Historical Collections of Private Passages of State: Volume 5, 1642-45. Originally published by D Browne, London, 1721.
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Chap. XI. Of Battels, Sieges, Skirmishes, and other Military Transactions in the Year 1643.
The Treaty for Peace at Oxford, being thus broken off, without Success, as you have heard, the War was presently Prosecuted with greater Fury, through most Parts of the Nation: Of the most considerable Actions we shall endeavour, in this Chapter, to give an Account, as near as we can, in the Order of Time as they happen'd.
Sir William Waller having raised a Competent Force, on the 19th of March advanced from Bristol to Malmsbury, where Colonel Herbert Lunsford, a Stout Gentleman, and a good Soldier (Brother to Sir Tho. Lunsford that was taken at Edge-Hill) was Governor; who sent out some Troops to Encounter him, but they being beat back, Waller Assaulted the Town, but not prevailing, he prepared next Morning for another and more fierce Attack: But they within conceiving the Place not Tenible, desired a Parley, and yielded upon Quarter: Colonel Lunsford, Colonel Cook, some other Officers, and near 300 Common Soldiers, being made Prisoners; and One Piece of Ordnance, with some Ammunition, Taken.
About the same time, the Lord Herbert, of Ragland, Son to the Marquess of Worcester, with a considerable Army of Welch-men, lay near Glocester, and almost Block'd up that City. Waller, with his Forces, advances to Cirencester, and made shew as if he would fall upon that Town: But this Design was for Glocester, of which he gave the Men in Glocester notice, who supplyed him with Flat-bottom'd Boats; wherewith he suddenly transported his Forces over the River Severn, beyond Glocester, and fell upon the Rear of the Lord Herbert's Welch Forces; whom, at the same time a Party out of Glocester, Charged in the Front, whereby there were about 500 of the Welch Slain upon the Place, and 1000 taken Prisoners, with all their Arms and Ammunition, the rest wholly dispersed, and the Lord Herbert himself with Difficulty escaped to Oxford. Waller marched from thence to Teuxbury, and having Foraged the Country, returned to Glocester, and from thence to Chepstone in Monmouth-shier, which he took, and also a Ship called the Dragon of Bristol, in which was great store of Wealth; and soon after the Town of Monmouth was also Surrendred to him.
After this he march'd to Hereford, and Summon'd it, but receiv'd a slighting Answer from Colonel Herbert Price, whereupon he order'd some Pieces of Ordnance to be discharged against the Town; and, after some Sallies made, a Parley was defined, and Articles agreed on, That the Town, Arms, and Ammunition should be delivered, Quarter allow'd to the Commanders and Soldiers, Plundering to be Prohibited, the Ladies to be Civilly Treated, &c. Here were taken the Lord Scudamore's Son, Colonel Herbert Price, Sir Richard Cave, L. Colonel Conisby, and Mr. Conisby; and also Sir Walter Pye, Sir William Crofts, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Price, Serjeant Major Mintridge (who was dangerously Wounded) Sir Samuel Awbry, Serjeant Major Dalton, Doctor Rogers, Doctor Godwyn, Doctor Evans, and divers others, who were carried to Glocester.
Sir Hugh Cholmley had raised a Troop for the Parliament, and appeared active for their Service; whereupon he was, by them, entrusted also with the Government of Scarborough Town and Castle, a Place of considerable Strength and great Importance: But, Her Majesty being Landed, and now come to York, he, about the middle of March, entred into Intelligence with the Royal Party, and Letters pass'd between him, and Colonel Goring, and others: And, upon one Day, Two Trumpets came to Scarborough, one from the said Colonel Goring at York, the other from Sir Francis Mackworth at Thornton, where had lately happen'd a Rencounter between some of the King's Forces, and a Party sent out of Scarborough; the latter bringing in several Prisoners; And the Errand of these Trumpeters was now given out to be, to Treat about exchange of Prisoners. But from that time Sir Hugh was observed, by some Officers in his Garrison, to be very frequently magnifying the Earl of New-Castle's Forces in his Discourses, and undervaluing those under the Command of the Earl of Essex, and the Lord Fairfax: He also often complain'd, that he was slighted by the Parliament; for that having several times Importun'd them for Supplies, he could never obtain them in that measure as he desired. Mr. James Cholmley, his Kinsman, whose Son served the Earl of Crawford, (and who was supposed to have had some Influence upon him in this Turn) was sent to York, as was believ'd, about effecting this Design; tho', at his Return, he gave out with deep Protestations, that riding into the Country about Business, he was casually made Prisoner Six Miles from Scarborough, and carried to York; whence, he said, by some Friends and Acquaintance, he found means to escape.
On Munday March 20. Sir Hugh rode out early with one Servant only, and declared to a Principal Officer of his, That he was to meet Sir John Hotham, to consult about sending of Forces, for clearing that side of the Country; but desired, if any asked for him, it should be said he was gone to Whitby, his own House, to take care for the Preservation of it and the Town: He staid out all Night, and alledged next Day, That he lay at Ganton, a Friends House, about Six Miles from Scarborough. But indeed, in that time, waited on the Queen at York, and received a Commission to hold Scarborough-Castle for the King, having now fixt his Resolutions, and considering that he had Money, Goods, and other things of Value in Hull; which, upon his declaring for the King, would be seized; he therefore resolves to get them first from thence; and, on Thursday March 24. sent Captain Brown Bushel thither with a small Ship, and Seven Pieces of Ordnance, to bring them away: But so it happen'd, That, that very Night, Sir John Hotham had some Intimation of his Practices, and being confirmed therein by this sending for his Goods; the said Sir John Hotham not only stop'd the said Ship from returning, but also dispatch'd a Ketch to Captain Haddock, and other Parliament Ships abroad, to give them notice, left they not suspecting his Revolt, should put into that Haven and be snap'd. This Ketch being at Sea, well Man'd, and having in her Four Guns, met with a Scarborough Ship, Laden with Ammunition, going from the Parliament to Sir Hugh, viz. Three Pieces of Ordnance, Twenty Barrels of Powder, Forty Carbines, some Pistols and Swords, and Two great Fats of Match, all which they seized an carried away to Hull.
