Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 5, 1642-45. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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A Declaration of the Commons assembled in Parliament, for bringing to condign Punishment those that have raised false and scandalous Rumours against the House, how that they intend to Assess every Man's Power, and lay Excises upon every Commodity.
The Commons House of Parliament receiving Information, That divers publick Rumours and Aspersions are, by malignant Persons, cast upon this House, That they intend to Assess every Man's Power, and lay Excise upon That and other Commodities; the said House, for their Vindication therein, do declare, That those Rumours are False and Scandalous. And forasmuch as these false Rumours and Scandals are raised by ill-affected Persons: It is therefore Ordered, That the Authors of the false and scandalous Rumours shall be searched and enquired after, and apprehended, and brought to this House to receive condign Punishment.
The Mischiefs occasioned by conveying away the Great Seal from the Parliament (represented to the Lords at a Conference by Serjeant Wilde, on Tuesday, October the 10th) are these:
1. It was secretly and unlawfully carried away by the Lord Keeper, contrary to the Duty of his Place, who ought himself to have attended the Parliament, and not to have departed without Leave; nor should have been suffered to convey away the Great Seal, if his Intentions had been discovered.
2. It hath been since taken away from him, and put into the Hands of other dangerous and ill-affected Persons; so as the Lord Keeper being sent unto by the Parliament for the Sealing of some Writs, returned answer, That he could not seal the same, because he had not the Seal in his keeping.
3. Those who had the Managing thereof, have employed it to the Hurt and Destruction of the Kingdom sundry Ways, by making new Sheriffs in an unusual and unlawful Manner, to be as so many Generals or Commanders of Forces raised against the Parliament, by issuing out illegal Commissions of Array, with other unlawful Commissions for the same Purpose. By sending forth Proclamations against both Houses of Parliament, and several Members thereof, proclaiming them Traitors, against the Priviledges of Parliament, and Laws of the Land. By Sealing Commissions of Oyer and Terminer to proceed against them, and other of his Majesty's good Subjects adhering to the Parliament, as Traitors. By sending Commissions into Ireland to treat a Peace with the Rebels there, contrary to an Act of Parliament made this Session. Besides, divers other dangerous and illegal Acts have been passed under the Great Seal, since it was secretly convey'd away from the Parliament, whereby great Calamities and Mischiefs have ensued, to the Kingdom's Prejudice.
A Declaration and Protestation of the Lords and Commons in Parliament, to this Kingdom, and to the whole World, October 22, 1942.
We the Lords and Commons in this present Parliament assembled, do, in the Presence of Almighty God, for the Satisfaction of our Consciences, and the Discharge of that great Trust which lies upon us, make this Protestation and Declaration to this Kingdom and Nation, and to the whole World, That no private Passion or Respect, no evil Intention to his Majesty's Person, no Design to the Prejudice of his just Honour and Authority, ingaged us to raise Forces, and take up Arms against the Authors of this War, wherein the Kingdom is now inflamed.
And we have always desired from our Hearts and Souls, manifested in our Actions and Proceedings, and in several humble Petitions and Remonstrances to his Majesty, professed our Loyalty and Obedience to his Crown, Readiness and Resolution to defend his Person, and support his Estate with our Lives and Fortunes, to the uttermost of our Power. That we have been willing to pass by, not only those Injuries, Ignominies, Slanders, and false Accusations, wherewith we have been privily oppressed and grieved, but likewise many publick Incroachements, and high Usurpations, to the Prejudice of Religion and Liberty, divers bloody, traiterous, and cruel Practices and Designs, for the utter Ruin and Destruction of the Church and State, so as we might, for the Time to come, have been secured from that wicked and malignant Party, those pernicious and traiterous Counsellors, who have been the Authors and Fomenters of the former Mischiefs and present Calamities which have, and still do distemper this Church and State.
That for the same Purpose, and for the Avoiding of Blood, we directed the Earl of Essex, Lord-General, by himself or others, in some safe and honourable Way, to cause to be delivered an humble Petition, wherein we do desire nothing from his Majesty, but that he would return in Peace to his Parliament, and by their faithful Council and Advice, compose the Distempers and Confusions abounding in his Kingdoms, as he is bound to do; we therein profess, in the Sight of Almighty God, which is the strongest Obligation that any Christian, and the most solemn Publick Faith which any such State as a Parliament can give, that we would receive him with all Honour, yield him all true Obedience and Subjection, and faithfully endeavour to defend his Person and Estate from all Danger, and to the uttermost of our Power to establish him and his People in all the Blessings of a glorious and happy Reign, as it more largely express'd in that Petition.
For Delivery of which Petition, his Excellency hath twice sent unto the King, humbly desiring a safe Conduct for those who would be employed therein; but his Majesty refused to give any such safe Conduct, or to receive this humble and dutiful Petition, by any Address from the Earl of Essex saying, That if justice had been done, the Gentleman which brought the second Message could not have expected his Liberty.
By all which, with many other Evidences and Inducements, we are fully convinced in our Judgment and Belief, That the King's Counsels and Resolutions are so engaged to the popish Party, for the Suppression and Extirpation of the true Religion, that all Hopes of Peace and Protection are excluded, and that it is fully intended to give Satisfaction to the Papists, by Alteration of Religion, and to the Cavaliers and other Soldiers, by exposing the Wealth of the good Subjects, especially of the City of London, to be sacked, plundered, and spoiled by them.
That for the better effecting hereof, great Numbers of Papists have, in Shew, conformed themselves to the Protestant Religion, by coming to the Church, receiving the Sacrament, and taking the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy, which some of their own Priests have encouraged them to do, by maintaining, That they might do all those Things, and yet continue good Catholicks; under which Cover his Majesty did at first begin to strengthen himself, those of that Religion being weak and unable to endure the Envy and Discontent which the Arming of a Papist would procure in the Kingdom, and therefore endeavoured to keep off all Jealousies and Suspicions, by many fearful Oaths and Imprecations, concerning his Purpose of maintaining the Protestant Religion, and the Laws of the Kingdom, causing some professed Papists to be discharged out of his Army, and none to be received, that would not endure the Test of coming to Church, receiving the Sacrament, and taking the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy.
That his Majesty being now grown stronger, and able, as he conceives, to make good his own Ends by Arms; his Confidence in the Priests doth more clearly appear: Persons imprisoned for Priests, and Jesuits have been released out of Goal of Lancaster, profess'd Papists have been invited to rise and take up Arms, Commissions under his Majesty's Authority have been granted to many of them for Places of Command in this War, with Power to raise Men, and great Numbers have been raised by them, and they daily increase; as namely, to Sir Nicholas Thornton, Sir Thomas Howard, Baronet, Sir Edward Widdrington, Sir William Kiddell, Mr. Smith of Ash, Mr. George Wray, Mr. Edward Gray of Morph-Castle, Mr. Lancelot Errington of Dennington, Mr. Lancelot Holthy, all of Northumberland, Bishoprick of Durham, and Newcastle; to Mr. Clifton, Mr. William Walter, Sir William Garrard, Bart. Sir Cecil Strafford, Mr. Anderson of Lostock in the County of Lancaster, and divers Forces are raised and paid by the Earl of Worcester, and his Son the Lord Herbert, a notorious Papist, is made General of all South-Wales: And we are informed out of Yorkshire, by divers Persons of great Worth and Quality, That those that raise Forces in those Parts for his Majesty, do arm and imploy Papists, and do use their Advice in their Consultations; all which is contrary to the solemn Oaths, Protestations and Execrations whereby his Majesty bound himself to maintain the Protestant Religion, and the Laws of the Land, by which he endeavoured to get a Confidence in the People of his good Intentions, which, how well it is answered, we leave to the World to judge.
That Sir John Henderson and Colonel Cockram, Men of ill Report, both for Religion and Honesty, have been sent to Hamburgh and Denmark, as we are credibly informed, to raise Forces there, and to bring them to Newcastle, and to join with the Earl of Newcastle, and the Army of Papists which they intend to raise there; and that divers Endeavours have been used in other Foreign Parts to bring in strange Forces into the Kingdom; that the King hath received about him divers Papists in Ireland, some of which are indicted of High Treason for their Rebellion there, notoriously known to have been in actual Rebellion; namely, the Lord Taffe, Sir Oungane, proclaimed a Rebel, Col. Fitz-Williams, Dr. Meara indicted for the Rebellion in Ireland, and fled for the same, and yet Physician to Prince Rupert; and his Majesty hath sent for the Petition of the Irish Rebels, which the Justices had stop'd, with evident Expressions of Favour to them, whereby that Kingdom is like to become an unfit Habitation of any Protestants, and a Seminary of War and Treason against this Kingdom.
That divers English Traitors, Actors in the former Designs against the Kingdom and Parliament, are the Chief Counsellors and Actors in this unnatural War against his Subjects, as the Lord Digby, Oneal, Wilmot, Pollard, Ashburnham, and others.
That we have been likewise credibly informed, That divers Jesuits and Priests in Foreign Parts, make great Collections of Money for the Relief of the Papists in Ireland, and the Furthering of his Majesty's Designs here against the Parliament, and that by them, and those others fled out of this Kingdom for Treason, great Means are made to take up the Differences betwixt some Princes of the Roman Religion, that so they might unite their Strength for the Extirpation of the Protestant Religion, wherein principally this Kingdom, and the Kingdom of Scotland are concerned, as making the greatest Body of the reformed Religion in Christendom, and best able to defend themselves, and succour other Churches.
For all such Reasons we are resolved to enter into a Solemn Oath and Covenant with God, to give up our Selves, Our Lives and Fortunes into his Hands, and that we will, to the uttermost of our Power and Judgment, maintain his Truth, and conform our selves to his Will, that we will defend this Cause with the Hazard of our Lives against the King's Army, and against all that join with them in the Prosecution of this wicked Design, according to the Form to be agreed upon by both Houses of Parliament, to be subscribed by our Hands; and that we will for the said Ends associate our selves, and unite with all the well-affected in the City of London, and other Parts of his Majesty's Dominions.
