Historical Collections: Passages at York, 1642

Pages 613-654

Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 4, 1640-42. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.

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In this section


Being Passages happening at York, and Petitions from several Counties, during his Majesty's Residence in and about that City, 1642. to return to the Parliament.

To the King's most Excellent Majesty,

The humble Petition of the Gentry, Ministers, and Free-holders of the County of York, now assembled at the Assizes there holden.

The Yorkshire Petition to the King, April 5, 1642.

Most humbly Sheweth,
That although the piercing Anguish of our Souls, proceeding from the general Distractions of this Kingdom, be eased by the Comfort of your Majesty's Royal Presence, and gracious Confidence in the Affections of this County, which hath filled our Hearts with Hopes, and our Tongues with Joy; yet the fellow-feeling of the passionate Sorrows, and heart-breaking Apprehensions, which over-whelms the other Parts of this afflicted Kingdom, doth enforce us (after the humble Tender of our Lives and Fortunes, for the Safety and Assurance of your Majesty's Royal Person, Crown, Honour, and Estate, just Prerogative and Sovereignty in any Capacity, wherein we may serve your Majesty according to the Laws) to follow that Sacrifice of bounden Duty, with our earnest Prayers and Petitions, which shall not cry in your Princely Ears for Help to almost-ruin'd Ireland, nor implore your Majesty's Concurrence for the Propagation of the Protestant Religion, and Suppressing of Popery, since your Majesty's Gracious Declaration of your self in these Particulars, renders it an unpardonable Crime, to desire farther Assurance, or Addition to your Majesty's own Words, sacred before God and Man; but emboldened by your Royal Resolution declared, to take away, not only the just Fears, but also the Jealousies of your Loyal Subjects, and enforced by that infallible Oracle of Truth, That a Kingdom divided cannot stand; We, from the Centre of every one of our Hearts, most earnestly supplicate, That your Majesty (being most interested in the flourishing State and Union of your Dominions, and by long Experience in Government, best acquainted with Prevention of Dangers, and Remedy of Evils) will be graciously pleased to declare such fit Means and Expedients as may take away all Distances and Misunderstandings betwixt your Majesty and your Great Council; to whom we will also address ourselves for such Endeavours on their Parts, as may beget in your Majesty a Confidence in their Counsels, and that blessed Union, so necessary to this perplexed Kingdom, and most desired by us, and all your Majesty's loving and faithful Subjects.

And your Petitioners shall ever Pray for your Majesty's long and prosperous Reign, &c.

His Majesty's Speech to the Sheriff, Gentry, Ministry, and Freeholders of the County of York, when they presented to him their Petition.

April 5, 1642. The King's Speech at the Presenting thereof.

Mr. Sheriff, and Gentlemen,
"I Believe you expect not a present and particular Answer to your Petition, because it is new to me; only in general, I must tell you, That I see by it, that I am not deceived in the Confidence I have in the Affections of this County to my Person and Estate; and I assure you, that I will not deceive your Confidence, which at this Time you have declared in your Petition to have in me; and I am glad to see that it is not upon mistaken Grounds, as other Petitions have been to me, since I came to this Place; concerning which, let me observe unto you, That my Answers were to clear those Mistakings; for I never did go about to punish, or discourage them from petitioning to me in an humble way, though the Subject did not agree with my Sense: Albeit, within the Memory of Man, People have been discouraged, and threatned to be punished for Petitions.

"I observe that your Petition is so modest, that it doth not mention any Particular for your own Good, which indeed I expected, as knowing that in some Particulars you have Reason so to do: And therefore, that you may not fare the worse for your Modesty, I will put you in Mind of three Particulars, which I conceive to be for the Good of this County.

"The first is, concerning your Train'd-Bands, to reduce them to a lesser Number, for which I confess to stand engaged by Promise to you, which I had performed long since, if I had been put in mind of it: And now I tell you, shew me but the way, and (when you shall think fit) I shall instantly reduce them to that Number, which I promised you two Years ago.

"The second is, That which is owing to this County for Billet-money; the Truth is, That for the present I cannot repay it, only I will say this, That if all the Water had gone to the right Mill, (upon my Word) you had been long ago satisfy'd in this Particular. And so I leave you to your Discretions, which way you will advise, and assist me to comply with the Engagements to you in this Point.

"The third is, That for which I was petitioned as I came up the last Year, both by the Lord-Mayor and Aldermen of this City, and likewise by divers others of this County, as I went Southward, and that is concerning the Court of York. And first, let me tell you, That as yet I know no legal Dissolution of it; for hitherto formerly there is nothing come to me, either directly or indirectly, for the taking of it away; Therefore I may say, it is rather shaken in Pieces than dissolved. Now my Desire is, in compliance to what I answered the last Year unto the several Petitions delivered unto me upon this Subject, That you would consult and agree among your selves, in what manner you would have the Court established most to your own Contentments, and to the good of all these Northern Parts, in such a legal way, as that it may not be justly excepted against: And I assure you, in the Word of an honest Man, that you shall not blame me, if you have not full Satisfaction in it.

"Within a Day or two you shall have a particular Answer to your Petition, which shall be such an one, as I am confident will give you good Satisfaction and put you into such a Way, as, I hope, may produce good Effects to the Good of all this Kingdom.

His Majesty's Answer to the aforesaid Petition of the Gentry, Ministers, and Free-holders of the County of York.

His Majesty's Answer to that Petition.

His Majesty, according to his Promise made to you at the Delivery of this Petition, hath commanded me to subseribe this Answer:

"In the first Place; he is glad to see, That what you say concerning the Relief of his distressed Subjects in Ireland, and the Propagation of the true Religion amongst us against all Superstition of Popery, is only to shew your Confidence in his Princely Word; wherein he again hath commanded me to assure you, That he will neither deceive your Trust, nor wrong himself so much, as not to be very punctual in performance of the Engagements he hath already made concerning those Particulars; which, besides the performance of his Word (which he holds most dear unto him) his own Inclination naturally induces him unto.

"Now concerning the Prayer of your Petition, his Majesty doth graciously interpret, That your desiring him to declare such fit Means and Expedient as may take away all Distance and Misunderstanding betwixt his Majesty and his Great Council, is no otherwise than to have the more Authentick Gound, and the better Direction which way to carry yourselves in your Addresses to the Parliament for that Effect. And therefore his Majesty assures you, That not only the best, but (as he conceives) the sole Way for this good Understanding between his Majesty and his Parliament, (which he assures you, that he no less desires than yourselves) is, That the Parliament will take his Majesty's Message of the 20th of January last into Consideration speedily, seriously and effectually; and that the Militia of this Kingdom may be settled by Act of Parliament, according to his Majesty's Explanation of his Answer concerning the Militia, which he made in his Answer returned to both Houses, upon the Petition presented to him the 26th of March last. And therefore his Majesty desires you to take those Answers and that Message into your serious Consideration, and thereupon to proceed (according to the Intimation in your Petition) in your Addresses to the Parliament, as you shall judge fittest for the Good of this Kingdom, and the Expressions of your Duty and Affection to his Majesty's Person and Estate.

At the Court at York, April 7, signed by Mr. Secretary NICHOLAS.

Names of the Parliament's Committee at York.

The King having summoned the Gentry of Yorkshire to appear May the 12th, and a Committee of Parliament, consisting of four Members of the House of Commons, viz. Ferdinando Lord Fairfax, Sir Hugh Cholmley, Sir Philip Stapleton, and Sir Henry Cholmley, being come thither with an Answer of the two Houses touching the Business of Hull: His Majesty order'd them to return back with his Reply, but they excused their Stay, because commanded so to do by the Parliament that employ'd them; whereupon his Majesty took some Notice of their Continuance there in his Speech to the Gentry of the said 12th of May, where he spake as followeth:

His Majesty's Speech to the Gentry of Yorkshire, May 12, 1642.

"I Have cause of adding, not altering what I meant to say. When I gave out the Summons for this Day's Appearance, I little thought of these Messengers, or of such a Message as they brought; the which, because it confirms me in what I intend to speak, and that I desire you should be truly informed of all Passages between me and the Parliament, you shall hear read first my Answer to the Declaration of both Houses concerning Hull, the Answer of the Parliament to my two Messages concerning Hull, together with my Reply to the same, and my Message to both Houses, declaring the Reasons why I refused to pass the Bill concerning the Militia.

"I will make no Paraphrases upon what you have heard, it more, besitting a Lawyer than a King, only thi, Observation, since Treason is countenanced so near me, it is time to look to my Safety. I vow it was part of my Wonder, that Men (whom I thought heretofore discreet and moderate) should have undertaken this Employment, and that since they came, (I having delivered them the Answer you have heard, and commanded them to return personally with it to the Parliament) should have flatly disobeyed me, upon pretence of the Parliament's Commands. My End in telling you this, is, To warn you of them; for since these Men have brought me such a Message, and disobeyed so lawful a Command, I will not say what their Intent of staying here is, only I bid you take heed, not knowing what Doctrine of Disobe dience they may preach to you, under Colour of obeying the Parliament. Hitherto I have found and kept you quiet, the enjoying of which was a chief Cause of my coming hither, (Tumults and Disorders having made me leave the South) and not to make this a Seat of War, as Malice would (but I hope in vain) make you believe; Now if Disturbances come, I know whom I have Reason to suspect.

"To be short, You see that my Magazine is going to be taken from me, (being my own proper Goods) directly against my Will; the Militia against Law, and my Consent, is going to be put in Execution. And lastly, Sir Jehn Hotham 's Treason is countenanced. All this considered, none can blame me to apprehend Danger. Therefore I have thought fit (upon these real Grounds) to tell you. That I am resolved to have a Guard (the Parliament having had one all this while upon imaginary Jealousies) only to secure my Person; in which I desire your Concurrence and Assistance, and that I may be able to protect you, the Laws, and the true Protestant Profession, from any Affront or Injury that may be offered; which I mean to maintain my self without Charge to the Country, intending no longer to keep them on foot, than I shall be secured from my just Apprehensions, by having Satisfaction in the Particulars before mentioned.

Touching these Propositions, the Gentry and Freeholders of the County, being divided, returned several Answers. Some wholly complying therewith in these Terms:

To the King's most Excellent Majesty.

York, 1647. May 13.

We Knights and Gentlemen, whose Names are subscribed, do unanimously present this our Answer to your Majesty's Propositions, concerning the Raising a Guard of Horse, for the Security and Defence of your Sacred Person.

To which Proposition, as we conceive ourselves bound by Allegiance, we willingly concur, for that purpose humbly desiring, That the aforesaid Guard may be raised by Legal Authority: And likewise that it may consist of Persons unquestionable in their Religion, and Gentlemen.

The Substance of his Majesty's Answer to these Gentlemen.

His Majesty gave them Thanks, for it appeared a satisfactory Answer; and in it they had shewed great Circumspection and Wisdom, by chusing such whose Loyalties could not be questioned, by excluding Recusants, and all suspected to be disaffected.

Another Answer was returned in these Words:

The humble Answer of the Gentry of the County of York.

That they will serve his Majesty as far as they shall be legally enabled.

According to your Majesty's Command, to your Majesty's Proposition, we profess our Willingness, as in Duty we are bound, to defend your Majesty's Sacred Person, against all Foreign and Domestick Attempts to the uttermost of our Power, and as our Allegiance binds us; and for the keeping, of your Majesty's Honour, touching the Business of Hull, your Majesty being pleased to commend it to your Parliament, the High Council of your kingdom, we do humbly crave Pardon that we do not interpose. But for asmuch as your Majesty may look for a particular Satisfaction at our Hands, we humbly and heartily profess, That we shall be ready to serve your Majesty in the same, and all other Occasions, with our Lives and Fortunes, as far as your Majesty shall be pleased legally to enable and command us.

A third Sort gave this Answer:

The humble Answer of those who Petitioned your Majesty the 5th of April, and of divers other Knights and Gentlemen.

A third Answer desiring his Majesty to hearken to the Advice of his Parliament.

May it please your most Excellent Majesty,
We shall be ready to defend your Majesty's Person from Violence, by all such Ways as the Law and our Duties bind us: And for the mean to vindicate your Majesty's Honour, and to put you into the Possession of your own, we conceive that the best Advice that we can offer unto your Majesty, is, Humbly to desire you to hearken to the Counsels of your Parliament, who (we assure ourselves) will be careful of your Majesty's Person and Honour, and to whom your Majesty hath been already pleased to direct a Message to that purpose.

A fourth Answer was made in the Tenour following:

The Answer to his Majesty's Propositions of the Gentlemen and Free-holders, which subscribed the same at the Dean's House, where the Sheriff was.

Fears and Jealousies; That the King will admit the Committee of Parliament still to attend him at York.

May it please your most Sacred Majesty,
The Propositions delivered to us Yesterday from your Majesty, are of so high Concernment to the Weal and Peace of the whole Kingdom, and do so nearly touch upon the Affection and Fidelity of all your Subjects in general, as we, being but Part of one County only, do not conceive it safe for us to Advise therein, but rather humbly to beseech your Majesty to impart the Grounds of your Majesty's Fears and Jealousies to your High Court of Parliament, of whose most loyal Care and Affection to your Majesty's Honour and Safety, and the Prosperity of your Subjects and Dominions, we are most confident: And whatsoever shall be advised by your Great Council therein, we shall most willingly embrace and give our Concurrence and Assistance to, as shall become us; in whose Fidelity and Affection your Majesty hath often declared especial Trust. And albeit we do not presume to advise your Majesty in that particular, being of transcendant Consequence; nevertheless in behalf of those Members of Parliament lately employ'd to attend your Majesty from both Houses, being all of them Gentlemen of Quality and Estate in this County, and trusted to serve in that most Honourable Assembly, we humbly crave your Majesty's Leave to express our Confidence in their unstained Loyalty and Affection to your Majesty to be such, as your Majesty may securely admit their Attendance to negociate their Employments, untill they be recalled by the Parliament. And for their Fidelity, we do all engage ourselves to your Majesty, and we are most assured, that your Royal Person shall be secure in the general Fidelity of your Subjects of this County, without any extraordinary Guard.

His Majesty's Reply to this, returned by the Sheriff.

The King's Reply to the last Answer.

His Majesty expects the like Affection from them, that he doth from the other Gentlemen; and that he hath the same Confidence in you that he hath in the other.

To the King's most Excellent Majesty,

The humble Petition of many Thousands of your Majesty's peaceably-affected Subjects of the County of York.

May 13, 1642. A Petition of the peaceably-affected Subjects of the County of York.

Humbly Sheweth,
That many of your Petitioners, being in their late Desires of Petitioning your Majesty, deny'd Access, kept back with Violence, and receiving great Affronts from some that have dependency on your Majesty, and others there assembled; yet no Provocation could remove them from their Patience and Duty: Which Proceedings are the more taken to Heart, your Petitioners conceiving it undeniable, that they have an Interest in the Common-wealth, and are as Dutiful and Loyal Subjects to your Majesty as whomsoever, though divers of them have been since uncivilly prest by some, in your Majesty's Name, to subscribe a Paper, styled, The humble Answer to your Majesty's Propositions, and threat'ned thereto; upon which Blows followed: And that when your Majesty's Army should be on foot, those should be first pillaged that refused such Subscription; which we humbly conceive is positively contrary to your Majesty's own Expressions; and to the high Dishonour of your Majesty, and the great Affrightment and Disturbance of your Majesty's Liege People. Therefore your Petitioners having too just Cause to fear your Majesty's Royal Heart is still endanger'd to be possessed with some distaste of your Petitioners; your Petitioners humbly supplicate your Majesty to conceive better Things of them, and to cast your Eye upon the present State of this your Kingdom, that as your Majesty hath often declared your Affection to this County, so now your Love might be expressed in preserving the Peace thereof; and that your Majesty would admit of a right Information of the clear Intentions of your Petitioners, who are confident that no so absolute and hearty observance to your Majesty's just Commands, can be demonstrated as what your Majesty in Parliament shall declare, which if it become divided, (as God forbid) our Hearts even tremble to consider what Dangers and Diminution of Honour and Safety your Majesty's Posterity and Kingdoms will unavoidably be put upon; since it is clear to every Understanding, that it is not a divided part of one, or several Counties that can afford that Honour and Safety to your Majesty as the whole Kingdom, which you may command; no ground or fear of Danger remaining, if a good Confidence were begot betwixt your Majesty and Parliament, whose grave and legal Counsels are, as we humbly conceive, the visible way, under God, to put a speedy End to the Troubles of Ireland, and establish your Throne in Righteousness. And lastly, Your Petitioners do most humbly supplicate, That we may represent our unfitness to become Judges betwixt your Majesty and Parliament in any thing, or dispute the Authority of either, which they humbly conceive do fortify each other, it being most unfit for them to act any thing therein, but by their Prayers for a right Understanding between your Majesty and them, which we shall heartily do, as also for your Majesty's long and prosperous Reign; and as we are bound by our late Protestation, shall be ready to maintain your Majesty's just Rights, the Privileges and Power of Parliament, and the lawful Liberty of the Subjects.