In the mean time, on Friday March the 25th in the Evening, Sir Hugh went for one of his Captains, a Kinsman of his, to the Castle, where he lay, and told him, He was resolved to hold the Castle for the King; but withal, was willing to allow him the use of his Conscience; so that if he did not think fit to continue his Command there, he should, with his Wife and Children, freely go to Hull; and the next Morning declared such his Resolution to Sir Thomas Norcliff, Captain Froom, and Captain Vanderhurst, a German, that likewise served under him in the Garrison, who were all much dissatisfied at it. The same day he gave leave to his Kinsman, the first mentioned Captain, to go to Hull, upon his Parole, and promise to procure Sir John Hotham to inlarge Captain Bushel within Two days, or else he himself to return to Scarborough, and Captain Froom and Captain Vandarhurst, with several Troopers, followed, reusing to serve for the King in Scarborough, But Brown Bushel was by Hotham released, and came back to Scarborough; and tho' he were Cousin German to Sir Hugh, yet he made many Protestations ere he went from Hull, to recover the Castle, and accordingly perform'd it: For Sir Hugh having, as he thought, firmly settled all things, repaired to the Queen, and committed the Castle to the Trust of Mr. James Cholmley, a Man of no great Experience in War, under whom Henry Bushel, (Captain Bushel's Brother) was Lieutenant. The Two Brothers conferred together, and having prepared the Soldiers, who were dissatisfied at the former Revolt, on Thursday the last of March, in the Night, they seiz'd first the Serjeant that Commanded the Guard, and next the Gunners, and then causing the Serjeant to Knock at the Gate of the Tower, (a place of great Strength, where the Captain was Lodg'd, under pretence of an Alarm in the Town, and desiring Powder and Shot for the Soldiers, from the Keeper of the Magazine) got the Gate open, and so became Masters of the whole Castle and Garrison, which, tho' able to hold out against an Army of 10000 Men, was thus twice Taken in one Week, without shedding one drop of Blood. And upon notice thereof, Sir John Hotham sent thither more Soldiers to Relieve them, and 201. to the Garrison to Drink. And the House of Commons, upon Intelligence of Sir Hugh's Revolt, resolved, That he should be disabled from continuing any longer a Member of that House; and that he should be Impeached of High-Treason. But notwithstanding all this, Captain Bushel some time after, held Correspondence with the Royal Party, and delivered up Scarborough, for which he was Imprisoned at Hull, but released by Sir John Hotham, and betook himself to the Service of the King.
On Saturday April the 15th General Essex, with his Army, consisting of about 15000 Foot, and 3000 Horse, came before Reading, (which was strongly Fortified, and had above 3000 in Garrison, and well provided for;) He sent a Trumpeter to Summon the Town, which Sir Arthur Aston, the Governor, utterly refused to hearken unto; whereupon he began his Intrenchments, and the same Night raised a Work to Plant their great Ordnance upon, which, on Sunday Morning, began to Play against the great Fort upon Cavesham Hill, that Commands the Town. And continuing thus to make his Approaches and Batteries, and the Governor being forced to keep his Chamber, by reason of a hurt he received by the Bricks of a Stack of Chimneys shotdown by the Enemy: Colonel Fielding (who during his Indisposition, Commanded in Chief) wanting Powder, hung out a Flag of Truce: But whil'st the Treaty was depending, the King in Person with Prince Rupert, Prince Maurice, &c. having drawn together a considerable Body, advanced from Welling ford towards Reading, to raise the Siege: Whose only Pass being over Cavesham-Bridge, the Lord Roberts and Colonel Barklay's Regiments, who had the Guard thereof, not only stopt their Passage there, but made the whole Body retire with Loss. Yet in the time of this Shirmish, at another place, they got an Opportunity to convey over the River into the Town, a quantity of Powder, (whereof they were in greatest want.) However, the Treaty went on, being in a manner before concluded upon; from which Fielding alledged he could not in Honour then recede. The Articles were as follow.
Articles concluded and agreed upon by his Excellency the Earl of Essex, General of the Forces raised for the Defence of the King and Kingdom, of the one part; and the Governour and Council of War in the Town of Reading, of the other part: this 26th day of April, 1643.
- I. That the Governour, Commanders, and Soldiers, both of Horse and Foot, may march out of the Town of Reading with flying Colours, Arms, four Pieces of Ordnance, Ammunition proportionable to them, Bag and Baggage, lighted Match, Bullet in Mouth, Drums beating, and Trumpets sounding.
- II. That they may have free Passage to the City of Oxford, without Interruption of any of the Forces under the Command of his Excellency the Earl of Essex; provided that the said Governour, Commanders, and Soldiers, use no Hostility untill they come to Oxford.
- III. That what Persons soever are accidentally come to the Town of Reading, and shut up by the Siege, may have like Liberty to pass without Interruption; such Persons only excepted, as have run away out of the Army under the Command of his Excellency.
- IV. That they may have 50 Carriages for Baggage for sick and hurt Men, which they are to provide themselves; and that they carry not out of the Town of Reading any such Goods or Commodities as have been taken from the Western Carriers, and brought into Reading.
- V. That the Inhabitants of the Town of Reading may not be prejudiced, in their Estates or Persons, either by plundering or Imprisonment. And that they who will leave the Town, may have free Leave and Passage to go to what place they will with their Goods, within the space of six Weeks after the Surrender of the said Town.
- VI. That the Garrison of Reading shall quit the said Town by Twelve of the Clock tomorrow. That timely Notice shall be given to his Excellency when they begin to march, that a Guard may be provided for their Security. That at the time when the Garrison begins to march out of the Port, towards Cawsom-Bridge, there shall be a Port open Newbery way, for my Lord General to pass into the Town.
- Richard Fielding.
- John Bellasis.
- Richard Boll.
- Edw. Villiers.
- Anthony Thelwell.
- Theophilus Gilby. and
- George Bond.
Accordingly the next Day the Garrison marched out: But one of their Waggons was pillaged by Essex's Men; and some of them had their Hats and Swords taken away, or exchanged, though General Essex was much offended, and in Person beat and slasht the Soldiers for such their violating the Articles. But the Occasion was alledged to have been given by the Garrison themselves, who were discovered, amongst their Waggons, to have one, wherein was 140 Musquets; which being directly against the Articles, exasperated the Parliaments Soldiers; more especially because they were restrained from plundering the Town, which they were in Expectation to have done, if they had carried it by Storm.
Likewise His Majesty was offended at that Exception in the Third Article. For on the 18th of April, whil'st Essex lay before Reading, His Majesty published a Proclamation, declaring him, and all that adhered to him, guilty of High Treason: But withal, offering Free Pardon to all Officers and Soilders that would Disband within six Days, and come in to His Majsties Lieutenant-General, or to the Governor of Reading. Now by the aforesaid Third Article, all such Persons as had left Essex's Army, and betaken themselves to His Majesties Protection and Service in that Town, were excepted; and so upon the matter were again delivered up to those they had forsaken. Therefore His Majesty, by a Proclamation dated the 12th of May, 'Declares, That he was not privy to, or in the least degree consenting to that Exception; but holds the same most prejudicial to his Service, and derogatory from his Honour; And that he shall always choose to run any Hazard or Danger the Violence or Treason of his Enemies can threaten or bring upon him, rather than withdraw or deny his Protection to any that shall return to their Duty. And does again assure all that shall within fix Days render themselves, That they shall receive all the Grace and Favour mentioned in the said Proclamation of the 18th of April: And that their former Errors shall never be remembred in the least degree to their Disadvantage.