That we expect our Brethren of Scotland, according to the Act of Pacification, whereby the two Kingdoms are mutually bound to suppress all Debates and Differences, to the Disturbance of the publick Peace, that they will help and assist us in defence of the Cause, which if the popish Party prevail, must either invalid them in that Alteration of Religion which will be made here, or engage them in a War against this Kingdom, to defend their own Religion and Liberty; and we doubt not but the God of Truth, and the great Protector of his People, will assist and enable us in this our just Defence, to restrain the Malice and Fury of those that seek our Ruin, and to secure the Persons, Estates, and Liberties of all that join with us, and to procure and establish the Safety of Religion, and Fruition of our Laws and Liberties in this and all other his Majesty's Dominions, which we do here again profess before the ever-living God, to be the chief End of all our Counsels and Resolutions, without any Intention or Desire to hurt or ruin his Majesty, either in his Person, or just Power.
Tho' his Majesty's Answer to this Declaration did not come out till after the Battel at Edghill, yet I think it will be more for the Reader's Satisfaction immediately to subjoin it, tho' 'tis fit to give him this Advertisement, for the better apprehending some Expressions therein.
His Majesty's Declaration to all his loving Subjects, upon Occasion of a late printed Paper
If in Truth the Framers of this Declaration are not engaged by any private Passion or Respect, by any evil Intention to our Person, or Design to the Prejudice of our just Honour and Authority to raise these Forces and Army against us, as they call Almighty God to witness they are not, they will think it their Duty to disclaim the Protection of the Conductors of that Army, who the next Day after this so solemn Protestation, used their utmost Power, by the Strength of that Army, to have destroyed, and put our Person (for whose defence they would make the World believe this Army is raised) into as much Danger as the Skill and Malice of desperate Rebels could do, otherwise this Protestation now made, will appear of the same Nature with those by which they promised to make us a glorious King, when by their Nineteen Propositions they endeavoured to strip us of all those Rights which made us a King and them Subjects.
What those Actions and Proceedings have been, which have manifested their Loyalty and Obedience unto us, will be as hard to find, as their humble Petitions and Remonstrances, when in Truth their Actions have been the greatest Scorns of our Authority, and their Petitions the greatest Reproaches and Challenges of us, which any Age have produced; and we have not only the clear Evidence of our own Conscience, but the Testimony of all good Men, that we left no Action unperformed on our Part, which might have prevented the Misery and Confusion which the Ambition, Fury, and Malice of these seditious Persons have brought upon this poor Kingdom; neither is there any Thing wanting to the Happiness of Church and State, but that Peace and Order which the Faction of these Men have robbed them of.
But they direct their General, the Earl of Essex, to deliver an humble Petition to us, wherein they desire nothing from us, but that we would return in Peace to our Parliament, and by their faithful Counsel and Advice, to compose the Distempers and Confusions abounding in our Kingdoms, as we are bound to do. We were never so backward in receiving, or so slow in answering the Petitions of either, or both our Houses of Parliament, that there was need by an Army to quicken us, which either or both Houses of Parliament have, in no Case, no more Shadow of Right or Power to raise by any Law, Custom, or Priviledge, than they have by their Votes to take away the Lives and Fortunes of all the Subjects of England; yet the Framers of this Declaration take it unkindly, that upon their Profession in the Sight of Almighty God (which is they say, the strongest Assurance that any Christian can give) we did not put our self into their Hands; those Hands which were listed up against us, and filled at that Time with Arms to destroy us; and leave a Strength God hath supplied us with of good and faithful Subjects, who not withstanding all their Threats and Menaces, had brought themselves to our Assistance. If that Petition had been so humble as they pretended, they would not have lost the Advantage of publishing it in this their Declaration, that the World might as well have been Witness of our Refusal of Peace, as it hath been of their Disdain of any Way to it, when they rejected our several earnest Offers of a Treaty.
But why did they not send this humble Petition? His Excellency twice sent unto us for a Safe-conduct for those who should be imployed therein, and we refused to give any, or to receive the humble and dutiful Petition. Sure, when our good Subjects shall understand the strange Enmity between these Men and Truth, the no Conscience they use in publishing, and informing those by whom they pretend to be trusted, Things monstrous and contrary to their own knowledge, they will not be less offended with their Falsehood to them, than their Treason to us. 'Tis well known, we never refused to give Admittance to any Message or Petition from either or both Houses of Parliament; their Messengers have been received and entertained, not only with that Safety, but with that Candor, as is due to the best Subjects, when their Errand had been full of Reproach and Scorn, and the Bringers bold, arrogant, and seditious in their Demeanours, and therefore there needed to have been no more Scruple made in the Delivery of this, than the other Petitions which have been brought us. The Truth is, we were no sooner acquainted at Shrewsbury, by the Earl of Dorset, that he had received a Letter from the Earl of Essex, intimating that he had a Petition from both Houses to be delivered to us, and to that Purpose asking a Safe conduct for those who should be sent; but we returned this Answer, That as we had never refused to receive any Petition from our Houses of Parliament, so we should be ready to give such a Reception and answer to this, as should be fit, and that the Bringers of it should come and go with all Safety, only we required that none of those Persons, whom we had particularly accused of High Treason, should be, by Colour of that Petition, imployed to us. After this, we heard no more till a second Letter, at least a Fortnight after the First, to the Earl of Dorset, informed us, That our former Answer was declared to be a Breach of Priviledge, that we would not allow any Messengers to come to us; that is, we were not content that such Persons, who had conspired our Death, might securely come into our Presence. Our second Answer differed little from our former; insisting, That the Address should not be made by any of those Persons whom we had particularly accused of High Treason, among whom the Earl of Essex himself was One; but declaring that our Ear should be still open to hear any Petition from our two Houses of Parliament. Whether this were a Denial from us to receive their Petition; or, Whether, if our two Houses of Parliament had indeed desired to treat with us by Petition, they might not as well have sent it to us, as they have done since their Instructions to their Ambassadors into Ireland, and their new Bill for rooting out Episcopacy, and devising a new Form of Church Government, let all the World judge. We have Reason to be lieve, that the Petition then prepared for us, (if we have seen the true Copy of it) was thought by the Persons trusted for the Presenting of it, fitter to be delivered after a Battle and full Conquest of us, than in the Head of our Army, when it might seem somewhat in our Power, whether we would be deposed, or no. For that continued dishonest Accusation, of our Inclination to the Papists, which the Authors of it in their own Consciences (which will one Day be dreadful to them) know to be most unjust and groundless; we can say no more, and we can do no more to the Satisfaction of the World. If they know that the Romish Priests have encouraged those of that Religion to conform themselves to the Protestant Religion, by coming to Church, receiving the Sacrament, and taking the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy, they are more conversant with the Subtilties of them than we are; but we must confess, till we be certain they have found that Way to deceive us, that is, to delude the Laws which are against them, we shall in Charity believe their Conformity to be real, and not pretended. But that any Priests or Jesuits imprisoned, have been released by us out of the Goal of Lancaster, or any other Goal, is as false, to use an Expression of their own, as the Father of Lyes could invent. Neither are the Persons named in that Declaration whom Commissions are supposed to be granted for Places of Command in this War, so much as known to us; nor have they any Command, or to our Knowledge, are present in our Army. And 'tis strange, that our Oaths and Protestations before Almighty God for the Maintenance of the Protestant Religion, should be so slighted, in the End of that Declaration, when in the Beginning of it, it is acknowledged to be the strongest Obligation and Assurance that any Christian can give; we desire to have our Protestations believed by the Evidence of our Actions; but they are informed (and that is Ground enough for them to lay the basest Imputation upon their Sovereign) That Sir John Henderson and Col. Cockram (Men of ill Report both for Religion and Honesty) are sent to Hamborough and Denmark (we thought we should have heard no more News from Denmark) to raise foreign Forces, and to bring them hither. We have before in our Declarations, (sufficient to satisfy any honest Man) declared our Opinion and Resolution concerning foreign Force; and we had never greater Cause to be confident of Security in our own Subjects, and therefore cannot believe so vile a Scandal can make any Impression in sober Men. Let a List of the Nobility and Gentry about us, and in our Service, be viewed, and will they not be found the most zealous in the Protestant Religion, the most eminent in Reputation, of the greatest Fortunes, and the greatest Fame, the most publick Lovers of their Country, and most earnest Assertors of the Liberty of the Subject, that this Kingdom hath? How different the Reputation of the principal Ring-leaders of this Faction and Rebellion is, how careful they are of imploying vertuous and honest Men, is apparent to all the World, when they have entertained all the desperate and necessitous Persons (whereof very many are Papists, which we speak knowingly, as having taken several of them Prisoners) they can draw to them; and when they supersede a Proceeding at Common Law for an odious and infamous Crime, that Mr. Griffin may have Liberty to keep them Company in this Rebellion.
For our Affection and gracious Inclination to the City of London, and how far we are from any such Purpose, as these impious Men charge us with, appears in our late Proclamation, in which we declare the Suburbs to be comprehended, as well as the Cities of London and Westminster, to which we doubt not they will give that Credit and Obedience, as we shall have Cause to commend their Loyalty in joining with us to suppress this Rebellion, which uncontrol'd, in a short Time must make that Place most miserable.
Of the Oath and Covenant which they threaten us with, if it be to engage them to do, or not to do any Thing contrary to their Oaths they have already taken of Allegiance and Supremacy, as it cannot oblige them being taken, so we doubt not, our good Subjects will easily discern, that it is a Snare to betray and lead them into a Condition of the same Guilt, and so of the same Danger with themselves; and we must therefore declare, whosoever shall hereafter suffer himself to be cozened by these Stratagems, and take such a voluntary Oath against us, we shall impute it to so much Malice, as will render him uncapable of our Pardon, and shall proceed against him as a desperate Promoter of Sedition, and an Enemy to the Kingdom.