The King's Answer by Secretary Nicholas, to the Petition of the Freeholders at the Court of York, May 13, 1642.

HIS Majesty having, with some Care, consider'd this Petition, being the first of this Nature that hath been presented to him; wherein any appearing well-affected to his Service (tho'he hath heard of many in the contrary) have misdemean'd themselves, hath commanded me to give you this Answer:

The King's Answer.

That he doth totally dislike Proceedings complained of in the Petition, and expects that you, and all others his loyal Subjects, shall rest satisfied with his several gracious Declarations, and constant, peaceable Practice towards his People to the contrary; and, for farther Assurance, upon just Proof made against any Man, who hath committed any Violence in Words or Actions, (without just Provocation) full Reparation shall be given to the Parties injured. As for the rest of this Petition, his Majesty saith, That it is so confused, that he doth not well know what positive Answer to give it, and the rather, because it is grounded upon Misinformation, both of his Majesty Proceedings and Intentions; as in particular his Majesty faith, He never intended to have you to be Judges betwixt him and his Parliament. And for the other part of this Petition, he refers to his Messages, Declarations, and Answers, whereby it will clearly appear, that his Desire and Intention is, only the preserving the true Protestant Profession, the Laws of the Land, the Liberty of his People, the Peace of the Kingdom, and the Peace of this County in particular.

The Protestation of the Freeholders, May 13, 1642.

The Freeholders of Yorkshire their Protestation, May 13.

WHereas his Majesty hath been pleased to give Summons to the Gentry of this County to attend him at his Court at York, the 12th of May instant, to advise with him in some Particulars, concerning the Honour and Safety of his Majesty's Person, and the Well-being and Peace of this our County; and in the said Summons, was pleased to omit the Free-holders of this County, out of a tender Respect of putting them to any extraordinary Charge; yet we, conscious of our sincere Loyalty to his Majesty, our Gracious Sovereign, and considering ourselves, according to the Proportions of our Estates, equally interested in the Common Good of the County, did take Boldness to come in Person to York, and were ready to attend his Majesty's Pleasure there. And whereas his Majesty was pleased then to propound several Things to the Purpose aforesaid, at the meeting of the County, to consider a fit Answer to return to his Majesty thereupon; the Doors of the Meeting-house were shut up against us, we utterly excluded; and in our Absence a Referee of Knights and Gentlemen chosen without our Knowledge, or Consent, to draw up the said Answer. We the Freeholders who petition'd his Majesty the Day abovesaid, conceiving ourselves abundantly injur'd in the Election (not knowing any Warrant by Writ, or otherwise for the same) of the said Referee, and that we ought not however to be concluded by any Resolution of theirs, without our Assent in their Election, do absolutely protest and declare against the said Election, and as far as concerns us, disavow whatsoever shall be the Result of their Consultation thereupon; and do desire a new and fair Election of a Referee may be made, we admitted to our free Votes in the same, and some one or more to be nominated by us, allow'd to deliver our Sense for us at another Meeting; and that we shall not make good in the least respect any thing whatsoever, which shall otherwise be concluded upon.

A Letter from the Right Honourable Ferdinando Lord Fairfax, Sir Hugh Cholmly, Sir Philip Stapleton, Sir Henry Cholmly, Committees of the Commons House of Parliament, residing at York.

May 13, 1642 A Letter from the Committee at York, complaining of being affronted.

IN our last, we gave you an Account of our first and second waiting on the King; we wrote to you then, That his Majesty commanded us to attend him yesterday, being Thursday, to hear what he said to the Gentlemen, which a little before the Meeting, he seconded by a particular Message: Being come thither, his Majesty caused the several Messages between him and the Parliament, mentioned in this inclosed printed Paper, to be read.

This was done with much Humming and Applause of the King's Messages, by some Persons who had placed themselves near about where the King stood; but when any thing from the Parliament came to be read, with so much bissing and reviling the Parliament, that tho' in Respect and Duty to the King's Person, we could not resent it, as otherwise we should have done, yet have since expostulated, and complained of it to his Majesty. Some were so bold as to say openly, That the Parliament-men should set their House in Order, for many of them should shortly have their Heads off; one of which (as since we are credibly informed) was one Hurst, a Servant to one Mr. William Crofts. In this which was said by the King, you will see what Reason we had to vindicate ourselves, and therefore we immediately repaired to the Dean's House with all the other Gentlemen, and there we took Notice of the rough Usage we had received; we told them it was neither Discretion nor Disobedience in us (as his Majesty was pleased to call it) to deliver the Parliament's Message, or to stay here, though commanded to the contrary, since we conceived no Man needed to be satisfy'd in so clear a Case as this; that every Member of each House ought to obey their Commands, when they were pleased to employ them: But since his Majesty thought fit to bid them take heed of us, not knowing what Doctrine of Disobedience we might preach to them, under colour of obeying the Parliament, we appealed to every Man, whether we had in Word or Deed, in publick or in private, done any thing that became not honest Men, and Persons employ'd from the Parliament, That we had communicated our Instructions to his Majesty, being that we would avow all our Actions, and that we were confident it would not be said, we had transgressed them: This was very well taken, and justify'd by the Country. Yesterday there came divers Thousands of Free-holders to this City, though none but the Gentry were summoned; but receiving a Command from the King not to come to Court, they forbore, and stay'd in the Castle-yard, yet sent this Petition enclosed to his Majesty, and received the Answer annexed thereunto. There was likewise a Committee of twelve Gentlemen appointed yester-night, to consider of drawing up an Answer to the King's Proposition concerning a Guard: But nothing could then be done, because it was past three a-Clock before the Gentlemen were admitted to the King. This Morning the Freeholders assembled again in the Castle-yard, and there they made this Protestation inclosed, of their Right of Voting in what concerneth the Peace of the Country, as having their Interest therein.

When we all met this Morning again at the Dean's House, we who are your Committee received this Message by Sir Edward Stanhope, that he came from his Majesty to command us, that we should depart from this Meeting; and if we did stay, his Majesty would judge us guilty of that he spake on yesterday, which was tampering; notwithstanding which Command, we read the fourth Article of our Instructions to the whole Company, that being pertinent to the Business we were then upon, and desired them to consider, whether the Parliament had not expressed therein such a Care of the King's Safety, that there would be little need of Guards: We told them we had a good Right of being there as Free-holders of the County, but that in Obedience to the King we would depart for this Time; but whensoever there should be Occasion of our being there, in pursuance of our Instructions and Commands from the Parliament, we should be ready. The whole Company received great Satisfaction, and desired a Copy of that Instruction which we gave them. We were the more willing at that Time to go from thence, because we should not only give Obedience to the King's Command, which otherwise he would have said we constantly disobeyed; but because the Committee of Twelve appointed Yester-night were then to withdraw, so that there was nothing for the present for us to do; we immediately went to the King, and belought him, that since we were continually so discountenanced by him in the Face of our County, that he would be pleased to let us know in particular, wherein we had given the Occasion; for we otherwise conceived we were deprived of that Liberty which was our due, in respect of that Interest we had here. His Majesty was pleased to tell us, That if we would lay aside that Condition of Committees from the Parliament, he would not hinder us to be there as Gentlemen of the County. We humbly reply'd, That we could not lay that down, nor could we be absent from any Meeting where our Presence was required for the Service, as Committees from the Parliament. To which his Majesty said, That indeed he thought we could not lay it down, neither that it was reasonable we should have Votes, and be in a double Capacity. The Committee hath been together most part of this Day, but not agreeing; six of them have drawn up this Answer inclosed, which they have communicated to the Gentlemen and Freeholders. The greater Part of the Gentlemen, and all the Free-holders have agreed to, and subscribed it: The other six have concluded upon this other Answer, consenting to a Guard of Horse; but this we do not hear that they have gotten many Names to, nor can we get a Copy of those Names as yet, tho' these be very few; yet whether they can bring in any Horse or no, we cannot yet judge. The King hath received both these Resolutions, which with his Answers to them, you shall likewise have here inclosed. His Majesty had declared himself Yesterday, that he would raise that Regiment which was Sir Robert Strickland 's for his Foot-Guard, but he hath now said aside that Resolution. The Free-holders of the County are newly summoned to attend his Majesty about a Week hence, the three Ridings upon three several Days, but for what Service we do not know.

Sir, you have here at large a Narrative of the Passages at this Meeting, what Dangers this poor Country lies under, we humbly refer it to you to judge, not taking upon us to deliver any Opinion. The Business lasted so long, that it hinder'd us from giving a more speedy Account. Sir, this is what at this time is sent from,

Your assured Friends and Servants,

York, May 13, 1642.

  • Fer. Fairfax,
  • Philip Stapleton,
  • Hugh Cholmly,
  • Hen. Cholmly.

By the KING.

May 14. The King's Warrant for the Gentry, &c. to appear the 20th of May at York.

'WHereas upon Summons from Us, divers Gentlemen of this our County of York did attend us upon Thursday the 12th of this instant May, when we declared our Resolution for the Reasons then delivered by us to have a Guard to secure and defend our Person; and desired therein the Concurrence and Assistance of the Gentry of this County. And whereas divers Gentlemen of this County for many Reasons and Occasions, could not then appear to receive our Pleasure on that behalf, whereunto divers have subscribed; we have therefore thought good hereby to give Notice, as well to those Gentlemen who were not then present, as to those who did then attend us, that our Command is, That as well those Gentlemen who are charged with Horse, as others, appear at York, upon Friday the 20th of this Month, in such Manner and Equipage as will be convenient for the Guard of our Person. And we require and command, That in the interim, no other Warrants or Commands whatsoever shall distract or hinder this our Service. And we further will and command, that this our Order be forthwith published by the Sheriff of this our County; for which this shall be a sufficient Warrant.

'Given at our Court at York, the 14th of May, in the Eighteenth Year of our Reign, 1642.

To our Trusty and Well-beloved the Gentry of Yorkshire, and others of this our County of York, whom it doth or may concern.

His Majesty's Letter to the Gentry of Yorkshire, May 16, 1642.

"We have with great Contentment consider'd your dutiful and affectionate Answer to our Proposition, concerning the unsufferable Affront we received at Hull, we have not been deceived in that Confidence we had in your Affection; wherefore we desire you to assure the rest of your Country-men, who through negligence were omitted to be summoned, That we shall never abuse your Love by any Power wherewith God shall enable us, to the least Violation of the least of your Liberties, or the Diminution of those Immunities which we have granted you this Parliament, tho' they be beyond the Acts of most (if not all) our Predecessors: Being resolved with a constant and firm Resolution to have the Law of this Land duly observed, and shall endeavour only so to preserve our Just Royal Rights as may enable us to protect our Kingdom and People, according to the ancient Honours of the Kings of England, and according to the Trust which by the Law of God and this Land is put into the Crown, being sufficiently warned by the late Affront at Hull, not to transfer the same out of our Power. Concerning which Affront we will take some Time to advise which way we may usefully imploy your Affections. In the mean time we shall take it well from all such as shall personally attend us, so followed and provided, as they shall think fit for the better Safety of our Person, because we know not what sudden Violence and Affront may be offered unto us, having lately received such an actual Testimony of rebellious Intentions, as Sir John Hotham hath expressed at Hull. Being thus secured by your Affections and Assistance, we promise you our Protection against any contrary Power whatsoever. And that you shall not be molested for your humble and modest Petition, as of late you have been threatned.

Given at our Court at York, May the 16th, 1642;

Die Martis, 17 Maii, 1642.

The Parliament's Declaration against Subjects attending the King at his Pleasure.

The Lords and Commons in Parliament do declare, That it is against the Laws and Liberties of the Kingdom, That any of the Subjects thereof, should be commanded by the King to attend him at his Pleasure, but such as are bound thereto by special Service: And that whosoever upon Pretence of his Majesty's Command shall take Arms, and gather together with others, in a warlike Manner, to the Terror of the King's People, shall be esteem'd Disturbers of the Publick Peace, and to do that which may introduce a Precedent of very dangerous Consequence for the Future, and produce most mischievous Effects for the present, considering the great Distempers of the Kingdom, and what pernicious Counsellors and Incendiaries are now about the King, and how desperate and ill-affected divers Persons, attending upon his Majesty, have shewed themselves to the Parliament, and to his other good Subjects, threatning and reproaching them publickly, even in his Majesty's Presence.

And for preventing, and avoiding such great Mischiefs as may thereupon ensue; It is ordered and ordained by both Houses of Parliament, That if the Trained-Bands, or any other his Majesty's Subjects, shall upon pretence of any such Command be drawn together, and put into a Posture of War, the Sheriff of that County where there shall be such raising, or drawing together of armed Men, do forthwith raise the Power of the County to suppress the same, and to keep his Majesty's Peace according to Law. And that the Lord Lieutenants, Deputy-Lieutenants, Justices of the Peace, and all other his Majesty's Subjects be aiding and assisting to the several and respective Sheriffs in performance hereof, as they will answer the contrary at their Peril.

H. Elsing, Cler. Parl. D. Com.

Die Martis, 17 Maii, 1642.

A Vote against removing the Term to York.

WHereas the Lords in Parliament, have this Day been informed, That the King is resolved to adjourn the next Term from Westminster to York; upon which, the Lords sent a Committee to the Lord-Keeper of the Great Seal of England, to know of him, Whether he had received any Command touching the same; who acquainted the said committee, That he had received a Command from his Majesty to issue a Proclamation, and Writs to that purpose.

Whereupon, This House taking the said Matter into Consideration, hath Voted, That the King's Removal of the Term to York, from Westminster, sitting this Parliament, is Illegal.

And hath further Ordered, That the said Lord-Keeper shall not issue out any Writs, or seal any Proclamation, for Adjourning the said next Term from Westminster to York, as aforesaid.

Job. Brown, Cleric. Parl.

Die Martis, 17 Maii, 1642. Several VOTES of Parliament, concerning Serjeant Major General Skippon.

Resolved upon the Question,

THat this Command of his Majesty to call Captain Philip Skippon, Serjeant Major General of the Forces of London, to attend his Majesty's Person at York, is against the Law of the Land, and the Liberty of the Subject.

Resolved, &c. That this Command of his Majesty, to call Captain Philip Skippon, Serjeant Major General of the Forces of London, to attend his Majesty's Person, being imploy'd by both Houses to attend their Service, without their Consent, is against the Privilege of Parliament.

Resolved, &c. That Captain Philip Skippon, Serjeant Major General of the Forces of London, shall continue to attend the Service of both Houses, according to their former Commands.

H. Elsing, Cler. Parl. D. Com.

Die Martis, 20 Maii, 1642.

It is this Day Ordered by the Lords and Commons in Parliament assembled, That the Magazines of the several Counties in England and Wales, shall be forthwith put into the Power of the Lords Lieutenants of the said Counties, respectively, (being such as the Parliament doth confide in) for the Service and Safety of his Majesty and the Kingdom.

Ordered by the Lords in Parliament, That this Order shall be printed and published.

John Brown, Cler. Parliamentorum.

By the KING.

King's Summons to the Ministers, Free-holders, &c, to Hewarth-Moor.

'Our Will and Pleasure is, That the Ministers, Free-holders, Farmers, and substantial Copy-holders of this our County of York, do assemble and meet together at Heworth-Moor, near our City of York, upon Friday in Whitsun-Week, according to former Summons, by Nine of the Clock in the Morning, for that we are informed there are divers Fairs to be kept in this County the Day following, at which Time many of them may have necessary Occasion to be absent. And therefore out of our Tenderness and Care of our good Subjects, we have thought fit to give this early Notice, to the end the said Inhabitants may be put to as little Prejudice as may be. And this our Pleasure we require to be forthwith printed, and Copies thereof to be speedily published and dispersed by the Sheriffs of this County, for which this shall be sufficient Warrant.

'Given at our Court at York, the 27th Day of May, 1642.

His Majesty's Declaration to the Ministers, Free-holders, Farmers, and substantial Copy-holders of the County of York; Assembled by his Majesty's special Summons at Heworth-Moor, near the City of York, on Friday the 3d. of June, 1642.