There was for some time a Treaty, between those of Devonshire that sided with the Parliament, and Sir Ralph Hopton and other Gentlemen of Cornwal, who had put themselves into Arms for the King. But that Treaty not taking effect, and the Cessation between them being expired on the 22 of April; there were at the same time in the North of Devonshire certain Forces, about 1500 Foot and 200 Horse, under the immediate Command of Major-General James Chudley, Son to Sir George Chudley, (the Earl of Stamford being then sick of the Gout at Exeter) who having Intelligence, That the Town of Lanceston on in Cornwal had but a slender Garrison, no great Guns, and that their Ammunition was carrying away, &c. did enter Cornwal, beat the Centinels from Polson-Bridge, and approached near to the Town, which is naturally well fortified with a Hill, called the Windmill; on and near which Sir Ralph Hopton's Forces lay, having made a kind of a Fort there. The Major gave them a Charge; but met with a more vigorous Resistance than he expected; and after several hours warm Dispute his Foot were forced to give ground, having no Opportunity of bringing on his Horse to assist them, by reason of the many Hedges. Sir Ralph's Forces seeing them shrink, stoutly push on their Success, and sent a Regiment of Foot, and three Troops of Horse, to wheel about, and fall on their Rear, and take Pulson-Bridge behind them. But this was prevented by the coming in of some broken Companies of Colonel Merick's Regiment from Plimouth, under the Conduct of Lieutenant-Colonel Calmady and 100 of Colonel Northcot's Regiment, under the Command of Serjeant-Major Fitch; who secured the Bridge, over which the Major Retreated, and brought off his Ordnance, Ammunition, and Carriages, without any extraordinary Loss, and lay that Night at Lifton, and the next Day marcht to Okehampton, where they lay as in Garrison.
Chudleigh had then with him but about 1000 Foot, and not above Six score Horse; and his Carriages were dismiss'd, as being unserviceable, and no new ones as yet provided; so that he could not presently Retreat without losing his Artillery and Ammunition. Wherefore he resolved with his Horse to face the King's Forces, and to order the Foot to march to the Towns end, and favour, if need were, the Retreat of the Horse; the utmost of his Design being but to Skirmish with the Forlorn Hope, and thereby, if he could, to put the Body to a Stand, that, Night coming on, they might be obliged to lye upon the Down, and in the mean time his Forces might provide Carriages, and get off. In order hereunto he drew his small Number of Horse into fix Divisions; and with them charged successively on Sir Ralph Hopton's Horse, and through the Van of their Foot; which being disordered, put the whole Body into Confusion; took some few Prisoners, one Cornet, and three Foot Colours, &c Flusht with this Success, he Commanded his Foot from the Towns end to the Down, but could not prevail with them to advance: Whereupon he gave them Order to leave their Matches burning on the Fuzzes; and himself, with a select Party of his Horse, staying on the Down, beat back the Scouts, kept off the Intelligence, and, together with the lighted Matches on the Fuzzes, seeming like a Body of Foot ready to fall on, (the Night being dark and rainy) hinder'd Sir Ralph's Forces from pursuing them. But the Night proving very tempestuous, with hideous Claps of Thunder, Sir Ralph drew off the Down in disorder; leaving behind them divers Arms and some Ammunition, which Chudleigh's Soldiers and the Country People the next Day made Pillage of.
Upon the Sixth of this Month I writ to you by a special Messenger, which I hope is come to your hands. Presently after the Dispatch of that Letter, the News was brought me, That the Earl of Newcastle had possessed himself both of Rotheram and Sheffeild. The Forces in Rotheram held out two days Siege, and yeilded up the Town upon Treaty: Wherein it was agreed, that the Town should not be Plundered; and that all the Gentlemen, Commanders and Soldiers, (fix only excepted, that were especially named) leaving their Arms, should have free Liberty to go whither they pleased. But when the Enemy entred, contrary to their Articles, they have not only Plundered the Town, but have also made all the Commanders and Soldiers Prisoners; and do endeavour to constrain them to take up Arms on their Party. The Cammanders at Sheffeild hearing of the Loss of Rotheram, and seeing Enemies Forces advanced in View of the Town, they all presently deserted the Place, as not tenable with so few against so potent an Army; and fled away with their Arms, some to Chesterfield, and some to Manchester. The Loss of these two Places, hath much elated the Enemy, and cast down the Spirits of the People in these Parts, who daily see the Enemy encrease in Power, and to gain Ground, and no Succours come to them from any Part. The Earl of Newcastle's Army do now range over all the Southwest part of this Country; and the last Week there is a Garrison of Horse and Foot laid at Knaresborough, where they begin to fortifie the Town. On Friday Sevennight last, three Troops, and some other Forces, of which many were French, came from that Garrison, and pillaged Otley; and in their retreat to Knaresborough, upon the open Forest, they took a Man and a Woman: the Man they wounded and beat cruelly; and before his Face ravished the Woman. These particulars I repeat, That you may the more clearly discern the Miseries which the Country groans under. And here about Leeds, Bradford, and Hallifax, being a mountainous barren Country, the People now begin to be sensible of Want; their last years Provisions being spent, and the Enemies Garrisons slopping all Provisions both of Corn and Flesh, and other Necessaries that were wont to come from the more fruitful Countries to them; their Trade utterly taken away; their Poor grow innumerable, and great Scarcity of Means to relieve them. And this Army, which now lyes amongst them, to defend them from the Enemy, cannot defend them from Want; which causeth much Murmur and Lamentation amongst the People. And for the Army itself, it is so far in Arrears, and no way appearing how they shall either be supplied with Money or Succours, as they grow very mutinous. Yet upon Saturday last in the Night I caused to be driven out of the Garrisons in Leeds, Bradford, Hallifax, and Howley, some Horse, Foot, and Dragooners, in all about 1500 Men, and sent them under my Son's Command against Wakefield, and assisted by Major-General Gifford, Sir Henry Fowlis, and Sir William Fairfax, with divers other Commanders. They appeared before Wakefield about Four a Clock on Sunday in the Morning, where they found the Enemy (who had Intelligence of their Design) ready to receive them. There was in the Town, General Goring, Serjeant Major, General Mack-worth, the Lord Goring; with many other principal Commanders and eminent Persons, with about seven Troops of Horse, and fix Regiments, containing 3000 Foot, the Town well fortified with Works and four Pieces of Ordnance: Yet our Men, both Commanders and Common Soldiers, went on with undaunted Courage, and notwithstanding the thick Volleys of small and great Shot, charged up to their Works, which they entred, seized upon their Ordnance, and turned them upon themselves, and pursued the Enemy so close, as they beat quite out of the Town the most part of the Horse, and a great number of the Foot, and made all the rest Prisoners; and with them took four Pieces of Ordnance, and all the Ammunition then in the Town, and a great number of Arms: Amongst the Prisoners, General Goring himself, with divers other Commanders and other Common Soldiers; in all about 1500 Men, and 27 Colours of Foot, three Cornets of Horse; of which I send a more particular List enclosed. The more exact and particular Relation of this Service, as it is testified to me under the Hands of the principal Commanders employed in that Design, I send you enclosed for your better Information; and truly for my Part I do rather account it a Miracle than a Victory; and the Glory and Praise to be ascribed to God, that wrought it. In which I hope I derogate nothing from the Merits of the Commanders and Soldiers, who every Man in his Place and Duty shewed as much Courage and Resolution as could be expected from Men. When the Town was thus taken, they found their Number and Strength too weak to keep it and their Prisoners: So they left the Place, and march'd away with their Booty. In taking the Town, we lost no Man of Note, and not above seven Men in all; of which one was Clerk of the Store, and an Ensign of Foot, and one a Quartermaster of Horse; the rest Common Soldiers: But many of our Men were Shot and wounded. This Overthrow hath much enraged the Enemies, who threaten a present Revenge, and are drawing all their Forces this way, to effect it. I perceive there are Succours sent to Lincolnshire, and other adjacent Counties; which, if they were here, might be employed to as much advantage for the publick Safety, as in any place. I desire our Condition may be seriously thought on by the House, and the Aids, often promised, presently march away to us: And that Colonel Cromwell, with his Horse and Foot, may also be Ordered to march to me, that being joyned, I may be able to draw this Army into the Field, and gain fresh Quarters for the Soldiers, and furnish our selves with Powder, Arms, and Ammunition, which is now grown very scarce, and cannot be supplied until the Passage to Hull be forced open, which now is possessed by the Enemy. If such Succours come not timely to us, we cannot long subsist, but must be forced to accept of Dishonourable Conditions, which besides the loss and ruine of this Country, will be a great Disadvantage to the general Safety; and withal, some Course must be thought on to furnish some large proportion of Money to defray the Soldier, Arrears, which I beseech you endeavour for them and me, that am,
I send you enclosed a Letter from the Lord Goring to his Son General Goring, found in his Chamber at Wakefield, which will let the House see the Enemies great desire to have this Army ruined, that they might with their whole Force March Southwards.
