operations are qualified according to the predominant Element, so in this mixt Party, the Jesuited Counsels being most active and prevailing, may easily be discovered to have had the greast Sway in all their Determinations, and if they be not prevented, are likely to devour the rest, or to turn them into their own Nature.
In the beginning of his Majesty's Reign, the Party begun to revive and flourish again, having been somewhat dampt by the Breach with Spain in the last Year of King James, and by his Majesty's Marriage with France; the Interests and Councils of that State being not so contrary to the good of Religion, and the Prosperity of this Kingdom, as those of Spain; and the Papists of England having been ever more addicted to Spain than France, yet they still retained a Purpose and Resolution to weaken the Protestant Parties in all Parts, and even in France whereby to make way for the change of Religion, which they intended at Home.
- 1. The first Effect and Evidence of their Recovery and Strength, was the Dissoulution of the Parliament at Oxford, after there had been given two Subsidies to his Majesty, and before they received Relief in any one Grievance, many other more miserable Effects followed.
- 2. The Loss of the Rochel Fleet, by the help of our Shipping, set forth and delivered over to the French, in opposition to the Advice of Parliament, which left that Town without Defence by Sea, and made way not only to the Loss of that important Place, but likewise to the Loss of all the Strength and Security of the Protestant Religion in France.
- 3. The diverting of his Majesty's Course of Wars from the West-Indies, which was the most facile and hopeful Way for this Kingdom to prevail against the Spaniard, to an expenceful and successless Attempt upon Calez, which was so order'd as if it had rather been intended to make us weary of War, than to prosper in it.
- 4. The precipitate Breach with France, by taking their Ships to a great Value, without making Recompence to the English, whose Goods were thereupon imbarr'd, and confiscate in that Kingdom.
- 5. The Peace with Spain, without Consent of Parliament, contrary to the Promise of King James to both Houses, whereby the Palatines Cause was deserted and left to chargeable and hopeless Treaties, which, for the most part, were managed by those who might justly be suspected to be no Friends to that Cause.
- 6. The charging of the Kingdom with billited Soldiers in all Parts of it, and that concomitant Design of German Horse, that the Land might either submit with Fear, or be inforced with Rigour to such arbitrary Contributions as should be required of them.
- 7. The dissolving of the Parliament in the second Year of his Majesty's Reign, after a Declaration of their Intent to grant five Subsidies.
- 8. The exacting of the like Proportion of five Subsidies after the Parliament dissolved by Commission of Loan; and divers Gentlemen and others imprisoned for not yielding to pay that Loan, whereby many of them contracted such Sicknesses as cost them their Lives.
- 9. Great Sums of Money required and raised by Privy-Seals.
- 10. An unjust and pernicious Attempt to extort great Payments from the Subject, by way of Excise, and a Commission issued under the Seal to that purpose.
- 11. The Petition of Right, which was granted in full Parliament blasted, with an illegal Declaration to make it destructive to it self, to the Power of Parliament, to the Liberty of the Subject, and to that purpose printed with it, and the Petition made of no use, but to shew the bold and presumpeuous Injustice of such Ministers as durst break the Laws, and suppress the Liberties of the Kingdom, after they had been so solemnly and evidently declared.
- 12. Another Parliament dissolved 4 Car. the Priviledge of Parliament broken by imprisoning divers Members of the House, detaining them close Prisoners for many Months together, without the Liberty of using Books, Pen, Ink, or Paper, denying them all the Comforts of Life, all Means of Preservation of Health, not permitting their Wives to come unto them, even in time of their Sickness.
- 13. And for the compleating of that Cruelty, after Years spent in such miserable Durance, depriving them of the necessary Means of Spiritual Consolation, not suffering them to go abroad to enjoy God's Ordinances in God's House; or God's Ministers to come to them, to minister Comfort to them in their private Chambers.
- 14. And to keep them still in this oppressed Condition, not admitting them to be bailed according to Law; yet vexing them with Informations in inferiour Courts, Setencing and Fining some of them for Matters done in Parliament; and extorting the Payments of those Fines from them, enforcing others to put in Security of good Behaviour, before they could be released.
Sir John Elliot.
- 15. The Imprisonment of the rest, which refused to be bound, still continued, which might have been perpetual, if Necessity had not the last Year brought another Parliament to relieve them, *of whom one died, by the Cruelty and Harshness of his Imprisonment, which would admit of no Relaxation, notwithstanding the eminent Danger of his Life, did sufficiently appear by the Declaration of his Physician. And his Release, or at least his Refreshment was sought by many humble Petitions. And his Blood still cries either for Vengeance or Repentance of those Ministers of State who have at once obstructed the Course both of his Majesty's Justice and Mercy.
- 16. Upon the Dissolution of both these Parliaments, untrue and scandalous Declarations were published to asperse their Proceedings, and some of their Members unjustly; to make them odious, and colour the Violence which was used against them. Proclamations set out to the same purpose; and to the great dejecting the Hearts of the People, forbidding them even to speak of Parliaments.
- 17. After the Breach of the Parliament, in the fourth of his Majesty, Injustice, Oppression, and Violence, broke in upon us without any Restraint or Moderation, and yet the first Project was the great Sums exacted thorough the whole Kingdom; for default of Knighthood; which seemed to have some Colour and Shadow of a Law, yet if it be rightly examined by that obsolete Law which was pretended for it, it will be found to be against all the Rules of Justice, both in respect of the Persons charged, the Proportion of the Fines demanded, and the absurd and unreasonable manner of their Proceedings.
- 18. Tonnage and Poundage hath been received without Colour or Pretence of Law: Many other heavy Impositions continued against Law; and some so unreasonable, that the Sum of the Charge exceeds the value of the Goods.
- 19. The Book of Rates lately inhaunced to a high Portion, and such Merchants that would not submit to their illegal and unreasonable Payments, were vexed and oppressed above Measure; and the ordinary Course of Justice, the common Birthright of the Subject of England wholly obstructed unto them.
- 20. And although all this was taken upon Pretence of guarding the Seas, yet a new and unheard of Tax of Ship-Money was devised, and upon the same Pretence. By both which there was charged upon the Subject near 700000l. some Years, and yet the Merchants have been left to naked to the Violence of the Iurkish Pirates; that many great Ships of value, and thousands of his Majesty's Subjects have been taken by them, and do still remain in miserable Slavery.
- 21. The Enlargement of Forests, contrary to Charta de Foresta, and the Composition thereupon.
- 22. The Exactions of Coat and Conduct Money, and divers other Military Charges.
- 23. The taking away the Arms of Trained-bands of divers Counties.
- 24. The desperate Design of engrossing all the Gun-Powder into one Hand, keeping it in the Tower of London, and setting so high a Rate upon it, that the poorer fort were not able to buy it; nor could any have it without License; thereby to leave the several Parts of the Kingdom destitue of their necessary Defence: and by selling so dear that which was sold, to make an unlawful Advantage of it, to the great Charge and Detriment of the Subject.
- 25. The general Destruction of the King's Timber, especially that in the Forest of Deane, sold to Papists, which was the best Store-House of this Kingdom, for the Maintenance of our Shipping.
- 26. The taking away of Mens Right, under Colour of the King's Title to Land, between high and low Water Marks.
- 27. The Monopolies of Soap, Salt, Wine, Leather, Sea-Coal, and in a manner, of all things of most common and necessary Use.
- 28. The Restraint of the Liberties of the Subjects in their Habitation, Trades, and other Interests.
- 29. Their Vexation and Oppression by Purveyors, Clerks of the Market and Salt-peter Men.
- 30. The Sale of pretended Nusances, as Building in and about London.
- 31. Conversion of Arable into Pasture, Continuance of Pasture, under the Name of Depopulation, have droven many Millions out of the Subjects Purses, without any considerable Profit to his Majesty.
- 32. Large Quantities of common and several Grounds hath been taken from the Subject, by Colour of the Statute of Improvement, and by Abuse of the Commission of Sewers, without their Consent, and against it.
- 33. And not only private Interest, but also publick Faith hath been broken, in seising of the Money and Bullion in the Mint, and the whole Kingdom like to be robbed at once, in that abominable Project of Brass Money.
- 34. Great Numbers of his Majesty's Subjects, for refusing those unlawful Charges, have been vext with long and expensive Suits, some fined and censured, others committed to long and hard Imprisonments and Confinements; to the loss of Health in many, of Life in some, and others have had their Houses broken up, their Goods seised, some have been restrained from their lawful Callings.
- 35. Ships have been interrupted in their Voyages, surprized at Sea in hostile maner by Projectors, as by a common Enemy.
- 36. Merchants prohibited to unlade their Goods in such Ports as were for their own Advantage, and forced to bring them to those Places which were much for the Advantages of the Monopolizers and Projectors.
- 37. The Court of Star-Chamber hath abounded in extravagant Censures, not only for the Maintainance and Improvement of Monopolies, and other unlawful Taxes, but for divers other Causes, where there hath been no Offence, or very small; whereby his Majesty's Subjects have been oppressed by grievous Fines, Imprisonments, Stigmatizings, Mutilations, Whippings, Pillories, Gags, Consinements, Banishments; after so rigid a Manner, as hath not only deprived Men of the Society of their Friends Exercise of their Possessions, Comfort of Books, Use of Paper or Ink, but even violated that near Union, which God hath established betwixt Men and their Wives, by forced and constrained Separation, whereby they have been bereaved of the Comfort and Conversation one of another for many Years together, without hope of Relief, if God had not by his overruling Providence given some Interruption to the prevailing Power, and Counsel of those who were the Authors and Promoters of such peremptory and heady Courses.
- 38. Judges have been put out of their Places for refusing to do against their Oaths and Consciences: Others have been so awed that they durst not do their Duties, and the better to hold a Rod over them, the Clause Quam diu sebene Gesserit, was left out of their Patents, and new Clause Durante bene placito inserted.
- 39. Lawyers have been checked for being faithful to their Clients; Solicitors and Atturnies have been threatned, and some punished for following lawful Suits. And by this means all the Approaches to Justice were interrupted and forecluded.
- 40. New Oaths have been forced upon the Subject against Law.
- 41. New Judicatories erected without Law. The Council Table have by their Orders, offered to bind the Subjects in their Freeholds, Estates, Suits, and Actions.
- 42. The pretended Court of the Earl Marshal was arbitrary, and illegal in its Being and Proceedings.
- 43. The Chancery, Exchequer-Chamber, Court of Wards, and other English Courts, have been grievous in exceeding their Jurisdiction.
- 44. The Estate of many Families weakned, and some ruined by excessive Fines, exacted from them for Compositions of Wardships.
- 45. All Leases of above 100 Years made to draw on Wardship contrary to Law.
- 46. Undue Proceedings used in the finding of Offices, to make the Jury find for the King.
- 47. The Common Law Courts, seeing all Men more incliued to seek Justice there, where it may be sitted to their own Desire, are known frequently to forsake the Rules of the Common Law, and straying beyond their Bounds, under pretence of Equity to do Injustice.
- 48. Titles of Honour, Judicial Places, Serjeants-ships at Law, and other Offices have been sold for great Sums of Money; whereby the Common Justice of the Kingdom hath been much endangered, not only by opening a way of Employment, in places of great Trust and Advantage to Men of weak Parts; but also by giving occasion to Bribery, Extortion, Partiality; it seldom hapining that Places ill gotten, are well used.
- 49. Commissions have been granted for examining the Excess of Fees: And when great Exactions have been discovered, Compositions have been made with Delinquents, not only for the time past, but like wise for Immunity, and Security in offending for the time to come, which, under Colour of Remedy, hath but confirmed and encreased the Grievance to the Subject.
- 50. The usual Course of pricking Sheriffs, not observed, but many times Sheriffs made an extraordinary way, sometimes as a Punishment and Charge unto them; sometimes such were prick'd out as would be Instruments to execute whatsoever they would have to be done.
- 51. The Bishops and the rest of the Clergy, did triumph in the Suspentions, Excommunications, Deprivations, and Degradations of divers painful, learned and pious Ministers, in the vexation and grievous Oppressions of great Numbers of his Majesty's good Subjects
- 52. The High Commission grew to such excess of Sharpness and Severity as was not much less than the Romish Inquisition, and yet in many Cases, by the Archbishop's Power, was made much more heavy, being assisted, and strengthned by Authority of the Council-Table.
- 53. The Bishops and their Courts were as eager in the Country; although their Jurisdiction could not reach so high in Rigour and Extremity of Punishment; yet were they no less grievous in respect of the Generality and Multiplicity of Vexations, which lighting upon the meaner sort of Tradesmen and Artificers, did impoverish many Thousands.
- 54. And so afflict and trouble others, that great Numbers, to avoid their Miseries, departed out of the Kingdom, some into New England, and other Parts of America, others into Holland.
- 55. Where they have transported their Manufactures of Cloath, which is not only a Loss by diminishing the present Stock of the Kingdom, but a great Mischief by impairing and indangering the Loss of that peculiar Trade of Clothing, which hath been a plentiful Fountain of Wealth and Honour to this Nation.
- 56. Those were fittest for Ecclesiastical Preserment, and soonest obtained it, who were most officious in promoting Superstition, most virulent in railing against Godliness and Honesty.
- 57. The most publick and solemn Sermons before his Majesty, were, either to advance Prerogative above Law, and decry the Property of the Suject, or full of such kind of Invectives.
- 58. Whereby they might make those odious who fought to maintain the Religion, Laws and Liberties of the Kingdom, and such Men were sure to be weeded out of the Commission of the Peace, and out of all other Imployments of Power in the Government of the Country.