'We would have you to be assured, That we never intended the least neglect unto you in any former Summons of the Country, our Love, as well as our Protection, extending to all our Subjects; but as you are a great Body, Time and Conveniency must be observed in your Assembling.

'That you may know the general Reasons of our being here, you must understand, That when we found it neither Safe nor Honourable, to expose our Person to the tumultuous and licentious Proceedings of many (which to this Day are unpunished) who did disorderly approach near our Court at Whitehall, we trusted this part of our Dominions chiefly to reside in: Whereas most of the Gentry already have, so we assure ourselves the rest of you will give us clear Testimony of your Service and Obedience, which we will never use otherwise, than for the Defence of the true Orthodox Religion professed and settled in Queen Elizabeth 's Time, and confirmed by the Authority of the Statutes of this Realm, the Defence of the Laws and Fundamental Constitutions of this Kingdom, (as the justest Measure and Rule for our Prerogative, and your Liberties and Rights): And lastly, for the Preservation of the Peace of this Kingdom.

'As for our own Zeal to the Protestant Profession, we refer all the World to our daily Exercise of, and our Declarations concerning it, and Execution of the Laws against the Papists: So likewise we cannot but declare our self most heartily sorry to find such Separatists and Schismaticks, who presume against the Law, to foment new Doctrines and Disciplines, to the Disturbance of Church and State.

'For the Law, it being the common Inheritance of our People, we shall never enforce any Prerogative of ours beyond it, but submit our self to it, and give you, and all our Subjects, the fullest Latitude of it, both for the Liberty of your Persons, and the Propriety of your Estates. And for the inviolable Confidence and Assurance hereof, as we take God (the Searcher of all Hearts) to witness our real Intention herein, so we shall no longer desire you to stand for the Defence of our Person, Honour, and just Prerogative, than we shall maintain the Laws of the Land, the Liberty of your Persons, and the Propriety of your Goods.

'As for the clear Understanding of our Resolutions to maintain Peace, we may have the Confidence and Happiness to refer (against all Malignity whatsoever) to our former sixteen Years Reign, (too long to dissemble our Nature) if in all this Time we never caused the effusion of one drop of Blood, it must needs be thought, that in our riper Judgment in Government, we should never open such issues as might drown us, and our Posterity in them. But we are sure to have no Enemies, but in the Defence of the true Protestant Profession, the Right of the Established Laws, and for the Preservation of Peace; and certainly all these must be all yours, as well as our Enemies.

'And to the end that this present Posture wherein we meet, should not affright you with the Distempers of the Times, the Example of the two Houses having made us prepare for a Guard to us and our Childrens Persons, we wish you to look into the Composition and Constitution of it, and you will find it so far from the Face or Fear of War, that it serves to secure you as well as us from it; for our Choice is of the prime Gentry, and of one Regiment of our Train'd-Bands, which cannot be thought to oppress the Country, (being their own) nor War with themselves.

'And we further assure you, We never intended to use Foreigners, or disaffected in Religion; and that you may fully assure yourselves of our sole Dependency upon the Love and Service of our own People, to live and die with them, we have armed these our Subjects, which had been most irrational, if we had ever intended to have used Strangers. And further, you may perceive that we receive none, but such as stand clear in Loyalty and Religion, for which Reason we have caused the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy to be given them.

'Likewise, to prevent any Distempers at Home, we have, and shall put the Train'd-Bands of all this our Kingdom under the Command of Persons of Honour, Confidence, and Affection to their Country, straitly charging, up on their Allegiance, no Officer to accept any Command in them, nor Soldiers to obey any, save such as are authorized by us. And for the prevention of any innovated Power over you, you shall have us here to govern you, and the Soldiery to protect you in Peace, and to relieve you against all Oppressions; for that, as we have told you before, must arise from some great Violation, (which we hope God will prevent) and not from this Preparation of our Subjects. Therefore, let none of you be affrighted with vain Fears; if such a War should follow, it follows the Authors Home to their own Doors: And such (by the Confidence of our Person with you) we assure our self you are not.

'Here we had left you to your Fidelity and Duty, had not some malicious Insolence in our former Meetings sent forth most presumptuous Summons, deceiving our People, and presuming upon our Royal Authority; and these present themselves as great Defenders of Religion, Peace, and Liberty: Whereas they become infectious and contagious to the People, seducing them into vain Fancies and Delusions, as may appear by their Warrants, which we could trace to some Pulpits, as we are credibly informed. And you see it were just in us to punish these as Authors of Sedition, but that it would be too great a Favour, for it would honour them with the Title of Martyrdom for God's Cause, as they vainly pretend: But you may now see from whence this Spirit comes, that would make us to be in the Act of Destruction of Religion, our Person a Disturber of the Peace, and ready to introduce Slavery. These here are all the Foreign Forces we have, or ever shall intend to have, to act these great Designs, notwithstanding the vain Fears hitherto imagined. So that you see it is high Time that these Fancies were dispersed and driven away, that we might be repaired in Honour and Interest, and you enjoy the Blessing of Peace and Happiness, the Advancement whereof shall be our Study and Comfort; and therefore we shall (when you shall think it a convenient Time) ease you in the Number of the Train'd-Bands. And for your Billet-Money, it had been long since paid, but that no part of the Subsidies (which we passed for that purpose) came to our Hands; and we shall not be wanting in any thing that lieth in us, for the full Satisfaction thereof; and shall make our Grace and Bounty to you answerable to your best Fidelity and Loyalty, as Occasion shall be offered to us.

The Copy of a Warrant from the King's most Excellent Majesty directed unto the High-Sheriff of the County of York, for summoning of all Gentlemen, and others, being Protestants, who are charged with Horses for his Majesty's Service, or have lifted themselves to attend personally for his Majesty's Security, to make their Appearance at York, on Thursday the 17th of July, 1642.

June 30, 1642 His Majesty's Warrant to such as are charged with Hors s to attend him at York, July 17.

'HIS Majesty hath given special Charge, that you speedily give effectual Warning to all Gentlemen, within your several respective Divisions, as also to all who are or heretofore have been charged with Horses for his Majesty's Service, or have lifted themselves to attend personally for his Majesty's Security, or that are of Ability by their Estates so to do, that they be at York (all Excuses and Delays set a-part) upon Thursday next, being the 17th of July, by Ten of the Clock before Noon: And that such who are obliged by their Subscriptions, or otherwise, bring along with them their Horses and Furniture accordingly; and that others not so engaged or charged, (of whose suitable Affection there is the like Perswasions) be here at York the same Time and Place, where they shall understand his Majesty's Pleasure. You must also give Notice, That all such Men who appear that Day to be employ'd for his Majesty's Service, be of the Protestant Religion: Neither must you fail to be here yourselves, and to bring along with you a Schedule of the Names of all those to whom you have given such Warning, that thereby an Account may be given of your Service herein, and his Majesty be truly informed of all those who give due and ready Obedience to these his Summons and Commands. Fail you not hereof at your Peril, in a Business so much concerning his Majesty's Service. Dated at York the 30th of June, 1642.

'To all Constables, Head-Constables, Bailiffs of Liberties and Wapentakes, their Deputy or Deputies, within the County of York; and to all other his Majesty's Loyal Subjects whom it may concern.

His Majesty's Declaration made the 13th of June, 1642. to the Lords attending his Majesty at York, and to others of his Majesty's Privy-Council there. Together with their Promise thereupon, subscribed by them.

King's Declaration made in York, June 13, of what Obedience he requires from such as attend him, and that he intends not to War against the Parliament.

Charles R.
'We do declare, That we will not require, nor exact any Obedience from you, but what shall be warranted by the known Law of the Land; as we do expect that you shall not yield to any Commands, not legally grounded or imposed by any other.

'And we do further declare, That we will defend every one of you, and all such as shall refuse any such Commands, whether they proceed from Votes and Orders of both Houses, or any other Way, from all Dangers and Hazards whatsoever.

'And we do further declare, That we will defend the true Protestant Religion, established by the Law of the Land, the lawful Liberties of the Subjects of England, and just Privileges of all the Three Estates of Parliament: And shall require no further Obedience from you, than as accordingly we shall perform the same.

'And we do declare, That we will not (as is falsly pretended) engage you, or any of you, in any War against the Parliament, except it be for our necessary Defence and Safety, against such as do insolently invade or attempt against us, or such as shall adhere to us.

York, 13 June, 1642.

The Promise of the said Lords and others.

The Promise of the Lords at York to the same Purpose.

We do engage ourselves not to obey any Orders or Commands whatsoever, not warranted by the known Laws of the Land.

We do engage ourselves to defend your Majesty's Person, Crown, and Dignity; together with your Majesty's just and legal Prerogative, against all Persons and Power whatsever.

We will defend the true Protestant Religion established by the Law of the Land, the lawful Liberties of the Subjects of England, and just Privileges of your Majesty, and both your Houses of Parliament.

And lastly, We engage ourselves, not to obey any Rule, Order, or Ordinance whatsoever, concerning any Militia that hath not the Royal Assent.

Subscribed by

York, 13 June, 1642.

Lord Keeper, Lord Duke of Richmond, Lord Marquess of Hertford, Eard of Lindsey, Earl of Cumberland, Earl of Huntingdon, Earl of Bath, Earl of Southampton, Earl of Dorset, Earl of Salisbury, Earl of Northampton, Earl of Devonshire, Earl of Cambridge, Earl of Bristol, Earl of Westmoreland, Earl of Barkshire, Earl of Monmouth, Earl of Rivers, Earl of Newcastle, Earl of Dover, Earl of Carnarvon, Earl of Newport, Lord Mowbray and Matravers, Lord Willoughby of Eresby, Lord Rich, Lord Charles Howard of Charleton, Lord Newark, Lord Paget, Lord Chandois, Lord Faulconbridge, Lord Paulet, Lord Lovelace, Lord Savile, Lord Coventry, Lord Mohun, Lord Dunsmore, Lord Seymour, Lord Grey of Ruthin, Lord Capell, Lord Falkland, Mr. Comptroller, Mr. Secretary Nicholas, Mr. Chancellour of the Exchequer, Lord Chief Justice Banks.

About this Time Sir John Meldrum wrote to the King with great Freedom from Hull; touching which, in a Letter from Sir Hugh Cholmley to my Lord Fairfax, June the 12th, 1642. I find this Expression; Sir John Meldrum hath written such a Letter to the King, that if your Lordship saw it, you would judge him to be a bold Scot. Which Letter of Meldrum 's was as followeth:

Sir John Meldrum's Letter to the King, June 1642.

Most Gracious Sovereign,
It is held a common Tenet, That an Apology doth imply an Offence; wherefore, if I were conscious to my self of the least Breach of Allegiance due to Sovereignty, I would not blush in the ingenuous Acknowledgment of my Guilt, but would (in all Humility) throw my self down at your Majesty's Feet, though culpable in nothing else, (so far as my Conscience doth suggest) but of a great Averseness in Disposition, and a great Reluctation I have had within my self, against all the late Proceedings which have been attempted in your Majesty's Service; which if it should be found Criminal, there are not many of your Majesty's best-advised, and best-affected Subjects or Servants, of any Quality, that stand, either for the Glory of God, the Honour of your Majesty, or the Peace and Happiness of the Kingdom, who, in Foro Conscientiæ, can plead Guiltless in that Point; and if there be in any a contrary Sense, (who are considerable) it will appear (upon a strict Search) that Flattery, Spleen, or Emulation, hath rather transported them, than any thing else found essential to make such a Breach as the Kingdom is threatned with, which unprevented, may bury them and their Posterities in the Ruins thereof.

The Zeal I have had to your Majesty's Father's Service in Ireland, in settling the Province of Ulster, and to your Service at Rachel, which in my Time hath had no Example, will vindicate me from any Aspersion that may be cast upon me, either of Ingratitude, or Disloyalty; and that all your Majesty's Favours have produced no other Effects to me, but to have been made the Subject of all Calumnies and Detraction that Malice could brand me with, and a deep Ingagement in 2000 l. Debt, after the spending of thirty six Years of Time in your Majesty's Father's, and your own Service. I did adventure upon a great Freedom of Discourse with your Majesty at Newcastle, upon the Subject of the War; which, if it had taken any Impression suitable to the Sincerity of my Heart, as a Business of so high a Nature did require, your Majesty might have avoided many unhappy Accidents, which have encountred all your Attempts since that Time; which cannot be interpreted to have sprung from any other Source, than from the Rashness, Atrogancy, and Ambition of some presumptuous Spirits, who have drawn your Majesty upon ruinous Precipices, which cannot but bring forth the like wretched Effects: Their Aim was at nothing so much as at the Disgrace and Overthrow of all your Majesty's well-affected and loyal Subjects and Servants, who were not stamped with the Character of the Time; and to engage your Majesty in their unhappy Interest of Ambition, Gain, Malice, Revenge, Despair, and Emulation; as if your Majesty's Crowns, and their desperate Fortunes, had had but one and the same Centre; as if both had been cast in one Ballance, to stand or fall in the Distractions of the Times. When I did look upon the lamentable Posture of three Kingdoms, reduced to a great heighth of Desolation and Misery: When I did perceive that no Corner in your Dominions could afford a good Man that was sensible of the Purity of Religion towards God, of the Honour, Peace, and Safety of your Majesty and Kingdoms, who did not groan under the Exorbitancies of the Time, and when there was small Probability (unless by Miracle) that your Majesty's Diadems could retain that ancient Lustre and Beauty, nor those Halcion Days of publick Prosperity continue, which your loving Subjects and their Ancestors had formerly enjoyed under the Reigns of your Royal Progenitors, whilst they kept a regular Course of Government with their Parliaments; I could find no better way to do your Majesty a more general Service, than by stopping the Course of a Civil War. so far as could fall within the Compass of my Endeavour, to imbrace any fit Opportunity offered, as to cast my self within Hull; hereby my Zeal and Affection to the publick Good might be demonstrated in a Service for the common Interest of your Majesty and the Kingdom, which whosoever shall go about to separate, cannot but expect such fearful Events, as ordinarily do accompany all such who would entertain and foster a woeful Divorcement betwixt a Prince and his People, a wretched Division betwixt the Head and the Members, which (of necessity) must bring forth such prodigious Issues, as may not only shake the Foundation of Monarchy, but also overslow the fertile and pleasant Fields and Vallies of this Kingdom with Streams of innocent Blood, which might be more safely reserved for more advantageous, and more honourable Employments, than profusedly to be spent in the ripping up the Bowels one of another of your Majesty's good Subjects, by an Intestine War; which will divide the Father from the Son, the Brother from the Brother, and the nearest Kinsman from his dearest Friend. And that which is most deplorable, the ground of the War must rise from the unsettled and unconstant Appetites of some factious and turbulent Spirits, overladed with the bitterness of their own Passions and Interests; and at such a Juncture too, when a more just, and a more honourable Subject for a War cannot be long wanting, if the unseasonable Distempers of the Time could allow your Majesty's good Subjects a little Time to breathe in the calm Air, and Happiness of a blessed Peace untill such Time as France and Spain (by their mutual Clashings) have so far debilitated each other, that both might run the hazard to be made the Stage for your Majesty's just Indignation, provoked by the Affronts have been put upon your Majesty's Father, and your self, in the unjust Detention of the Patrimony of a Grand-Child of this Crown. If there were a happy Atonement with your Majesty's loving Subjects, strongly cemented by a strict Correspondency with the Netherland-Provinces, whose Friendship or Enmity may do more good or hurt to these Kingdoms, than the Friendship or Enmity of France and Spain joyned together. The miserable Sense of that War in Italy, by the pertinacious Obstinacy of Charles the Eighth, which was stirred up and fomented by the ignorance and Ambition of that proud Prelate, the Bishop of St Mala, which did draw on his shameful Expulsion out of Italy, at the Expence of his Reputation, and Hazard of his Life: The deplorable Event of that War, violently prosecuted by Charles the more hardy than wife Duke of Burgundy, against the Swisses, which had no other Ground but unreasonable Ambition, and the Refusal of Redress to some of the Swisses, who had but a Carefull of Sheep-skins taken injuriously from them, going to their Market, by the Count of Romont, which was paid home by the loss of his Baggage, by the loss of his Reputation, by the loss of his Family (which for four Generations had stood in Competition with the Emperor, and the French King) and in the End by loss of his Life: The vast and profuse Consumption of more Men and Money, spent by the King of Spain in that Belgick War, than might have reduced Italy and France to that Austrian Servitude, aspired onto Charles the Fifth, (aiming at a Fifth Monarchy) which if it had in time been nipped in the Bud, might have been easily prevented by hearing the Humble Petitions of a handful of his Subjects, oppressed with the Tyranny of the Spanish Government; may all serve as Examples of Terror to all great Princes, who (at the Appetites of their Servants) will imbark themselves in such inextricable Errours, as are often accompanied with sudden unfortunate Events. Many great and honourable Actions have been brought to happy and glorious Conclusions, by Princes who have rely'd upon the Valour and Affection of their loving Subjects, which being wanting, the Examples of good Success have been no less rare, than of black Swans, either in ancient or modern Stories. The hearty Acclamations of Joy at your Father's Entry to the Crown of England, the publick Exultations of your Majesty's safe Return from Spain, will challenge a more kindly Retribution, than the Exposing of the Fortunes and Lives of your good Subjects to the inhumane Bucheries of an Intestine War, which (like a Gangreen) hath already over-run the greatest Part of Europe; and may, by the Revolution of Time (whereunto all sublunary Things are subject) kindle such a Fire here amongst your good Subjects, which will not be quickly extinguished by all the Plots and Practices of the Time, nor without some Hazards to your Scepters; especially when Strangers (being invited by our Distractions, if they have Power, Ambition, and Sense of Revenge) may endeavour to be Sharers with your Majesty's good Subjects in the Felicities of this Island, as the only Place in Europe, which hath been long exempted from the Thraldom and Bondage of War, which undoubtedly they would have attempted before this Time, if God (in his gracious Providence and Care of this Island) had not suffered France and Spain to be deeply imbarqued over Head and Ears. The common Quarrel of Invasion, which Princes never forget, if they can find an Opportunity to remember the Jesuitick Plots, to extirpate the whole Body of Protestants in this Island; which, as it was in former Times, the only safe vanctuary and Protection of all that suffered under the Tyranny of Rome, may (by these Machinations rooted here too deeply) become a Cage for unclean Birds to nestle therein, and disturb the Peace of these Kingdoms, as a powerful effect of too much implicit Trust but in some, who will prove in the End your Majesty's greatest Enemies; and of too much neglect of others, who will be found the best Supporters of the Dignity of your Person and Crowns; and if there be a War really intended, there is a Necessity of a more settled Foundation than the Protection of evil and unadvised Ministers, whom your Majesty's Predecessor, Henry the Fourth of England, would have rather offered up as publick Victims to an offended Common-wealth, than that three Kingdoms should lie pitifully exposed to the Hazards of a publick Conflagration, which God in his Mercy avert. I must rather account him an ignorant Mountebank than a skilful Physician, who adviseth his Patient to apply a more violent Remedy than the Nature of the Disease will comport with; otherwise the Remedy may prove worse than the Disease: Nor shall I ever account him for a faithful Servant, who perswadeth his Master to imbrace any Action which may more conduce to the Advancement of any private Interest of Ambition, Gain, Malice, Revenge, Despair, or Emulation, than to the Safety of his Master's Reputation and Honour. Your Majesty doth well know the different Characters Antiquity hath put upon the two Favourites of Alexander, Hephestion and Craterus; the one loved Alexander out of Conscience, Duty, Zeal and Love, as his Sovereign; the other loved the King for his Magnificence, Pomp, Glory, and the Power Alexander had to raise his Fortune, and to make him Great; not unlike to the Legionary Soldiers that followed Germanicus, recorded by Tacitus, to have said, Fortunam meam potius, quam me sequuntur. Of such Court-Parasites, who do rather look upon the Fortunes than Persons of great Princes. I pray God, your Majesty have not too many, and too few of the other kind of Servants. Pardon, dread Sovereign, this Freedom of Spirit, which no Extremity, no Power, no Punishment can restrain; and which cannot but burst forth in this Excess of Passion and Grief, to see your Majesty so inclinable to give way to such Courses, as can presage no less than a fearful Revolution, if your Majesty should continue in a constant Course of being inexorable to the Perswasions, Counsels, and Petitions of your loving Subjects, inviting your Majesty to adhere to your great Council of Parliament, who are only able to make your Majesty no less happy and glorious than any of your Royal Progenitors. God grant, that in the End, your Majesty may be sensible of the common Calamities your good Subjects are involved in; and that some proper Occasion may be represented whereby every true and loyal Subject may be encouraged to offer up his Sacrifice of Blood, for the Honour and Safety of your Majesty and your whole Dominions, whereof none shall be more prodigal than,