A Letter found in General Goring's Chamber, which was sent to him by his Father the Lord Goring.
I Saw what you writ to Henry Jermine, and find that the Business will be put on that way, but I am of Opinion, That your General will never Consent to, the latter way of dividing his Force, unless it be in the Country, where he will abide his Self. This will be Tryed to morrow at his return hither, where the Queen expects him; In the interim, if it were possible to give the Enemy any such Knock, or considerable Disturbance, to the Country about, which hath not yet felt the Misery of their Neighbours, I would not doubt but the Treaty might be resumed again, by which Means, and no other, your Army may be set at liberty, to change your Stations, and do something that may be of Consequence indeed. I pray you think seriously hereof; and once in your Life follow the Advice of your best Friend, and dearly loving Father,
After I had Sealed my Letter, I was advised to Advertise you, That the Lord Fairfax never believed you would look into the Parts, where now you are, but intended to draw back to the Place from whence you came, which made him so lofty in his Conditions; wherefore if you can (as my Authors propose) get between Bradford and Leeds, you will so annoy, divert, and separate them in all their Designs, as you may be sure to carry Hallifax and Bradford on this Hand, or Leeds on the other: Take this to Heart, and let General King, with my humble Service, know this much, not as new to him, and the rest of you, but as that which all the wisest, and must knowing Men in the Country, Advise and Hope. This will so hare them, and satisfie this Country; and will give such other Advantages, as will render us Happy and Glorious too; Whereas on the contrary, all will fall flat both in Power and Reputation, past Expression; And Her Majesty either unprovided of such a Convoy from thence, as is fit for Her, and the Kings present Occasions; or else leave this Country naked to the Tyranny of the merciless Enemy, contrary to Contract, and all due Justice; This is the Opinion of others, far better able to Advise, than he that so heartily Prays for you, and is,
Saturday Night the 20th of May, the Lord General gave Order for a Party of 1000 Foot, 3 Companies of Dragooners, and 8 Troops of Horse, to march from he Garrisons of Leeds, Bradford, Hallifax, and Howley. Sir Thomas Fairfax Commanded in Chief; The Foot were Commanded by Serjeant Major-General Gifford, and Sir William Fairfax; And the other four Troop by Sir Henry Foulis Howley was the Rendezvous, where they all met on Saturday last, about Twelve a Clock at Night; About two next Morning they march'd away, and coming to Stanley, where two of the Enemies Troops lay with some Dragooners, that Quarter was beaten up, and about 21 Prisoners taken. About four a Clock in the Morning we came before Wakefield, where after some of their Horse were beaten into the Town, the Foot with unspeakable Courage, beat the Enemy from the Hedges, which they had lined with Musqueteers, into the Town, and Assaulted it in two Places, Wrengate and Norgate, and after an hour and a half Fight, we recovered one of their Pieces, and turned it upon them, and entred the Town at both Places, at one and the same Time, when the Barricadoes were opened. Sir Thomas Fairfax, with the Horse, fell into the Town, and cleared the Street, where Colonel Goring was taken by Lieutenant Alured, Brother to Captain Alured, a Member of the House; yet in the Market place there stood 3 Troops of Horse, and Colonel Lambton's Regiment, to whom Major General Gifford sent a Trumpet, with offer of Quarter, if they would lay down their Arms, they Answered, They scorned the Motion; then he fired a Piece of their own Ordinance upon them, and the Horse fell in upon them, beat them out of Town, and took all these Officers in the enclosed Lift, 27 Colours of Foot, 3 Cornets of Horse, and about 1500 commmon Soldiers. The Enemy had in the Town 3000 Foot, 7 Troops of Horse, besides Colonel Lambton's Regiment, which came into the Town after we had entred the Town. The Enemy left behind them four Pieces of Ordnance, with Ammunition, which we brought away.
- Thomas Fairfax.
- Henry Foulis.
- John Gifford.
- William Fairfax.
- John Holman.
- Robert Foulis.
- Titus Leighton.
- Francis Talbot.
- General Goring.
- Sir Thomas Bland, Lieutenant Colonel to Sir George Wentworth.
- Lieutenant Colonel St. George.
- Lieutenant Colonel Macmoyler,
- Serjeant Major Carr.
- Captain Carr.
- Captain Knight.
- Captain Wildbore.
- Captain Rueston.
- Captain Pemberton.
- Captain Croft.
- Captain Ledgard.
- Captain Lashley.
- Captain Kayley.
- Captain Nutall.
- Captain Lieutenant Benson.
- Serjeant Major Carnaby, and Captain Nutall, left wounded in Wakefield, upon their Engagements to be true Prisoners.
- Ensign Squire.
- Ensign Vavasor.
- Ensign Maskew.
- Ensign Lambton.
- Ensign Ducket.
- Ensign Stockhald.
- Ensign Baldwinson.
- Ensign Davis.
- Ensign Carr.
- Ensign Gibson.
- Ensign Smathweight.
- Ensign Ballinson.
- Ensign Watson.
- Ensign Smelt.
- Ensign Halliburton.