- 59. Many Noble Personages were Councellors in Name, but the Power and Authority remained in a few of such as were most addicted to this Party: Whose Resolutions and Determinations were brought to the Table for Countenance and Execution, and not for Debate and Deliberation, and no Man could offer to oppose them without Disgrace and Hazard to himself.
- 60. Nay all those that did not wholly concur, and actively contribute to the furtherance of their Designs, though otherwise Persons of never so great Honour and Abilities, were so far from being employed in any Place of Trust and Power, that they were neglected, discountenanced, and upon all Occasions injured and oppressed.
- 61. This Faction was grown to that height and intireness of Power, that now they began to think of finishing their Work, which consisted of these three Parts.
- 62. I. The Government must be set free from all Restraint of Laws concerning our Persons and Estates.
- 63. II. There must be a Conjunction betwixt Papists and Protestants in Doctrine, Discipline, and Ceremonies; only it must not yet be called Popery.
- 64. III. The Puritans, under which Name they include all those that desire to preserve the Laws and Liberties of the Kingdom, and to maintain Religion in the Power of it, must be either rooted out of the Kingdom with Force, or driven out with Fear.
- 65. For the effecting of this, it was thought necessary to reduce Scotland to such Popish Superstitions and Innovations as might make them apt to join with England in that great Change which was intended.
- 66. Whereupon new Canons, and a new Liturgy were prest upon them, and when they refused to admit of them, an Army was raised to force them to it, towards which the Clergy and the Papists were very forward in their Contribution.
- 67. The Scots likewise raised an Army for their Defence.
- 68. And when both Armies were come together, and ready for a bloody Encounter, his Majesty's own gracious Disposition, and the Counsel of the English Nobility and dutiful Submission of the Scots, did so far prevail against the evil Counsel of others, that a Pacification was made, and his Majesty returned with Peace and much Honour to London.
- 69. The unexpected Reconciliation was most acceptable to all the Kingdom, except to the malignant Party; whereof the Archbishop and the Earl of Strafford being Heads, they and their Faction begun to inveigh against the Peace, and to aggravate the Proceedings of the States, which so encreased his Majesty, that he forthwith prepared again for War.
- 70. And such was their Confidence, that having corrupted and distempered the whole Frame and Government of the Kingdom, they did now hope to corrupt that which was the only means to restore all to alright Frame and Temper again.
- 71. To which end they perswaded his Majesty to call a Parliament, not to seek Counsel and Advice of them, but to draw. Countenance and Supply from them, and to engage the whole Kingdom in their Quarrel.
- 72. And in the mean time, continued all their unjust Levies of Money, resolving either to make the Parliament pliant to their Will, and to establish Mischief by a Law, or else to break it, and with more Colour to go on by Violence, to take what they could not obtain by Consent. The Ground alledged for the Justification of this War, was this;
- 73. That the undutiful Demands of the Parliaments in Scotland was a sufficient Reason for his Majesty to take Arms against them, without hearing the Reason of those Demands, and thereupon a new Army was prepared against them, their Ships were seized in all Ports both of England and Ireland, and at Sea, their Petitions rejected, their Commissioners refused Audience.
- 74. This whole Kingdom most miserably distempered with Levies of Men and Money, and Imprisonments of those who denied to submit to those Levies.
- 75. The Earl of Strafford past into Ireland, caused the Parliament there to declare against the Scots, to give four Subsidies towards that War; and to engage themselves, their Lives and Fortunes for the Prosecution of it, and gave Directions for an Army of eight thousand Foot, and one thousand Horse, to be levied there, which were for the most part Papists.
- 76. The Parliament met upon the 13th of April 1640. The Earl of Strafford and Archbishop of Canterbury, with their Party, so prevailed with his Majesty, that the House of Commons was prest to yield a Supply for Maintenance of the War with Scotland, before they had provided any Relief for the great and pressing Grievances of the People, which being against the fundamental Priviledge and Proceeding of Parliament, was yet in humble Respect to his Majesty, so far admitted as that they aggreed to take the matter of Supply into Consideration, and two several Days it was debated.
- 77. Twelve Subsidies were demanded for the Release of Ship-Money alone: A third Day was appointed for Conclusion, when the Heads of that Party begun to fear the People might close with the King, in satisfying his Desires of Money: But that withal they were like to blast their malicious Designs against Scotland, finding them very much indisposed to give any Countenance to that War.
- 78. Thereupon they wickedly advised the King to break off the Parliament, and to return to the Ways of Confusion, in which their own evil Intentions were most like to prosper and succeed.
- 79. After the Parliament ended, the 5th of May 1640, this Party grew so bold, as to Counsel the King to supply himself out of his Subjects Estates by his own Power, at his own Will, without their Consent.
- 80. The very next Day, some Members of both Houses had their Studies and Cabinets, yea, their Pockets searched: Another of them not long after was committed close Prisoner, for not delivering some Petitions which he received by Authority of that House.
- 81. And if harsher Courses were intended (as was reported) it is very probable that the Sickness of the Earl of Strafford, and the tumultuous Rising in Southwark and about Lambeth, were the Causes that such violent Intentions were not brought to execution.
- 82. A false and scandalous Declaration against the House of Commons was published in his Majesty's Name, which yet wrought little Effect with the People, but only to manifest the Impudence of those who were Authors of it.
- 83. A forced Loan of Money was attempted in the City of London.
- 84. The Lord Mayor and Aldermen in their several Wards, enjoined to bring in a List of the Names of such Persons as they judged fit to lend, and of the Sum they should lend. And such Aldermen as refused so to do, were committed to Prison.
- 85. The Archbishop, and the other Bishops and Clergy continued the Convocation, and by a new Commission, turned it into a Provincial Synod, in which by on unheard of Presumption, they made Canons that contain in them many Matters, contrary to the King's Prerogative, to the Fundamental Laws and Statutes of the Realm, to the Right of Parliaments, to the Property and Liberty of the Subject, and Matters tending to Sedition, and of dangerous Consequence, thereby establishing their own Usurpations, justifying their Altar worship, and those other superstitious Innovations, which they formerly introduced without Warrant of Law.
- 86. They imposed a new Oath upon divers of his Majesty's Subjects both Ecclesiastical and Lay, for Maintenance of their own Tyranny, and laid a great Tax upon the Clergy for Supply of his Majesty, and generally they shewed themselves very affectionate to the War with Scotland, which was by some of them stiled Bellum Episcopale, and a Prayer composed, and enjoined to be read in Churches, calling the Scots Rebels, to put the two Nations in Blood, and make them irreconcileable.
- 87. All those pretended Canons and Constitutions were armed with the several Censures of Suspension, Excommunication, Deprivation, by which they would have thrust out all the good Ministers, and most of the well-affected People of the Kingdom, and left an easie Passage to their own Design of Reconciliation with Rome.
- 88. The Popish Party enjoyed such Exemptions from Penal Laws, as amounted to a Tolleration, besides many other Encouragements and Court Favours.
- 89. They had a Secretary of State, Sir Francis Windebanck, a powerful Agent for speeding all their Desires.
- 90. A Pope's Nuncio residing here, to act and govern them according to such Influences as he received from Rome, and to intercede for them with the most powerful Concurrence of the Foreign Princes of that Religion.
- 91. By his Authority, the Papists of all sorts, Nobility, Gentry, and Clergy were convocated after the manner of a Parliament.
- 92. New Jurisdictions were erected of Romish Archbishops, Taxes levied, another State moulded within this State independent in Government, contrary in Interest and Affection, secretly corrupting the Ignorant or negligent Professors of our Religion, and closely uniting and combining themselves against such as were found in this Posture waiting for an Opportunity by Force to destroy those whom they could not hope to seduce.
- 93. For the effecting whereof, they were strengthned with Arms and Munition, encouraged by superstitious Prayers, enjoined by the Nuncio to be weekly made for the Prosperity of some great Design.
- 94. And such Power had they at Court, that secretly a Commission was issued out, or intended to be issued to some great Men of that Profession, for the levying of Soldiers, and to command and imploy them according to private Instructions, which we doubt were framed for the Advantage of those who were the Contrivers of them.
- 95. His Majesty's Treasure was consumed, his Revenue anticipated.
- 96. His Servants and Officers compelled to lend great Sums of Money.
- 97. Multitudes were called to the Council-Table, who were tired with long Attendances there for refusing illegal Payments.
- 98. The Prisons were filled with their Commitments: Many of the Sheriffs summoned into the Star-Chamber; and some imprisoned for not being quick enough in levying the Ship-Money, the People languished under Grief and Fear, no visible Hope being left but in Desperation.
- 99. The Nobility began to be weary of their Silence and Patience, and sensible of the Duty and Trust which belongs to them; and thereupon some of the most ancient of them did Petition his Majesty at such a Time, when evil Counsels were so strong, that they had occasion to expect more Hazard to themselves, than redress of those publick Evils for which they interceded.
- 100. Whilst the Kingdom was in this Agitation and Distemper, the Scots restrained in their Trades, impoverished by the Loss of many of their Ships, bereaved of all Possibility of satisfying his Majesty by any naked Supplication, entred with a powerful Army into the Kingdom, and without any Hostile Act or Spoil in the Country they passed, more then forcing a Passage over the Tyne at Newburne, near Newcastle, possessed themselves of Newcastle, and had a fair Opportunity to press on further upon the King's Army.
- 101. But Duty and Reverence to his Majesty, and brotherly Love to the English Nation, made them stay there, whereby the King had Leisure to entertain better Counsels.
- 102. Wherein God so blessed and directed him, that he summoned the great Council of Peers to meet at York upon the 24th of September, and there declared a Parliament to begin the 3d of November then following.
- 103. The Scots the first Day of the great Council, presented an humble Petition to his Majesty, whereupon the Treaty was appointed at Rippom.
- 104. A present Cessation of Arms agreed upon, and the full Conclusion of all Differences referred to the Wisdom and Care of the Parliament.
- 105. At our first Meeting, all Oppositions seemed to vanish, the Mischiefs were so evident, which those Evil Counsellors produced, that no Man durst stand up to defend them. Yet the Work it self afforded Difficulty enough.
- 106. The multiplied Evils and Corruption of sixteen Years, strengthened by Custom and Authority, and the concurrent Interest of many powerful Delinquents were now to be brought to Judgment and Reformation.
- 107. The King's Houshold was to be provided for, they had brought him to that Want, that he could not supply his ordinary and necessary Expences without the Assistance of his People.
- 108. Two Armies were to be paid, which amounted very near to eighty thousand Pounds a Month.
- 109. The People were to be tenderly charged, having been formerly exhausted with many burthensome Projects.
- 110. The Difficulties seemed to be insuperable, which by the Divine Providence we have overcome. The Contraricties incompatible, which yet in a great measure we have reconciled.
- 111. Six Subsidies have been granted, and a Bill of Poll-Money, which if it be duly levied, may equal six Subsidies more, in all six hundred thousand Pounds.
- 112. Besides we have contracted a Debt to the Scots of two hundred and twenty thousand Pounds, yet God hath so blessed the Endeavours of this Parliament, that the Kingdom is a great Gainer by all these Charges.
- 113. The Ship-Money is abolished, which cost the Kingdom above two hundred thousand Pound a Year.
- 114. The Coat and Conduct-Money, and other Military Charges are taken away, which in many Countries amounted to little less than the Ship-Money.
- 115. The Monopolies are all supprest, whereof some few did prejudice the Subject above a Million yearly.
- 116. The Soap an hundred thousand Pounds.
- 117. The Wine three hundred thousand Pounds.
- 118. The Leather must needs exceed both, and Salt could be no less than that.
- 119. Besides the inferior Monopolies, which if they could be exactly computed, would make up a great Sum.
- 120. That which is more beneficial than all this is, that the Root of these Evils is taken away, which was the Arbitrary Power pretended to be in his Majesty, of taxing the Subject, or charging their Estates without Consent in Parliament, which is now declared to be against Law by the Judgment of both Houses, and likewise by an Act of Parliament.
- 121. Another Step of great Advantage is this, The living Grievances, the evil Counsellors and Actors of these Mischiefs have been so quelled.
- 122. By the Justice done upon the Earl of Strafford, the Flight of the Lord Finch and Secretary Windebanck.
- 123. The Accusation and Imprisonment of the Archbishop of Canterbury, of Judge Bartlet. And
- 124. The Impeachment of divers other Bishops and Judges, that it is like not only to be an ease to the present Times, but a Preservation to the future.
- 125. The Discontinuance of Parliaments is prevented by the Bill for a triennial Parliament, and the abrupt Dissolution of this Parliament by another Bill, by which it is provided, it shall not be dissolved or adjourned without the Consent of both Houses.
- 126. Which two Laws well considered, may be thought more advantageous than all the former, because they secure a full Operation of the present Remedy, and affords a perpetual Spring of Remedies for the future.
- 127. The Star Chamber.
- 128. The High Commission.
- 129. The Courts of the President, and Council in the North, were so many Forges of Misery, Oppression, and Violence, and are all taken away, whereby Men are more secured in their Persons, Liberties, and Estates, then they could be by any Law or Example, for the Regulation of those Courts of Terro of the Judges.
- 130. The immoderate Power of the Council-Table, and the excessive Abuse of that Power is so ordered and restrained, that we may well hope that no such things as were frequently done by them, to the Prejudice of the publick Liberty, will appear in future Times but only in Stories, to give us and our Posterity more occasion to praise God for his Majesty's Goodness, and the faithful Endeavours of this Parliament.
- 131. The Canons and Power of Canon making, are blasted by the Votes of both Houses.