Your Majesty's most humble and faithful Servant,

Jo. Meldrum.

To the King's most Excellent Majesty,

The Humble Petition of the Lords and Commons in Parliament Assembled.

The Parliament's Petition to the King, about the Yorkshire Freeholders Petition, June 17.

Your Majesty's most humble and faithful Subjects, the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, have lately received a Petition from a great Number of the Gentry, Freeholders, and other Inhabitants of the County of York, assembled there by your Majesty's Command, the third of June; wherein they declare unto us, That having taken a Resolution to address themselves unto your Majesty in the humble way of a Petition, for the Redress of those Grievances which they now lie under, they were violently interrupted and affronted therein by the Earl of Lindsey, the Lord Savil, and others; and notwithstanding all the means they could use to present their just Desires to your Majesty, yet they could not prevail with your Majesty to accept of their Petition: The Copy whereof they have sent to us, with an humble Desire, that we would take such Course therein as may tend to the Preservation of their Liberties, and the Peace of the Kingdom: And that we would address our selves to your Majesty in their behalf, that by our means their Desires may find better Acceptation with your Majesty. Whereupon having seriously weighed and considered the Particulars of those their Complaints and Desires, as they are laid down in their Petition; and finding that the Grievances they complain of, are the increase of the Miseries formerly sustained by that County (which hath well nigh for three Years last past been the Tragical Stage of Armies and War) by reason of your Majesty's Distance in Residence, and Difference in Counsels from your Great Council, the Parliament, begetting great Distempers and Distractions thro'out the Kingdom, and especially in that County. The drawing to those Parts great Numbers of discontented Persons, that may too justly be feared do affect the publick Ruin for their private Advantage, the drawing together of many Companies of the Train'd-Bands, and others, both of Horse and Foot of that County, and retaining Multitudes of Commanders and Cavaliers from other Parts; the daily resort of Recusants to your Majesty's Court at York: The great Preparations of Arms and other warlike Provisions, to the great terror and amazement of your Majesty's peaceable Subjects, and causing a great Decay of Trade and Commerce amongst them; all and every of which Particulars, are against the Law, which your Majesty hath made so many and frequent Professions to maintain and uphold.

And the Lords and Commons finding on the other side, their humble Desires to be, That your Majesty would hearken to your Parliament, and declining all other Counsels whatsoever, unite your Confidence to your Parliament; and that your Majesty would not divide your Subjects joint Duty to your Majesty, the Parliament and Kingdom, nor destroy the Essence of your Great Council, and highest Court, by subjecting the Determinations and Counsels thereof, to the Counsels and Opinions of any private Persons whatsoever. That your Majesty having passed an Act, That this Parliament shall not be dissolved but by Act of Parliament, your Majesty would not do any thing thereunto tending, by commanding away the Lords and great Officers, whose Attendance is necessary thereunto: That your Majesty having expressed your Confidence in the Affections of that County, you would please to dismiss your extraordinary Guards, and the Cavaliers and others of that Quality, who seem to have little Interest or Affection to the publick Good, their Language and Behaviour speaking nothing but Division and War, and their Advantage consisting in that which is most destructive to others.

And lastly, That in such Consultations and Propositions as your Majesty maketh to that County, such may not be thrust upon them as Men of that County, that neither by their Fortune or Residence are any part of it.

All which their humble and most just Desires, being according to Law, which your Majesty hath so often declared, should be the Measure and Rule of your Government and Actions: And we your Majesty's most faithful Subjects, the Lords and Commons, fully concurring with the Gentlemen and others of the County of York, in their Assurance that those Desires of theirs will abundantly redound to the Glory of God, the Honour and Safety of your Majesty, the Good of your Posterity, and the Peace and Prosperity of this Kingdom. We humbly beseech your Majesty graciously to hearken unto them, and to grant them; and that you would join with your Parliament in a speedy and effectual Course, for the Preservation of their Liberties, and the Peace of the Kingdom; which Duty, as we are now called upon by that County to discharge, so do we stand engaged to God and Man for the Performance there, by the Trust reposed in us, and by our solemn Vow and Protestation; and your Majesty, together with us, stands engaged by the like Obligation of Trust, and of an Oath, besides the many and earnest Professions and Protestations which your Majesty hath made to this purpose, to your whole Kingdom in general, and to that County in particular, the Peace and Quiet of this Kingdom, (as is well observed by these Gentlemen and Free-holders of Yorkshire in their Petition) being the only visible Means, under God, wherein consists the Preservation of the Protestant Religion, the Redemption of our Brethren in Ireland, and the Happiness and Prosperity of your Majesty, and of all your Dominions.

His Majesty's Answer to the Petition of the Lords and Commons in Parliament Assembled, presented to His Majesty at York, the 17th of June, 1642.

'His Majesty having carefully weighed the Matter of this Petition presented to him at York, on Friday the 17th of June, by the Lord Fairfax, Sir Hugh Cholmley, Sir Philip Stapleton; Tho' he might refer the Petitioners to his two last Declarations, wherein most of the Particulars in this Petition are fully answered, or might refuse to give any Answer at all, 'till he had received Satisfaction in those high Indignities he hath so often complained of, and demanded Justice for: Yet that all the World may see how desirous his Majesty is to leave no Act, which seems to carry the Reputation of both his Houses of Parliament, and in the least Degree to reflect upon his Majesty's Justice and Honour, unanswered, is graciously pleased to return this Answer:

'That if the Petition mentioned to be presented to both Houses of Parliament, had been annexed to this now delivered to him, his Majesty might have discerned the Number and the Quality of the Petitioners, which his Majesty hath great Reason to believe, was not in Truth so considerable as is pretended; for his Majesty assures you, That he hath never refused any Petition so attested as that would be thought to be: But his Majesty well remembers, That on the third of June, when there was, upon his Majesty's Summons, the greatest and the most chearful Concourse of People that ever was beheld of one County, appearing before him at York, a Gentleman (one Sir Thomas Fairfax) offered in that great Confluence, a Petition to his Majesty; which his Majesty seeing to be avowed by no Man but himself, and the general and universal Acclamations of the People seeming to disclaim it, did not receive, conceiving it not to be of so publick a Nature, as to be fit to be presented or received in that Place. And his Majesty is most confident (and in that must appeal to those then present) that whatever the Substance of that Petition was, it was not consented to by any considerable Number of Gentry or Free-holders of this County, but sollicited by a few Men, inconsiderable Persons, and disliked, and visibly discountenanced by the great Body of the known Gentry, Clergy, and Inhabitants of this whole County. And if the Matter of that Petition was such as is suggested in this, his Majesty hath great Reason to believe it was framed and contrived (as many others of such Nature have been) in London, not in Yorkshire; for sure, no Gentleman of Quality and Understanding of this County, would talk of his great Preparation of Arms, and other warlike Provisions, to the great Terror and Amazement of his peaceable Subjects, when they are Witnesses of the violent taking his Arms from him, and stopping all ways for bringing any more to him. And if there were no greater Terror and Amazement of his Majesty's peaceable Subjects in other Places, by such Preparations and Provisions, there would be no more Cause to complain of a great Decay of Trade and Commerce there, than is in this Place. But his Majesty hath so great an Assurance of the Fidelity and general Affections of his good Subjects of this County, (which he hopes will prove exemplar over his whole Kingdom) that he hath great cause to believe, that they do rather complain of his Majesty's Confidence, and of his Slowness; that whilst there is such Endeavour abroad to raise Horse, and to provide Arms against his Majesty, and that Endeavour put in Execution, his Majesty trusts so much to the Justice of his Cause and the Affections of his People, and neglects to provide Strength, to assist that Justice, and to protect those Affections.

'For any Affronts offered by the Earl of Lindsey, or the Lord Savil, to those who intended to petition his Majesty, his Majesty wishes that both his Houses of Parliament would have examined that Information, and the Credit of the Informers, with that Gravity and Deliberation, as in Cases which concern the Innocence and Honour of Persons of such Quality hath been accustomed, before they had proscribed two Peers of the Realm, and exposed them (as much as in them lay) to the Rage and Fury of the People, under the Character of being Enemies to the Common-wealth, a Brand newly found out (and of no legal Signification) to incense the People by, and which the Simplicity of former Times was not acquainted with: And then his Majesty hath some Reason to believe, they would have found themselves as much abused in the Report concerning those Lords, as he is sure they are in those which tell them of the Resort of great Numbers of discontented Persons to him, and of the other Particulars mentioned to be in that Petition; whereas they who observe what Resort is here to his Majesty, well know it to be of the prime Gentlemen of all the Counties in England, whom nothing but the Love of Religion, the Care of the Laws and Liberties of the Kingdom, besides their Affection to his Person, could engage into great Journeys, Trouble and Expence; Men of as precious Reputation, and as exemplary Lives as this Nation hath any; whose Assistance his Majesty knows he must not expect, if he should have the least Design against Honour and Justice. And such Witnesses his Majesty desires to have of all his Actions.

'For the declining all other Counsels, and the uniting his Confidence to his Parliament, his Majesty desires both his Houses of Parliament, seriously and ladly to consider, That it is not the Name of a great or little Council that makes the Results of that Council Just or Unjust; neither can the imputation upon his Majesty of not being advised by his Parliament, (especially since all their Actions, and all their Orders, are exposed to the publick View) long mislead his good Subjects, except in Truth they see some particular sound Advice, necessary to the Peace and Happiness of the Common-wealth, disesteemed by his Majesty; and such an Instance he is most assured, neither can nor shall be given; and that they will think it Merit in his Majesty from the Common-wealth, to reject such Counsel as would perswade him to make himself none of the Three Estates, by giving up his Negative Voice, to allow them a Power superior to that which the Law hath given him, whensoever it pleaseth the major part present of both Houses, to say, That he doth not discharge his Trust as he ought, and to subject him and his Subjects unquestionable Right and Propriety to their Votes, without and against Law, upon the meer Pretence of Necessity.

'And his Majesty must appeal to all the World, who it is that endeavours to divide the joint Duty of his Subjects; his Majesty, who requires nothing but what their own Duty, guided by the infallible Rule of the Law, leads them to do; or they, who by Orders and Votes, (opposite and contradictory to Law, Custom, Precedent, and Reason) so confound the Affections and Understandings of his good Subjects, that they know not how to behave themselves with Honesty and Safety, whilst their Conscience will not suffer them to submit to the one, nor their Security to apply themselves to the other: It is not the bare saying, His Majesty's Actions are against the Law, (with which he is reproached in this Petition, as if he departed from his often Protestations to that Purpose) that must conclude him, there being no one such Particular in that Petition alledged, of which his Majesty is in the least Degree guilty. Whether the same Reverence and Esteem be paid by you to the Law, (except your own Votes be Judge) needs no other Evidence than those many, very many Orders published in print, both concerning the Church and State, those long Imprisonments of several Persons without hearing them, upon general Information; and the great and unlimited Fees to your Officers, worse than the Imprisonment, and the arbitrary Censure upon them, when they are admitted to be heard. Let the Law be Judge by whom it is violated.

'For that part of the Petition which seems to accuse his Majesty of a Purpose to dissolve this Parliament, (contrary to the Act for the Continuance) by commanding away the Lords and great Officers, whose Attendance is necessary; which his Majesty well knows to be a new Calumny, by which the grand Contrivers of Ruin for the State, hope to seduce the Minds of the People from their Affection to, or into Jealousie of his Majesty, as if he meant this Way to bring this Parliament (which may be the Case of all Parliaments) to nothing: It is not possible for his Majesty more to express his Affection to, and his Resolution for the Freedom, Liberty, and Frequency of Parliaments than he hath done. And whoever considers how visible it must be to his Majesty, that it is impossible for him to subsist without the Affections of his People; and that those Affections cannot possibly be preserved or made use of but by Parliaments, cannot give the least Credit, or have the least Suspicion that his Majesty would chuse any other Way to the Happiness he desires for himself and his Posterity but by Parliaments.