The Earl of Stamford (the Parliaments General in the West) being at Stratton on the edge of Cornwall, and his Lieutenant General Sir George Chudleigh gone into Cornwall with 600 of his Horse, Sir Ralph Hopton beat up his Quarters, Routed and cut off the Van of his Army, took several Hundreds Prisoners, with Thirteen Brass Pieces of Ordnance, a great quantity of Powder, and other Provisions, for which Service, (highly advantageous to the Kings Interest in the West) Sir Ralph was some time after (viz. on the fourth of September 1643) Created Lord Hopton of Stratton. Amongst the rest of those here taken Prisoners, was Stamford's Major-General Chudleigh (Sir George's Son.) but Letters afterwards Intercepted to his Father, it appear'd to have been Design'd by him; whereupon his Father, to prevent any Suspicions on himself, surrendered his Commission. And Shortly after Publish'd the following Paper in Devon-Shire
The Declaration of Sir George Chudleigh, Baronet.
The Ancient (if not the Prime Fabrick of this famous Kingdom, to be raised upon these Three main Pillars; the Royal Sovereiguty, and the Two Houses of Parliament is so well known, as it needs no Declaration; as the proportionable Structure and Disposition of these Three doth promise to the Eye of Reason and sound Policy, nothing but Uniformity, Strength, and Beauty; so the Experience of all Ages hath constantly tought us, That the Unity and Correspondency of these fundamental Pieces, has been the Support, Preservation, and Happiness of the whole; and no less apparent is it, That their Disjunction and Separation must be their total Ruine and Destruction. The King hath Royal Prerogatives underniable; without which he can not govern as a King: The Two Houses of Parliament have their peculiar Privileges wherein every Subject hath his Interest; the End of all is, That by a meet Temper of their several Rights, a just frame of Government may arise for the common good, which may restrain all exorbitant Affections and Attempts, if any happen in either Part: Now these Prerogatives of the King, and Privileges of the Subject, though they have distinct Operations, yet they are of so near conjunction, as diferences do sometimes arise to interrupt their Motion, much like the Wheels of a Clock or Watch, so depending upon each other, as the smallest Mote or Hare may beget a Stop and Disorder; the greater Care should be had in the keeping; but Differences do sometimes arise, though never (as I suppose) aggravated to that Extremity as now: Petitions of Right are commendable, Remonstrances not unlawful; but Arms, though Defensive, seem doubtful. My Lot fell to be fast on the Parliaments side, by a strong Opinion I had of the goodness of their cause, and the Royal Service I should do His Majesty, in defending that his High Court from the manifest Enemies, that then to my Judgment appeared against it: Religion and the Subjects lawful Rights seemed in Danger, and the general Interest called for the common Care to preserve it; but I believe it hath gone too far, the Destruction of a Kingdom cannot be the Way to save it, the loss of Christian Subjects, the Subjects loss of their Estates, by a double Plunder or Assessment, concurs not with Piety, not yet with Propriety. Touching Religion, which is the chief, (and, I confess, in great Danger) His Majesty (whom God long preserve) hath given us unquestionable Security, during his own time; for the rest, the Lord of Hosts with me hath determined the Controversie, having done my utmost faithfully, according to my former Protestation, I have thrown myself at my Sovereigh's Feet, and embraced his gracious Pardon: I will content no more in Word or Deed. And this my Resolution, with the indisputable Grounds thereof, I thought fit to declare to my Friends and Country-men, that they may understand my sitting down to proceed from no Compulsion, but the Necessity I conceive there is of ceasing this destructive War, unless we would become the wilful Authors of the Calamities we would decline. This may suffice for this time, making my Prayer according to my Hopes for speedy Peace: But if the War shall continue (which Godforbid) I may happily take up some further Determinations.
Upon the before mentioned Defeat at Stratton, the Earl of Stamford retreated by Barnstaple to Exeter, where the aforesaid young Mr. Chudleigh having then openly declared himself for the King, Besieged him; and soon after came up Prince Maurice with a strong Force, and Commanded at the Siegein Chief. The Citizens were for the greatest Part adverse to the Parliament; and the Earl having held it out 8 Months and 19 days, his Ammunition then failing, and no hopes of Relief appearing, he Surrendred it upon the following Articles.
Articles between His Excellency Prince Maurice and the Earl of Stamford, upon the Delivery of the City of Exeter, Sept. 5. 1643.
I. It is concluded and agreed on, That the City and Castle of Exon be surrendred into the hands of His Highness Prince Maurice, with all Arms, Ensigns, Ordnance, Ammunition, and all others Warlike Provisions whatsoever, within the said City and Castle.
II. That the Right Honourable Henry Earl of Stamford, together with all Officers above the degree of Lieutenants, both of Horse and Foot, now within and about this City and Castle, do March out of this City and Castle, on Thursday the 7th of this Months, by Nine of the Clock in the Morning, with their Troops of Horse, full Arms, Bag and Baggage, provided it be their own Goods: And that the Lieutenants and Ensigns March out with their Swords at the East-Gate; and that the Foot Soldiers March out at the same time, leaving their Arms at the Guild-Hall: All having a safe convey to Windsor, or to go elswhere if they please; and such as will stay shall have pay in the King's Army.
III. That there be Carriages allowed and provided to carry away their Bag and Baggage, and Sick and hurt Soldiers; and that an especial Care be taken of such Officers and Soldiers as (being Sick and Wounded) shall be by the Earl of Stamford left behind in the said City; and that, upon their Recovery, they shall have Passes to depart to their own Homes respectively.
V. That His Highness shall forthwith procure a free and general Pardon unto Henry Earl of Stamford, Sir George Chidleigh, Sir John Bampsield, Sir John Northcot, Boronets; Sir Samuel Roberts, and Sir Nicholas Martin, Knights; and unto the Mayor, Bayliffs, and Commonalty of the City of Exon, and to all other Persons of what Degree, Condition, or Quality soever, now being with in the said City of Exon, for all Treasons and other Offences whatsoever, committed by them, or any of them, since the beginning of this present Parliament, relating to these unhappy Differences, between His Majesty, and the Two Houses of Parliament; and that all, or any of them, shall have his particular Pardon for the aforsaid Offences or Treasons, if he shall Sue forth the same.
VII. That all Persons Citizens, and Inhabitants may at any time depart with their Families, Goods, and Estates, unto any part of this Kingdom; and that they and every of them, shall have power to Dispose, Sell, or Alien, either by themselves or others, whatsoever Goods, or parts of their Estates they shall not convey or carry with them.
VIII. That all Persons, now in this City, may have free Liberty to repair to their Houses in the Country or elsewhere, and there to remain in safety, and enjoy their Estates, Lands, Rents, and Goods, without Plundring, Fine, or Imprisonment, or any other Molestation, and may Travel to and fro, without any interruption, hindrance, or denial.