- 132. The exorbitant Power of Bishops and their Courts are much abated, by some Provisions in the Bill against the High-Commission Court, the Authors of the many Innovations in Doctrine and Ceremonies.
- 133. The Ministers that have been scandalous in their Lives, have been so terrified in just Complaints and Accusations, that we may well hope they will be more modest for the time to come; either inwardly convicted by the sight of their own Folly, or outwardly restrained by the fear of Punishment.
- 134. The Forests are by a good Law reduced to their right Bounds.
- 135. The Encroachments and Oppressions of the Stannery-Courts, the Extortions of the Clerk of the Market;
- 136. And the Compulsion of the Subject, to receive the Order of Knight hood against his Will, paying of Fines for not receiving it, and the vexatious Proceedings thereupon for levying of those Fines, are by other beneficial Laws reformed and prevented.
- 137. Many excellent Laws and Provisions are in preparation for removing the inordinate Power, Vexation and Usurpation of Bishops, for reforming the Pride and Idleness of many of the Clergy, for easing the People of unnecessary Ceremonies in Religion, for censuring and removing unworthy and unprofitable Ministers, and for maintaining godly and diligent Preachers through the Kingdom.
- 138. Other things of main Importance for the good of this Kingdom, are in Proposition, though little could hitherto be done in regard of the many other more pressing Businessess, which yet before the end of this Session, we hope may receive some Progress and Perfection.
- 139. The establishing and ordering the King's Revenue, that so the Abuse of Officers, and Superfluity of Expences may be cut off, and the necessary Disbursements, for his Majesty's Honour, the Defence and Government of the Kingdom may be more certainly provided for.
- 140. The regulating of Courts of Justice, and abridging both the Delays and Charges of Law-Suits.
- 141. The settling of some good Courses for preventing the Exportation of Gold and Silver, and the Inequality of Exchanges betwixt us and other Nations, for the advancing of native Commodities, encrease of our Manufactures, and well balancing of Trade, whereby the Stock of the Kingdom may be encreased; or at least kept from impairing, as through neglect hereof it hath done for many Years last past.
- 142. Improving the Herring-Fishing upon our own Coasts, which will be of mighty Use in the Imployment of the Poor, and a plentiful Nursery of Mariners for enabling the Kingdom in any great Action.
- 143. The Oppositions, Obstructions, and other Difficulties wherewith we have been encountred, and which still lie in our way with some strengh and much Obstinacy are these: The malignant Party whom we have formerly described to be the Actors and Promoters of all our Misery they have taken heart again.
- 144. They have been able to prefer some of their own Factors and Agents, to Degrees of Honour, to Places of Trust and Employment, even during the Parliament.
- 145. They have endeavoured to work in his Majesty ill Impressions and Opinions of our Proceedings, as if we had altogether done our own Work, and not his; and had obtained from him many Things very prejudicial to the Crown, both in respect of Prerogative and Profit.
- 146. To wipe out this Siander, we think good only to say thus much: That all that we have done, is for his Majesty, his Greatness, Honour, and Support, when we yield to give twenty five thousand Pound a Month for the Relief of the Northern Counties; this was given to the King, for he was bound to protect his Subjects.
- 147. They were his Majesty's evil Counsellors, and their ill Instruments that were Actors in those Grievances which brought in the Scots.
- 148. And if his Majesty please to force those who were the Authors of this War to make Satisfaction, as he might justly and easily do, it seems very reasonable that the People might well be excused from taking upon them this Burden, being altogether innocent and free from being any Cause of it.
- 149. When we undertook the Charge of the Army, which cost above 50000l. a Month, was not this given to the King? Was it not his Majesty's Army? Were not all the Commanders under Contract with his Majesty at higher Rates and greater Wages than ordinary?
- 150. And have not we taken upon us to discharge all the Brotherly Assistance of three hundred thousand Pounds, which we gave the Scots? Was it not towards Repair of those Damages and Losses which they received from the King's Ships and from his Ministers?
- 151. These three Particulars amount to above 1100 thousand Pound.
- 152. Besides his Majesty hath received by Impositions upon Merchandise, at least 400 thousand Pounds.
- 153. So that his Majesty hath had out of the Subjects Purse since the Parliament began, one Million and a half, and yet these Men can be so impudent as to tell his Majesty, that we have done nothing for him.
- 154. As to the second Branch of this Slander, we acknowledge, with much Thankfulness, that his Majesty hath passed more good Bills to the Advantage of the Subjects, than have been in many Ages.
- 155. But withal, we cannot forget, that these venemous Councils did manifest themself in some Endeavours to hinder these good Acts.
- 156. And for both Houses of Parliament, we may with Truth and Modesty say thus much: That we have ever been careful not to desire any thing that should weaken the Crown either in just Profit or useful Power.
- 157. The Triennial Parliament for the matter of it, doth not extend to so much, as by Law we ought to have required, (there being two Statutes still in force for a Parliament to be once a Year) and for the manner of it, it is in the King's Power, that it shall never take effect, if he by a time Summons shall prevent any other way of assembling.
- 158. In the Bill for Continuance of this present Parliament, there seems to be some Restraint of the Royal Power in dissolving of Parliaments, not to take it out of the Crown, but to suspend the Execution of it for this Time and Ocsion only; which was so necessary for the King's own Security and the publick Peace, that without it we could not have undertaken any of these great Charges, but must have left both the Armies to Disorder and Confusion, and the whole Kingdom to Blood and Rapine.
- 159. The Star-Chamber was much more fruitful in Oppression than in Profit, the great Fines being for the most part given away, and the rest stalled at long Times.
- 160. The Fines of the High Commission were in themselves unjust, and seldom or never came into the King's Purse: These four Bills are particularly and more specially instanced.
- 161. In the rest there will not be found so much as a Shadow of Prejudice to the Crown.
- 162. They have sought to diminish our Reputation with the People, and to bring them out of Love with Parliaments.
- 163. The Aspersions which they have attempted this way, have been such as these.
- 164. That we have spent much time and done little, especially in those Grievances which concern Religion.
- 165. That the Parliament is a burthen to the Kingdom by the abundance of Protections which hinder Justice and Trade; and by many Subsidies granted much more heavy than any formerly endured.
- 166. To which there is a ready Answer, if the time spent in this Parliament, be considered in relation backward to the long Growth and deep Root of those Grievances, which we have removed, to the powerful Supports of those Delinquents, which we have pursued, to the great Necessities and other Charges of the Common-wealth, for which we have provided.
- 167. Or if it be considered in relation forward to many Advantages, which not only the present, but future Ages are like to reapby the good Laws and other Proceedings in this Parliament; we doubt not but it will be thought by all indifferent Judgments, that our time hath been much better imployed, then in a far greater Proportion of time in many former Parliaments put together; and the Charges which have been laid upon the Subject, and the other Inconveniencies which they have born, will seem very light in respect of the Benefit they have and may receive.
- 168. And for the matter of Protections, the Parliament is so sensible of it, that therein they intended to give them whatsoever ease may stand with Honour and Justice; and are in a way of passing a Bill to give them Satisfaction.
- 169. They have sought by many subtile Practices, to cause Jealousies and Divisions betwixt us and our Brethren of Scotland, by slandering their Proceedings and Intentions towards us, and by secret Endeavours to instigate and incense them and us one against another.
- 170. They have had such a party of Bishops and Popish Lords in the House of Peers, as hath caused much Opposition and Delay in the prosecution of Delinquents, hindred the Proceedings of divers good Bills passed in the Commons House, concerning the Reformation of sundry great Abuses and Corruptions both in Church and State.
- 171. They have laboured to seduce and corrupt some of the Commons House, to draw them into Conspiracies and Combinations against the Liberty of the Parliament.
- 172. And by their Instruments and Agents, they have attempted to disaffect and discontent his Majesty's Army; and to ingage it for the maintenance of their wicked and trayterous Designs; the keeping up of Bishops in Votes and Functions, and by Force to compel the Parliament to order, limit, and dispose their Proceedings in such manner as might best concur with the Intentions of this dangerous and potent Faction.
- 173. And when one mischievous Design, and Attempt of theirs to bring on the Army against the Parliament, and the City of London, hath been discover'd and prevented;
- 175. They presently undertook another of the same damnable Nature, with this Addition to it, to endeavour to make the Scottish Army neutral, whilst the English Army, which they had laboured to corrupt and invenom against us, by their salse and slanderous Suggestions, should execute their Malice to the Subversion of our Religion, and the Dissolution of our Government.
- 176. Thus they have been continually practising to disturb the Peace, and plotting the destruction even of all the King's Dominions; and have imployed their Emissaries, and Agents in them, all for the promoting their devilish Designs, which the Vigilancy of those who were well-affected, hath still discovered and defeated before they were ripe for execution in England and Scotland.
- 177. Only in Ireland, which was farther off, they have had time and opportunity to would and prepare their Work, and had brought it to that Perfection, that they had possessed themselves of that whole Kingdom, totally subverted the Government of it, routed out Religion, and destroyed all the Protestants whom the Conscience of their Duty to God, their King and Country would not have permitted to join with them, if by God's wonderful Providence their main Enterprize upon the City and Castle of Dublin, had not been detected and prevented upon the very Eve before it should have been executed.
- 178. Norwithstanding they have in other parts of that Kingdom broken out into open Rebellion, surprising Towns and Castles, committed Murders, Rapes, and other Villanies, and shaken off all Bonds of Obedience to his Majesty, and the Laws of the Realm.
- 179. And in general have kindled such a Fire, as nothing but God's infinite blessing upon the Wisdom and Endeavours of this State will be able to quench it.
- 180. And certainly had not God, in his great Mercy unto this Land, discovered and confounded their former designs, we had been the Prologue to this Tragedy in Ireland, and had by this been made the lamentable Spectable of Misery and Confusion.
- 181. And now what hope have we but in God, when as the only means of our Subsistence and Power of Reformation is under him in the Parliament.
- 182. But what can we the Commons, without the Conjunction of the House of Lords, and what Conjunction can we expect there, when the Bishops and Recusant Lords are so numerous, and prevalent, that they are able to cross, and interrupt our best endeavours for Reformation; and by that means give advantage to this malignant Party to traduce our Proceedings.
- 183. They insfuse into the People, that we mean to abolish all Church Government, and leave every Man to his own Fancy, for the Service and Worship of God, absolving him of that Obedience which he owes under God unto his Majesty; whom we know to be intrusted with the Ecclesiastical Law as well as with the Temporal, to regulate all the Members of the Church of England, by such Rules of Order and Discipline as are established by parliament; which is his great Council, in all Affairs both in Church and State.
- 184. We confess our Intention is, and our Endeavours have been to reduce within bounds that exorbitant Power, which the Prelates have assumed unto themselves, so contrary both to the Word of God, and to the Laws of the Land; to which end we past the Bill for the removing them from their Temporal Power and Employments; that so the better they might with Meekness apply themselves to the discharge of their Functions, which Bill themselves opposed, and were the principal Instruments of crossing it.
- 185. And we do here declare, that it is far from our Purpose or Desire, to let loose the golden Reins of Discipline and Government in the Church, to leave private Persons or particular Congregations to take up what Form of Divine Service they please, for we hold it requisite that there should be throughout the whole Realm a Conformity to that Order whch the Laws enjoin according to the Word of God. And we desire to unburthen the Consciences of Men of needless and superstitious Ceremonies, suppress Innovations, and take away the Monuments of Idolatry.
- 186. And the better to effect the intended Reformation, we desire there may be a General Synod of the most Grave, Pious, Learned, and Judicious Divines of this Island; assisted with some from Foreign Parts, prosessing the same Religion with us; who may consider of all things necessary for the Peace and good Government of the Church, and represent the Results of their Consultations unto the Parliament, to be there allowed of and confirmed, and receive the Stamp of Authority, thereby to find Passage and Obedience throughout the Kingdom.
- 187. They have maliciously charged us, that we intend to destroy, and discourage Learning, whereas it is our chiefest Care and Desire to advance it, and to provide a competent Maintenance for conscionble and preaching Ministers throughout the Kingdom, which will be a great Encouragement to Scholars, and a certain means whereby the Want, Meanness, and Ignorance, to which a great part of the Clergy is now subject, will be prevented.
- 188. And we intended likewise to reform, and purge the Fountains of Learning, the two Universities, that the Streams flowing from thence may be clear and pure, and an Honour and Comfort to the whole Land.
- 189. They have strained to blast our Proceedings in Parliament, by wresting the Interpretations of our Orders from their genuine Intention.
- 190. They tell the People that our meddling with the Power of Episcopacy, hath caused Sectaries and Conventicles, when Idolatry and Popish Ceremonies introduced into the Church by the command of the Bishops, have not only debarred the People from thence, but expelled them from the Kingdom.
- 191. Thus with Eliab, we are called by this malignant Party the Troublers of the State, and still while we endeavour to reform their Abuses, they make us the Authors of those Mischiefs we study to prevent.
- 192. For the perfecting of the Work begun, and removing all future Impediments, we conceive these Courses will be very effectual, seeing the Religion of the Papists hath such Principles as do certainly tend to the Destruction and Extirpation of all Protestants when they shall have Opportunity to effect it.
- 194. It is necessary in the first Place to keep them in such Condition, as that they may not be able to do us any hurt, and for avoiding of such Connivance and Favour as hath heretofore been shewed unto them.
- 195. That his Majesty be pleased to grant a standing Commission to some choice Men named in Parliament, who may take notice of their Increase, their Counsels and Proceedings, and use all duemeans by Execution of the Laws to prevent all mischievous Designs against the Peace and Safety of this Kingdom.