Let all honest Men remember the many gracious Acts we have passed this Parliament for the Ease and Benefit of our People, That when there was nothing left undone or unoffered by us, which might make this Nation happy, these mischievous Contrivers of Ruin, instead of acknowledging our Grace and Justice, upbraided us with all the Reproaches Malice and Cunning could invent, in a Remonstrance to the People (a Thing never heard of till that Time;) That having thus incensed mutinous and seditious Minds, they made use of them to awe the Parliament, drave us, and the major Part of both Houses from our City of London; That they took away our Fort and Town of Hull from us, kept us from thence by Force of Arms, and imployed our own Magazine against us; That they seized upon our Royal Navy, and with it chased our good Subjects, and kept all Supply from us; That they voted away our negative Voice, and then raised a formidable Army to destroy us; That when they had thus compelled us, by the Help of such of our good Subjects, who against the Fury of these Men durst continue loyal, to raise some Power for our Defence, they absolutely and peremptorily refused to treat with us for the Peace of the Kingdom. And lastly, that on the Three and twentieth Day of October, they brought this Army (raised for the Defence of our Person) into the Field against us, and used their best Skill and Means to destroy us, and our Children; we say, whoever remembers and considers this Progress of theirs, will think of no other Covenant than to join with us in the Apprehending the Authors of this miserable Civil War, that Posterity may not with Shame and Indignation find, that a few schismatical, ambitious Persons were able to bring such a flourishing glorious Kingdom, which hath so long rested the Envy of Christendom, to a speedy Desolation, to satisfie their own Pride and Ambition; and we doubt not, our good Subjects of Scotland, will never think themselves engaged by the Act of Pacification (to which we willingly consented) to assist a Rebellion against their own natural King, for the Assistance of Persons accused, and notoriously known to be guilty of High-Treason, the Bringing of whom to condign Punishment, would (with God's Blessing) be a speedy Means of Happiness and Peace to our Three Kingdoms.
The Earl of Essex having garrison'd Northampton, Coventry, and Warwick, marched to wards Worcester, where Part of his Forces were discomfited by Prince Rupert; but yet the Prince forced to quit the City, as is afore-mentioned. There Essex continuing for some time. The King having greatly augmented his Army at Shrewsbury, and the adjacent Counties resolved to march directly for London; and having, by reason of Essex's Stay at Worcester, got before him, put the Parliament and City into no small Apprehensions, and therefore they consulted all Means to obstruct his March, and hasten Essex after him.
Whereupon ensued the Battel at Edghill near Keynton in Warwickshire, where the Victory being challenged by either Party, and very differently related, I shall, to avoid the Imputation of Partiality, give you the Narratives thereof, as they were then publish'd on each Side by Authority.
A Relation of the Battel fought between Keynton and Edghill, by his Majesty's Army and that of the Rebels;
Upon Saturday the 23d of October, 1642, his Majesty had given Order for the Summoning of Banbury, and in Case of Resusal, the Besieging of it with 4000 Foot and four Pieces of Cannon; but that Evening Intelligence was brought that the Rebels had a Resolution to relieve it; but it was not so certain, as to make any Change of the former Orders; yet upon Sunday at Three in the Morning, there came certain Intelligence, that the whole Army of the Rebels were marching with all Expedition thither, and were quarter'd at Keynton 3 Miles from Edghill; whereupon the King gave present Order for all his Army, both Horse and Foot, to march with all Expedition to Edghill, being 4 Miles distant from his nearest Quarter. To which Rendezvouz the King's Horse came between 10 and 11a Clock in the Morning, and the Van of the Foot came within an Hour after, but the Rear (which happened at that time to be the Lord-Lieutenant-General's Regiment) with the Artillery, came not within 2 Hours after. As soon as we came to the Top of Edghill which looks upon Keynton, we saw the Rebels Army drawing out, and setting themselves in Battalia; whereupon the King's Horse went down the Hill, and set themselves in Order; the Foot likewise having Command to come down the Hill, and do the like; but before that was done, and the King's Artillery came, it was past 2 in the Afternoon.
It being perceived that the Rebels had placed some Musqueteers under a Hedge that cross'd the Field, where the Encounter was to be made, that flanked upon their left Wing, there were some of the King's Dragooners sent to beat them off, which they very well performed; whereupon our whole Army advanced in very good Order, the Ordnance of both Sides playing very fast, but that of the Rebels began first. The Charge began between the 2 Wings of Horse; those of the Rebels not standing our Charge a Quarter of an Hour before they fled, our Men having the Execution of them for 3 Miles together; the Horse of both our Wings routing their Foot as well as their Horse, and 2 whole Regiments of their Foot were absolutely cut off, by those of our left Wing, besides those put into Disorder by our Right. Whilst this was doing, the Bodies of the Foot met the King's Regiment of Guard, and the Earl of Lindsey's, giving the first Charge, which was very well disputed a long time, untill the Reserve of the Rebel's Horse (which had never been charged) charged our Foot upon the Flank, which our Foot resisted a good while; but at length not being seconded by our Reserve of Horse, which, contrary to our Order, thinking the Day was surely won, had followed the Execution of the Rebels so far, that they could not come in time to relieve them, they were put into some Disorder, in which the King's Standard (the Standard-Bearer being slain) and the Lord Willoughby, seeking to relieve his Father, who fell, being shot in the Leg, was, together with his Father, made Prisoner; but the Standard was soon relieved by the Lieutenant of the Lord John Steward's Troop (Capt. Smith) being newly returned from the Execution of the Rebels; the Left-side of our Foot being put into Disorder, all the rest gave way; yet those of the Right Hand were never put into Disorder: But seeing some of the Cannon in danger to be lost, advanced again, and made the Place good; the Left Hand of the Rebels Foot coming on apace to charge them. By this time the Right Wing of our Horse was returned from chasing the Rebels, and were in some Confusion, because they came from the Execution; but seeing our Foot and Cannon in some danger to be lost, by reason that the Rebels Horse and Foot (those Horse which had never been charged) advanced in good Order to charge; ours made a Stand, and soon rallied together, having some Dragooners with them, and so advancing, made the Dragooners give them a Volly or two of Shot, which made the Rebels instantly retire. By this time it was grown so dark, that our Chief Commanders durst not charge for fear of mistaking Friends for Foes; (though it was certainly concluded by them all, that if we had had Light enough, but to have given one Charge more, we had totally routed all their Army;) whereupon both Armies retreated; ours in such Order, that we not only brought off our own Cannon, but 4 of the Rebels, we retiring to the Top of the Hill from whence we came, because of the Advantage of the Place, and theirs to the Village where they had been quartered the Night before.
The King with the whole Body of the Horse, and those of the Foot which were not broken, quartered upon and on one Side of the Hill, all that Night; and in the Morning, as soon as it was Day, drew half the Body of the Horse into Battalia, at the Foot of the Hill, and the Rest of the Horse and the Foot at the Top of the Hill, where the Standard was placed; and having Notice that 3 of the Rebels Cannon were left half way between us and their Quarter, sent out a Body of Horse, and drew them off, they not so much as offering to relieve them: So both Armies, facing one another all Day, retired at Night to their former Quarters
For the Slain on both Sides, the Number is uncertain; yet it is most certain that we killed Five for One. It is true, that their Chief Officers having fleeter Horses than ours, not so many of their Foot, as ours, were slain and taken Prisoners, to our Knowledge as yet; but we lost no Officer of Horse, excepting the Lord Aubigny.
The next Day after the Battel, the Earl of Essex finding his Army extreamly weakned and disheartned by the great Blow they had received by his Majesties Forces, withdrew himself to Warwick Castle; and the same Night the Remainder of his Forces went also privately thither much distracted, whereof Prince Rupert having Notice, the next Morning pursued them, but they were all got into Warwick, or dispersed before he could overtake them; but his Highness took 25 Waggons and Carriages of the Rebels, laden with Ammunition, Medicaments, and other Baggage, whereof he brought away Part, and fired the rest.
This sudden Returning back of the Rebels to Warwick, is not only a sure Argument of the Weakness of their Army, but hath exceedingly disheartned all the Country which adhered to them, and were before (upon a false Rumour that the King's Forces were defeated) ready to have risen and fallen upon his Majesty's Forces.
The 26th his Majesty by Clarenceux King of Arms, sent a Summons to Banbury, which being not thereupon yielded, his Majesty the next Day drew out Part of his Army, with some Ordnance, against the said Town; upon the Approach of which, the Rebel Forces (being the Earl of Peterborough's Regiment which were in the Town, to the Number of 600) came out, laid down their Arms, and asked his Majesty Pardon; and immediately the Town was rendred up. Upon which his Majesty sent out some of his Principal Officers to discover, and bring away, all such Arms and Ammunition as were found in the Town, and to take up, upon Tickets, all Woollen Cloth, Stockens, Shoes and Victuals, for the Accommodation of his Soldiers, forbidding all manner of Plundering, and permitting only one Regiment to enter and remain in the Town that Night.