IX. That all Ministers and Preachers of God's Word, now within this City, shall have free Liberty either to stay here or go to their own Houses, Cures or Charges, or elsewhere within his Majesties Dominions, with their Wives, Children, Families and Goods, there to abide Peaceably, and to excercise their Ministerial Functions, and to enjoy their Estates according to the Laws of the Land.
X. That all the Charters, Liberties, Privileges, and Franchises, Lands, Estates Goods, and Debts of the said City, shall be preserved and confirmed: And that the ancient Government and the present Governors and Officers may remain and continue in their former Condition.
XIV. That the Officers and Soldiers, in their Marching out, shall not be Reproached, or have any disgraceful Speeches or Affronts offered or given unto them by any Officer or Soldier of the Kings: And that the Convoy appointed to March with them, may go and return safely, without any violence or wrong offered unto them, by any Forces of the Adverse Party.
The Fifth Article much disgusted by many of the Two Houses; and there was discourse of calling the Earl of Stamford in Question, for admitting thereof, and for his whole Conduct in this Service, but nothing came of it.
Prince Rupert, with a strong Party, frequently beat up the Parliaments Quarters, as at Postcomb and Chinner in Oxford-shire; and some-times made Incursions into Buckingham-shire, whose Forces were drawn together in Chalgrave-Field to resist him; but on the 18th of June the Prince Engaged them, and put them to the Rout, took Captain Sheffield, and many other Prisoners; Major Gunter was shot dead upon the place, and Mr. Hampden (one of the Five Members) who would needs go out with this Party, contrary to the Advice of his Friends, being not ordered to it, was Wounded and Dyed thereof, June 24. his Death much lamented by the Parliament Party.
Her Majesty, after her Arrival from Holland, having lain sometime at York, and from thence sent a quantity of Arms and Ammunition to His Majesty at Oxford, under a Convoy of 1500 Men, went first to Pomfret, and thence to Newark on the 16th of June, where she Quartered near a Fortnight: And touching Her March from thence, and what Strength She had then with Her, there cannot be a better Account given, than what Her Majesty Her self sent to the King in Her Letter, dated June the 27th, in there Words:
My Dear Heart!
I Received just now your Letter by my Lord Savile, who found me ready to go away, staying but for one thing for which you will pardon Two days stop: It is to have Hull and Lincoln. Young Hotham having been put in Prison, by Order of Parliament is escaped, and hath sent to 260. that he would cast himself into his Arms; and that Hull and Lincoln should be rendred: he is gone to his Father, and 260 waits for the Answer; so that I think I shall go hence, Friday or Saturday, and shall go lye at Werton; and from thence to Ashby, where we will resolve what way to take, and I will stay there a day, because the March of the day before, will have been somewhat Great, and also to know how the Enemy Marches: All their Forces of Nottingham, at present, being gone to Leicester and Derby, which makes us believe, That it is to intercept our Passage: As soon as we have resolved I will send you word. At this present I think it fit to let you know the state in which we March, and what I leave behind me for the safety of Lincoln-shire and Nottingham-shire: I leave 2000 Foot, and where withal to Arm 500 more; Twenty Companies of Horse; all this to be under Charles Cavendish, whom the Gentlemen of the Country have, against his Will, desired me not to carry with me, for he desired extremely to go. The Enemies have left within Nottingham 1000. I carry with me 3000 Foot, 30 Companies of Horse and Dragoons, Six Pieces of Cannon and Two Mortars. Harry Germin Commands the Forces which go with me as Colonel of my Guard; and Sir Alexander Lesly the Foot, under him; and Gerard the Horse; and Robin Legg the Artillery; and Her She-Majesty, Generalissimo, and extremely diligent, with 150 Waggons of Baggage, to Govern, in case of a Battle: Have a Care that no Troops of Essex's Army incommodate us; for, 1 hope, that for the rest we shall be strong enough.
In this March, July the 2d, Her Majesty took Burton upon Trent; and on the 11th of July Prince Rupert met her at Stratford upon Avon; and on Thursday the 13th of July His Majesty being advertiz'd of her near Approach, went forth with the Prince of Wales, the Duke of York, his Life-guard, and some Troops of Horse, to receive her; and near Edge-hill they met, and lay that Night at Sir Thomas Pope's House at Wroxon, and the next Morning went to Woodstock; Her Majesty having been absent from the King ever since the 23d of February, 1641–2.
In the mean time Sir John Hotham and his Son were discovered to hold Correspondence with the Royal Party. Upon what Ground of Discontent, or proffered Hopes, they entertained Thoughts of deserting the Parliament, in whose Service they had so far engaged, is hard to determine. Some Differences there had happened between Sir John and the Lord Fairfax, to whom Sir John was unwilling to submit, tho' he were the Parliament's General in those Parts: And some said, that the Parliament hearing of this Contest, intended to displace Hotham, which he having discovered by intercepted Letters, began to have new Designs. I have been informed by a Gentleman that was Sir John Hotham's Secretary at that time, of another Ground of Dissatisfaction between them, viz. "That about three Weeks before the Fight at Edge-hill, Sir John Hotham sent a Letter to the Speaker of the House of Commons, another to the Earl of Northumberland, and a third to the Earl of Holland, the Subject Matter of all three being earnest Arguments to persuade them to use their Endeavours and improve their Interest to induce the Parliament to an Accommodation with the King before Matters came to Extremity; for if the Sword were once drawn, it would be with us as it was with the Romans in the Time of Cosar and Pompey, when 'twas said, Whoever had the better, the Roman Liberty was sure to have the most; and that these Letters begot an ill Opinion of Sir John amongst some powerful Members; and that there having been a Treaty, and some Letters passed between the Earl of Newcastle and Sir John: The Earl sent to Ferdinando Lord Fairfax, to let him know, that if he would send to him a Person he could confide in, he would advertize him of some Things worth his Notice; upon a which Colonel John Allured was sent, to whom Copies were given of some Letters written by Sir John, which were communicated to those that bore him Ill-will in the House of Commons; upon which Jealousies were much increased against him."
This is the Account given by Sir John Hotham's Secretary, who is yet living. But whatever might be the Inducements, so it was, that about the middle of June Sir John Meldrum seized Captain John Hotham (Sir John's Son) in his Bed, and sent him Prisoner to Nottingham Castle, from whence he found means to escape, and went to Lincoln; and sent a Letter thence dated June the 24th to the Parliament, complaining of his Imprisonment; and that he was ready to answer what should be objected against him. But soon after went to his Father to Hull, which giving the Parliament fresh occasion of Jealousy, Order was given to Sir Matthew Boynton to have an eye upon them, and to endeavour to preserve the Town, if he perceived it in danger, and Sir Matthew being Sir John Hotham's Brother in Law, was the less mistrusted by him.