- 196. That some good Course be taken to discover the counterfeit and false Conformity of Papists to the Church, by Colour whereof Persons very much disaffected to the true Religion, have been admitted into Places of greatest Authourity and Trust in the Kingdom.
- 197. For the better Preservation of the Laws and Liberties of the Kingdom, that all illegal Grievances and Exactions be presented and punished at the Sessions and Assizes.
- 198. And that Judges and Justices be very careful to give this in Charge to the Grand Juries, and both the Sheriff and Justices to be sworn to the due Execution of the Petition of Right, and other Laws.
- 199. That his Majesty be humbly petitioned by both Houses, to employ such Counsellors, Ambassadors, and other Ministers in managing his Business at home and abroad, as the Parliament may have cause to confide in, without which we cannot give his Majesty such Supplies for support of his own Estate, nor such Assistance to the Protestant Party beyond the Sea as is desired.
- 200. It may often fall out, that the Commons may have just Cause to take Exceptions at some Men for being Counsellors, and yet not charge those Men with Crimes, for there be Grounds of Diffidence which lie not in Proof.
- 201. There are others, which though they may be proved, yet are not legally Criminal.
- 202. To be a known Favourer of Papists, or to have been very forward in defending or countenancing some great Offenders questioned in Parliament; or to speack contemptuously of either Houses of Parliament, or Parliamentary Proceedings;
- 203. Or such as are Factors or Agents for any Foreign Prince of another Religion; such are justly suspected to get Counsellors Places, or any other of Trust, concerning publick Employment for Money; for all these and divers others we may have great Reason to be earnest with his Majesty, not to put his great Affairs into such Hands, though we may be unwilling to proceed against them in any legal way of Charge or Impeachment.
- 204. That all Counsellors of State may be sworn to observe those Laws which concern the Subject in his Liberty, that they may likewise take an Oath not to receive, or give Reward or Pension from any Foreign Prince, but such as they shall within some reasonable Time discover to the Lords of his Majesty's Council.
- 205. And although they should wickedly forswear themselves, yet it may herein do Good, to make them known to be false and perjured to those who employ them, and thereby bring them into as little Credit with them as with us.
- 206. That his Majesty may have Cause to be in love with good Counsel and good Men, by shewing him in an humble and dutiful Manner, how full of Advantage it would be to himself, to see his own Estate settled in a plentiful Condition to support his Honour, to see his People united in Ways of Duty to him, and Endeavours of the publick Good, to see Happiness, Wealth, Peace and Safety derived to his own Kingdom, and procured to his Allies by the Influence of his own Power and Government.
His Majesty's Answer to the Petition which accompanied the Declaration presented to him at Hampton-Court, 1. Decemb. 1641.
King's Answer to the Petition that attended the Remonstrance.
We having received from you, soon after Our return out of Scotland a long Petition, consisting of many Desires of great moment, together with a Declaration of a very unusual Nature annexed thereunte, We had taken some time to consider of it, as befitted Us in a matter of that Consequence, being confident that your own Reason and Regard to Us, as well as Our express Intimation, by Our Comptroller, to that purpose, would have restrained you from the publishing of it, till such time as you should have received Our Answer to it; but, much against Our Expectation, finding the contrary, that the said Declaration is already abroad in Print, by Direction from your House, as appears by the Printed Copy, We must let you know, that We are very sensible of the Disrespect. Notwithstanding, it is Our Intention, that no Failing on your Part shall make Us fail in Ours, of giving all due Satisfaction to the Desires of Our People, in a Parliamentary way; and therefore We send you this Answer to your Petition, reserving Our Self in point of the Declaration, which We think Unparliamentary, and shall take a Course to do that which We shall think fit in Prudence and Honour.
To the Petition, We say, That although there are divers Things in the Preamble of it, which We are so far from admitting, that We profess, We can not at all understand them, as, of a Wicked and Malignant Party prevalent in the Government; of some of that Party admitted to Our Privy-Council, and to other Employments of Trust, and nearest to Us and Our Children; of Endeavours to sow among the People, false Scandals and Imputations, to blemish and disgrace the Proceedings of the Parliament: All, or any of which, did We know of, We should be as ready to Remedy and Punish, as you to complain of; so that the Prayers of your Petition are grounded upon such Premises, as We must in no wise admit; yet notwithstanding, We are pleased to give this Answer to you.
To the first, concerning Religion, consisting of several Branches, We say That for preserving the Peace and Safety of this Kingdom, from the Design of the Popish Party, We have, and will still, concur with all the Just Desires of Our People, in a Parliamentary way. That for the depriving of the Bishops of their Votes in Parliament, We would have you consider, the their Right is grounded upon the Fundamental Law of the Kingdom, and Constitution of Parliament. This We would have you consider; but since you desire Our Concurrence herein, in Parliamentary way, We will give no further Answer at this Time.
As for the abridging of the Inordinate Power of the Clergy, We conceive that the taking away of the High. Commission. Court hath well moderated that; but if there continue any Usurpations or Excesses in their Jurisdictions, We therein neither have, nor will protect them.
Unto that Clause which concerneth Corruptions (as you stile them) in Religion, in Church Government, and in Discipline, and the removing of such unnecessary Ceremonies as weak Consciences might check, That for any Illegal Innovations, which may have crept in, We shall willingly concur in the Removal of them. That if Our Parliament shall advise Us to call a National synod, which may duly examine such Ceremonies as give just Cause of Offence to any, We shall take it into Consideration, and apply Our self to give due Satisfaction therein; but we are very sorry to hear in such General Terms, Corruption in Religion objected, since We are perswaded in our Conscience, that no Church can be found upon the Earth that professeth the true Religion with more Purity of Doctrine than the Church of England doth, nor where the Government and Discipline are jointly more beautified, and free from Superstition, then as they are here Established by Law, which, by the Grace of God, We will with Constancy maintain (while we live) in their Purity and Glory, not only against all Invasions of Popery, but also from the Irreverence of those many Schismaticks and Separatists, wherewith of late this Kingdom and this City abounds, to the great Dishonour and Hazard both of Church and State, for the Suppression of whom We require your timely Aid and active Assistance.
To the second Prayer of the Petition, concerning the Removal and Choice of Counsellors, We know not any of Our Council to whom the Character set forth in the Petition can belong. That by those whom We had exposed to Trial, We have already given you sufficient Testimony, that there is no Man so near unto Us in Place, or Affection, whom We will not leave to the Justice of the Law, if you shall bring a particular Charge, and sufficient Proofs against him; and of this We do again assure you; but in the mean time We wish you to forbear such general Aspersions as may reflect upon all Our Council, since you name none in particular.
That for the Choice of Our Counsellors and Ministers of State, it were to debar Us that Natural Liberty all Freemen have; and as it is the undoubted Right of the Crown of England, to call such Persons to Our secret Councils, to publick Employment, and Our particular Service, as We shall think fit, so We are, and ever shall be very careful to make Election of such Persons, in those Places of Trust, as shall have given good Testimonies of their Abilities and Integrity, and against whom there can be no just Cause of Exception, where on reasonably to ground a Diffidence; and to Choices of this Nature, We assure you that the Mediation of the nearest unto Us hath always concurred.
To the third Prayer of your Petition concerning Ireland, We understand your desire of not alienating the forfeited Lands thereof, to proceed from much Care and Love, and likewise, that it may be a Resolution very fit for Us to take; but whether it be seasonable to declare Resolution of that Nature, be fore the Events of a War be seen, that We much doubt of. Howsoever, We can not but thank you for this Care, and your chearful Engagement for the Suppression of that Rebellion; upon the speedy Effecting whereof, the Glory of God in the Protestant Profession, the Safety of the British there, Our Honour, and that of the Nation so much depends; all the Interests of this Kingdom being so involved in that Business, We cannot but quicken your Affections therein, and shall desire you to frame your Counsels, to give such Expedition to the Work, as the Nature thereof, and the Pressures in Point of Time require; and where of you are put in mind by the daily Insolence and Increase of those Rebels.
For Conclusion; your Promise to apply your selves to such Courses as may support Our Royal Estate with Honour and Plenty at Home, and with Power and Reputation Abroad, is that which We have ever promised Our Self, both from our Loyalties and Affections, and also for what We have already done, and shall daily go adding unto, for the Comfort and Happiness of Our People.
The Speaker's Speech to the King, at his passing the Bill for Tonage and Poundage, being the first Time that his Majesty came to the Parliament, after his return from Scotland.
Most Dread Sovereign,
The Observation taken from the unlike Compositions, and various Motions of the World, made the Philosopher conclude, Tota hujus mundi concordia ex discordibus constat.
The Happy Conjuncture of both these Nations, in the Triumph and Joy of your Sacred Presence, extracted from the different and divided Dispositions and Opinions, gives us Cause to observe and admire these blessed Effects, from such contrary Causes; we may without Flattery, commend your Sacred Majesty, the Glorious Instrument of this happy Change, whose Piety and Prudence, directed by the Hand of God, hath contracted his Union from these various Discords.
The Story of these Times, will seem Paradoxes in following Generations, when they shall hear of Peace sprung from the Root of Dissention, of Union planted upon the Stock of Division, two Armies in the Field, both ready to strike the first Blow, but both United without a Stroke.
Nothing can reduce these Truths into a Belief, but the Knowledge of your Piety and Justice, who hath accomplished these Acts of Wonder by Goodness and Gentleness, without Force and Violence.
This way of Conquest, this (Bellum Incruentum) hath been the Rule of the most Valiant and Puissant Monarchs, advancing your Glory, in Safeguard of one Subject, more than in the Death of a thousand Enemies.
Thus have you erected a Monument of Glory to your Sacred Memory for all Generations.
And as your Care and Piety for the Welfare of your Northern Kingdom, called you to that Work, for the great Comfort of your People, which your Wisdom hath so happily Consummated, so now the Distemper of your other Kingdom (fomented by the same Spirits whose Presence admits no Peace in Israel) calls on your Providence to heal the Diseases of that Nation.
The one, from whence you returned, hath with Abel (though the Elder Brother) offered an acceptable Sacrifice; the other, with Cain, hath erected Altars for Blood and Revengc, (the old Immolations of Levitical Priesthood) which invokes the Nicessity of your Justice.
The one to a Natural, hath added a Politick Brotherhood.
The other of Brothers (I am sorry to say it) are become Strangers.
The Fidelity of the one, hath written a Story of Admiration to the World.
The Disloyalty of the other, hath parallelled that horrid Design (matchless before amongst all Generations) first, in their Intentions, the Destruction of a Kingdom, even when Unity and Peace was tying the Knot of Religion and Safety.
In the Discovery, a moment of Time prevented the Execution.
In the Actors (Jesuits and Priests) without whom the Malice of the Devil could not have found a Party in the World fitted to act over the like Bloody Tragedy.
But this, amongst our many Joys we receive by your happy Return, is not the least nay, 'tis the greatest that that Providence, which protected that Gracious King, your most Religious Father, from that Bloody Attempt, and increased the Blessing of so long and blessed Reign, hath also defended your Sacred Throne from all their Machinations.
Thus we see Religion is the greatest Policy, the never failing Support of King and Kingdom, that which firms you and your Pesterity to your Throne, and our Duty and Obedience to it.
Give me leave here, most Gracious Sovereign, to sum up the Sense of Eleven Month Observation, without Intermission (scarce) of a Day; nay, an Hour in that Day, on the hazard of Life and Fortune, and to reduce all into this Conclusion: The Endeavours of your Commons assembled, guided by your Pious and Religious Example, is to preserve Religion in its Purity, without Mixture or Composition, against these subtile Endeavours, and with our Lives and Fortunes, to Establish these Thrones to your Sacred Person, and those Beams of Majesty, your Royal Progeny, against Treason and Rebession.
The Ways that conduce to this End, are the Defence of the Land and Sea; for the one, we have already voted to raise Monies, for the other, this Bill in some measure will accomplish, for a little Time: And to that end, 1, by the Command of the Commons, humbly beseech your Royal Assent.
His Majesty's Speech to both Houses of Parliament, Dec. 2. 1641, taking notice that He finds the Parliament disturbed with Frights, Tears. and Alarms of dangerous Designs and Plots.
My Lords and Gentlemen,
I Think it fit, after so long Absence, at this first Occasion, to speak a send Words unto you, but is no ways in Answer to Mr. Speaker's Learnet Speech: Albeit, I have staid longer than I expected to have done when I went away, yet in this I have kept my Promise with you, that I have made all the haste back again, that the settling of my Scotch Affairs could any ways permit; in which I have had so good Success, that I will confidently offirm to you that I have lest that Nation a most peaceable and contented People; so that although I have a little misreckoned in Time, yet I was not deceived in my End
But if I have deceived your Expectations a little, in the Time of my return, I am assured, that my Expectation is as much, and more received, in the Condition wherein I hoped to have found Business at my return; for lince that, before my going, I settled the Liberties of my Subjects, and gave the Laws a free and orderly Course, I expected to have found my People reaping the fruits of these Benefits, by living in Quietness and Satisfaction of Mind; but instead of this, I find them disturbed with Jealousies, Frights, and Alarm of dangerous Designs and Plots; in consequence of which, Guards have been set to defend both Houses. I say not this, as in doubt that my Subjects Affections are any way lessened to me in this Time of my Absence, for I cannot but remember, to my great Comfort, the Joyful Reception I had now at my Entry into L O N D O N, but rather, as, I hope, that my Presence will easily disperse these Fears, for I bring as perfect and true Affections to my People as ever Prince did, or as good Subjects can possibly desire. And I am so far far from repenting me of any Act I have done in this Session, for the Good of my People, that I protest, if it were to do again, I would do it, and will yet grant what else can be justly desired for Satisfaction in Point of Liberties, or in Maintenance of the true Religion that is here Established.