A Relation of the Battel between his Majesty's Army and the Parliament's Forces, under the Command of the Earl of Essex, at Edghill near Keynton in the County of Warwick, Octob. the 23d, 1642,
We should do our Army a great deal of wrong, and not discharge our Duty of Thankfulness towards God, if we took not the first Occasion to declare his Goodness, in giving so great a Blessing, as he hath now done to the resolute and unwearied Endeavours of our Soldiers fighting for him in the maintenance of his Truth, and for themselves and their Country, in the Defence of their Liberties and the Priviledges of Parliament; this makes us give you now a Narration of a blessed Victory which God hath given us upon the Army of the Cavaliers, and of those Evil Persons, who upon Sunday the 23d of this Instant, engaged his Majesty in a dangerous and bloody Fight against his faithful Subjects, in the Army raised by Authority of Parliament, for the Preservation of his Crown and Kingdom. We marched from Worcester, Wednesday the 19th, upon Intelligence that their Army was removed from Shrewsbury and Bridgenorth and bending Southward; our Train of Artillery was so unready, through want of Draught-Horses, and through other Omissions of Monsieur Du-Boys, that we were forced to leave it behind to follow us, and with it the Regiments of Col. Hambden and Col. Grantham; and staying for it, we could advance no further than to a little Market-Town called Keynton, in Warwickshire, 6 Miles from Warwick; whither we came the Saturday Night with 11 Regiments of Foot, 42 Troops of Horse, and about 700 Dragoons, in all about 10000 Men; there we intended to rest the Sabbath-day, and the rather, that our Artillery and the Forces left with it, might come up to us. In the Morning, when we were going to Church, we had News brought us that the Enemy was 2 Miles from us, upon a high Hill, called Edgehill; whereupon we presently marched forth into a great broad Field, under that Hill, called The Vale of the Red Horse, and made a Stand some half a Mile from the Foot of the Hill, and there drew into Battalia, where we saw their Forces come down the Hill; which drew likewise into Battelin the Bottom; a great broad Company. Their Forces appeared to be much greater, than we could possibly have conceived them to be, by the Confession of the Prisoners we have taken; they that say least, say 14000, which is the Earl of Lindsey's Relation, who was their General; but others say 18000, and above 4000 Horse and Dragoons. The Wind was much for their Advantage, and they endeavoured to get it more; which to prevent, we were inforced to draw out our Left Wing to a great breadth, and by that means, before the Battel was done, gained it wholly from them. In our right Wing were Three Regiments of Horse, the Lord General's, Commanded by Sir Philip Stapleton, Sir William Balford's and the Lord Fieldings; Sir John Meldrum's Brigade had the Van, Col. Essex was in the Middle, and Col. Ballard's with the Lord General's Regiment, his own, the Lord Brooks, and Col. Hollis in the Rear. In the Left Wing were 24 Troops of Horse, Commanded by Sir James Ramsey, their Commissary-General. In this Posture we stood when the other Army advanced toward us; the Strength of their Horse was on their Right Wing opposite to our Left; in their Left Wing they had but 10 Troops; but their Foot, which appeared to us, divided into nine great Bodies, came up all in Front, and after some playing with the Cannon on both Sides, that part of it which was on their Left, and towards our Right Wing, came on very gallantly to the Charge, and were as gallantly received, and charged by Sir Philip Stapleton and Sir William Balford's Regiments of Horse, assisted with the Lord Robert's and Sir William Constable's Regiments of Foot, who did it so home thrice together, that they forced all the Musqueteers, of two of their left Regiments, to run in and shroud themselves within their Pikes, not daring to shoot a Shot, and so stood when our Rear came up; and then Charging altogether, especially that Part of our Rear which was placed upon the Right Hand, and so next unto them which was the Lord General's Regiment, and the Lord Brook's led on by Col. Ballard who commanded that Brigade, forced that Stand of Pikes, and wholly broke those two Regiments, and flew and took almost every Man of them; the Earl of Lindsey, his Son, the Lord Willoughby, and some other Persous of Note are Prisoners. Sir Edmund Varney, who carried the King's Standard, was slain by a Gentleman of the Lord General's Troop of Horse, who did much other good Service that Day, and the Standard taken; which was afterwards by the Lord General himself delivered unto his Secretary Mr. Chambers, with an Intention to send it back the next Day unto his Majesty; but the Secretary, after he had carried it long in his Hand, suffered it to be taken away by some of our Troopers, and as yet we cannot learn where it is. The other two Regiments of our Rear, Col. Hollis and Col. Ballard charged those which were before them, and then the whole Body of the King's Foot, except two other Regiments, ran away. By this time it grew so late and dark, and to say the Truth, our Ammunition at this present was all spent, that we contented our selves to make good the Field, and gave them leave to retire up the Hill in the Night. But before we came to this, we will give you an Account of what passed in the other Parts of our Army. Before our Rear came up to charge, our Battalia at the very first wholly disbanded and ran away, without ever striking Stroke, or so much as being charged by the Enemy, though Col. Essex himself, and others, who commanded these Regiments in Chief, did as much as Men could do to stay them; but Col. Essex being forsaken by his whole Brigade, went himself into the Van, where both by Direction, and his own Execution, he did most gallant Service, till he received a Shot in the Thigh, of which he is since dead. Now for our Rear, thus it was: before it toward the Outside of it, stood our Left Wing of Horse, advanced a little forward to the Top of a Hill, where they stood in Battalia, lined with commanded Musqueteers, 400 out of Col. Hollis's Regiment, and 200 out of Col. Ballard's; but upon the first Charge of the Enemy, they wheeled about, abandoned their Musqueteers, and came running down with the Enemies Horse at their Heels and amongst them pell-mell, just upon Col. Hollis's Regiment, and brake thro' it, tho' Col. Hollis himself, when he saw them come running towards him, went and planted himself just in the Way, and did what possibly he could do to make them stand; and at last prevailed with three Troops to wheel a little about, and rally; but the rest of our Horse of that Wing, and the Enemies Horse with them, brake through and ran to Keynton, where most of the Enemy left pursuing them, and fell to plundering our Waggons, by which many of us have received very great Loss, and by Name your Servants that now write to you. Notwithstanding their breaking through Col. Hollis's Regiment, it was not dismaid, but, together with the other Regiments of that Brigade, marched up the Hill, and so made all the haste they could to come to fight, and got the Wind of the Enemy, and came on (if we may say it our selves, but we must do the Soldiers right) most gallantly, and charged the Enemy, who were then in fight with our Van, and the Right Wing of our Horse, and (as it was said before) help to defeat the two Regiments afore-mentioned, and made all the rest run, but two other Regiments, which retired orderly, and at last made a Stand; and having the Assistance of Cannon, and a Ditch before them, held us play very handsomly: And by this time it grew so dark, and our Powder and Bullet so spent, that it was not held fit we should advance upon them; but there we stood in very good Order; drew up all our Forces, both Horse and Foot; and so stood all that Night upon the Place where the Enemy, before the Fight, had drawn into Battalia, till toward Morning, that the Enemy was gone, and retired up the Hill, and then we returned also to a warmer Place near Keynton, where we had Quarter the Night before; for we were almost starved with Cold that bitter Night, our Army being in extream Want of Victuals; and about 9 or 10 of the Clock drew out again into Battalia, and so stood 3 or 4 Hours, till the Enemy was clean gone from the Hill, and then we drew again into our Quarter, and there have lain this Night, and purpose this Day, (God willing) after we have buried our Dead, to march to Warwick to refresh our Army, which is exceeding wearied with so many Nights watching, and so long a Fight, which held from Noon till dark Night. Two Particulars must not be omitted, one of Sir William Balford, who in the Beginning of the Day broke a Regiment of Foot which had green Colours, beat them to their Cannon, where they threw down their Arms, and ranaway; he laid his Hand upon the Cannon, and called for Nails to nail them up, especialy the two biggest, which were Demy-Cannon; but finding none, he cut the Ropes belonging to them, and his Troopers killed the Cannoneers; then he pursued the Fliers half a Mile upon Execution; and after returned to Sir Philip Stapleton, who in the mean time was charging of the Red Regiment, where the King's Standard was, and had charged it home to Push of Pike with his single Troop; and they then, together with the Help of some of the Foot of our Rear, utterly broke it, as you had it before. The other Particular was of Sir Philip Stapleton, who, when five Troops of the Enemies Horse returned from Pursuit of our Left Wing, and from Plundering some of our Waggons, and passed by the Outside of our Rear upon the Left Hand, went and charged them with his Troop, and made them run; but they finding a Gap in the Hedge, got away, and returned to the rest of their broken Troops, where they rallied and made up a kind of a Body again. If we had time, we could relate unto you many more observable Passages; but what you have here, shall serve you till we meet: This only we say, some of both Sides did extreamly well, and others did as ill, and deserve to be hanged, for deserting and betraying, as much as lay in them, their Party; but God alone is to be praised, who fought with us, and for us, and made it his own Work, to give the Victory unto his Servants. We have lost of Note only Col. Essex, and we fear the Lord St. John, who was dangerously wounded. We here send you a George, found in the Field by a Common Soldier, and bought of him for Twenty Shillings by one Capt. Skinner; we have promised him he shall have it again; we only send it you as one of our Trophies, that you may fee it. We believe you will hear of very many of great Quality slain on the other Side: The King's Foot are either slain, or most of them run away, and are now very weak, and should have been pursued by us, but that we must of pure Necessity refresh our Men for 3 or 4 Days, and then we shall (God willing) address our selves to finish the Work. In the mean time, 'tis very requisite Letters from the Committee should be writ into the Countries which are Southern to stir them up, that they may rise and cut them off, or assist us at least against them; which hoping you will forthwith do, we rest
Our Lord General went last Night to Warwick, and is there very well; and had he been with us, we should not have presumed to have given you the first Advertisement; his Excellency did gallantly adventure himself that day in the Front against the Enemy, exposing himself to more Danger than we could have wished.
His Majesties Declaration to all his Loving Subjects after his late Victory against the Rebels, on Sunday the 23d of October, 1642.