On Wednesday the 28th of June a Letter was sent from Captain Mayer (Commander of the Hercules, a Man of War that lay in the Road) to one Mr. Robert Ripley in Hull, praying him to acquaint the Mayor that there was a dangerous Plot on foot against that Town from the Treachery of Sir John Hotham the Governour, which would that Night or the next be put in Execution, if not prevented. Ripley presently acquainted the Mayor, who communicated it about ten a clock at night to some Aldermen, and to Sir Matthew Boynton, and other Gentlemen, but the latter would not be seen to act, and therefore left it wholly to the Townsmen, only gave them their Advice and Approbation, and did order that private notice should be given to such as were most zealous for the Parliament, so that by three or four a clock in the Morning there were about 1500 Men in readiness, expecting the Word of Command from the Mayor; and then 'every Man armed, with his Musket charged and Match lighted came forth, and drew up in several Bodies, seized first upon the Commanders and the main Guard, next upon all that had any relation to the Governour, and particularly on Captain Hotham, then on the Magazine, and all the Ordnance on the Walls, and the Guards at the Gates, and the three Block-houses, and the Castle, so that the whole Town, and all that belonged to it, was in less than about an Hour's time secured, without one Drop of Blood, or so much as a Musket discharged.' Sir John having then notice of what was done, got out of his House, and meeting a Man riding into the Town, made him alight, and mounted his Horse, and so passed thro' Beverly-Gate, the Guard having yet no Order to stop him. But his Pursuers immediately coming thither, and seeing him gone, one from the Walls shot a Musket, and a Gunner discharg'd a Piece of Ordnance at him. Fearing a Pursuit he quitted Beverley Road, and turned down to a Ferry, intending to have got over into Holderness, but there missing of a Boat, was forced to ride on to Beverly, whither Sir Matthew Boynton's Man was now got before him, with a Letter to his Son, Colonel Boynton, acquainting him with the Plot, and Order to apprehend Sir John Hotham, if he came there, and also Sir Edward Rodes, who had a Company there, and was suspected of a Design to yield up that Town too, but nothing proved against him. Sir John Hotham soon after coming into Beverly, Colonel Boynton took his Horse by the Bridle, and told him he was his Prisoner: And presently Sir Edward Rodes was seized, and both sent to Hull, and put on board the Ship Hercules, which soon after conveyed them and Captain John Hotham to London, where they arrived July 15, and were committed to the Tower.
Sir John Hotham had fortified his House at Scarborough, and put a Garrison in it, which now by the Mayor of Hull, &c. were ordered to go to Beverly, to help secure that Town: And the next Day after this seizing of Hotham and Sir Edward Rodes, a Party of the King's Forces came up to Beverly, but finding a stout Resistance, they retired.
The Parliament having received an Account of these Transactions at Hull, passed the following Declaration.
Whereas Thomas Raikes Mayor of Hull, Sir Matthew Boynton Knight and Baronet, Sir William St. Quintal Bar. Sir Richard Darly Knt. Sir John Bonrcher and Sir William Allison Knts, Lancelot Roper, Nicholas Denman, John Barnard, and William Pople, Aldermen, John Penrose Gentleman, and Robert Johnson Clerk, having received Information that there was Design for the betraying of the Town of Hull, which in their Opinion could not be prevented, but by a speedy seizing of the Block-houses, and other Places of Strength in the Town, as also of the Persons of Sir John Hotham, Sir Edward Rodes, and Captain Hotham. And whereas according they, with others, seized on the said Places of Strength, for the Preservation of the said Town, and also of the Persons of Sir John Hotham, Sir Edward Rodes, and Captain Hotham, to be in safe Custody till farther Directions from the Parliament. And whereas the said Mayor of Hull, Sir Matthew Boynton, and the rest of the Persons first above-named, did issue out their Warrants and Directions, commanding Captain Scarch to march from Scarborough, with his Soldiers, Arms and Ammunition be had there, to Beverly, for the Defence of that Place, and the Goods there of consequence to be preserved in Beverly till farther Directions from the Parliament. And whereas they did issue out their Warrants and Directions to divers other Captains, to march with their Soldiers from Hull to Beverly, for the Defence of that Place; the Lords and Commons do declare that it was an acceptable Service to the Kingdom and Parliament which the said Mayor of Hull, Sir Matthew Boynton, and the rest of the Gentlemen above-named, and all others, have done herein; and that the Lords and Commons will keep them, and all others that have assisted them therein, indemnified and saved harmless.
Mr. Grimes, Minister of Ightam in Kent, resusing either himself to take the late Vow or Covenant (framed on the discovery of the Design of Mr. Tomkins, Challoner, &c. at London) or to tender the same to his Parishioners, according to the Order of both Houses, a Party of Horse was sent to apprehend and bring him up to the Parliament; whereupon several Persons of that Town, and the Places adjacent, gathered together with Halberts, Swords and Staves, and would have rescued him, which tho' they could not effect, yet being thus up in a Tumult, many others resorted to them, and at the Town of Sevenoak they increased their Number to almost 2000. The Parliament sent down Sir Henry Vane the elder to endeavour to appease them, and a Declaration, That if they would quietly depart to their own Houses, and restore what Arms they had taken from others, they should be received to Favour and Protection, and the Parliament would redress their just Grievances. But this being refused, the two Houses sent down Colonel Richard Brown with two Regiments of Foot, and a Regiment of Dragoons, and some Troops of Horse, who drove them from Sevenoak to Tunbridge, where a Party of them having pulled down Hilden-Bridge, about a quarter of a Mile off the Town, did from the Hill beyond it make a stout Opposition for some time, and when Brown had got his Foot over the River, retreated to the Town, where they renewed the Skirmish, and killed seven of this Men, whereof one an Ensign of Captain Roe's (a Man of great Couragem and who foretold he should that Day be slain.) But at last they were forced to fly, divers of them slain, about 200 taken Prisoners, and the Town plundered.
At this time also was discoverd a Design to deliver up the City of Lincoln, which was then in the Parliaments hands, for effecting where of 2000 of the Queen's Forces were sent from Newark to the Walls of Lincoln, expecting to be let in at an Hour appointed, by the means of Serjeant-major Purefoy, and his Brother Captain Purefoy, who in order thereunto had a Day or two before admitted into the Town about 60 Cavaliers in Disguise, like Country Market-Folks, who were closely sheltered in the Dean's House. And tho', upon some private Intimation from the Mayor of Hull, the two Purefoys were seized, yet these Gentlemen sallied out into the Town, endeavouring to secure the Magazine and Courts of Guard, and did some Execution; but by the discharge of a Cannon by a Country-man that never discharged a Piece before in his Life, several of them being slain, they were suppressed, and the Forces without finding their Design frustrated, retreated.