Now I have but one Particular to recommend unto you at this Time, it is Ireland, for which, though I doubt not your Care, yet methinks the Preparations for it go but slowly on. The Occasion is the sitter for me now to mention, because of the Arrival of two Lords from Scotland, who come Instructed from my Council there (who now by Act of Parliament have full Power for that purpose) to answer that Demand, which it pleased both Houses to make me, by way of Petition, that met me at Berwick, and which the Duke of Richmond sent back, by my Command, to my Scotch Council: Therefore my Desire is, that both Houses would appoint a select Committee to end this Business with these Noblemen. I must conclude in telling you, that I seek my People's Happiness; for their flourishing is my greatest Glory, and their Affections my greatest Strength.
A Petition of divers Colon and Officers in the late Northern Army, desiring a speedy Answer. Scots Commissioners are come up totreat about sending Forces to Ireland.
A Petition was this Day delivered to the House of Commons, in the Names of divers Colonels and Officers, in the late Army in the North, for Relief, in many Particulars complained of, and prayed for a speedy Answer, to prevent their Attendance.
Whereas his Majesty declared the other Day, that there were two Scotch Lords come up by his Assent, to treat with both Houses of Parliament, concerning the present Assistance of Ireland, and to settle all the Conditions and State of that War, his Majesty thought fit there should be Commissioners appointed by himself and the House of Commons, to treat with the Scots Commissioners, and to be Authorized by the King's Commission, and both Houses of Parliament.
Daniel O Neal voted guilty of a second Design to perswade the Army to take part against the Parliament.
Upon this the Parliament prepared Instructions for their Commissioners to treat with the Scots, and to express the Thanks of both Houses, for their Readiness to assist this Kingdom against the Rebels in Ireland, and that the 5000 Men they have raised, may be forthwith Transported.
The House again re-assumed the Debate of Daniel O Neal, where, upon the Question, this Vote followed, That it is proved that Daniel O Neal, did upon the second Design, in er about June or July last, publish false Rumours in the Army, and did perswade the Chief Officers to take part with the King against the Parliament, to awe the Parliament, and to Interrupt their Proceedings.
The two Houses resolve never to consent to a Toleration of Popery in Ireland.
The House of Commons being informed that the Rebels in Ireland had, by the Lord Costelough, presented the Lords Justices of that Kingdom with a scandalous Letter, in the Nature of a Remonstrance, full of pretended Grievances, and unreasonable Demands, as, to have free Exercise of their Religion, a Repeal of all Laws to the contrary, &c. And that the said Lord Costelough, together with the Lord Taaff, were on their way for England, with some Propositions to be offered to his Majesty, or Instructions touching Means for procuring the Peace of that Kingdom; it was there upon, after a solemn Debate, resolved by the Lords and Commons, That they would never give Consent to any Toleration of the Popish Religion ligion in Ireland, or in any other his Majesties Dominions. Andduring this Debate, Sir Benj. Rudyard made the Speech following.
Sir Benjamin Rudyard's Speech against Tolleration to be granted to the Irish, 8th Decemb. 1641.
Peradventure I could have wished, that Toleration of Religion had not at this time come in Question; but now it is brought on the Stage, I am brought to the Stake. When Religion is so nearly concerned, I love not to take any Civil or Political Respects into Consideration; Reason of State hath almost eaten up all the Laws and Religion of Christendom.
I have often heard it discoursed, whether we should make Religion an Argument of any of our Undertakings Abroad; wherein the wiser Sort have been very Nice and tender, believing, that the over Number of Papists, would everwhelm us; yet I have been long of Opinion, that Attempts and Assistance have so often miscarried, because we have not boldly and publickly avowed our Religion. It may be, God thinks we are too many, who can Conquer as well with Few as with Many. Shall the Irish now make their Religion the Cause of their Rebellion, and shall we be ashamed or afraid to maintain our Religion, in reducing them to their Duty and Obedience: God will not Honour them who do not Honour him. Let us remember the Expostulations in the Chronicles, Why transgrestye the Commandments of God, so that ye cannot Prosper? This is a great Traty gression, to shrink from God in his Truth.
When we deny the Irish a Toleration, we do not withdraw the Eases and Favours they have heretofore enjoyed, greater I am sure then they would afford us, if we were in their Power: Wherefore Mr. Speaker, let us uphold our Religion, and trust God with the Success.
A Watch put upon the Parliament without their Consent.
The House of Commons, being informed a Watch was set without their Privity near the Parliament, sent a Serjeant at Arms to require those who Commanded the Halberteers and Watch, that was set upon the House, to come to the Bar; whereupon the Bailiff of the Liberty of the Duchy of Lancaster was called in, and being demanded by which Authority he brought armed Men about the Parliament, without the Consent, he said the Sheriff received a Writ to that Purpose, and they received a Warrant from the Justices of the Peace.
The House resolved to discharge that Guard.
Whereupon it was resolved in the House of Commons, that the settle of any Guadrs about the Commons House of Parliament, without the Consent, was a Breach of the Priviledge of the House; and that therefore such Guards ought to be Discharged; and they further Resolved upon the Question, that this Guard should be immediately Discharged by the Command of this House.
By the KING.
A Proclamation for Obedience to the Laws, ordained for the Establishing of the true Religion in this Kingdom of England.
The Kings Proclamation touching Religion and Common-Prayer. Decemb. 10th, 1641.
His Majesty considering it is a Duty most beseeming, and that most oblegeth Sovereign Authority in a Christian King to be careful (above all other Things) of preserving and advancing the Honour and Service of Almighty God and the Peace and Tranquillity of the Church; to which end his Majesty with his Parliament hath it under Consideration, how all just Scruples may be removed; and being in the mean time sensible that the present Division, Separation, and Disorder above the Worship and Service of God, as it is Established by the Laws and Statutes of this Kingdom in the Church of England, tendeth to great Distraction and Confusion, and may endanger the Subversion of the very Essence and Substance of true Religion: How resolved, for the Preservation of Unity and Peace, which is most necessary at this time for the Church of England, require Obedience to the Laws and Statutes ordered for the Establishing of the true Religion in this Kingdom, whereby the Honour of God may be advanced, to the great Comfort and Happiness both of his Majesty and his good Subjects.
His Majesty doth therefore Charge and Command, That Divine Service be performd in this his Kingdom of England, and Dominion of Wales, as is appointed by the Laws and Statutes Established in this Realm; and that Obedience be given by all his Subjects, Ecclestastical and Temporal, to the said Laws and Statutes concerning the same. And that all Judges, Officers, and Ministers Ecclestastical and Temporal, according to Justice, and their respective Duties, do put the said Acts of Parliament in due Execution, against all wilful Contemners and Disturbers of Divine Service, contrary to the said Laws and Statutes.
His Majesty doth further command, that no Parsons, Vicars or Curates in their several Parishes shall presume to introduce any Rite or Ceremonies, other than those which are Established by the Laws and Statutes of the Land.
Dated the 10th of Decemb. in the seventeenth Year of his Majesty's Reign.
Proclamation for Members of Parliament to attend.
A Proclamation issued for the Attendance of the Members in both Houses of Parliament, requiring all Members to repair to the Parliament, at or before the 12th of January next, and give their due and diligent Attendance: To the end that this Kingdom may fully enjoy the Benefit and Happiness which his Majesty intendeth unto them, by Summoning and Continuing of this Parliament.
His Majesty's Speech to both Houses, 14th December, 1641.
His Majesty's Speech to both Houses, 14th of December 1641.
My Lords and Gentlemen,
The last Time I was in this Place, and the last Thing that I recommended unto you, was the Business of Ireland, whereby I was in good hope that I should not have needed again to have put you in mind of that Business. But still seeing the slow Proceedings therein, and the daily dispatches that I have out of Ireland, of the lamentable Estate of my Protestant Subjects there; I cannot but again earnestly recommend the Dispatch of that Expedition unto you, for it is the chief Business that at this Time I take to Heart; and there cannot (almost) be any Business that I can have more care of. I might now take up some of your Time in expressing my Detestation of Rebellions in general, and of this in particular. But knowing that Deeds and not Declarations must suppress this great Insolency; I do here in a word offer you whatsoever my Power, Pains, or Industry can contribute to this good and necessary Work of reducing the Irish Nation to their true and wonted Obedience.
And that nothing may be omitted on my Part, I must here take notice of the Bill for pressing of Soldiers, now depending among you, my Lords; concerning which I here declare, That in case it come so to me, as it may not Infringe or Diminish my Prerogative, I will pass it. And further, seeing there is a Dispute raised (I being little beholden to him whosoever at this Time began it) concerning the Bounds of this ancient and undoubted Prerogative, to avoid further Debate at this Time, I offer, that the Bill may pass with a Salvo Jure, both for King and People, leaving such Debates to a Time that may better bear it. If this be not accepted, the Fault is not mine that this Bill pass not, but theirs that refuse so fair an Offer.
To Conclude, I conjure you, by all that is or can be dear to you or Me, That laying away all Disputes, you go on chearfully and speedily for the reducing of Ireland.
To the King's most Excellent Majesty,
The humble Petition of the Lords and Commons in Parliament, concerning His Majesty's Speech of the 14th of December, 1641.
The humble Petition of the Lords and Commons in Parliament, concerning his Majesty's Speech of the 14th of Decem. 1641 to vindicate their Privileges.
Most Gracious Sovereign,
Your Majesty's most humble and loyal Subjects the Lords and Commons in Parliament, do with all Faithfulness and Zeal to your Majesty's Service, acknowledge your Royal Favours and Protection to be a great Blessing and Security to them, for the enjoying and preserving all those publick and private Liberties and Privileges which belong unto them; and whensoever any of those Liberties or Privileges shall be invaded or broken, they hold themselves bound with Humility and Confidence to resort to your Princely Justice for Redress and Satisfaction. And because the Rights and Privileges of Parliament are Birth-right and Inheritance not only of themselves, but of the whole Kingdom, wherein every one of your Subjects is interested: The Maintenance and Preservation whereof doth very highly conduce to the publick Peace and Prosperity of your Majesty and all your People; they conceive themselves more-especially obliged with all Humbleness and Care, yea, with all Earnestness and Constancy of Resolution, and endeavour to maintain and defend the same: Amongst other the Privileges of Parliament, they do with all dutiful Reverence to your most Excellent Majesty declare, that is their Ancient and undoubted Right; That your Majesty ought not to take notice of any Matter in Agitation and Debate in either Houses of Parliament, but by their Information and Agreement, and that your Majesty ought not to propound any Condition, Provision, or Limitation to any Bill or Act in debate, or Preparation in either Houses of Parliament; or to manifest or declare your Consent, or Dissent, Approbation or Dislike of the same, before it be presented to your Majesty in due Course of Parliament; and that every particular Member of either House hath free Liberty of Speech to propound or debate any Matter according to the Order and Course of Parliament; And that your Majesty ought not to conceive Displeasure against any Man for such Opinions and Propositions as shall be delivered in such Debate, it belonging to the several Houses of Parliament respectively to judge and determine such Errors and Offences in Words or Actions, as shall be committed by any their Members, in the handling or debating any Matters depending.
They do further declare, That all the Privileges above-mentioned have been lately broken, to the great Sorrow and Grievance of your most humble and faithful Subjects in that Speech which your Majesty made in Parliament, to both Houses, upon Tuesday last, the fourteeth of this present Month of December, in that your Majesty did therein take notice of a Bill for Impressing of Soldiers, being in Agitation in the said Houses, and not agreed upon; and that your Majesty did therein offer a Salvo Jure, or provisional Clause to be added to that Bill, before it was presented to your Majesty, by the Consent of both Houses; and did at the same Time declare your Displeasure aga nst such Persons, as had moved some Deubt or Question concerning the same Bill. All which they do affirm and declare to be against the Ancient, Lawful and Undoubted Privileges and Liberties of Parliament.
And therefore they most humbly beseech your Majesty by your Royal Power and Authority, to maintain and protect them in these and all other the Privileges of your High Court of Parliament, that you will not for the Time to come, break or interrupt the same. And that none of your Loyal Subjects may suffer or sustain any Prejudice in your Majesty's Favour or good Opinion for any thing done or spoken in Parliament. And for the Reparation of your Loyal Subjects in this their just Grievance and Complaint, for the Breaches of their Privileges above-mentioned, and Prevention of the like for the time to come; That your Majesty will be pleased to declare, and make known the Name or Names of the Person or Persons, by whose Misformation and evil Counsel, your Majesty was induced to the same, that so he or they may receive such condign Punishment as shall appertain to Justice in that behalf. And this they most humbly desire, and as your greatest and most faithful Counsel shall Advise your Majesty to perform, as that which will be not only a Comfort to themselves, but likewise a great Advantage to your Majesty by procuring and confirming such a Confidence and Unity betwixt your Majesty and your People, as may be a Foundation of Honour, Safety and Happiness to your Person and Throne, as they stand bound always to pray for and endeavour.
Dec the 20th. Report of Sir William Balfores removal from the Lieutenancy of the Tower.; Colonel Lunsford made Lieutenant.