As we must wholly attribute the Preservation of us and our Children, in the late bloody Battel with the Rebels, to the Mercy and Goodness of Almighty God, who best knowing the Justice of our Cause, and the Uprightness of our Heart to his Service, and to the Good and Welfare of our People, would not suffer us and the whole Kingdom to be made a Prey to those desperate Persons; so we hold it our Duty still to use all possible Means to remove that Jealousie and Misunderstanding from our good Subjects, which by the industry and Subtilty of that malignant Party (which hath brought this Mischief and Confusion upon the Kingdom) hath been infused into them; and to that purpose (tho' even those Scandals are sufficiently answered by many of our Declarations and Messages, and by our late Protestation made in the Head of our Army, which we shall always, by the Help of God, stedfastly and solemnly observe) we shall take notice of those subtile Insinuations by which at this present (according to that Observation we can make, and Information we can receive) they endeavour to poison the Hearts, and corrupt the Allegiance of such our good Subjects who cannot so clearly discern their Malice and Impostures. First, by urging and pressing that false groundless Imputation of our favouring Popery, and our employing many of that Religion now in our Army. Secondly, by seducing our good People to believe that this Army, (raised and kept for our necessary Defence, and without which, in all probability, the Malice of these Men had before this taken our Life from us) is to fight against, and subdue the Parliament, and to take away the Privileges thereof, and thereby to root out Parliaments. If either of which were true, we should not have the Courage, with an Army much greater than ours, to hope for Success.
For the first, Our Affection to that Religion, our continual Practice, our constant Profession and several Protestations will satisfie all the World, against which Malice and Treason it self cannot find the least probable Objection. We wish from our Heart the Zeal and Affection of these Men to the true Protestant Religion were as apparent as ours. For the Employing Men of that Religion in our present Service in the Army, whosoever considers the Hardness and Streights the Malice and Fury of these Men have driven us to, their stopping all Passages and Ways, that neither Men nor Money might come to us, their declaring all such to be Traitors who shall assist us, their entertaining Men of all Countries, all Religions, to serve against us, would not wonder if we had been very well contented to have received the Service and Affection of any of our good Subjects who had Loyalty enough (whatsoever their Religion is) to bring them to our Succour. All Men know the great number of Papists which serve in their Army, Commanders, and others, the great Industry they have used to corrupt the Loyalty and Affection of all our Subjects of that Religion, the private Promises and Undertakings they have made to them, That if they would assist them against us, all the Laws made in their prejudice should be repealed; yet neither the Weakness of our own Condition, nor the Arts used against us, could prevail with us to invite those of that Religion to come to our Succour, or to recall our Proclamation which forbade them so to do. And we are confident (tho' we know of some few whose eminent Abilities in Command and Conduct, and moderate and unfactious Dispositions have moved us in this great Necessity to employ them in this Service) That a far greater Number of that Religion is in the Army of the Rebels, then in our own. And we do assure our good Subjects, tho' we shall always remember the particular Services which particular Men have or shall in this Exigent of ours perform to us, with that Grace and Bounty which becomes a Just Prince; yet we shall be so far from ever giving the least Countenance or Encouragement to that Religion, that we shall always use our utmost Endeavour to suppress it, by the Execution of those good and wholesome Laws already in force against Papists, and concurring in such further Remedies as the Care and Wisdom of us and both Houses of Parliament shall think most necessary for the Advancement of God's Service.
For the second, of our Intention to make a War upon our Parliament, and so to root out Parliaments. The Scandal is so senseless, when our Accusation of a few particular Persons, for particular Crimes notoriously committed, adjudged by the known Laws of the Land to be Treason, is evident, that no Man can be moved with it, who doth not believe a dozen or twenty factious, seditious Persons, to be the High Court of Parliament, which consists of King, Lords, and Commons: And for the Priviledges of it, whoever doth not believe that to raise an Army to murther and depose the King, to alter the whole Frame of Government and establish'd Laws of the Land by extemporary, extravagant Votes and Resolutions of either or both Houses, to force and compel the Members to submit to the Faction and Treason of a few, and to take away the Liberty and Freedom of Consultation from them, to be the Priviledges of Parliament, must confess that the Army now raised by us is no less for the Vindication and Preservation of Parliaments, then for our own necessary Defence. We have often said, and we still say, That we believe many Inconveniencies have grown upon this Kingdom by the too long Intermission of Parliaments; That Parliaments are the only necessary soveraign Remedies for the growing Mischiefs which Time and Accidents have and will always beget in this Kingdom; that without Parliaments the Happiness cannot be lasting to King or People. We have prepared for the frequent Assembling of Parliaments, and will be always as careful of their just Priviledges, as of our Life, Honour, or Interest. But that those Priviledges should extend so far as hath been lately declared, That it should not be lawful for us to apprehend the Lord St. John, Capt. Windgate, or Capt. Walton, when they came to destroy us, because they were Members of Parliament, without the Consent of that House of which they were Members, is so ridiculous, that there needs no more to be said in this Argument, then the giving these Instances. In a word, as whoever knows what danger our Person was in, on Sunday the 23d of October, can never believe that the Army which gave us Battel, was raised for our Defence and Preservation; so when they consider how much the Liberty of the Subject is invaded by their Rapine and Imprisoning; and that four Parts at the least of Five of the Members of both Houses are by Violence driven from being present in that Councel; That the Book of Common-Prayer is rejected, and no Countenance given but to Anabaptists and Brownists; they will easily find the Pretences of Care of the Protestant Religion, the Liberty of the Subject, and of the Priviledge of Parliament, to be as vain and pretended, as those which refer to the Safety of our Person, and the Preservation of our Posterity.
We cannot omit the great Pains and Endeavours these great Pretenders to Peace and Charity have taken, to raise an implacable Malice and Hatred between the Gentry and Commonalty of the Kingdom, by rendring all Persons of Honour, Courage, and Reputation, odious to the common People, under the Stile of Cavaliers, insomuch as the High-ways and Villages have not been safe for Gentlemen to pass thro' without Violence or Affronts, and by infusing into them that there was an Intention by the Commission of Array to take away a Part of their Estates from them, a Scandal so sensless and impossible, that the Contrivers of it well know they might with equal Ingenuity have charged us with a Purpose of Introducing Turcism or Judaism amongst them; and we hope when our good Subjects have well weighed the continual Practises of these Men to reject all Offers of Treaty, and to suppress the Truth, and to mislead them by bold and monstrous Falshoods, they will not think such Arts and Ways to lead to Peace and Unity. And we desire our good Subjects of all Conditions to believe, That we hold our self bound no less to defend and protect the Meanest of our People (who are born equally free, and to whom the Law of the Land is an equal Inheritance) then the greatest Subject; and that as the Wealth and Strength of this Kingdom consists in the Number and Happiness of our People, which is made up of Men of all Conditions, so we shall, to the uttermost of our Power, endeavour without distinction, to give every one of them that Justice and Protection which is due to them: And we do exhort them all to that charitable and brotherly Affection, one towards another, that they may be reconciled in a just Duty and Loyalty to us, which may enable us for that Protection.
To conclude, We would have all the World know, That we shall never forget the Protestations and Vows we have made to Almighty God in our several Declarations and Messages to both our Houses of Parliament. And we are too much a Christian to believe, That we can break those Promises, and avoid the Justice of Heaven.
Our express Pleasure is, That this our Declaration be published in all Churches and, Chappels within the Kingdom of England and Dominion of Wales, by the Parsons, Vicars, or Curates of the same.
A Declaration of the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, in Answer to his Majesty's Declaration, intituled, His Majesty's Declaration to all his loving Subjects after his late Victory against the Rebels, on Sunday October 23. 1642.
We the Lords and Commons in Parliament having seen a printed Declaration, intituled, His Majesty's Declaration to his loving Subjects, after his late Victory against the Rebels, on Sunday the 23d of October, and finding the same to be full of Scandals and Invectives against the Parliament, without any Ground or Colour of Truth to support them; Thought it our Duty, as well for the Discovery of the Falsehood there of, as of the Malice and Subtilties of the Contrivers of those Scandals, who to our unspeakable Sorrows, have gained so much Power with his Majesty, as to vent the same under the Title of his own Royal Name, to make this ensuing Declaration in Answer thereunto.
If his Majesty and his Children escaped any Danger in that Battel, as we are ready with the Contrivers to rejoice thereat, so we do apprehend a just Cause of Sorrow, That his Majesty, seduced by the desperate Advice of lewd and wicked Counsel, who tender their own Preservation before his, would intermix himself with Traitors and Rebels, and expose his own Royal Person and his Children to that Danger.
And whereas the Parliament, under the Name of a Malignant Party, is charged with an Endeavour to poison the Hearts, and corrupt the Allegiance of the King's Subjects, by urging and pressing a false groundless Imputation (as it is there stiled) of Favouring Popery, and imploying many of that Religion in his Majesty's Army:
Tho' we have just Cause to believe that our late Declaration of October 1, is sufficient to prove, That the pretended Aspersion of favouring Papists, and employing them in the King's Army is no Aspersion, the same being there not only barely alledged, but the Evidence proving the same, and the Persons so employed particularly set down: Yet since the Contrivers of that Declaration have the Confidence to deny it, we thought it necessary for the Confirmation thereof, to publish some Evidences and Advertisements that we received since the issuing out of our said late Declaration, touching that Particular.