'But for his calling the Lords hither, or any others absenting themselves who have not been called, whoever considers the Tumults (which no Votes or Declarations can make to be no Tumults) by which his Majesty was driven away, and many Members of either House in danger of their Lives; the demanding the Names of those Lords who would not consent to their Propositions, by Message from the House of Commons, delivered at the Bar by Mr. Hollis, with that most tumultuous Petition, in the Name of many thousands, (among many other of the same kind) directed to the House of Commons, and sent up by them to the House of Lords, taking notice of the prevalency of a malignant Faction, which made Abortive all their good Motions, which tended to the Peace and Tranquility of the Kingdom, desiring that those Noble Worthies of the House of Peers, who concurred with them in their happy Votes, might be earnestly desired to joyn with that honourable House, and to fit and vote as one entire Body, professing, That unless some speedy Remedy were taken for the Removal of all such Obstructions as hindred the happy Progress of their great Endeavours, the Petitioners should not rest in Quietness, but should be enforced to lay hold on the next Remedy which was at Hand, to remove the Disturbers of their Peace, and (Want and Necessity breaking the Bounds of Modesty) not to leave any Means unessay'd for their Relief; adding, That the Cry of the Poor and Needy was, That such Persons who were Obstacles of their Peace, and Hinderers of the happy Proceedings of this Parliament, might be forthwith publickly declared, whose Removal they conceived would put a Period to these Distractions. Upon which a great Number of Lords departing, the Vote in order to the Ordinance concerning the Militia was immediately pass'd, though it had been twice before put to the Question, and rejected by the Votes of much the major part of that House. And whoever considers the strange Orders Votes, and Declarations which have since passed, to which whosoever would not consent, (that is, whosoever with Freedom and Liberty of Language and Reason durst profess against, was in Danger of Censure and Imprisonment) will not blame our Care in sending for them, or theirs in coming, or absenting themselves from being involved in such Confusions. Neither will it be any Objection, that they stay'd there long after any Tumults were, and therefore that the Tumults drove them not away. If every Day produced Orders and Resolutions as illegal as, and indeed but the Effects of the Tumults; there was no Cause to doubt the same Power would be ready to prevent any Opposition to those Orders after they were made, which had made way and preparation for the Propositions of them; and so whosoever conceived himself in Danger of future Tumults, (against which there is not the least Provision) was driven away by those which were pass'd. And his Majesty hath more Reason to wonder at those who stay behind, after all his legal Power is voted from him, and all the People told, That he might be with Modesty and Duty enough deposed, than any Man hath at those who have been willing to withdraw themselves from the place where such desperate and dangerous Positions are avowed; which his Majesty doth not mention with the least Thought of lessening the Power or Validity of any Act to which he hath given his Assent this Parliament, all and every of which he shall as inviolably observe, as he looks to have his own Rights preserved, but to shew by what Means so many strange Orders have of late been made. And to shew how earnestly his Majesty desires to be present at, and to receive Advice from both Houses of Parliament, (against whom it shall never be in the Power of a malignant Party to incense his Majesty) his Majesty again offers his Consent, that both Houses may be adjourned to another place, which may be thought convenient, where his Majesty will be present, and doubts not but the Members of either House will make a full Appearance. And even the Intermission which must attend such an Adjournment may not be the least means of recovering that Temper which is necessary for such Debates.

'And this his Majesty conceives to be so very necessary, that if the Minds and Inclinations of every Member of either House were equally composed the License is so great that the mean People about London and the Suburbs have taken, that both for the Liberty and Dignity of the Parliament, that Convention for a time should be in another place. And sure how much soever the Safety and Security of this Kingdom depends on Parliaments, it will never be thought that these Parliaments must of necessity be at Westminster His Majesty's Confidence is no less than he hath expressed (and hath great cause to express) in the Affections of this County; an Instance of which Affections all Men know his own Guard (which is not extraordinary) to be, and wonders that such a legal Guard at his own Charge, for his Person (within twenty Miles of a Rebellion, and of an Army in Pay against him) should be objected by those, who for so many Months and in a place of known and confessed Security, have without and against Law kept a Guard for themselves, at the Charge of the Common-wealth, and upon that Stock of Money which was given for the Relief of the miserable and bleeding Condition of Ireland, or the Payment of the great Debt due to our Kingdom of Scotland.

'For the resort of Papists to the Court, his Majesty's great Care for the prevention thereof is notoriously known; that when he was informed two or three of his intended Guard were of that Religion, he gave especial Direction, with Expressions of his Displeasure, that they should be immediately discharged, and provided that no Person should attend on him under that Relation, but such as took the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy, that he commanded the Sheriff to proceed with all Severity according to the Law, against all Papists that should come within five Miles of the Court; and if, notwithstanding this, there be any Papists near the Court, (which his Majesty assures you he knows not, nor hath heard, but by this Petition) he doth hereby command them to depart, and declares to all Officers and Ministers of Justice, that they shall proceed strictly against them according to the Law, as they will answer the contrary at their Perils.

'For the Language and Behaviour of the Cavaliers (a Word, by what Mistake soever, it seems in much Di favour) there hath not been the least Complaint here; and therefore it is probable the Fault was not found in this County. Neither can his Majesty imagine what is meant by the mention of any Men thrust upon them in such Consultations and Propositions as his Majesty makes to this County, who are neither by their Fortune or Residence any part of it, and therefore can make no Answer to it.

'To conclude, His Majesty assures you he hath never refused to receive any Petition, whether you have or no, your selves best know; and will consider what Reputation it will be to you of Justice or Ingenuity, to receive all Petitions, how senseless and scandalous soever of one kind, under pretence of understanding the good Peoples Minds and Affections; and not only refuse the Petitions, but punish the Petitioners of another kind, under colour that it is a Crime, that they are not satisfied with your Sense, as if you were only trusted by the People of one Opinion: To take all pains to publish and print Petitions which agree with your Wishes, though they were never presented; and to use the same Industry and Authority to keep those that were indeed presented and avowed, from being published, (tho' by our own Authority) because the Argument is not pleasant to you; to pretend Impartiality and Infallibility, and to express the greatest Passion and Affection in the Order of your Proceedings, and no less Error and Misunderstanding in your Judgments and Resolutions: He doth remember well the Obligation of his Trust, and of his Oath, and desires that you will do so too, and your own solemn Vow and Protestation, and then you will not only think it convenient, but necessary to give his Majesty a full Reparation for all the Scandals laid upon him, and all the scandalous Positions made against him and that it is less dishonourable to retract Errors, than by avowing to confess the Malice of them; and will see this to be the surest Way for the Preservation of the Protestant Religion, the Redemption of our Brethren in Ireland, the Happiness and Prosperity of your selves, and of all our Dominions, and of the Dignity and Freedom of Parliaments.

The Petition of the County-Palatine of Lancaster, June 6, 1642.

Most Gracious Sovereign,
The most real and convincing Testimonies of your Princely Care for the Advancement of God's true Religion in your Majesty's Realms, and the common Good of all your Subjects, could no less than draw from us (who have hitherto in these stirring Times fate still) this humble Acknowledgment of our due and necessary Thanks.

We, with the inmost and choicest Thoughts of our Souls, do esteem and prize your Majesty's most righteous Intentions of governing your Liege People according to the wholesome Laws of this Kingdom, a thing so often, and with so much earnestness avowed by your sacred Majesty; whereunto we yield that hearty Credence which is due to so Religious and Righteous a Prince. We do also with all Humility and Thankfulness, acknowledge your manifold and evident Manifestations to the World, that you affect not Arbitrary Government, but the common Prosperity and Happiness of all your Loyal Subjects, by your Readiness to join with your Parliament, in a speedy raising of Forces, for a timely suppressing of that odious Rebellion in Ireland, by your late Proclamation for the putting in due Execution the Laws against Papists; by your most gracious condescending to the Desires of your Great Council, in signing the Bills for Triennial Parliaments; for relinquishing of your Title of imposing upon Merchandize, and Power of pressing Soldiers; for the taking away of the Star-Chamber, and High-Commission Courts; for the regulating of the Council-Table; as also the Bills for the Forests and Stannary-Courts, with other most necessary Acts. Moreover, we are confident and well assured of your Majesty's Zeal for the Advancement of the true Protestant Religion, and with inexpressible Joy, do understand your most Christian and Pious Resolution, for the Preservation of those powerful Encouragements of Industry, Learning, and Piety, the Means and Honour of the Ministry, for the maintenance and continuance of our Church-Government, and solemn Liturgy of the Church, of long continued and general Approbation of the most pious and learned of this Nation, and of other Countries, composed according to the Primitive Pattern by our blessed Martyrs, and other religious and learned Men; as also your gracious Pleasure, That all Abuses of Church and State shall be reformed, according to the Model of Queen Elizabeth 's Days, of ever blessed and famous Memory. By the one you have weakened the Hopes of the sacrilegious Devourers of the Churches Patrimonies, if there be any such; and by the other, at once provided against all Popish Impieties and Idolatries, and also against the growing Danger of Anabaptists, Brownists, and other Novelties. All which Piety, Love, and Justice, we beseech God to return into your Royal Bosom. But yet (most Gracious Sovereign) there is one thing that sads our Hearts, and hinders the Perfection of our Happiness, which is the Distance and Misunderstanding between your Majesty and your Parliament, whereby the Hearts of your Subjects are filled with Fears and Jealousies, Justice neglected, sacred Ordinances profaned, and Trading impaired, to the Impoverishing of many of your Liege People: For the Removal whereof we cannot find any lawful Means without your Majesty's Assistance and Direction.

Wherefore we most humbly beseech your most Excellent Majesty, to continue your most Christian and Pious Resolution of Ruling your People according to the Laws of the Land, and Maintaining of the same, of being a zealous Defender of the Established Doctrine, Liturgy, and Government of our Church from Herefy, Libertinism, and Prophaneness; an Advancer of Learning, Piety, and Religion; and Encourager of painful Orthodox Preachers; and whatsoever your Parliament shall offer to your Royal View, conducing to this blessed End, the common Good and Tranquility of your Subjects, to be pleased to condescend unto, and graciously to confirm. And withal, to declare unto us some expedient Way, how we may make a dutiful Address unto your Parliament for the taking away of those Differences and Impediments which stay the happy Proceedings of that most Honourable Assembly, whereof your Majesty is the Head, (which once removed, we doubt not but you will speedily be as near your Parliament in Person as in Affection, that there may be a blessed Harmony between your Highness and that Great Council) and we shall with all Alacrity observe the same, humbly tendering our Lives and Fortunes for the Preservation of your Royal Person, Crown, and Dignity, acording to our bounden Duty and Allegiance: And heartily praying for your Majesty's long and prosperous Reign over us.

At the Court at York, June 6, 1642. His Majesty's Answer to the abovesaid Petition.

The King's Answer.

"That he is very glad to find such real Acknowledgments of those great Graces which he hath bountifully bestowed upon this his Kingdom of England, in the time of this Parliament; and likewise it is a great Contentment to him to find so many true Sons of the Church of England, as by your Expressions in the said Petition doth plainly appear to him; assuring you that he shall not yield in his Zeal and Constancy for the maintenance of the true Protestant Profession, neither to Queen Elizabeth, nor to his Father of ever blessed Memory, both against Popish Superstition on the one side, and Schismatical Innovation and Confusion on the other. In the last place, as he doth take in very good part your desire of a good Understanding between his Majesty and his two Houses of Parliament: So likewise he cannot but much commend the way that you take therein. And as for your Directions, if you will but seriously consider his Majesty's just and necessary Desires expressed in his Answers and Declarations since his coming to York; your Zeal and Knowlege will not need more particular Instructions to make such Addresses to both Houses of Parliament, as the times require, and befitting such loyal and true affected Subjects to their King and Country as this Petition expresseth you to be.

The Petition of Hertford, June 7, 1642.

Petition of Hertford.

Humbly Sheweth;
Your Majesty's most Loyal Subjects and Petitioners giving your Majesty most humble Thanks for the many good Laws you have lately granted, and also for you gracious Profession to maintain the Protestant Religion; and seriously considering the great Distractions and Distempers of this your Kingdom, and the Danger wherein it (with your own Royal Person) now standeth; as also being very sensible of the great Effusion of Blood lately made betwixt your Majesty's own Subjects, and of the great Calamities likely to ensue upon this Unnatural and Civil War, unless by your Majesty's Clemency and Mercy it be forthwith staid; your Subjects being in short time likely to fall into great Misery and Want, as well by reason of the Decay of Trading, as also by the Violence and Rapine of unruly and dissolute Multitudes, which hope to raise themselves by the Ruin of your Majesty's good Subjects.

Therefore your Majesty's Subjects and Petitioners do in all Humility address themselves unto your Royal Majesty, earnestly desiring that all Hostility may cease, and that some means of Accommodation and Peace may be obtained, whereby God's Honour, and the true Protestant Religion may be maintained, your Majesty's Sacred Person, Honour and Estate preserved, and your Parliaments just Privileges, with the Laws of this your Realm, upheld and put in Execution; that so your People being freed from their Fears, and secured in their Estates, may with Hand and Heart testify their Obedience both to God and their King.

And your Subjects shall daily pray for your Majesty's long and happy Reign over us.

His Majesty's Answer to the aforesaid Petition.

The King's Answer.

'His Majesty graciously accepts the Acknowledgment of the Petitioners, and is very glad, that in a County so near the Violence which hath sought to oppress his Majesty, and where so great Industry hath been used to corrupt his good Subjects, and to infuse into them Thoughts and Resolutions of Disloyalty against him, there is yet so grateful a Sense of his Majesty's Justice, and so true a Sense of the Calamities of the Kingdom. And his Majesty assures the Petitioners, that he so far concurs with them in all their Requests, that they do not more desire to receive, than his Majesty doth grant all they ask of him.

'Of the present Distractions and Distempers in which the Petitioners express an honest and loyal Care of the Safety of his Majesty's Person (a Thing so far from being of late regarded, that God only hath preserved him from being destroyed by the Bloody Hands of Rebels) his Majesty doubts not but the Petitioners know from what Fountain they have sprung, and by the Grievances and Pressures exercised upon their own County, in which his Majesty cannot be suspected to have the least hand, so much as by Accident, will quickly discern, that when that part of the Law which should defend his Majesty, is so easily mastered and trodden down, the other part, which should secure his Subjects, will insensibly moulder away, and give them up to the same Violence; and that when they shall too inconsiderately look upon the publick Sufferings, they do but invite prosperous ill Instruments to bring the Misery home to their own Doors.

'That all Hostility may cease, cease for ever, and a blessed and happy Accommodation and Peace be made; that God's Honour, and the Protestant Religion may be maintained; that the just Priviledges of Parliament, and the Laws of the Land, may be upheld and put in execution, that so his good People may be freed from their Fears, and secured in their Estates, is not, cannot be more the Wish and Prayer of the Petitioners, than it is the earnest and incessant Endeavour of his Majesty. And that when the Petitioners remember that his Majesty's Compassion of the Miseries of a Civil War, kept him so long from endeavouring to raise an Army, that he was almost swallowed up by a desperate Rebellion, and nothing but the immediate Hand of God could have supplied him with Men, Arms, or Money, for his Defence: And when they consider the strong Licence given or countenanced in the Exercise of Religion the Scorn and Contempt the very Protestant Religion it self suffers by Brownists, Anabaptists, and Sectaries, who in truth have destroyed the Civil Peace too. When they look upon the strong Invasion, upon the Freedom and Privilege of Parliament, by the Violence and Faction of such Men, and see the Laws of the Land, with a loud Voice, vilified and trampled upon; they must confess, 'tis no more in his Majesty's Power to satisfy the Petitioners in their most just Desires, than to preserve his own Person, Honour and Estate, from that Fury which threatens that and all the rest; and that what the Petitioners now ask, is the only Argument of his Majesty's taking up just, necessary and defensive Arms.

'But if the Petitioners shall join with his Majesty, and assist him to assist them; if they shall resolve to defend the known Laws of the Land, (as the only excellent Rule) and not to submit to any extravagant arbitrary Power whatsoever; If they shall set a true Price upon their Religion, (sealed with the Blood of so many glorious Martyrs) and on the behalf of it, protest against all the Distempers of Brownists, Anabaptists and Sectaries: If they shall help his Majesty to reduce the whole Fabrick of Church and State, according to the Model of Queen Elizabeth 's Time, (so long and seriously proposed by his Majesty) in which the Foundations were laid of all that Happiness and Glory which the whole Nation enjoyed so many Years after, and to which his Majesty hath made so great an Addition of excellent Laws, his Majesty doubts not that any Faction shall prevail against them, but that other Counties following the Example of the Petitioners, in short time his Majesty, the Petitioners, and the whole Kingdom, will find the Accomplishment of all that is desired by this Petition.