A Report being made to the House of Commons, That His Majesty intended to remove Sir William Balfore, Lieutenant of the Tower, from his place, They ordered that the said Sir William should have notice to attend the next day; who appearing accordingly, was examined about his said removal, and the Causes thereof; after which the House fell into Debate thereupon, and touching their petitioning His Majesty for the said Sir William 's continuance in the said Charge; but on the day following (Decemb. the 23d.) Sir William resign'd the Keys of the Tower to His Majesty, and Colonel Lunsford was appointed to be Lieutenant thereof, who on the 24th of Decemb. was sworn and put into possession of that Place by the Lord Privy-Seal and the Earl of Dorset, by Order from His Majesty.
In the mean time, on the 23d. the following Petition was presented to the Commons.
To the Honourable the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses of the Commons House of Parliament.
Citizens Petition against Colonel Lunsford.
The humble Petition of divers Common-Council Men, and others of the City of London.
That whereas the Tower of London was Originally ordained for Defence of this City, and to be the chief Magazine of the Kingdom, and that the whole State is deeply Interessed in the safe Custody thereof, but more especially the said City, which lately hath been put into fears of some dangerous Design from that Citadel; whereupon it pleased this High Court to mediate with His Majesty, for removing those Fears; and whereas the Petitioners are informed That Sir William Balfore, a Person of Honour and Trust, is displaced from the Office of Lieutenant, and the same Place bestowed upon Colonel Lunsford, a Man Outlawed, and most notorious for Outrages, and therefore fit for any dangerous Attempt: The Petitioners and many more who have intelligence thereof, are thereby put into such an height of Fear and Jealousie, as makes them restless till they have discharged their Daty in representing the same to this Honourable House.
May it therefore please this Honourable Assembly, to take the Premises into such consideration, as may secure both the City and Kingdom against the Mischeifs which may happen, as to your great Wisdom shall be found most fitting.
- Randal Manwaring,
- Maximilian Beard,
- Edward Gitting,
- John Pocock,
- Samuel Warner,
- George Thompson,
- Stephen Estwich,
- Richard Price,
- Richard Turner.
The Commons Reasons at a Conference against Colonel Lunsford.
After some Debate of the Matter of this Petition, the Commons desired a Conference with the Lords, at which they communicated the said Petition; and added, That it was the Opinion of the House of Commons, that Colonel Lunsford was an unfit Person for so great a Trust, as the Lieutenancy of the Tower; for which they offered their Lordships these Reasons:
- 1. Because the said Colonel Lunsford is a Man of a decayed and desperate Fortune, and so may be tempted to undertake any ill Design, and they conceive it will be very prejudicial to the King and Kingdom for him, to be in that Place in this time of Fears and Jealousies; especially to the Mint, in this time of great occasions to use Monies; for it will discourage Merchants and Strangers from bringing in their Bullion into the Mint.
- 2. That the said Colonel Lunsford is a Man of a desperate Condition, he having been formerly censured in the Star-Chamber, for lying in wait and besetting Sir Thomas Pelham Knt. as he came in his Coach upon a Sunday from Church, and did discharge two Pistols into the Coach; also being challenged into the Field by one Captain Buller, upon some injury offered to him, by the said Colonel Lunsford, Colonel Lunsford refused to Answer him, but sent him word he would cut his Throat, and would meet him with a Pistol; and put out his other Eye.
- 3. That they are informed, That Colonel Lunsford is not right in Principles as to Religion, for they understand, that when he was a Commander in the North, in the King's Army, he did not go to Church tho he was desired.
Sir John Coniers to be recommended to His Majesty for Lieutenant.
For which Reasons the House of Commons conceiving this Affair concerns the Safety of the King, City, and Kingdom, do desire their Lordships Concurrence in a Remonstrance of these things to His Majesty, and to desire him that a Place of such Importance may not be put into the hands of such a Man as Colonel Lunsford; but if His Majesty think cause that there should be a Lieutenant of the Tower, the same being already under the Command of such an Honourable Person as the Earl of Newport, who is Constable thereof by His Majesty's appointment, then that Sir John Coniers may be recommended to His Majesty for that place.
The Lordsrefuse to joyn in an Address for removing Lunsford.
The Lords taking this Affair into Debate, did the next day, being Fryday Decemb. the 24th return Answer, That they have not thought fit to joyn with the Commons in the Remonstrance or Address desired, touching removing Colonel Lunsford; their Lordships conceiving the same would be an Intrenchment on His Majesty's Prerogative.
Commons Vote against Lunsford.
Whereupon the House of Commons passed the following Vote; Resolved upon a Question Nemine Contradicente, That this House holds Colonel Lunsford unfit to be, or continue Lieutenant of the Tower, as being a Person whom the Commons of England cannot confide in.
And also sent to the Lords to desire a second Conference on that Subject; and Mr. Hollis, Mr. Pym, Mr. Strode, Sir Edmond Montfort, Mr. Glyn, Sir Philip Stapleton, Mr. Martin, and Sir John Hotham were appointed to draw up Heads for that Conference.
Second Conference about Lunsford.
At which they further importuned their Lordships, that both Houses might joyn in an humble Petition for removing Colonel Lunsford; further alledging, that they already find ill Consequences by his being Lieutenant, for Merchants have already withdrawn their Bullion out of the Mint: And Strangers who have Ships lately come in with great store of Bullion, do forbear to bring it into the Mint, because he is Lieutenant of the Tower, and by this means, Money will be scarce to come by; which will be prejudicial and obstructive to the pressing Affairs of Ireland. And the Commons having taken their Lordships Refusal to joyn with them in such a Petition into consideration, have made a Declaration for themselves, and desire that the same may be entred into the Journal of the House of Peers, as 'tis entred in their own Journal.
The Commons Declaration and Protest upon the Lords refusal to joyn with them for Petitioning for Lunsford's remove, Dec. 24.
We the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses of the Commons House of Parliament being very sensible of the great and imminent Danger of the Kingdom, through the Design of the Papists and other Persons, disaffected to the publick Peace, and finding by frequent Symptoms that the same groweth very near to Maturity, amongst which we reckon this not to be the least, that the Tower, being a Place of such Importance to the Safety of the City and of the whole Kingdom, should be put into the Hands of a Man so unworthy and of so dangerous a disposition, as by divers Testimonies, Colonel Lunsford is affirmed to be; which caused us Yesterday upon the Petition of the Citizens of London, to desire your Lordships to joyn with us in an humble Suit to His Majesty, That a Place of that great Consequence might not be disposed in such a manner, as to hazard the Safety, Peace and Content of the City, and of the whole Kingdom; and perceiving that your Lordships have refused to joyn with us in so important and necessary a Request; do hereby declare before God and the whole Kingdom, That from the beginning of this Parliament, we have done our uttermost, to preserve the State from Ruin; and having by God's Blessing prevailed so far, That the Design of the Irish Army of Papists, the other Designs of bringing up the English Army several times attempted, a former Plot of possessing the Tower, without which those Treasons could not be so mischeivous to the State, were all prevented, although strongly bent to the destruction of Religion, the Parliament and the Common-wealth, do now find our selves encountred with as great difficulty as ever; The Papists Rebellion in Ireland, giving such encouragement to the melignant Party here; and they likewise receiving such advantage by the delays and interruptions which we have received in the House of Peers, as we conceive by the great number of Bishops and Papists notoriously disaffected to the common Good; And do therefore hold our selves bound in Conscience to declare and protest, That we are innocent of the Blood which is like to be spilt, and of the Confusions which may overwhelm this State, if this Person be continued in his Charge; and do intend to resort to His Majesty with an humble Petition, That he will be pleased to afford us his Royal Protection, that the Kingdom and our selves may be preserved from this wicked and dangerous Design, and that he will grant such Commissions and Instructions as may enable us to defend his Royal Person, and his Loyal Subjects from the Cruelty and Rage of the Pepists, who have long plotted and endeavoured to bring in a bloody Change of Religions, to the apparent Ruin of the whole Kingdom; and if any of your Lordships have the same Apprehensions that we have, we hope they will likewise take some course to make the same known to His Majesty, and will further do what appertains to Persons of Honour and Fidelity for the common Good.
This Paper being read in the Lords House, it was moved to Adjourn the Debate of it till Monday; others were for debating it presently; and it being carried for an Adjournment, the Lords following entred their Protest against that Vote in manner following,
The Lords Protestation.
In respect the Conference brought up, and reported from the House of Commons, doth, as it is thereby declared concerning the instant Good and Safety of the King and Kingdom, I do protest against the deferring of the Debate thereof until Monday, to the end to discharge my self of any ill consequence that may happen.
- Similiter, L. Chmaberlain,
- Sim. E. Pembrock,
- Sim. E. Bedford,
- Sim. E. Warwick,
- Sim. E. Bullingbrook,
- Sim. E. Newport,
- Sim. Vis. Say & Seale,
- Sim. E. Suffolk,
- Sim. E. Carlile,
- Sim. E. Holland,
- Sim. E. Clare,
- Sim. E. Stamford,
- Sim. L. Wharton,
- Sim. L. Saint Johns,
- Sim. L. Spencer,
- Sim. L. North,
- Sim. L. Kimbolton:
- Sim. L. Brook,
- Sim. L. Gray de Wark.
- Sim. L. Roberts,
- Sim. L. Howard de Escreak.
Lord Newport Constable of the Tower, desired to take care thereof
The same Evening the Commons ordered, That Sir Thomas Barrington, and Mr. Martin, do this night repair unto the Earl of Newport, Constable of the Tower, and desire him from this House, to lodge and reside within the Tower, and take the Custody and Guard of that place; and then by reason of the Celebration of the Feast of Christmas, the next day both Houses Adjourned till Monday, the Lords to One a Clock in the Afternoon, the Commons till Ten in the Morning.
Sunday Dec. the 26th Colonel Lunsford removed.
On Sunday Decemb. the 26th. the Lord Mayor waited upon His Majesty at Whitehall, to acquaint him with the Rumour of the Apprentices rising, if the Lieutenant of the Tower, Colonel Lunsford, were not removed, and that they would attempt the Tower, to put him out; whereupon the Council immediately Assembled to consult means for preventing such Mischeifs, and for drawing up a Proclamation against Tumults. And the same Evening His Majesty took the Keys from Colonel Lunsford.
But on the Thursday before, a Petition directed to the King and both Houses of Parliament, in the Name of the Apprentices, and others whose Times are lately expired in and about the City of London, was by a number of young Men presented to and read in the House of Commons to this purport:
Whereas we, though the lowest Members of the City and Kingdom' touched with the common Sense of all good Subjects, do by experience find both by our own and our Masters Tradings, the beginning of great Mischief coming upon us, to nip us in the Bud, when we are first entring into the World; the Cause of which we can attribute to no others, but to the Papists and Prelates, and that maglignant Party which adheres unto them: And whereas by the late Protestation we stand solemnly engaged in the presence of Almighty God, by all lawful means with the utmost of our Lives, Power, and Estates to defend your Sacred Majesty and Royal Issue, with the Rights, and Liberties of Parliaments, and all your Majesty's Subjects, against Papists and Popish Innovators, such as Archbishops, Bishops, and their Dependents appear to be, the extirpation of which Government, Root and Branch, by several Petitions from this City, and many parts of this Kingdom, have been humbly desired; We hold it our bounden duty after long expectation of due and just Proceedings against the forenamed Papists and Popish Innovators, now at the lost to become most humble Suitors to your Majesty in this present Parliament, That you would please to take Notice, That notwithstanding the much unwearied Pains and Industry of the House as Commons to subdue Papestry and Popish Innovators, neither Popery is subdued, nor Prelates are yet removed; whereby many have taken great encouragement, desperately to Plot against the Peace and Safety of this and other your Majesty's Dominions; witness the most barbarous and inhumane Cruelties perpetrated by the Papists now in Ireland; from whence ariseth in us a new Spring of Fears and Jealousies, what the Issue of these things may be, in this your Kingdom of England also, without a speedy and timely prevention of the same.
In hope therefore of your Majesty's willing readiness by the Advice of this Honourable Court of Parliament, to provide for our present Relief and Safety, we humbly supplicate, That the Popish Lords and other eminent and dangerous Papists in all parts of this Kingdom, may be narrowly lookt unto and secured, the Laws against Priests and Jesuits fully executed, the Prelacy rooted out, that so the Reformation may be prosperously carried on, our distracting fears removed, the weighty Affairs of the Kingdom settled, and consequently God may delight in the present and succeeding Ages to dwell in this Land, the freedom of Commerce and Trade may pass once more chearfully for the encouragement of your Petitioners; and that the flourishing and peaceable Reign of your Majesty may be long continued and encreased amongst us.
For all which your Petitioners shall earnestly pray, &c.
Monday Dec. the 27th, from the Journal of the Lords.
Information was given to the House of Lords, that some Members of their House have had false Rumours reported of them, which was, that during the Time of the King's being last in Scotland, it was told the Queen, that at a Meeting at Kensington (where the Earl of Essex, the Earl of Newport, the Lord Viscount Say and Seal, the Lord Mandevile, the Lord Wharton, Members of the House of Lords, and the Lord Dungarvan, Mr. Nathaniel Fiennes, Sir John Clotworthy, and Mr. John Pym, Members of the House of Commons, were present) upon Discourse of some Plots that should be done in this Kingdom, or in Scotland, the Earl of Newport should say, If there be such a Plot, yet there are his Wife and Children, meaning that the Person of the Queen and her Children should be seized upon: Upon this, the Earl of Newport stood up and gave the House of Lords this Account: That hearing of such an Information which had been presented to the Queen, he went with some other Lords, and waited on the Queen, and with many Protestations assured the Queen that never any such Words were spoken, nor the least Thought conceived of any such Fact; with which the Queen seem'd to rest satisfied; but that upon Friday last, his Majesty asked his Lordship, whether he heard any Debate at Kensington about seizing upon the Queen and her Children, which his Lordship denied. His Majesty reply'd again, That he was sorry for his Lordship's Memory.