First, That it doth appear by the Examination of Mr. Dormer, who professeth himself a Papist, taken before a Committee of the House of Commons, That a Commission under the King's own Hand was delivered unto him by Serjeant-Major Courtney, a notorious Papist, authorizing the said Dormer to be a Captain of a Foot Company, in the Regiment of Sir John Beaumont, another professed Papist, and with that Commission threescore and fifteen Men raised in the County of Lancaster, consisting (as is probable) of Papists, tho' Mr. Dormer in his Examination alledgeth he knoweth not whether they were Protestants or Papists. And it doth further appear by a Commission now remaining in the House of Commons signed with the King's own Hand, that the said Courtney is made Serjeant-Major of that Regiment. And by the same Examination, another profess'd Papist is Lieutenant Colonel; and by a Letter intercepted sent from one Dan. Chambers a Papist (as is informed) directed to one Capt. Tho. Rookewood, That he expresseth his Joy for the good Success of the general Cause and the Advancement of their Design. And by another Letter intercepted like wise, and sent from the same Daniel Chambers to Serjeant-Major Courtney; That he was going to the North, where (as we are now advertised) the Papists are raising a considerable Army; That he liked well the Way of two Years Composition, and would propound it; That his Endeavours should never be wanting to further any good Action, and the more wherein he the said Courtney was interessed; and tho' the Hothamites would hinder his travelling, yet he would venture hard, and daily pray for the general Cause. And in a Letter sent from one Savage, a Servant of the Earl of Newcastle, his Majesty's General in the North, directed to one John Atkins of Lambeth, are contained these Words, Tell them that the Pope rules in Peace here in Northumberland, &c. no Prosecution neither of Priest or Papist: And in another sent from one George Tempest a Priest, to his Brother John Tempest in the King's Army, are these Words: Our Priests at Lancaster are at liberty, Catholick Commanders admitted and will enough that Way; God Almighty (as I hope) will the better prosper the Design. And in the printed Declaration it self, it is confessed, That Popish Commanders are employed in the King's Army, and that which is as notorious as any of the rest, They of the Popish Religion are arrived to that Height of Favour, that upon their Petition presented to his Majesty, they have obtained an express Command and Direction, That they and their Servants and Tenants (tho' convict Recusants, and consequently by the Laws and Statutes of this Realm to be disarmed) should arm themselves, and use them for the Defence of his Majesties Person, and in Opposition to the Forces raised by the Parliament; Which Petition and Answer we have caused to be printed herewith. We need not again recite the Earl of Worcester and his Son the Lord Herbert, two of the most eminent and powerful Papists in the Kingdom, their levying of great Forces in Monmouthshire and Wales, having mentioned it in our former Declaration. And we purposely omit many other Demonstrations of Favour extended unto them, as the not putting the Laws in execution against them, their free Reception into the King's Court and Presence, the tender Care of them and their Persons and Estates from the Danger of the King's Forces, when the most pious and zealous Protestant Ministers and others, are most barbarously murther'd, plunder'd, and rob'd of their Estates and Fortunes. And upon what is already said, submit to the World to judge, whether the Favouring of Popery, and Employing them of that Religion in the King's Army, be a false and groundless Imputation: And we do the more wonder at the Confidence of the Contrivers, in urging that to be a groundless Imputation and Scandal, when we fee a Declaration published by the Earl of Newcastle, his Majesty's General in the Northern Parts, which doth not only confess that he hath taken divers Popish Recusants in those Parts, under his Command and Conduct, but spends some Leaves (weakly enough) in endeavouring by the Examples and Presidents of former Times, to justifie the same; and therefore we need not any farther to labour the Proof of the Matter of Fact.
For the Allegation, That a great Number of Popish Commanders and others serve in the Army under the Conduct of the Earl of Essex, and of the private Promises and Undertakings made to them, That if they would assist against his Majesty, all the Laws made in their Prejudice should be repealed; A Charge contrary not only to the Profession and several Protestations of both Houses of Parliament, but even to Reason and Policy it self, That they who have rais'd an Army for the just Defence of their Priviledges, Laws, and Liberties, and of the true Protestant Religion, should make use of Papists, the only Enemies of them all, to be the Instrument and Means to protect them.
If the Contrivers of that Declaration had been pleased to name some of that great Number of Papists they suppose to be in the Earl of Essex's Army, they had not only afforded us the Means to have cleared our selves from that Imputation, by joining Issue with them of the Truth thereof, but given us Opportunity in case any of that Religion, under the Name and Profession of a Protestant (for otherwise we are assured they could not) had crowded themselves into the Army, to remove them: But in regard they omitted the Mention of any Particular, we are confident, That either they could not name any, or in case any of the Popish Religion be in that Army, they are subtilly, by the cunning and malicious Practise of our Enemies conveyed thither, under the mask and profession of Protestants, to corrupt (if they can) the good Affection of others, and so made Instruments to destroy us, as David Alexander should have been, had not God's Goodness and Providence, by a timely Discovery, prevented it.
But to shew how much the Parliament did always abhor and detect the Aid and Assistance of Papists, of what nature soever, we hold it fit upon this Occasion to let the World know, That about the beginning of this Parliament, divers eminent Papists of this Kingdom did prefer a Petition to the House of Commons, for the repealing of some Laws now in force against them, with an humble Submission to all reasonable Conformity; the Substance of the same being opened, it was apprehended with such Indignation, that it was never so much as vouchsafed to be read, but quite rejected.
And upon Information given, That the Lord Dillon and Col. Taffe were employed by the Rebels of Ireland to bring some Propositions to his Majesty; and that (amongst others) one was, That there should be a Toleration of the Popish Religion in Ireland: It was thereupon resolved on the 8th of Decemb. 1641, upon solemn Debate, by the Lords and Commons, That they would never give Consent to any Toleration of the Popish Religion in Ireland, or in any other of his Majesty's Dominions. And when the Lord Herbert Son of the Earl of Worcester, this Parliament, made an Offer to the House of Commons, to give freely 500l. a Year, or 5000l. to be disposed at the Pleasure of the Parliament; yet the House, tho' in a time of great Necessity to use Money, because the same came tendered by the Hand of a Papist, did refuse to accept it. All which had been Passage of great Weakness, had we intended any Correspondency with them. And we are confident. That this Charge is so full of Malice, and so far from Truth, that we dare challenge all the World, not to be able to make it good against any one particular Member.
For the Matter of his Majesty's raising an Army against the Parliament, and taking away the Priviledges thereof, which the Contrivers of that Declaration termed to be a senseless Scandal, we shall refer it to the Judgment even of ordinary Capacities, Whether is most void of Sense, to say, That this War is raised against the Parliament, or, That both Houses, whereof one consists of all the Peers, the other, of eminent and principal Gentry of the Kingdom, who for their Abilities and known Integrities, are by the Universal Consent of the Kingdom chosen to represent them, are governed by the Number of not above 12 or 20 Persons, and that those few should have a Power to force and compel the rest to submit to their Faction, and to have their Liberty and Freedom of Consultation taken from them.
But the Truth is, That it is not a few Persons, but the Parliament it self is the Thorn that lies in these Mens Sides; which heretofore, when it was wont to pick them, was with much ease, by a sudden Dissolution, pulled out: But now that it is more deeply fastned by the Act of Continuance, they would force it out by the Power of an Army.
And whosoever will peruse the several Speeches and Declarations made upon the breaking up of former Parliaments since the Beginning of his Majesty's Reign, will find the Pretences of those unjust and illegal Dissolutions, to be grounded upon the Exceptions against some particular Members, under the Name of a few factious and seditious Persons: So that the aspersing and wounding of the Parliament through the Sides of a few Members, is no new Invention.
And for the Satisfaction of all indifferent Men, That this War is rais'd against the Parliament, we shall refer them to former Declarations issu'd out in his Majesty's Name, being so many Invectives and groundless Accusations, not against particular Members only, but against the Votes and Proceedings of both Houses, and in plain Terms, declaring and publishing both Houses guilty of High-Treason; (a Charge not to be presidented by any former Times, or in Truth that Councel cannot be capable of.) And that the Earl of Essex, General of the Forces raised for the Defence of the King, Parliament, and Kingdom, is a Traytor; and that all those that aid assist him, thereby comprehending both Houses of Parliament, by whose Command and Authority he bears that Place, are Rebels, and guilty of High-Treason: Notwithstanding all which, the Contrivers of that Declaration can have the Face to term it, A groundless Accusation, to affirm, That the Army raised by his Majesty, is raised against the Parliament, or to take away the Priviledges thereof.
But if the Truth were, as that Declaration seems to imply, That this Army is raised to force some particular Members of this Parliament to be delivered up, yet upon that Ground would it follow, That the same is levied against the Parliament: For it cannot be denied by any ingenious Man, but that the Parliament, by their inherent Rights and Priviledges, hath the Power to judge and punish their own Members: And we have often declared to his Majesty and the World, That we were always ready to receive any Evidence or Accusation against any of them, and to judge and punish them according to their Demerits; yet hitherto no Evidence produced, no Accuser appearing: And yet notwithstanding to raise an Army to compel the Parliament to expose these Members to the Fury of those wicked Counsellors, that thirst after nothing more, than the Ruin of them and the Commonwealth: What can be more evident, then that the same is levied against the Parliament; for did they prevail in this, then by the same Reason might they demand twenty more; and consequently, never rest satisfied, until their Malice and Tyranny did devour all those Members they found cross and opposite to their lewd and wicked Designs.
Touching the Priviledges of Parliament, which the Contrivers of that Declaration (in his Majesty's Name) seem to be so tender of, and to profess all Conformity unto, and to deny this Army to be raised in any degree to violate, we shall appeal to the Judgment of any indifferent Man that will take a short view of their Proceedings, how little Truth is concerned in this their Assertion.
The Parliament is to be considered in three several Respects: First, As it is a Counsel, to advise: Secondly, As it is a Court, to judge: Thirdly, As it is the Body Representative of the whole Kingdom, to make, repeal, or alter Laws. And whether the Parliament hath enjoyed its Priviledges in any of these Respect, let any that hath his Eyes open, judge.
For the First, We dare appeal even to the Conciences of the Contrivers themselves, Whther the Parliament, for the most Part of the Time they have sate, hath been consulted with in any Matter concerning the Church or State, of what Nature or Consequence soever; nay, Whether Matters of highest Importance have not been agitated and determined, not only without, but even contrary to their Advice; and, Whether private and unknown Counsels destructive both to Church and State, have not been hearkned unto, approved, and followed, when the faithful and wholesome Advice of that great Councel hath been scorned and neglected; and yet none can deny, but it is one of the principal Ends why a Parliament is called, To consult of the great Affairs of the Church and State: And what miserable Effects and sad Events this Neglect of the great Councel, and preferring of unknown and private Councels before it, hath produced, let the present Distractions of this Kingdom bear witness.