The Petition of certain Cornish Gentlemen, June 26. 1642.

A Cornish Petition.

We your Majesty's most Loyal Subjects, in all Duty render unto your Majesty all Thankfulness for your Majesty's unexempled Favour and Grace, in granting unto your Subjects, by the Concurrence with your Parliament, such Laws and Freedoms which have most fully expressed your Majesty's gracious Goodness unto your People. And we most thankfully receive your Majesty's free Offer of a General Pardon, whereof we most humbly desire to be made Partakers.

And we most humbly beseech your Majesty, never to suffer your Subjects to be governed by an Arbitrary Government, nor admit an Alteration in Religion. And your Petitioners betng most feelingly grieved for your Majesty's Discontents, (partly occasioned by divers scandalous Pamphlets, and seditious Sermons, and no way lessened by unlawful Tumults) do wish a Confluence of all Comforts, Honour and Happiness unto your Majesty; and do most heartily pray for the Reconcilement between your Majesty and your Parliament.

And in all humble Thankfulness for your Majesty's said Grace and Goodness, your Petitioners do offer themselves most ready to maintain and defend, with their Lives and Fortunes, your Majesty's Sacred Person, Honour, Estate, and lawful Prerogative, against all Persons whatsoever, according to the Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance.


  • John Gritts High-Sheriff.
  • Warwick Lord Mohun.
  • Sir John Trelawney Kt. & Baronet.
  • Sir William Wrey Kt. and Baronet.
  • John Arundell of Trerise Esq;
  • Charles Trevanion Esq;
  • Walter Langdon Esq;
  • Peter Courtney Esq
  • Samuel Cosoworth Esq;
  • Richard Prideaux Esq;
  • John Arundell Esq;
  • Renatus Billot Esq;
  • Francis Jones Esq;
  • Robert Rous Esq;
  • Edward Trelawney Esq;
  • Nevil Bligh Esq;
  • William Bastard Esq;
  • Charles Grills Esq;
  • Nathaniel Dillon Esq;
  • William Arundell Gent.
  • William Courtney Gent.
  • Edward Courtney Gent.
  • Walter Glyn Gent.
  • Edward Cook Gent.
  • Hugh Pomeroy Esq;
  • Ambrose Billot Gent.
  • John Samuel Gent.
  • Nichol Kendall Major of Lostwythell
  • Obadiah Ghoship Clet'
  • John Kett Cler'
  • Thomas Harrison Cler'
  • Thomas Porter Cler'
  • Simon Laun Cler'
  • John Peter Cler'
  • George Brush Cler'
  • Bernard Achim Gent.
  • Theophilns Langhorne Gent.
  • William Gnanas Gent.
  • Nicholas Sawell Gent.
  • William Robinson Gent.
  • Thomas Robinson Gent.
  • Joseph Jolley Gent.
  • Thomas Trear Gent.

The foresaid Gentlemen subscribed at Lostwythell, unto the Petition directed to his Majesty, together with Seven thousand more, Esquires, Gentlemen, Free-holders, and other Inhabitants which subscribed and subsigned the said Petition in their several Parishes.

His Majesty's ANSWER.

'His Majesty is so very well pleased with the Duty and Affection of this Petition, that he hath commanded me to signify his good Acceptance of it, and thanks for it to the County of Cornwal; and to assure them, That as he will be always ready to increase the Happiness of his People, by consenting to such new good Laws as shall be proposed to Him for their Advantage; so he will be forward to venture his Life in maintenance of the Religion and Laws established, which he doubts not, with the Assistance of the Petitioners, and other his good Subjects, he shall be able to defend. His Majesty will be ready to grant such a General Pardon to the Petitioners as they desire, and will no longer expect the continuance of their Duty and Affection, than Himself continues true to those Professions he hath so often made of maintaining and defending the Religion and Laws of this Kingdom.


The Petition of the Counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland to his Majesty.

June 5, 1642 Petition of Cumberland and Westmorland.

Most Gracious Sovereign,
We acknowledge, with all possible Retribution of Gratitude, your Majesty Princely Favour, in yielding your Royal Assent to such Bills as have passed since the beginning of this present Parliament: As also for your Gracious Declaration to continue the same, as Occasion required, for remedying the Evils and Perils incident to Church and State, and for your firm Resolution, that the Laws of the Land should be the Rule of your Government. But more particularly endeared to our Memories is that Royal Sense your Majesty expressed of our dangerous Condition, and impendent Fears, when we stood ingaged as part of the Pledge to the Scottish-Army; and your personal Recommendation thereof to the speedy Consideration of both your Houses of Parliament. The former Benefits we hold, as the Fruit of your general Care equally extending to all, by this you suffered your Royal Nature to be tendred with a Compassion more nearly regarding us; for which Grace, we conceive our selves tied in a more singular and strait Obligation, than the most of your other Subjects are, in which respect our just Fears might have presented us too remiss in performance of this Duty, after so many had gone before us, but that our Paucity, and the Inconsiderableness of these Counties, for Quantity and Quality, withheld us thus long, until the two visible Distempers of the Times justled out such Fears, as now unseasonable. Our own Sense is our Assurance of your gracious Government. We see and acquiesce in this Truth, That your Majesty's Profession of the true Protestant Religion, and the Exercise of it, go together; nor can we take up any more effectual Ground for a belief of Sincerity. All our Happiness, and that of all your Dominions would be compleat, and what were wanting, we were in the way for, if a right Understanding were renewed between your Majesty and Great Council.

It is therefore our humble Desire, That your Majesty would still be pleased, in your Wisdom, to recollect, and in your Goodness to embrace all good Means that may tend to this happy Union, whereby we may keep the true Enjoyment of the long Labours of your Majesty and Great Council: For the effecting whereof, we shall redouble our Petition, that some Place may be thought on, which may be free from Exception both of Danger and Distrust, and then we doubt not, but by God's Almighty Power, such Ways and Means might happily be propounded, as may reconcile all Differences and Mistakings, and your Majesty have full Satisfaction in your Demands.

And we (as we are bound) shall be ready, according to our Power, with our Lives and Fortunes, to defend your Majesty's Person, Honour, Crown and Dignity, the Religion and Laws established, against all Maligners of your Majesty's Royal Prerogative, and the Peace and Prosperity of this Kingdom.

Hereunto were annexed the Names of 4774 of the Knights, Gentlemen, &c.

The KING's Answer.

At the Court at York, July the 5th, 1642.

His Majesty hath commanded me to give this express Answer to this Petition.

'That his Majesty is very well pleased with the Duty and Affection of this Petition, and hath commanded me to signify his good Acceptance of it, and Thanks for it to the Petitioners, and to assure them, That if some others had had the same Sense of, and Gratitude for his Justice and Favour towards them, in the yielding of his Royal Assent to so many good Bills as the Petitioners have, and given as good Credit to his Professors and Protestations, for the Defence of the Religion and Laws established, as the Petitioners give, and been as ready to recollect and embrace all good Means that might tend to a happy Union, and renew a right Understanding between his Majesty and his Parliament; as his Majesty hath been, is, and ever shall be. This (by the Help of God) had been by this Time a most secure, united, and happy Kingdom, free from all the present Jealousies, Distractions, and Dangers.

'And as his Majesty consents with the Petitioners in a most earnest Desire that such a Way may be discovered and pursued, which might reconcile all Differences and Mistakings, and by which he may have full Satisfaction in his just Demands; so he likewise consents with them, that the Choice of some Place, free from Exception, both of Danger and Distrust, would be the most probable, and indeed a certain Means to attain that End, which out of his great Affection to Justice and Peace, and his Care of the Freedom (which is the principal Privilege) of Parliament, his Majesty hath often intimated, and of late seriously recommended to both Houses, but not only without Success, but without Answer.

'His Majesty doth likewise assure the Petitioners, that he will no longer expect that they should make good their Professions of being ready, according to their Power, with their Lives and Fortunes, to defend his Person, Honour, Crown, and Dignity, than he shall be ready, according to his Power, with his Life and Fortune, to defend the Religion and Laws established, against all Maligners of the Peace and Prosperity of the Kingdom.


Petition of Holderness, July 6, 1642.

Petition of Holderness complaining of Sir John Hotham.

We your Majesty's Loyal and Oppressed Subjects, having for the Space of four Months (with much patience and prejudice) endured great and insupportable Loss by Sir John Hotham 's taking into Hull (a distinct County from us) part of the Trained-Bands of Yorkshire, contrary to Law, your Sacred Majesty's Right, and express Command, by detaining our Arms, destroying our Trade and Markets, with many more Pressures upon us than we are willing to repeat. Howbeit, this last Attempt of cutting our Banks, drowning part, and endangering the rest of the Level of Holderness, is a Presumption higher than was ever yet attempted by any Subject to our Knowledges; as if Sir John Hotham at once intended to destroy our Free-holds and Proprieties, and for no other Cause, as we conceive, but for serving your Majesty according to our Allegiance, and the known Laws of the Land.

Our most humble Prayer therefore is, That your Majesty will vouchsafe speedily to take the Premisses into your gracious and tender Consideration for securing our Fears.

And your Majesty's Petitioners, as in Duty bound, shall ever pray for your happy and glorious Reign over us.

His Majesty's Answer.

'That he, with just Consideration, and all possible Compassion, considers the miserable Condition of the Petitioners, and will, both by publishing his Proclamations, and by drawing such Forces together as he shall be able to levy, endeavour the Petitioners Relief in their present Sufferings, and prevention of their future, with any Hazard that may befall his own Person. In the mean time his Majesty hopes all his good Subjects do plainly discern how impossible it is for their Interests to be preserved, when his just Rights and Power are taken from him.


Petition of Kent, August 1, 1642.

Petition from Kent.

Most Gracious Sovereign,
We do with all Thankfulness acknowledge your great Care and Favour towards us, and the whole Kingdom, in passing many good Laws for the Benefit of your Subjects, in promising to ease us of all our Grievances, and graciously invicing us by your Letter directed to the Judge of our Assize, full of Love and Care for your Peoples Good, to petition for Redress of them, promising a gracious Answer. And we should with all Humility have presented them to your Majesty at this Time, did not the present great Distractions, and Apprehensions of a Civil War (which we earnestly pray to God to divert) put us beyond all thought of other Grievances. For Prevention whereof, we have with all Loyalty of Heart to your Sacred Majesty, with all Love and Faithfulness to our County, presented our humble Advice in certain Instructions to one of our Knights of the Shire, now here present with a Committee from the House of Commons, to be presented by him to that Honourable House.

Most humbly desiring your most Excellent Majesty, that if it shall please the Houses of Parliament to satisfy your Majesty's just Desires in these Particulars. That then your Majesty would be graciously pleased to lay down your extraordinary Guards, and chearfully meet your Parliament in such a Place where your Sacred Majesty, and each Member of both Houses, may be free from Tumultuary Assemblies.

And, as in all Duty bound, we shall daily pray for your Majesty's long Life, and prosperous Reign over us.

The King's Answer.

His Majesty hath, with great Satisfaction in the Loyalty and Affection of the Petitioners, considered this Petition, with the Instructions annexed to their Knight of the Shire, and hath expresly commanded me to return this his Answer in these Words:

'That the Petitioners are not more eased and satisfied with the good Laws his Majesty hath passed, than his Majesty himself is pleased with that Way of obliging his Subjects; neither hath he ever made the least Promise or Profession of Repairing or Redressing the Grievances of his People, which he hath not been, and will be always ready to perform.

'His Majesty cannot blame the Petitioners to be apprehensive of a Civil War, since the present Distractions (grounded upon no visible Cause, to which his Majesty could, nor can yet apply a Remedy) threaten no less Confusion. But his Majesty doubts not that the Petitioners, and all his good Subjects, do well understand, That his Majesty hath left no Way unattempted, which in Honour or Wisdom could be consented to, to prevent that Confusion.

'That after so many Injuries and Indignities offered to him, so many Combinations and Conspiracies against him, he departed so much from his own Majesty, and the Justice due to him, that he required no other Reparation, than to have his Town, Goods, and Navy (taken and kept by Violence from, and against him) to be restored to him; the Power of making Laws without him, by the way of Ordinances (and in that particular concerning the Militia) to be disavowed: And that a safe Place may be agreed on, where he might be present with his Great Council, for the composing all Misunderstandings, and making the Kindom happy.

'That before any Answer returned to his Majesty (whilst with all Patience and Hope his Majesty forbore any Action or Attempt of Force according to Promise) Sir John Hotham issued out of Hull in the Night, burned the Houses and murthered the Persons of his fellow Subjects, (though he knew his Majesty quietly expected an Answer to his reasonable and necessary Demands) and hath since exercised most barbarous Cruelty upon a Drummer then taken Prisoner by him.

'That those Propositions made by his Majesty, and mentioned by the Petitioners in their Instructions, are dissented from, and his Majesty not suffered to enjoy what is as unquestionably his own, as any thing his Subjects can call most theirs, upon pretence there is some Trust of Foot to dispossess his Majesty of them; whether any such Trust be derived from the Petitioners, themselves best know.

'That a General is made to command his Soldiers against him, and Forces already marching with Cannon towards him, under the Conduct of the Lord Brook, whilst all Labour and Endeavour is used to cut off all Succour and Supply from his Majesty, as from a Foreign Enemy.

'When the Petitioners, and all other his Majesty's Subjects have weighed this, and considered that these strange unheard of Proceedings must be the Effect of desperate Resolutions, and that all this Calamity is brought upon this Nation, to wrest from his Majesty his just Rights, when no sober Man can see the want of any thing which is in his Majesty's Power to grant, and necessary for the Peace and full Happiness of the Kingdom.

'That when all Encouragement is given, Scandals raised, and Provocations used to incense the People against his Majesty, and to publish Petitions and Declarations against the known Laws and established Government; the Petitioners, and all other his Majesty's good Subjects (who out of a true Sense of the Distractions and Ruin the Common-wealth must speedily fall into thro' these Distempers, have prepared sober and moderate Petitions and Animad-versions for the Peace of the Kingdom) have been discountenanced, censured and imprisoned in a lawless arbitrary Way, when no Offence hath been committed by them, of which the Law hath taken Notice. That all their Rights, Interests, and Privileges which they were born to by the good known Laws, are taken from them, or subjected to an unintelligible arbitrary Power and Resolution, which destroys their Confidence and Assurance even in Innocency it self. They will think it time to provide for their own Security, by assisting his Majesty for the Defence of his Person, Preservation of the true Protestant Religion, and Maintenance of the Law of the Land, and Liberty of the Subject; of the which, as the Petitioners Care is very eminent, and deserves all Protection, Thanks and Estimation from his Majesty, so his Majesty will venture his Life and his Crown with them in that Quarrel.

'Lastly, Left any of the Petitioners may unjustly suffer for making, or presenting this humble, dutiful, and modest Petition to his Majesty, his Majesty declares that he will with his utmost Power and Assistance protect and defend them against any Power whatsoever, which shall question them for so doing; and to that purpose advertiseth them, that they are not obliged to yield Obedience to any Pursevants, Serjeants, or Messengers, who shall endeavour to molest them for doing their Duty, and discharging their Consciences therein. And that the whole County of Kent may know his Majesty's gracious Acceptance of this Expression of their Duty and Affection unto him, it is his Majesty's Pleasure, that this his Answer, together with the Petition and Instructions, be read in all Churches and Chappels of that County,


Petition of Flint, August 4, 1642.

Aug. 4, 1642. Petition of Flint.

That your Petitioners do with all due Submission, Thankfulness, and Joy of Heart acknowledge the Happiness they have enjoyed, of a long Peace under your gracious Government, and your Goodness in yielding to a ready Redress of such Grievances as have grown in that Time of Ease and Security, and in enacting such Laws in this Parliament as your Petitioners hope will prevent the like for the future.

They are further tenderly apprehensive of your Majesty's transcendent Goodness, in your free condescending to give your People so full and clear an Account of your Actions and Intentions, and rest thoroughly perswaded of the Sincerity and Constancy of your Majesty's Resolution to maintain the true Protestant Religion in its primitive Purity, the Laws of the Land in their genuine Sense, the just Privileges, Freedom, and Frequency of Parliaments, with the Propriety and Liberty of the Subject thereupon depending and your Majesty's Willingness to join with your Great Council, in granting or enacting any other good Laws, that may be for the Publick-weal of your People, who as they have ever flourished and been most happy and secure in all Acts and Ordinances passed by the three Estates, and most peaceably governed, under the known Laws of the Land.