This Information being ended, the House of Lords considering it to be a Matter of great Consequence, and because some Members of the House of Commons are concerned therein, it was thought fit to have a Conference, that they would join with their Lordships in making narrow Search into this Business, that so the bottom of it might be found out, and the Reporter of this false Rumour brought to condign Punishment; whereupon a Message was sent to the House of Commons touching some scandalous Reports concerning some Members of both Houses. These Lords following were appointed to draw up the Heads of the Conference, viz. Archbishop of York, Lord Admiral, Earl Bristol, Earl Holland, Lord Roberts, Lord Savill.
Lord Newport discharged from being Constable of the Tower.
When the House of Commons met on Monday Decemb. the 27th, Sir Thomas Barrington reported, That according to the Command of the House, not being able to meet with the Constable of the Tower, he wrote a Letter unto him; That thereupon Yesterday the Earl of Newport came to him, and told him, That his Majesty had been pleased to discharge him of the Constableship of the Tower.
Tumults at Westminster.; David Hide falls foul on the Citizens.; Lunsford draws his Sword in Westminster-hall.
It not being yet known that the King had removed Lunsford, the Citizens that Petitioned against him, attended at Westminster, as also did the Apprentices for an Answer to their before-recited Petition, so that there was a great and unusual Concourse of People at and about Westminster, many of them crying out, No Bishops! No Bishops! And the Bishop of Lincoln coming along with the Earl of Dover towards the House of Peers, observing a Youth to cry out against the Bishops, the rest of the Citizens being silent, stept from the Earl of Dover, and laid Hands on him; whereupon the Citizens with-held the Youth from him, and about one hundred of them, coming about his Lordship, hem'd him in, that he could not stir; and then all of them with a loud Voice cry'd out, No Bishops! and so let his Lordship the Bishop go; but there being three or four Gentlemen walking near, one of them named David Hide, a Reformado in the late Army against the Scots, and now appointed to go in some Command into Ireland, began to bustle, and said he would cut the Throats of those Round headed Dogs that bawled against Bishops (which passionate Expressions of his, as far as I could ever learn, was the first miniting of that Term or Compellation of Round-Heads, which aftewards grew so general) and saying so, drew his Sword, and desired the other Gentlemen to second him; but they refusing, he was apprehended by the Citizens, and brought before the House of Commons and committed, and afterwards cashier'd from all Imployment into Ireland; like wise the same day Colonel Lunsford coming through Westminster-Hall with thirty or forty Gentlemen, his Friends, with him, and meeting with Citizens and Apprentices, the Colonel drew his Sword, and a Fray began, and some hurt was done; which being noised in the City, many hundreds of Apprentices and others came down to Westminster with Swords, Staves and others Weapons, which caused a great uproar both in London and Westminster; And the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs rod about all that night to appease the Tumults, the City Gates being all shut up, and strong Watch in every place set, as well Men in Arms as otherwise, and the Trained Bands raised the next Morning for the Safety of the City; and the King commanded some of the Train-Bands of Westminster and Middlesex to be raised by turns to Guard his Royal Person, and his Consort and Children at White-hall, where thenceforwards a Company or two continued their attendance day and night by His Majesty's Order.
This great concourse of People flocking about the Houses of Parliament, the Lords ordered the Gentleman Usher to go and command them in the King's Name to depart to their respective Habitations, who returned with this Account, That the People said they were willing to be gone, but durst not, because there is Colonel Lunsford with other Swordmen in Westminster-hall, that lye in wait for them with their Swords drawn, and that some of them who were going home through Westminster-hall, have been slasht and wounded by the said Soldiers; Whereupon their Lordships appointed a Committee to examine what Warrant had been given to Soldiers to come down this day unto the Parliament House, and likewise what notice had been given to any others to come down to Westminster in multitudes, and who gave the occasion that Swords were drawn and blows given in Westminster-hall and near thereabouts amongst the People, and to inquire why the Justices of Peace, and others His Majesty's Officers did not prevent the Tumults this day, according to Law and the Commands formerly given them.
Dec. the 28th A Petition concerning a Scandal cast upon Members of both Houses of Parliament, touching words at Kensington
Upon Tuseday the 28th of Decemb. Mr. Glyn presented from the Committee appointed to meet with the Committee of Lords, for the drawing of a Petition to be presented to his Majesty, concerning the scandals cast upon the Members of both Houses; and a Petition in h$aec verba was agreed unto.
To the King's most Excellent Majesty.
The humble Petition of the Lords and Commons in this present Parliament Assembled.
Whereas, during the time of your Majesty's last being in Scotland, the Queen Majesty received Information, that at a Meeting at Kinsington where the Earl of Newport, the Lord Viscount Say and Seal, the Lord Mandeville, Lord Wharton, Members of the Lords House, the Lord Dungannon, Mr. Nathaniel Fienns, Sir John Clotworthy, and Mr. John Pym, Members of the House of Commons were all present, when a Discourse was had of some Plots that should be done in this Kingdom, or in Scotland, that the Earl of Newport should say, if there he such a Plot, yet here are his Wife and Children; insinuating by the same to signifie, that the Person of Her Majesty and Children should be seized upon.
And whereas your Majesty upon Fryday lest, was pleased to demand of the Earl of Newport, whether his Lordship beard any Debate at Kensington, about seized upon the Queen and her Children; which when his Lordship had denied with many deep Asseverations, your Majesty replied again, that he was to tell him nothing more than he knew already, and therefore should consider well what he should Answer; his Lordship denying it a second time; His Majesty parting from him, replied, he was sorry for his ill Memory, seeming thereby to give Credit to that Information.
Which Information and Report tending not only to the great Scandal of the Members of both Houses of Parliament, but expressing an endeavour to stir up Jealousies, and work a Division between your Majesty and our Parliament, it is therefore the humble and constant Desire of the Lords and Commons in this Parliament, that your Majesty will be pleased to declare who is the Reporter, or Reporters of those words, pretended to be spoken at Kensington by the Earl of Newport, and that your Majesty will be likewise pleased to move her Majesty, to discover who acquainted her therewith; and this as your Greatest and most Faithful Council, they advise your Majesty to peform.
The Exigency of the Affairs of both Kingdoms being such as necessarily require a sudden Remedy, which cannot expect any possibility of Success, without a right understanding between your Majesty and the Parliament, the only way of effecting whereof, is the present discovery and removal of Evil Council, and false Informers, which to our great Grief we have by Experience found to be too frequent and active in these dangerous Times.
This Petition was put to the Question, and upon the Question assented unto by the House of Peers; and ordered, that the Lord Admiral, Earl of Bath, and Earl of Holland wait on His Majesty to know his pleasure, when the Committees of both Houses should attend him therewith, who appointed next day at one a Clock in the Afternoon, at White-hall; which being presented accordingly, the Earl of Bath, Decemb. the 30th, reported His Majesty's Answer thereunto as followeth:
The King's Answer.
My Lords and Gentlemen,
IT is true, That I have heard Rumours of some proposition that should have been made at Kensington for the seizing of the Persons of my Wife and Children; and in things of so high a Nature, it may be fit for any Prince to enquire, even where he hath no belief nor perswasion of the thing; so I have asked Newport some Questions concerning that Business, but far from that way of expressing a belief of the thing, which Newport bath had the boldness and confidence to affirm; which I could easily make appear, but that I think it beneath me, to contest with any particular Person. But let this suffice, That I assure you, I neither did nor do give Credit to any such Rumour. As for telling the Name of him who informed me, I do stick to the Answer which I gave to your last Petition upon the like particular.
A Message from the Lords, desiring an Answer of the last Conference, concerning the Multitudes assembled near both Houses, and the Tumults amongst them.
Mr. Hollis is appointed to go to the Lords, to acquaint them, That this House will agree to all good and lawful ways and means for preventing of Tumults and Routs, that shall not be against the safety and priviledge of Parliament; but for printing a particular Declaration, the same is a Matter that will require some time to be considered of. Numbers of Citizens and Apprentices resorting again this Day to Westminster, some of them being detained in the Abby, and examined before the Archbishop of York, the rest flock thither, and would have forced their entrance to set their fellow Apprentices at liberty, and threatning to pull down the Organs; but the Doors being lockt, they were kept out, and some Persons from the Abby-Leads endeavoured to beat them off with Stones; whereby several of the Citizens were hurt, and amongst the rest Sir Richard Wiseman, who 'twas said died soon after of the hurt he then received.
That Evening was publish'd the following Proclamation.
By the King.
His Majesty's Proclamation against Tumults Dec. 28.
His Majesty taking into His Princely consideration, the manifold Inconveniences and Mischiefs that may arise and happen by the Riotous and Tumultuous Assemblies in and about the Cities of London and Westminster, not only to the violation of His Majesty's Peace, and scandal of Government, but to the disturbance of his Houses of Parliament now Assembled; doth strictly Charge and Command all the Inhabitants of His Cities of London and Westminster, and the Liberties thereof, and also of the Suburbs and Confines to the said Cities and Places adjoyning, That upon no occasion they assemble themselves in any Tumultuous or Riotous manner, in any part or place in or near the said Cities or Liberties; and that all Persons now assembled in any numbers without His Majesty's Authority, do forthwith upon publish ing this His Majesty's Proclamation, dissolve their Assemblies and Companies, and repair to their Dwellings or places of Abode, upon their Perils of being proceeded against as Violaters of the publick Peace of this His Majesty's Kingdom, and of being punished according to the severity of the Laws and Statutes of the same.
Given at our Court at White-hall this 28th day of Decemb. in the 17th Year of our Reign.
Wednesday Dec. the 29th. Obstructions of the relief of Ireland.; Want of a Proclamation, declaring Irish Papists in Arms to be Rebels.
This day the House of Commons falling into Debate concerning the Affairs of Ireland, amongst other obstructions of relief to that Kingdom that were assigned, one was the want of a Proclamation under the Great-Seal of England, declaring the Irish Papists in Arms and their Adherents to be Rebels and Traitors; and this was alledged to be the more necessary, because the said Irish had given out as if they had some Authority for what they did; and therefore Mr. Hollis, Mr. Pym, Mr. Strode, Sir Edmond Mount fort, Mr. Glyn, Sir Philip Stapleton, Mr. Martin, Sir John Hotham and Sir John Culpepper were appointed to draw up a Declaration upon the Heads then debated concerning the Obstructions of the Relief of Ireland, and the Causes thereof, and to present the same, when prepared, to the House.
To the King's most Excellent Majesty, and the Lords and Peers now Assembled in Parliament.
The humble Petition and Protestation of all the Bishops and Prelates, now called by His Majesty's Writs to attend the Parliament, and present about London and Westminster for that Service.
The Petition and Protestation of the twelve Bishops upon occasion of Tumults, &c. Dec. the 10th.
That whereas the Petitioners are called up by several and respective Writs, and under great Penalties to attend in Parliament, and have a clear and indubitate Right to Vote in Bills, and other Matters whatsoever debateable in Parliament by the Ancient Customs, Laws and Statutes of this Realm; and ought to be protected by your Majesty quietly to attend and prosecute that great Service.
They humbly remonstrate and protest before. God, your Majesty and the noble Lords and Peers now Assembled in Parliament; that as they have an indubitate Right to Sit and Vote in the House of Lords, so are they (if they may be protected from Force and Violence) most ready and willing to perform their duties accordingly; and that they do abominate all Actions or Opinions tending to Popery, and the Maintenance thereof; as also all propension and inclination to any maglignant Party, or any other side or party whatsoever, to the which their own Reasons and Conscience shall not move them to adhere.
But whereas they have been, at several times violently Menaced, Affronted and Assaulted by multitudes of people, in their coming to perform their Services in that Honourable House, and lately chased away, and put in danger of their lives, and can find no Redress or Protection, upon sundry complaints made to both Houses in these particulars.
They likewise humbly protest before your Majesty and the noble House of Peers, that saving unto themselves all their Rights and Interests of sitting and voting in that House at other times, they dare not Sit or Vote in the House of Peers, until your Majesty shall farther secure them from all Affronts, Indignities and Dangers in the Premises.
Lastly, Whereas their Fears are not built upon Phantasies and Conceits, but upon such Grounds and Objects, as may well terrifie Men of good Resolutions, and much Constancy: They do in all duty and humility protest before your Majesty, and the Peers of that most Honourable House of Parliament, against all Laws, Orders, Votes, Resolutions and Determinations, as in themselves null, and of none effect, which in their absence, since the 27th of this instant Month of Decemb. 1641. have already passed; as likewise against all such as shall hereafter pass in that most Honourable House, during the time of this their forced and violent absence from the said most Honourable House; not denying, but if their absenting themselves were wilful and voluntary that most Honourable House might proceed in all these Premises, their Absence, or this their Protestation notwithstanding.
And humbly beseeching your most Excellent Majesty to command the Clerk of the House of Peers, to enter this their Petition and Protestation amongst his Records.
They will ever pray to God to Bless and Preserve, &c.
John Ehorac. Thomas Duresme. Robert Co. Lich. Joseph Norwich. John Asapben. Guil. Ba. & Wels. George Hereford. Robert Oxon. Ma. Ely. Godfr. Glouc. Jo. Peterburg. Mor. Landaff.
The Lords communicate this Protestation to the Commons.
The House of Lords was pleased, on the 30th of Decemb. to send a Message to the House of Commons, by Sir John Banks and Judge Reeves, to desire a present Conference by a Committee of both Houses, touching Matters of dangerous Consequence.