Concerning the Second, that is, The Judicature of the Parliament, not to insist upon the private Practices, even from the first Sitting thereof, to interrupt our legal Proceedings against Delinquents, in the secret conveying them beyond the Seas, by immediate Warrants procured from his Majesty, as in the Cases of Secretary Windebank, The Lord Finch, the Lord Digby, Mr. Percy, Mr. Germyn, and others accused in Parliament of High Treason; we shall mention only what hath been done therein by publick Actions, and of them, recite some few Particulars notoriously known to the Kingdom; As first the Rescuing of Beckwith, a professed Papist, by the Cavaliers, from our Messenger at York, being sent for to answer a notable Delinquency against the Parliament; and by his Majesty's own personal Command, discharged, tho' the Messenger informed his Majesty of his Warrant from the Parliament to apprehend him, and the Violence done him by the Cavaliers; The abusing beating, and scoffing of divers other our Messengers at York, being sent thither by the Parliament for Delinquents, and forced by the Cavaliers to return back well beaten, without their Prisoners: His Majesty's express Commands sent to several Sheriffs of this Kingdom, and to divers others, not to obey any Messenger or Command of both or either Houses of Parliament, and to resist them; His Majesty's enjoying the Members of both Houses to reside with him, whereas by the legal and respective Summons of both Houses whereof they were Members, they were commanded to repair to the Parliament, and which they were bound by the Duty of their Places and Calling, and the known Laws of the Land, to obey: The Taking away of the Great Seal, whereby the Execution of Justice, which is the Soul and Life of all Laws, is much interrupted; an Act not to be paralelled by the Example of any former Times, and such as (were it done to the meanest Court of the Kingdom) could not be justified, there being no Court without a Seal belonging to it.
The Making the King's Court by the Force and Power of the King's Army, the Sanctuary and Refuge of all forts of Delinquents against the Parliament and Kingdom, and protecting and defending them from the Justice thereof: His Majesty's receiving into his Grace and Favour, and by Force and Violence protecting them from the Justice of the Parliament, such as stand Impeached of High Treason, and so far convinced of their own Guilt, that they durst not stand to their Trial, but fled out of the Realm to avoid the same; and are now returned, and in most eminent Credit and Esteem with his Majesty, and bear Places of great Trust in the Army, and stand in Defiance of the Parliament, and the Authority thereof; as namely, the Lord Digby, Mr. Henry Percy, Mr. Daniel Oneal, and Capt. Legg, all Impeached of High Treason, Mr. Wilmont, and Mr. Ashburnham, Impeached of Misprision of Treason; and all those Impeachments before any Army raised by the Parliament.
Touching the third Particular of making and altering Laws, we shall need to say little of that, it being well known to the Kingdom, that divers Bills highly importing the Peace and Prosperity of the Church and Commonwealth have past both Houses, and been presented to his Majesty for his Royal Assent, and all denied; and Declarations have been made and published in his Majesty's Name, That he would not pass any Bill, of what Importance or Consequence soever (the Business of Ireland excepted) before certain Demands of his Majesty in those Declarations mentioned, which the Parliament could not in Honour and Justice assent unto, were granted. A declaration (we are confident) that cannot find a President to warrant it in any King's Time.
By all which it is apparent how our Priviledges have been torn from us by piece-meal from time to time. And we might mention many Passages, whereby they were endeavoured to the pulled up by the Root, and totally subverted. As the Attempt to bring up the late Army from the North to force Conditions upon the Parliament; The Petition and Protestation of the Bishops, to invalidate all the Acts and Proceedings thereof. His Majesty's Letters and Commands to the Members of both Houses (which found Obedience in a great many) to attend him at York; so by depriving the Parliament of their Members, to destroy the whole Body. But we shall rest satisfied with what is already said, which is enough to prove the Vanity of the Contrivers, to feed themselves with hope of Belief, That the Priviledges of Parliament are not violated, but intended to be preserved with all due Observance.
Concerning the Allegations, That the Army raised by the Parliament is to murther and depose the King; We hoped the Contrivers of that Declaration, or any that professed but the Name of Christian, could not have so little Charity as to raise such a Scandal, especially when they must needs know the Protestation taken by every Member of both Houses, whereby they promise in the Presence of Almighty God, to defend his Majesties Person. The Promise and Protestation made by the Members of both Houses upon the Nomination of the Earl of Essex to be General, and to live and die with him, wherein is expressed, That this Army was raised for the Defence of the King's Person.
Our often, earnest, and most humble Addresses to his Majesty to leave that desperate and dangerous Army wherewith he is now encompassed, raised and upheld to the Hazard of his own, and the Kingdom's Ruin; and to come in Person to his Parliament, where he should be sure to remain in Honour and Safety. And our humble Petition directed to be presented to him by the Hands of the Earl of Essex, before any Blow given, to remove his Royal Person from that Army, a Request inconsistent with any Purpose to offer the least Violence to his Person, which hath, and ever shall be dear unto us.
It was well known we raised nor any Forces until a considerable Body of an Army was raised against the Parliament to destroy us, our Liberties and Religion, which being secured unto us, and the Army raised against us disbanded, we shall be ready and willing to disband, and do most earnestly desire it.
And concerning the Imputation laid to our Charge of our Raising this Army to alter the Frame of Government, and established Laws of the Land, we shall need to give it no other Answer then this, That if to raise an Army in our own just Defence, when another is marching towards us to destroy us and our Laws, be to alter the Frame of Government, then is that Army raised for that purpose; otherwise it is for our own, and our Laws necessary Preservation.
And whereas the Contrivers of that Declaration, urge it as a necessary Consequence, That because the King's Person was in danger in the late Battel of Octob. 23. therefore the Army raised by the Parliament, and that gave Battel to the other Army, was not raised for the Defence of the King's Person, but of purpose to destroy him: We confess we understand not the Logick thereof, no more then if the King's Person should be chased, apprehended and possessed by Thieves and Robbers, and the King's good Subjects should raise an Army to pursue those Robbers, and by Battel dispossess them of him, and rescue him from their Power and Tyranny; That therefore this was an Army raised to murder and destroy the King.
And we cannot but wonder, That we are still charged with that Scandal (so often answered) that the greatest Part of our Members are driven away by Violence, when Instance cannot be made of any one in particular; and that it is well known, That many of them, if not most of them that absent themselves, have been by express Letters from his Majesty, commanded to repair to him to York: And contrary to the express Summons of either House required to continue there, and many of them have since been Principals and Inciters of this War against the Parliament and Kingdom.
Concerning the Book of Common-Prayer, suggested by that Declaration to be rejected; we have by several Declarations cleared our selves of that Charge, That we never rejected it; That we intend to take nothing out of it, but what shall be evil, and justly offensive, or at least but unnecessary and burthensome; and for that purpose to require the Advice of Religious, Learned, and Orthodox Assembly of Ministers.
Touching the Aspersion of our giving no Countenance to any, but to Brownists and Anabaptists, we would have been very glad to know who, and what kind of Persons the Contrivers of that Declaration intend by Brownists and Anabaptists; for now all such as will not submit to those unwarranted Ceremonies and Popish Innovations lately introduced in the Church by the Prelatical Party; such as in Truth and Sincerity of Heart make Conscience of their Ways; such as will not by blasphemous Oaths prophane God's Name, and contemn the Lord's Day; and such as look after, and heartily wish a perfect and thorough Reformation in the Church, are by that Malignant and Popish Party comprehended under the Name of Brownists and Anabaptists: And if by Brownists and Anabaptists they intend such Persons, we acknowledge the countenancing of them. But if by that Name and Stile they mean such who are truly so, according to the real and proper Signification of the Expression, we do affirm it to be a false groundless Imputation: And had not his Majesty (seduced thereunto by that Popish and Prelatical Faction) denied his Consent to the Bill for the Assembly so often by both Houses presented unto him, we had long since manifested to the World, by a well-settled Reformation, our utter dislike of Brownism and Anabaptism. But we very well know it is one of the Stratagems of that Prelatical Party, to interrupt us of the Means to settle Church-Government, that by the Delay thereof, they may stir up Factions and Divisions amongst the People (who having not the Rule before them, are apt to run several Ways) and so impute the Errors and indiscreet Carriage of a few Persons, unto the Parliament: But God in his good time will unmask their Plots, and confound their Devices.
The Contrivers of that Declaration suggest an Endeavour by us to raise an implacable Malice and Hatred between the Gentry and Commonalty of the Kingdom: A Charge of a very strange Nature, That we should endeavour to raise up a Spirit of Hatred and Malice in the Commonalty against our selves; for so it must necessarily follow, unless these Contrivers will deny us to have any Part or Interest in that Stile or Title of Gentry. And tho' we know very well there are too many of the Gentry of this Kingdom, who, to satisfie the Lusts of their own Ambition, are content, like Esau, to sell their Birth-right, and render them- and their Posterity up to perpetual Slavery, and care not to submit themselves to any arbitrary and unlimited Government, so that they may for their own Time partake of that Power, to trample and insult over others; yet we are assured, that there are of the Gentry many worthy and true-hearted Patriots, who are ready to lay down their Lives and Fortunes (and of late have given ample Testimony thereof) for Maintenance of their Laws, Liberties, and Religion; and with them, and others of their Resolution, we will be ready to live and die.
And tho' we must own it as our Duty to use our best Endeavours, That the Meanest of the Commonalty may enjoy their own Birth-rights, Freedom, and Liberty of the Laws of the Land, being equally intituled thereunto with the greatest Subject; yet we hope this is far from any Purpose to raise Malice or Hatred between them and the Gentry, but rather to knit and unite them more fast together.