So it is the humble Prayer of us, your Majesty's most Loyal Subjects, (prostrating at your Majesty's Feet our Persons and Estates) for Protection (according to your Oath) from those Dangers we should be driven into, by being bound by any Rule, Order, or Ordinance, whereunto your Majesty together with both Houses of Parliament, shall not assent.

We also further supplicate your Majesty, so to maintain us in that ancient and necessary Privilege, as not to suffer us to be governed, but by the known and established Laws of the Land.

And your Petitioners, as in Duty bound, and as by the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy they conceive themselves bound, shall not only pray for the preservation of your Majesty's Sacred Person, Honour, Estate, and lawful Prerogative, but shall be always ready to hazard their Lives and Fortunes for the Maintenance and Defence of the same, against all Powers and Persons whatsoever.

The King's Answer.

'His Majesty hath commanded me to return this Answer to this Petition, That his Majesty is much pleased with the Duty and Affection expressed by the Petitioners, and with so evident a Testimony, that the Grievances he hath redressed, the Laws he hath passed, and the Declarations he hath made, have produced the Effects for which they were intended, the Satisfaction, Gratitude, and Confidence of his good Subjects, which he doubts not, but the whole Course of his Government will daily increase. That his Majesty is no less pleased to see them so sensible of what hath, and ever will best preserve their Happiness and Security; and that therefore they desire only to be governed by that Rule, which he is resolved only to govern by, the known and established Laws of the Land, assuring them, That according to his Oath, he will always protect them from the Invasion of any other assumed Arbitrary Power whatsoever, as long as he shall be able to protect himself; being resolved of nothing more, than to stand and fall together with the Law. And that he will not expect they should be any longer ready to express their Duties to him by the Hazard of themselves and Fortunes for the preservation of his Person, Honour, Estate, and lawful Prerogative, against all powers and persons whatsoever, than his Majesty shall ever be mutually ready to discharge his Duty towards them by the Hazard of Himself and Fortune for the preservation and defence of the Religion and Laws established, of the just Privileges and Freedom of Parliament, and of the Liberty and Propriety of his Subjects, against whomsoever shall endeavour either to destroy or oppose them.


His Majesty's Speech to the Gentlemen of Yorkshire, on Thursday the 4th of August.

Aug. 4. 1642. The King's Speech to the Yorkshire Gentlemen.

"When I directed that Summons should be sent out for your meeting here this Day, my principal end was, That I might give you Thanks for the great Forwardness and Expressions you have made of your Affections to me since I came into this Country, and to assure you, That as the whole Kingdom hath great Reason to value you exceedingly for it, so I shall be very unsatisfied with my self, till I have found some way to fix a Mark of Favour and Estimation upon this County, and this People, which may tell Posterity how good Subjects you have been, and how much Gentlemen; and I am confident the Memory of it will grow up with my Sons too, in a just Acknowledgment. This was the most I intended to say to you; but there is an unquiet Spirit abroad, which every day throws in new Accidents to disturb and confound the publick Peace. How I was driven from London, when I chose this Place for my Safety, is so notorious, that all Men know it who know any thing. With what strange Violence and Indignities I have been pursued since I came hither, needs no other Evidence than Sir John Hotham 's Behaviour at Hull, who is now arrived to that Insolence, that he will not suffer his Treason to be longer confined within those Walls, but makes Sallies out of the Town upon his Fellow Subjects, drowns their Lands, burns and plunders their Houses, murders, with unheard-of Cruelty and Torments, their Persons; and this with so much Delight, that he would not have the Patience to wait what Answer should be sent to my just Demands, though in that respect I engaged my self to forbear to use any Force, and kept my Word, but chose the night before that came (as if he well knew what Answer I was to receive) to act those Outrages.

"You see the sad Effects of Fears and Jealousies, the Miseries they have produced; no Man can tell you the least Good they have brought forth, or the least Evil they have prevented; what Inconvenience and Burden my Presence hath been here, what Disturbance it hath brought upon the Publick, or Grievance upon any private Person, your selves are best Judges. And whatsoever Scandal some Men have pleased to cast upon the Cavaliers, (which they intend should reach all my Retinue, and by Degrees shall involve all Gentlemen) I am confident, there hath not been any eminent Disorder or Damage befallen any Man by any Person of my Train, or under my Protection.

"I am sure my Directions have been very strict in that Point, and if they had not been observed, I think I should have heard of it by nearer Complaints, than from London: I pray God the same Care may be taken there. I am sure it hath not been. And to give you the fullest Testimony of my Affection to you, and to the Peace of this County, and to shew you that no Provocation shall provoke me to make this place to be the Seat of the War; I have for your sakes passed over the Considerations of Honour, and notwithstanding the Reproaches every day laid on me, laid no Siege to that place, that they may not have the least Pretence of doing you Mischief; but resolve by God's Help, to recover Hull some other way; for that I will ever sit down under so bold and unexcusable a Treason, no honest Man can imagine; but it seems other Men are not of my Mind, but resolve to make a War at your own Doors, whatsoever you do, or I suffer; to what Purpose else is their new General armed with an Authority to kill and destroy all my good Subjects; their Levies of Horse and Foot, some whereof are upon their March towards you, with Cannon mounted; and the sending so many new Soldiers into Hull, when there is no Approach made towards it, but to fally out and to commit Rapine, and by Degrees to pour out an Army upon upon you. In this I must ask your Advice, What you would do for your selves? and what you would have me do for you? You see how I am stripp'd of my Navy at Sea, which is imployed against me, of my Forts and Towns at Land, which are filled with armed Men to destroy me, my Money and Provisions of my House taken from me, all my Subjects forbid and threatened if they come near me, that I may by Famine or Solitariness be compelled to yield to the most dishonourable Propositions, and to put my self and Children into the Hands of a few malignant Persons, who have entered into a Combination to destroy us; And all this done under pretence of a Trust reposed by the People. How far you are from committing any such Trust, most of the Persons trusted by you, and your Expressions of Duty to me hath manifested to all the World; and how far the whole Kingdom is from avowing such a Trust, hath already in a great measure, and I doubt not will more every day appear by the Professions of every County: For I am wholly cast upon the Affections of my People, and have no Hope but in the Blessing and Assistance of God, the Justness of my Cause, and the Love of my Subjects, to recover what is taken from me and them; for I may justly say, they are equal Lofers with me.

"Gentlemen, I desire you to consider what Course is to be taken for your own Security from the Excursions from Hull, and the Violence which threatens you from thence; I will assist you any way you propose. Next, I desire you out of the publick Provision, or your private Store, to furnish me with such a number of Arms (Musquers and Corslets) as you may conveniently spare, which I do promise to see fully repay'd to you. These Arms I desire may be speedily delivered to the Custody of my Lord-Mayor of York, for my Use, principally from those Parts, which by reason of their Distance from Hull, are least subject to the Fear of Violence from thence. And whosoever shall so furnish me, shall be excused from their Attendance and Service at Musters, till their Arms shall be restored, which may well be sooner than I can promise, or you expect. I desire nothing of you but what is necessary to be done for the Preservation of God's true Religion, the Laws of the Land, the Liberty of the Subject, and the very Being of this Kingdom of England; for 'tis too evident all these are at Stake.

"For the compleating my Son's Regiment for the Guard of my Person, under the Command of my Lord of Cumberland, I refer it wholly to your selves, who have expressed such Forwardness in it.

The Presentment of the Grand Jury now assembled at York, August, 1642.

Humbly Sheweth,
That having taken into Consideration your Majesty's gracious Expressions to us, and our whole Country, in your Speech of the 4th of this Instant, August, whereby you are pleased to declare your desire to afford us your Assistance for the necessary Defence of this County, in these Times of imminent Danger, in such manner as we for our own Defence should propose, and to find some way to fix a Mark of Favour and Estimation upon us: We having taken the same into our Thoughts, have unanimously concluded upon the Propositions hereto annexed, which we presume humbly to present to your Royal Consideration. And forasmuch as we find that the Sum of 8690 l. 2 s. 6 d. is necessary for our present Defence, we most humbly beseech your Majesty, out of your Princely Wisdom, to direct some such Course, whereby the same may be speedily provided, and for that (in respect of your Majesty's speedy Departure out of these Parts) such emergent Occasions may happen as will admit of no Delay; We likewise beseech your Majesty, That the same Supplies, and all Warrants and Commissions mentioned in our Propositions to be necessary for the Service, may be issued out with all Expedition.

We the Inhabitants of the County of York, conceiving it necessary to shew the Reasons of our Resolutions, for the putting our Selves and County into a posture of Defence, under his Majesty's gracious Protection, to declare, That our Sufferings in the late billited Souldiery, and in the late publick Charges, might give us good Reason to expect better, than to have heavier Burdens imposed upon us. The Town of Hull, the chief Port of our Trading, under Garison, to the distraction of our Trarsick, his Majesty dispossessed of his Magazine there; many hostile Acts committed, even to the effusion of Blood; and to add to our Miseries, the Head forced from the Body by Tumults; and many Members of both Houses, (Persons of real Fortunes, and known Integrity) have withdrawn themselves, conceiving many things to be done against the Freedom of Parliaments, and all subject to contrary Commands, tending to Arbitrary Government, and destructive to Monarchy. In redress whereof, we have humbly expressed our Grievances to both Houses of Parliament, by Messengers of Quality, one whereof is imprisoned.

This being our Condition, we are forced to resort to his Majesty, for such natural Ways as conduce to the Preservation of our Selves, Wives, Children and Fortunes. Our Thoughts tend no farther, than to the Defence of the true professed Protestant Religion, in opposition to Popery and Schismatical Innovations, our known Laws, his Majesty's Rights and due Prerogatives, against all unlawful Votes and Ordinances, though under colour of Religion or any other Pretence, how specious soever; the just Privileges of Parliaments, the Rights, Liberties and Properties of the Subject: And this we declare to all the World, being confident of your Majesty's gracious Protection of us in these our just and necessary Resolutions.

  • 1. It is held fit by the Committee, that upon the 24th of this Instant, there be an exact Muster of all the Horse of the Trained-Bands at York, at the Mannor, by Ten of the Clock in the Morning; and that the Defaulters be severely proceeded against; and to this purpose a Commission is to issue out instantly to the Officers, and Warrants to be directed to the Chief Constables to Summon accordingly: And it is to be inserted in the Warrant, That this Meeting is to be for the Defence, Peace, and Quiet of this County.
  • 2. It is likewise resolved, That the Persons charged with the Trained-Horse, shall be desired to maintain their Men and Horse for one Month, from the 24th of this Instant.
  • 3. That his Majesty may be humbly desired to appoint Sir Thomas Glemham Lieutenant-Collonel, Henry Watty and Captain Winn to attend the Service of this County.
  • 4. That a Commission of Oyer and Terminer, and Goal-Delivery, be settled at York, to be directted to all the Commissioners of Array, and Sir William Bell, Sir William Dalton, Sir William Wentworth, and Sir Thomas Harrison to be of the Quorum, with the rest of the Quorum in the Commission of Array.
  • 5. That such a Power be given to the Earl of Cumberland, as his Majesty shall hold fit for his Honour, and our Security; and that the Earl of Cumberland may continue his Troop here to attend him, during such time as it shall be necessary to employ them here.
  • 6. That his Majesty would be pleased to leave here such Field-Pieces as his Occasions can spare, with necessary Provision, and Cannoneers; and that such Ammunition be restored to the County, as hath been taken out of the Magazine for his Majesty's Use; as also the Arms of the Trained-Bands of the County, who were lately brought to York.
  • 7. That the Earl of Cumberland shall receive the Magazine of the County from the Sheriff, as he may be charged with it.
  • 8. That his Majesty may be humbly moved to give the Wardship of such Gentlemens Sons, and others, as shall die in his Service, or in Defence of the County.
  • 9. That his Majesty may be pleased, upon the setting up of his Royal Standard, to dispense with the Appearance of such Persons of this County, as either assist his Majesty in his Wars, or contribute to the Defence of this County.
  • 10. It's ordered, that upon the 25th of this Month, all the Gentry of this County, cause the Number of Corslets desired by his Majesty, to be brought in altogether, those of the West-riding to Doncaster, and those of the East and North-riding to York.
  • 11. It's agreed, that to morrow Morning three Gentlemen in every Division shall be appointed to bring in the Names of such of this County as shall be thought fit to bring in Horse, or to contribute to the Number of the 500 to be raised in this County.

His Majesty's Answer to the said Articles propounded by the Grand-Jury, and the Declaration delivered by them.

The King's Answer to the said Articles.

'His Majesty very well approveth of the first and second Articles, and hath already given Order for the third and fourth Articles, as is desired. The Earl of Cumberland 's Commission is already granted as is desired; and as for the Troop, his Majesty is contented it shall stay here, as is desired; but expects that the rest of those Troops be hastened to his Majesty with all Expedition, and that that which stayed, shall countenance and protect his Magazine going from hence; and in case, in his Absence, any more Ammunition come from Holland, that they, together with the Trained-Bands, should secure it to the Edge of Yorkshire towards Nottingham. His Majesty hath so few Field-Pieces, that he cannot promise he will leave them any, but hath given Orders to his Officers of the Artillery, to restore so much of the munition of the County as he hath made use of.

'His Majesty doth promise freely, to give the Wardships of all their Sons, who shall be killed in his Majesty's Service, or in Defence of the County.

'His Majesty fully consents to the 9th and 10th Articles. His Majesty withal declares himself to receive great Satisfaction from the Affections, Carriage and Loyalty of this County, and doth promise them, that since they are resolved upon so strong and so evident Inducements, to take care of his Majesty and their own Preservation, and neither to desert him, nor themselves, that he will be as careful of their Safety as they have been; and will either protect, (which by God's Grace he doubts not) or perish with them.

The Declaration and Protestation of the Gentry and Free-holders of the County of York, August 29, 1642. against the late recited Presentment,

We the Gentry, Freeholders, and others of the County of York, whose Names are hereunto subscribed, being none or very few of us present, and none of us consenting to the late Assembly and Consultations at York; wherein Propositions have been made for the raising of Forces of Horse and Foot in this County; the levying of Monies for the Maintenance of them, and taking away the Arms of some peaceable Subjects; nor any at all of us consenting to the lawless and unprecedented Presentment of the Grand Juries at the last Assizes held for this County, being framed to give more strength and colour to part of those Propositions. The said Propositions and Presentments being contrary (as we conceive) to the Laws of the Land, and tending to the introducing of an Arbitrary Government, the taking away the Propriety of every Subject in his Estate, the Liberty of his Person, and the most necessary Use and Privilege of Parliament; and, which is the worst of all Evils, to beget a War in the Bowels of this County. We thinking our selves, and all the rest of the Subjects of this County, to be so highly concerned in the Proceedings afore-mentioned (as without great disadvantage to us all, we may not be silent therein) do make this our Protestation and Declaration before God and the World, That as our Actions have hitherto been altogether peaceable; so our Desire, Intentions and Resolutions are altogether pacifical, and that all our Endeavours and Labours shall only tend to the Settlement and Continuance of the Peace according to the Laws of the Land, and to the uniting of the Factions, and taking away the Distractions that have most unhappily broken the general Unity of the Inhabitants of this County; and that nothing can be more dangerous and destructive thereunto, than the raising and continuing together in a Body such Forces of Horse and Foot in this County, as have been propounded and advised as aforesaid, without Consent and Authority of Parliament: We conceiving the advising thereof to proceed from some destructive Counsels, the end whereof is to embroil this Kingdom in such a Deluge of War, as hath already (though under other pretences) swallowed up the Protestant Religion, the Peace and prosperous Condition of the Kingdom of Ireland.

And seeing his Sacred Majesty hath often declared to us, That the Laws of the Land shall be the Rule of his Government; and that he expects it shall be the measure of our Subjection, we cannot conceive that any of these Proceedings so grievous to the Subject are consented unto, or warranted by his Gracious Majesty.

And therefore we further declare, That we will not consent, nor as much as in us lies, suffer that any such Forces, either Horse or Foot, be raised of the Train'd-Bands of this County; nor that Monies be levyed for the maintaining thereof, nor that the Arms of any Subjects (other than Popish Recusants) be taken from them, nor will we consent or suffer, in as much as in us lyeth, that any War or Hostility be acted in this County; nor any Foreign Force brought in upon us. And if any such Attempts shall be offered or made, we will endeavour to resist and suppress them, and to keep the Peace of the County entire, so far as the ancient known Laws of the Land, and the late Declarations and Orders of Parliament made upon this emergent Occasion, shall enable us therein. And we likewise declare, That we shall be most ready and willing upon general Summons given at York, or any other convenient place to be appointed, to meet the rest of the Gentry, and other considerable Inhabitants of the County, to advise of such Matters as may endanger the Violation of the Peace, and may conduce to the prevention thereof, and the uniting of the whole County in an amicable Resolution to oppose all such unlawful Pressures, so as such Assembly of the County may be with Freedom of every Man's Person and Vote, and not over-aw'd by any Forces of Horse and Foot laid together in a place where they may command the Assembly.