And at the Conference, the Lord Keeper, in the Name of the House if Peers, delivered as followeth.
'That this Petition and Protestation of the Twelve Bishops, containing Matters of high and dangerous Consequence, and such as my Lords are very sensible of, and such as require a speedy and sudden Resolution; it extending to the deep Intrenching upon the fundamental Priviledges and Being of Parliaments; Therefore the Lords have thought fit, that this Matter concerning the whole Parliament, may be communicated to the House of Commons; it being a Thing of so great, and so general a Concernment.
The Commons resolve to accuse the Bishops of High-Treason.
This being thus communicated to the House of Commons, they came to this Resolution, To accuse these twelve Bishops of High-Treaon, for endeavouring to subvert the fundamental Laws and Being of Parliaments.
And Mr. Glyn was ordered to go to the Lords, and at their Bar, in the Name of the House of Commons, and all the Commons of England, to accuse these twelve Prelates of High-Treason, for endeavouring to subvert the Fundamental Laws of the Realm; and the very Being of Parliaments, manifested by preferring that Petition and Protestation; and to desire the Lords, that they may be forthwith sequestred from Parliament, and put into safe Custody; and that their Lordships would appoint a speedy day for the Commons to charge them, and they to answer, for that the Commons were ready to make good their Charge.
He was farther ordered to give the Lords thanks, for communicating this Petition with so much affection and speed, and for expressing their Sense thereof.
After Mr. Glyn had delivered this at the Bar, the Lords sent the Black Rod instantly to find out these Bishops, and apprehend them, and by eight of the Clock at night, they were all taken, and brought upon their knees to the Bar, and ten of them committed to the Tower, and two (in regard of their Age, and indeed of the worthy Parts of one of them, the learned Bishop of Durham) were committed to the Black Rod.
The Warrants for their Seizure and Commitment: Together with the Orders of the House of Lords for their putting in their Answers, and assigning of them Counsel, were as follow:
Jovis 30. Decemb. 1641.
Archbishop of York impeached: and other Bishops to be brought to the Bar Dec. the 30th.
Ordered by the Lords in Parliament, That the Lord Archbishop of York, his Grace (being charged by the House of Commons of High-Treason) shall be forthwith brought before the Lords in Parliament.
To the Gentleman Usher, &c.
Ordered, &c. That Thomas Lord Bishop of Durham, Joseph Lord Bishop of Norwich, Robert Lord Bishop of Conventry and Litchfield, John Lord Bishop of St. Asaph, William Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells, George Lord Bishop of Hereford, Matthew Lord Bishop of Ely, Robert Lord Bishop of Oxon, Godfrey Lord Bishop of Gloucester, John Lord Bishop of Peterborough, and Morgan Lord Bishop of Landaff (being all charged by the Commons of High-Treason) shall be forthwith brought before the Lords in Parliament.
To the Gentleman Usher, &c.
Andcommitted to the Tower:
Ordered, &c. That the Lord Archbishop of York his Grace, the Lord Bishop of Durham, the Lord Bishop of Norwich, the Lord Bishop of Coventry and Litchfield, the Lord Bishop of St. Asaph, the Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells, the Lord Bishop of Hereford, the Lord Bishop of Ely, the Lord Bishop of Oxon, the Lord Bishop of Gloucester, the Lord Bishop of Peterborough, and the Lord Bishop of Landaff, being charged of High-Treason by the House of Commons, shall forthwith stand committed to the Prison of the Tower, until the pleasure of this House be further known; but the Intent of the Lords is, that all possible conveniences, that that place can afford, shall be allowed unto them.
To the Lieutenant of the Tower of London and his Deputies.
But the Bishop of Durham and Litchfield to the black Rod.
Ordered, &c. That the Lord Bishop of Durham, and the Lord Bishop of Coventry and Litchfield (being charged of High-Treason by the House of Commons) shall forthwith stand committed to the safe Custody of the Gentleman Usher, until the Pleasure of this House be further known.
To the Gentleman Usher, &c.
Time given to the Lords, the Bishops, to put in their Answers.
Ordered, &c. That John Archbishop of York, Thomas Lord Bishop of Durham, Joseph Lord Bishop of Norwich, Robert Lord Bishop of Coventry and Litchfield, John Lord Bishop of St. Asaph, William Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells, George Lord Bishop of Hereford, Matthew Lord Bishop of Ely, Robert Lord Bishop of Oxon, John Lord Bishop of Peterborough, and Morgan Lord Bishop of Landaff, shall put in their Answers on Friday the 7th of January next, before the Lords in Parliament, unto a charge of High-Treason brought up against them by the House of Commons.
Council assigned unto them.
Upon the Reading of the Petition of the Lords, the Bishops impeached by the Commons of High-Treason, desiring to have these underwritten, assigned of Council for them. It is ordered, &c. That Mr. Lane, the Prince's Attorney, Sir Thomas Gardiner Knt. Recorder of London, John Hearne, Challenor Chute, John Fountain, Matthew Hales and Arthur Treavor, shall be of Counsel with the said Lords, the Bishops in their Cause depending now before the Lords in Parliament, upon the said Impeachment brought up against them, as aforesaid, from the House of Commons, and longer time was given to put in their Answer.
A Common Council held at Guild-Hall, in the City of LONDON, the 31st. of December, 1641.
The King's Message to the City about Tumults, and the Proceedings of the Common Council thereupon, December, 31st. 1641.
Commune Concilium tent. in Camera Guild-Hall, Civit. London, tricesimo primo die Decemb. 1641. post meridiem, Anno Reg. Dom. nostri Caroli nunc Regis Angliæae, &c. decimo septimo, coram Richardo Gurney Milite & Baronetto, Majore Civit. London, Tho. Gardiner Milite, ejusdem Civit. Record. Ed. Bromfield Milit. & Ed. Wright Milit. & Alderm. dict$ae Civit. Johan. Cordell Milit. Joh. Gayer Milit. Jacoba Garrard Milit. ac Alderm. Tho. Atkin Alderm. Joh. Woollaston Milit. & Alderm. Thom. Adams, Joh. Warner, Joh. Towse, Abrah. Reynardson, & Thom. Austin praedict. Civit. Alderm. ac Georgio Garret, & Georgio Clarke, Mil. & Alderm. ac Vicecom. Civit. pr$aedict. nec non majore parte Conciliariorum de Com. Concilio ejusdem Civitat. tunc & ibidem assemblat.
At this Common Council, Mr. Recorder declared, That by the direction of the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor, he was to signifie to them the cause of their now Assembly, how that his Lordship had yesterday received a Letter from Sir Edward Nicholas Knight; one of his Majesties Principal Secretaries, intimating that it was his Majesties pleasure, his Lordship should call a Common Council against this time, and then his Lordship should be advertised of his Majesties further pleasure: And that there was now at this present in the Council Chamber an Honourable Person, being the Lord Newburgh, Chancellour of his Majesties Court of the Duchy, and one of his Majesties most Honourable Privy Council, come hither to deliver his Majesties Message, or request to this Court. And thereupon the Right Honourable the Lord Newburgh was desired to come into this Court, who being here, declared and said in this manner: Gentlemen, His Majesty out of his good affection towards the City, and acknowledging of your great loves lately shewed unto his Highness, hath sent me in a Message unto you, assuring it to be the same contained in a Paper, which he presented and desired to be read to this Common Council; which was accordingly done, the tenour whereof followeth in these words, viz.
There baving been of late many Tumultuary and Riotous Assemblies of People about our Palaces of White-Hall and Westminster, to the great disturbance of Us and our Parliament: and We having received information, that some ill-affected Persons, do still endeavour to in cite the like Tumults again; We have thought fit to recommend to your especial care, the preventing them, as far as in you lies, especially the ensuing Holidays, at which the idleness of many may make them apter to such disorders. We have thought fit likewise to let you know, that We are so well assured of the good Affections of our City of LONDON, by the great expressions which it hath made unto Us of late, that We can in no wise understand it to have any share in the fault of these Tumults and Distempers, but that they proceed meerly from the mean and unruly People of the Suburbs. And as We are most confident of the Hearts and good Affections of our City of London towards Us and our Government, and will not entertain any other opinion; so We do desire them not to be disturbed by any jealousies that ill-affected persons may endeavour to sow, but to rest most confident and assured, that the safety, the protection, and the prosperity of the City, shall ever be with us a principal care.
After the reading of which most gracious Message, whereby is fully manifested and expressed his Majesties gracious goodness, and great care for the safety and prosperity of this City (the Lord Newburgh having withdrawn himself) this Common Council took the same into their serious consideration, and howfor the present to return by this Honourable person unto His Majesty an Answer with all humility and thankfulness: And after much debate, it was fully agreed and resolved of by this Common Council, That in the first place should be returned and rendred unto his Majesty from this Common Council, as the Representative Body of the whole City, their humble duty in all thankful manner, for his goodness and gracious love and care manifested to this City.
Secondly, that it should be signified unto his Majesty, That this Court, nor any particular Member thereof, hath had any hand in these Tumultuous and Riotous proceedings, and that they, and every of them do disavow and disclame the same.
Thirdly, that it may be likewise signified, That this Court, (as the Representative Body of the whole City) doth promise from henceforth their best endeavours to prevent and suppress in time to come (as far as in them lyeth) all such, or the like Tumultuous Assemblies, and all Mutinous and Rebellious persons.
And lastly, that the humble desire of this Court may be presented unto his Majesty, that all the Delinquents and Causers of these Tumults, whatsoever they be, being apprehended, may be brought into Examination, and receive condign punishment according to the Law.
And these four things thus agreed upon were by direction of this Common Council here openly declared and delivered by the mouth of Master Recorder, unto that Honourable Person the Lord Newburgh here present, with desire that the same should be by his Lordship accordingly presented unto his Majesty, the which he promised to perform with trust.
And afterwards this Court entred into further consultation and debate touch-in the Tumultuous and Riotous Assemblies, lately spread night and day in several parts of this City, to the great trouble and affrightment of His Majesties good Subjects; and also touching the great neglect of that due respect which ought to be given by the Inhabitants of this City, to the several Precepts lately issued out by my Lord Mayor for a continual Watch and Ward, day and night, for prevention and suppression of such Tumults and Distempers.
And likewise touching the great neglect in appearance of the Trained-Bands of this City to their Colours, and the beat of the Drum; especially in these times of Danger, in contempt of Authority, being a matter of exceeding great consequence, and not fit to be suffered. And thereupon this Common Council taking much to heart, that such disobedience should grow and be found in the Inhabitants of this City, to the great disrespect of Magistracy and contempt of Government: And that such Disorders, and Tumultuary Assemblies should be permitted in such a City as this, formerly famous for the good and quiet Government thereof, hath thought it very expedient and behoveful, for redress, and remedy to be had in these abuses, being not fit to be any longer endured. That every Member of this Common Council now assembled, shall in their several Precincts spread it abroad, and make it known; That if any person, or persons, shall from henceforth neglect his Duty, and service to be performed as aforesaid, and shall not do his best endeavour to suppress, or prevent any Tumults, or Riotous Assemblies, that shall hereafter be attempted within this City, or Liberties thereof, that then he or they offending shall receive condign punishment, according to his or their demerits.
And it is further thought fit, and so agreed by this Common Council, that my Lord Mayor may send out his Precepts in such manner, and to such purpose, as his Lordship, and his Brethren the Aldermen, shall think fit, for Watch and Ward, raising of Arms, or otherwise, for the safety and preservation of this City; to which this Court, and all the Members thereof promise all due and chearful obedience.
An Address to his Majesty in the Name of the Commons Assembled in Parliament, by a Committee of that House, Verbally delivered by Mr. Denzil Hollis, praying a Guard and an Answer without delay.
Address to the King for a Guard on Dec. the 31st.
Most Gracious Sovereign!
We are sent by the Knights Citizens and Burgesses of the House of Commons, your Faithful and Loyal Subjects (who are ready to lay down their Lives and Fortunes, and spend the last Drop of their Blood to maintain your Crown and Royal Person in Greatness and Glory, and do by us cast themselves down at your Royal Feet) to present unto your Majesty their humble Desires, upon their great Apprehensions, and just Fears of mischievous Designs and Practices to ruin and destroy them. There have been several Attempts heretofore, to bring Destruction upon their whole Body at once, and Threats and Menaces against particular Persons. There is a Malignant Party bitterly envenom'd against them, daily gathering Strength and Confidence; and now come to such Height, as they have given Boldness to some to imbrue their Hands in the Blood of your Subjects, in the Face, and at the Doors of the Parliament; and at your Majesties own Gates, and have given out insolent and menacing Speeches against the Parliament it self. This causeth great Distractions among the People in general, and much Fear and Apprehension in the House of Commons; That they conceive they cannot with the Safety of their Persons (upon which the Safety and Peace of the whole Kingdom doth now depend) sit any longer unarmed and unguarded. They have therefore their Recourse unto your Majesty, most humbly beseeching you, that it may stand with your good liking, if they provide for their own Safety, which the very Law of Nature and Reason doth allow unto them: It is their humble desire, that they may have a Guard out of the City of London, commanded by the Earl of Essex, Lord Chamberlain of your Majesties Houshold, of whose Fidelity to your Majesty, and the Common-wealth, they have had long Experience: By this your Majesties Grace and Favour, you will remove their Fears, fill them with Comfort and Assurance, and enable them to serve your Majesty in such a Way, as shall render your Majesty and Government happy and glorious. And to this they do most humbly desire your Majesty's Gracious and speedy Answer, because their Safety, and the Safety of the whole Kingdom depends upon it, and will not admit of any Delay.