And that the Commission of Array doth take away the Estates of the King's People, is a Charge so far from a Scandal, or being sensless or impossible, that we are ready to make it good, That it is not only so in Intention, but actually put in Execution: For the Matter of Intention, we shall need to go no further than the Words of the Commission it self, that giveth an Arbitrary Power to the Commissioners, over the Persons and Estates of the King's Subjects, which we have made apparent in our Declaration of the Illegality thereof; and therefore, as to that Particular, shall refer our selves to that Declaration, adding thereunto his Majesty's own Letter sent with divers of the said Commissions, to require the Commissioners to bring the Train'd-Bands of the several Counties to attend his Majesty's Royal Standard at Shrewsbury; and that the several Counties should furnish them with sufficient Ammunition for the Journey, and Money to bear their Charge: And that the said Commission hath been put in practice to take away the Estates of the King's Subjects, we shall make it good, That by Colour thereof, divers great Sums of Money have been imposed upon the Inhabitants of several Counties, and they forced to pay the same both by the Distress and Imprisonment of their Persons. And the Commissioners of Array in the County of Carnarvan, assessed that County by Colour of that Commission, to the Proportion of above Two and twenty Subsidies. And for the levying thereof, issued out Warrants forthwith to distrain, and commit the Persons of such as resisted, and accordingly divers were distrained and imprisoned.
That Persons of the Popish Religion are principally employed in that Army; That the same, and the Forces of the North under the Conduct of the Earl of Newcastle, and in Monmouthshire and Wales, under the Command of the Lord Herbert, do most consist of Papists, and are maintained and continued by them; that by the Power of these Forces, the Intention is not only to subvert Parliaments, and the Laws, but to follow the Examples of their Brethren in Iniquity, the Rebels in Ireland, to pull up the Protestant Religion by the Roots, and in the Place thereof to plant their own Idolatry and Superstition: That the Army raised by the Parliament is to no other End, but for the Preservation of his Majesty's Person, to defend themselves, the Laws of the Land, and the true Protestant Religion. All which the Lords and Commons thought good to publish, to the Intent the Danger the Protestant Religion lies under, may be clearly discerned, and that all Persons that love the same, may now as one Man extend their utmost Endeavours, and join with the Parliament to suppress this Popish Army and Forces, that otherwise in a short time will bring our Religion and Kingdom into Ruin.
The humble Petition of us the Inhabitants of Lancashire, whose Names are here-under written, in behalf of our selves and divers others, being Recusants.
That whereas we, and the rest of the said County, your Majesty's most loyal Subjects, are disarmed, and not sufficiently provided for the Defence of your Royal Person, and our own Families; our most humble Supplication to your Majesty is, That we may be received into your most gracious Protection from Violence, have our Arms taken from us re-delivered in this time of actual War, and by your Majesty's special Directions be enabled further to furnish our selves with Competency of Weapons for the Security of your Royal Person (if we be thereunto required) our Countries and Families, who now are not only in danger of the Common Disturbance, but also menaced by unruly People to be robbed: And when by the Almighty's Assistance your Majesty's Kingdom shall be set led, in case we be again disarmed, that a full Value of Money in lieu thereof may be restored.
To our Trusty and Well beloved, Sir Will. Gerrard, Baronet Sir Cecil Trafford, Kt. Tho. Clifton, Charles Townley, Christ. Anderton, and Jo. Clansfield, and other of our Subjects, Esquires, in the County of Lancashire.
Trusty and wet-beloved, we greet you well. Whereas by reason of the Laws and Statutes of our Realm, by which all Recusants convicted are to be without Arms, your Arms have been taken from you: so that now in this Time of eminent Danger, wherein there are Armies raised against our Commands, and contrary to our Proclamations, and are marching against us, and divers of our good Subjects, for obeying our lawful Commands, and opposing the rebellious Proceeding of others ill-affected, are by a strong Hand seized upon and imprisoned, their Houses plundered, and their Goods taken away; and the like is threatned to our selves, who, as all other our Subjects, ought to have our Protection against all unlawful Violence and Force: And the Laws made for disarming Recusants were made only for a Provision to prevent Danger in Time of Peace, and were not intended to bar you from a necessary Use of Arms in time of actual War, for your own Safety, or for the Defence of our Person against all Rebels and Enemies, which by your Duty and Allegiance you are bound unto; which is not, nor ever was meant to be discharged, or taken away by any Act: And whereas the Arms which were taken from you, ought by Law to have been kept and preserved to have been made use of by you in such time of open War, or by such others as you should provide, yet under the specious Pretence of disarming Recusants and Persons ill-affected, your Arms have been disposed and dispersed into the Hands of several Persons ill-affected, and for the most part Fomenters and Exciter; of these Commotions now raised in this Kingdom; our Will and Command therefore is, and we charge and require you upon your Allegiance, and as you tender the Safety of our Person, and the Peace and Welfare of our Kingdom, That you with all possible Speed provide sufficient Arms for your selves, your Servants, and your Tenants, which we authorize and require, during the time of open War raised against us, to keep and use for the Defence of us, and of your selves, and of your Country, against all Forces and Arms raised, or to be raised against us, or against our Consent, or contrary to our Proclamations, by Colour of any Order, or Ordinance, or Authority whatsoever: And we shall (according as we are bound to all our Subjects) use our utmost Powers for the Protection of you and yours, against all Injuries and Violence. And whensoever these Arms which you shall so provide (after it shall please God to put an End to these Dangers and Distractions) shall be taken away from your Custody, by reason of our Laws now in force, we do hereby assure you, we will allow you for the same, so much as you shall have, dispensed in provision thereof.
Sir William Riddell, Sir Edw. Widdrington, Sir Francis Howard, Sir Nich. Thornton, Col. Tho. Howard, Mr. Lance Errington, Mr. Errington of Befron Mr. George Wray, Mr. Ralph Mellet, Mr. Ch. Wray, Mr. Lambton, Mr. Hodgeson, Mr. Smith, Mr. David Errington, Mr. Pudsey, Mr. Anth. Bulmer, Mr. Jo. Bulmer, Mr. Askwith, Mr. George Collingwood, Mr. Forcer, Mr. Evers, Mr. Holthy, Mr. Evars, Mr. William Fenwick, Mr. Ratcliff, Mr. Haggerston, Mr. Forcer, Mr. Edw. Gray.
These are the Names of divers of the Colonels, Lieutenant Colonels, Serjeants, Majors, Captains, and Lieutenants that are Papists, and are Commanders in the Army, under the Command of the Earl of Newcastle.
His Majesty's Gracious Proclamation to the Cities of London and Westminster.
Whereas amongst other Acts used by the Promoters of this horrid and desperate Rebellion against us, great Industry and Subtilty hath been applied to corrupt our Subjects of our Cities of London and Westminster, first by engaging them in Factions and Tumults to awe the Members of both Houses of Parliament, who would not consent to their seditious Designs; then by perswading them to Loans and Contributions for the Maintenance of the Army now in Rebellion against us, upon pretence that the same was raised for the Defence of our Person, the Protestant Religion, the Laws of the Land, and Priviledge of Parliament, (whereas in Truth it is for the Destruction of them all;) by their yielding Obedience to, and executing their pretended Ordinance of the Militia: And lastly, by infusing into them a desperate Sense of their own Condition, and that we are so much incensed against them for the Premisses, that we intend to plunder and give up the Wealth of those our Cities as a Prey to our Soldiers: We do hereby declare, That we are yet far from being so much incensed against those our Cities as these Men desire to be believed, and in truth have endeavoured to make us: But we believe that those Tumults were contrived by the Persons whom we have formerly accused of that Practice, and raised out of the meanest and poorest People of those our Cities and Suburbs, without the Privity and Consent of the best and substantial Citizens and Inhabitants; and that the Loans and Contributions which have been since raised (though they have passed more generally than we expected from the Duty and Sobriety of Men of Fortunes and Understanding) have been wrested and extorted from them by Threats and Menaces, and Fear of Plundering and Violence. And therefore we do hereby offer Our Free and Gracious Pardon to all the Citizens and Inhabitants of our said Cities of London and Westminster for all Offences concerning the Premisses committed against us before the Publishing of this our Proclamation: (Except all those Persons whom we have excepted in our Declaration of the Twelfth of August,) and except Alderman Fulke and Capt. Manwaring, against all which we shall proceed according to the Rules of Law, as against Traitors and Stirrers of Sedition against us: And we do assure them on the Word of a King, that no Violence shall be offered by our Army, or any Part of it, to any of them, not doubting but their Demeanour will henceforward be such, that we shall not be compelled to bring our Army against them.
Provided that this Grace shall not extend to any Person, who after the Publishing of this our Proclamation, shall presume by Loan or Contribution to assist the said Army of Rebels, to assemble and muster themselves in Arms without Authority derived from us under our Hand, or to enter into any Oath of Association for the Assistance of the Earl of Essex, how speciously soever the same be pretended for our Safety: For since the Encounter on Sunday the 23d of this Month, where they used all possible Means and Malice to have destroyed us, and where it pleased God to give us so great a Victory over them (though with the Loss of many worthy Men) no man can be unsatisfied in the Mischief and Malice of their Rebellion: And therefore we must, and do declare, That whosoever shall henceforward by Money, Plate or otherwise assist the said Rebellion, shall take Arms by Virtue of any pretended Ordinance, or shall enter into any Association against us, or without our Consent, shall be esteemed by us an Enemy to the publick Peace, a Person disaffected to us, the Religion and Law of the Kingdom, and shall accordingly receive condign Punishment; of which we give them timely Notice, that they may proceed accordingly at their Perils. And to the End that they may receive all possible and particular Assurance from us of our gracious Intentions towards them, we shall be willing that such a Number of grave and substantial Citizens be employed from our said City to us, as shall by them be thought sit, who may propose such Things to us, on their Behalf, as shall be desired, to which we shall give a gracious and just Answer: And we do assure them, and all the World, That as the Scandals and Imputations upon us concerning our favouring Papists, have been groundlesly and maliciously contrived by the Authors of this Rebellion, to beget a Mis-understanding between us and our Subjects, so all the Professions we have made in our several Declarations for the Suppression of Popery, and the Maintenance of the true Reformed Protestant Religion established in the Church of England, and for the Defence of the Laws of the Land, and the just Priviledges of Parliament, shall be as inviolably observed by us, as we expect a Blessing from the Almighty God, and Obedience from our Subjects.