In which Assembly or Consultation we declare, That it is not our Intention to decline the provident Care of the Parliament in placing a Garrison for the present at Hull, to prevent the Surprizal of that important Place, either by Foreign Forces, or such native Plots and Conspiracies as are to the Life represented to us in that most deplorable Kingdom of Ireland, which by the bloody Counsels, and the Rebellions of the Papists, is in a manner brought to utter Desolation And we desire that this our Declaration and Protestation may be published in all the Parish-Churches and Markets of this County, to the end that all Men may take notice of our legal and peaceable Resolutictn. Dated the 29th of August, 1642.

    Subscribed by

  • Fer. Faifax,
  • Jo. Savile,
  • Ch. Fairfax,
  • Jo. Farrer,
  • Jo. Coppley,
  • Jo. Farrer,
  • Tho. St. Nicholas,
  • Jo. Bright,
  • Tho. Westby,
  • Tho. Fairfax,
  • William Ingleby,
  • Tho. Stockdale,
  • William Lister,
  • Tho. Maleverer,
  • Jo. Maleverer,
  • Tho. Lister,
  • William White,
  • Rich. Hawksworth, and many others.

A Letter from the Speaker of the House of Commons, to the Gentry, &c. of the County of York, in Answer to their Protestation.

Mr. Speaker's Letter touching the said Protestation, Septemb. the 7th, 1642.

My Lords and Gentlemen,
I Am commanded by the House to let you know, that it is a very great Satisfaction and Contentment to this House to find the Affections and Resolutions of your County, so worthily and seasonably expressed, and with so much Wisdom, as they have observed in this your Protestation now presented unto them; upon which this House doth set a much higher Rate and Value in respect of the many subtile Practices of the malignant Party in your County, both to disquiet the Peace of the whole Kingdom, and to oppose the just Proceedings of this House, and to beget, if it had been possible, a contrary Opinion of you, from which you have now so fully vindicated your selves, and the most considerable part of that County.

Nor can we but observe, That at this Time, when the Protestant Religion and Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom, and Liberty of the Subjects are so much invaded, as appeareth by that unheard of prevalency of wicked Counsel, which hath arrived to that heighth as to procure Houses of Parliament to be proclaimed Traytors, (a thing never before attempted, no not in the worst Times) you do with so much Zeal and Courage offer your selves to support your King, your Religion, and Liberty: All which will be preserved by your faithful Adherence to the Parliament.

And besides all these, the House cannot but take Notice of your Wisdom and Fidelity in expressing your Detestation of those lawless Consultations and Resolutions at the last Assizes at York, where Propositions were made for raising Forces both of House and Foot in that County, the levying of Money for the maintenance of them, together with the taking away the Arms of the peaceable and best-affected Subjects; all which was endeavoured to be strengthened by the bold and illegal Attempts of the Grand-Jury, who at that time did lay aside all Precedents of Love and Justice in such Presentments as were at that time by them made, which Matter this House will in due time take into serious Consideration.

For your Resolution to withstand all these so illegal Proceedings, the House hath commanded me to return you their most hearty Thanks, and to let you know, that this House doth esteem your Affections herein as the most lively Demonstrations of your Loyalty to his most Sacred Majesty, and infallible Symptoms of your Fidelity, as the only means to preserve the Felicity of the English Nation.

Lastly, This House hath commanded me to let you know, that they do assent to your Desire of publishing this your Protestation in all Parish-Churches, Markets, and Fairs within the County, the same being, as they conceive, a matter so much tending to the preservation of the Peace, not only within your County, but likewise within the several parts of the whole Kingdom. And thus I bid you heartily farewel, and rest,

Your loving Friend,

W. Lenthall.

Dated Septemb. 7, 1642.


To the Right Honourable Ferdinando Lord Fairfax, Sir Thomas Fairfax, Knt. Charles Fairfax, Esq; Sir Thomas Malevorer, Knt. and Baronet, Sir Edward Rhodes, Knt. Sir John Savile, Knt. Mr. Stockdale, and John Farrer, Esqrs; and to the rest of the Gentry, Freeholders, and Inhabitants of the County of York, that subscribed the late Protestation sent up to the House of Commons.

A Letter from a Committee of both Houses at Westminster into Yorkshire, touching the Lord Fairfax's being Commander in Chief Sept. 27, 1642.

We have received Information, that at a late Meeting at Leedes, divers worthy Gentlemen and others, well-affected Inhabitants of Yorkshire, have declared themselves desirous to preserve the Peace of that County, and to secure his Majesty's Subjects from those violent Oppressions executed upon their Persons and Estates by the Earl of Cumberland, the Lord Savile, and others, by pretence of the Commission of Array, and other Commissions against Law; and for that purpose have thought upon a Noble Person of your County, the Lord Fairfax to command in Chief over the Forces of that Shire. And that John Hotham, Esq; lately conferr'd much Help and Furtherance to this noble Resolution, by coming out of Hull with some Forces, both Horse and Foot. Hereupon we have received Direction from both Houses of Parliament, to signify unto you their Approbation, and to give all Encouragement and Assistance in these Proceedings, as conducing much to that great Work which the Parliament hath undertaken, to secure Religion, and the Liberty and Peace of the Kingdom, which are much endangered by the ill Counsel about his Majesty, and the War now raised against the Parliament. In pursuance whereof, we have thought good hereby to desire and authorize you to draw the Forces of that County together, under the Conduct of the Lord Fairfax, and to defend his Majesty's Subjects in their Persons and Liberties against the said Earl of Cumberland, or any other that shall oppose the same by pretence of any Commission whatsoever. And for your better performance hereof, we intend to send down very speedily some Forces of Horse and Foot from hence, as likewise some experienced Officers, with ample Instructions, in such manner as hath been given to other Parts of the Kingdom in the like Case; and to commend the Lord Fairfax to the Earl of Essex, entreating his Excellency to send him a Commission to the same Effect: And in the mean time we have sent this Bearer of purpose to give you Notice of the Intention and Order of the Lords and Commons in Parliament, and of our particular Care to second your good Affections and Endeavours in this so necessary and advantageous Service of the Kingdom; And so remain,

Westminster, September 27, 1642, at
Eight of the Clock at Night.


  • Henry Vane.
  • John Pym.
  • Tho. Barrington.
  • Henry Marten.

A Speech delivered to his Majesty by Sir Charles Dallison, Recorder of Lincoln, at his Majesty's Reception into the said City, July 15, 1642.

July 15, 1642. Sir Ch. Dollison's Speech to his Majesty at Lincoln.

Most Gracious Sovereign,
We your Majesty's most Dutiful and Obedient Subjects, before we were encouraged by the Influence of your Majesty's Presence, knew not what to do, being amazed with Fears and Jealousies rumoured and spread abroad, whereby divers of your Majesty's good Subjects were distracted, and the more, because we never knew, nor could imagine any Cause of Fear or Jealousie.

Sir, I cannot more properly compare our Case, than to a Man in perfect Health, yet doth fancy himself Sick of a Consumption; whom if his Fortune be to light of a skilful and honest Physician, he is in no Danger; but if upon an Empirick, it is like his Body should be brought into that Condition, which before he did but fancy himself to be in. I am doubtful if these Persons who have been the Cause of raising and fomenting these Fears and Jealousies, might chuse their own Physician, and apply their own Medicine, it would hazard the Ruin of the Common-Wealth, by abolishing the ancient and fundamental Laws thereof; but the Subjects of this Nation (God be thanked) are in a better Case. It is not in the Power of wicked Men, either to make Choice of a Physician, or to apply the Medicine, your Sacred Majesty being our great Physician, and without your Majesty's Consent and Command, no Medicine can be apply'd.

And to the unspeakable Joy and Comfort of all your Majesty's faithful Subjects, it is sufficiently signify'd to the World by your Majesty's most Kingly Declarations, expressing your Resolution to Maintain and Govern by the known Laws of this Realm, to desend the true Protestant Religion established by Law, by which means your Loyal Subjects shall be preserved and protected from Arbitrary Government: Let the most evil-affected Person then deny, if he can, but that we have from our King what is to be wished, and that without asking or petitioning. There is only one Question to be asked, and a short Answer thereunto: What is now to be done? To which every ingenuous Soul must acknowledge the Want is on our Parts, we owe all we have to be disposed by your Majesty, for the Maintenance and Preservation of your just Rights and Prerogatives, which cannot be maintained but thereby; the Privileges of your Subjects will be likewise defended, (the same Law defending both) and under which Law the People of this Nation have been most happily governed under your Majesty, and your most noble Progenitors many Hundred Years: For the Continuation of which Government, for my own particular, (prostrating my self at your Majesty's Feet) I humbly offer and render unto your Majesty, my Self, Estate, and Fortune.

And, Sir, I have Warrant from the Mayor of this City, and the whole Body of this Corporation, to beseech your Majesty to accept of the like Offer from them. So with this short Ejaculation I shall conclude, beseeching God to bless and preserve your Sacred Person, and this our most noble and hopeful Prince Charles, with all your Royal Issue; and that this Nation and People, and all your Dominions, may be governed by your Majesty and your Posterity to the World's End.

The King's Speech to the Gentry and Free-holders of Lincoln.

'If I could have suspected your Affections, or have censured the Duty of this County, by some late Actions in it, I should not have taken this Pains, to have given you a Testimony of my Affection to you, and to remove those Objections, which being raised by a malignant Party, may, by their Cunning and Industry, get Credit even with honest Minds. The Truth is, I come to you to assure you of my Purposes and Resolutions, for the Defence of whatever is or should be dear unto you, your Religion, your Liberty, your common Interest, and the Law of the Land: And to undeceive you of that Opinion which I hear hath misled many of you, that the pretended Ordinance of the Militia is warranted by my Consent and Authority. As I have already informed you by my several Declarations and Messages, that the same is against the known Law, and an Invasion of my unquestionable Right, and of your Liberty and Property: So I do now declare unto you, That the same is imposed upon you against my express Consent, and in contempt of my Regal Authority: And therefore whosoever shall henceforth presume to execute or obey the same, I shall proceed against them, as against such who promote Rebellion, and actually levy War against me: And I doubt not but you will sadly consider, That if any Authority, without and against my Consent, may lawfully impose such Burthens upon you, it may likewise take all that you have from you, and subject you to their lawless arbitrary Power and Government. And how far they are like to exercise that Jurisdiction towards you, you may guess by the Insolence of Sir John Hotham at Hull, who (being a Subject) not only presumes to keep his Sovereign, by Force of Arms, out of his Town, but murders his Fellow-Subjects, imprisons them, burns their Houses, drowns their Land, takes them Captives, and commits such Outrages and Acts of Hostility, as the most equal and outragious Enemies practise in any Country. That you may see how impossible it is for your Liberties and Properties to be preserved, when your King is oppressed, and his just Rights taken from him. Who hath brought these Calamities upon your Neighbours at Hull, every Man sees, and they only can bring the same upon you. I will not believe you to be so insensible of the Benefits you have received from me, that I need put you in mind of the gracious Acts passed by me this Parliament on your Behalfs; and if there be any thing wanting to the making you the happiest Subjects in the World. I am sure it is not my Fault that you have not that too. Be not deceived with Words and general Expressions; it is not in your Power to name one Particular which might make you happy, that I have refused to grant. Be not frighted with Apprehensions, that this Country is like to be the Seat of a War: The Seat of a War will be only where Persons rise in Rebellion against Me; that will not, I hope, be here, and then you shall be sure of my Protection. I will live and die in your Defence; and that you may be in a readiness, and a posture to desend your Selves and Me against any Invasion or Rebellion, I have Armed several Persons of Honour, Quality and Reputation amongst you, and of your own County, with a Commission of Array to that purpose. There is no honest End declared in that Orninance, which is not provided for by this Commisson; which being according to the old known Laws, is fit for your Obedience, and I doubt not will find it.

'In a word, I assure you, upon the Faith and Honour of a Christian King, I will be always as tender of any thing which may advance the true Protestant Religion, protect and preserve the Laws of the Land, and defend the just Priviledge and Freedom of Parliament, as of my Life, or my Crown; and when I fail in either of these. I will not look for your Assistance; 'till then, you are concerned not to see Me suffer.

The King's Speech at Newark to the Inhabitants of Nottingham.

'Your honest Resolutions and Affections to Me and your Country, for the Defence of my Person, and the Laws of the Land, have been, and are so notable, that they have drawn Me hither only to thank you. I go to other places to confirm and undeceive my Subjects, but am come hither only to thank and encourage you. You have made the best Judgment of Happiness, by relying on that Foundation, which the Experience of so many Hundred Years hath given such proof of, the Assurance and Security of the Law: And assure your selves, when Laws shall be altered by any other Authority, than that by which they were made, your Foundations are destroy'd. And though it seems at first but to take away my Power, it will quickly swallow all your Interest. I ask nothing of you, (though your Demeanour gives me good Evidence that you are not willing to deny) but to preserve your own Affections to the Religion and Laws established. I will justifie and protest those Affections, and will live and die with you in that Quarrel.

The Petition of the Inhabitants of the Town of Lancaster, May 11, 1642.

Shewing to your Sacred Majesty,
Our Heart-breaking Sense and Sorrow for the unhappy Rents and Distractions in your Majesty's Dominions, especially in the Time of the Session of so Grave and Godly an Assembly, (most graciously convened by your Majesty) endeavouring the Glory of Almighty God in the Reformation of Religion, and the Honour and Weal of your Majesty, and your Realms, in settling and securing of your Royal Throne in Plenty and Peace. But perceiving the long and remote Distance of your Majesty from that Honourable Assembly to have distracted the Hearts of your good Subjects, and animated the Popish and Malignant Party among us, and fearing it may expose us to the Danger and Fury of a Foreign Foe, retard the settling of the weighty Affairs in our Land, and the subduing of the Rebels in Ireland, and finding your Majesty's late Resolution for that Expedition to threaten Danger to your Royal Person, far more worth than Ten thousand of us.

We therefore your Majesty's most Loyal Subjects, out of our Zeal of God's true Religion, your Majesty's Honour and Safety, and the Peace and Welfare of your Dominions: And out of the deep Sense and Apprehension of our Interest in the same, do in all humility present and prostrate our Selves and Supclication at your Royal Feet, beseeching your Majesty to return to your Great Council, (the Representative Body of your Kingdom) in whom this Nation hath so far confided, that they have intrusted them with their Lives and Liberties, 'and in which multitude of Counsellors there is Health and Stedfastness, and whereby your Royal Throne may be established in Righteousness; and we, with the rest of your faithful Subjects, shall continually praise and pray for your prosperous and happy Reign over us.

His Majesty's Answer.

'That this Petition, as some others of this Nature, is grounded upon Misinformation; and his Majesty being grieved, and highly offended to see how his good People have been and are abused by false Rumours and Intelligences, (which have procured causless Fears and Apprehensions refers the Petitioners to the Answers he hath given to the Declaration presented to him at Newmarket, and to the Petition presented to him the 26th of March last at York, wherein his Majesty saith, You will clearly perceive that he is not gone, but driven from his Parliament. His Majesty likewise, for your further Information of his Proceedings and Intentions, recommends to your View and Consideration, his two Messages and Declarations concerning Hull, and his Message touching the Reasons of his refusal to grant the Militia: All which, when they shall be fully presented to the rest of your County, he doubts not but that you will rest very well satisfied of his constant Resolution for the maintaining of, and governing his People by the Law of the Land; his immoveable Resolution for the Maintenance and Defence of the true Protestant Profession, and the Suppression of the barbarous Irish-Rebellion. And his Majesty faith, That He believes you may then find reason to petition the Parliament to comply with his Majesty's just Desires and gracious Offers, which is the only way safely and speedily to cure the present Distractions of this Kingdom, and (with God's Blessing) to put a happy End to the Irish-Rebellion: For the effecting whereof, (as his Majesty hath often said,) he will neither spare Pains, nor decline any Hazard of his Person or Fortune.

Edw. Nicholas.