Not long after this, the Lord Willoughby of Parham, with a Party of Horse and Dragoons, advanced to the Town of Gainsborough in the said County of Lincoln, and after a desperate Assault, became Masters there of, and took Prisoners, the Earl of Kingston, Sir Gervais Scroop, and several other Gentlemen and Officers, and about 250 common Soldiers, and Released near 200 Prisoners, many of them belonging to my Lord Fairfax, and great store of Treasure in the Earls House, which held out a whole day after the Town was taken. The Lord Willoughby understanding that the Kings Forces from Newark, and other places, were gathered together to regain the Town, sent away the Earl of Kingston in a Pinnace to Hull, which in its passage being espied by a Party of the Kings Forces, they drew up some Musqueteers to the Trent side, and discharged at her, and unhappily kill'd the Earl, and his Man Savile in their Cabbin; but the Pinnace got clear, and passed on to Hull. The better to secure Gainsborough in the Parliaments Hands Cromwel drew that way, touching whose Proceedings take this Letter under his own Hand.
A Letter Written by Colonel Cromvel to the Committee for the Association fitting at Cambridge.
It hath pleased the Lord to give your Servant and Soldiers a uptable Victory now at Gainsborow. I marched after the taking of Burley-House, upon Wednesday, to Grantham, where I met about 300 Horse and Dragooners of Nottingham; With these by Agreement with the Lincolneers, we met at North-Scarle, which is about Ten Miles from Gainsborow, upon Thursday in the Evening, where we carriet until two of the Clock in the Morning, and then with our whole Body adavnced towards Gainsborow; About a Mile and a half from the Town, we met a Forlorn-Hope of the Enemy of near 100 Horse, our Dragooners laboured to beat them back, but not alighting off their Horses, the Enemy charged them, and made them retire unto their main Body: We advanced and came to the bottom, of a steep Hill, we could not well get up but by some Tracts, which our Men assaying to do, the Body of the Enemy endeavoured to hinder, wherein we prevailed, and got the top of the Hill, This was done by the Lincolneers, who had the Vanguard; when we all recovered the top of the hill, we saw a great Body of the Enemies Horse facing of us, at about a Muskets shot, or less distance, and a good Reserve of a full Regiment of Horse behind it: We endeavoured to put our Men into as good Order us we could, the Enemy in the mean time advanced towards us, to take us to Disadvantage, but in such Order as we were, we charged their great Body; I having the Right Wing, we came up Horse to Horse, where we disputed it with our Swords and Pistols a pretty time, all keeping close Order, so that one could not break the other; at last they a little shrinking, our Men perceiving it, pressed in upon them, and immediately routed this whole Body, some flying on one fide, and others on the other of the Enemies Reserve; and our Men pursuing them, had chase and Execution about five or six Miles; I perceiving this Body, which was the Reserve standing still unbroken, kept back my Major Whaley from the Chase, and with my own Troop, and the other of my Regiment, all being three Troops, we got into a Body: In this Reserve stood General Cavendish, who one while faced me, another while faced four of the Lincoln Troops, which was all of ours that stood upon the Place, the rest being engaged in the Chase; At last General Cavendish charged the Lincolneers and routed them; immediately I fell on his Rear with my three Troops, which did so astonish him, that he gave over the Chase, and would fain have delivered himself from me, but pressing on, forced down a Hill, having good Execution of them, and below the Hill drove the General with some of his Soldiers into a Quagmire, where my Captain Lieutenant slew him, with a thrust under his short Ribs, the rest of the Body was wholly routed, not one Man staying upon the Place.
After the Defeat, which was so total, we relieved the Town with such Powder and Provision which we brought with us; We had notice that there were Six Troops of Horse and 300 Foot on the other side of the Town, about a Mile off us. We desired some Foot of my Lord Willoughby's, about 400. And with our Horse, and their Foot, marched towards them: When we came towards the Place where their Horse flood, we went back with my Troops to follow two or three Troops of the Enemies: who retired into a small Village at the bottom of the Hill; when we recovered the Hill, we saw in the bottom, about a quarter of a Mile from us, a Regiment of Foot, after that another, after that the Marquess of Newcastle's own Regiment, consisting in all of about 50 Foot Colours, and a great Body of Horse, which indeed was Newcastle's Army, which coming so unexpectedly, put us to new Consultations: My Lord Willonghby and I being in the Town, agreed to call off our Foot: I went to bring them off, but before I returned, divers of the Foot were ingaged, the Enemy advancing with his whole Body: Our Foot retreated in disorder, and with some loss got the Town, where now they are: Our Horse also came of withsome trouble, being wearied with the long fight, and their Horses tired, yet faced the Enemies fresh Horse, and, by several removes, got off, without the loss of one Man: The Enemy following the Rear with a great Body: The Honour of this Retreat is due to God, as also all the rest. Major Whaley did in this carry himself all Gallantry becoming a Gentleman. and a Christian. Thus have you this true Relation, as short as I could; what you are to do upon it, is next to be considered: The Lord direct you what to do.
The Earl of Newcastle, on the 22d of June, took Howley-House in York-shire, and therein Sir John Savil; from thence he March'd towards Bradford, a Parliamentary Garrison. In the way he was met on rtherton-Moor, by the Lord Fairfax; where, on the last of June, a smart Battel was Fought between them. The Earl of Newcastle had the advantage in number, especially Horse: But Fairfax's Foot at first got the ground, and had almost encompassed the Earl's Train of Artillery, and put his Forces to the Rout, when a stand of Pikes gave some Check to their Success; and, at the same time, a Body of his Horse fell upon their Rear, and Routed them: So that the Fortune of the Field being changed in an Instant, Fairfax's Army was utterly Defeated, several Pieces of Ordnance taken, four or five Hundred Slain, and many taken Prisoners.
The Lord Fairfax, with his Shatter'd Forces, retreated to Bradford, but the Earl pursuing him thither the same Night, they were forced to quit that Town, and came to Leeds; where, on Sunday the first of July, he received a Letter from the Mayor of Hull, giving him an Account of the seizing of Hotham (which happened the day before this Battel) whereupon his Lordship resolved for Hull, and the next Morning set forwards to Selby, where some of the Earls Troops were laid, to hinder his Passage over the River, whom Sir Thomas Fairfax held in Skirmish till his Father and Attendants were passed over, who arrived at Hull at Two a Clock on Tuesday Morning: But Sir Thomas being Shot in the Arm in this last Dispute, and not able to force his Passage over that Ferry, wheeled about by Carlton-Ferry, and rested that Night Two or Three hours at Crowle in Lincoln-shire: The next Morning early he was way-laid by some Forces as he crossed the River Trent, where they took his Plate; but he made his way to Barton, and came to Hull m the Afternoon, being persued to Barton, and many of his Followers had been taken, if a Ketch had not been sent from Hull up the River to Guard them with her Ordnance.
But notwithstanding this Action Cromwel being forced to withdraw to Recruit his Forces, the Earl of Newcastle advancing to the Town of Gainsborough, with 6000 Horse and Foot, and having Planted 16 Pieces of Ordnance against it, thrown in several Granadoes, and fired the Town in divers places, the Lord Willoughby surrendred it, upon condition to march away with Bag and Baggage, and accordingly march'd out with his Forces to Lincoln, Bat the Earl of Newcastle soon dislodg'd them from thence too, and placed a Garrison in it for the King.
In the mean time, as the Lord Fairfax was constituted Governor of Hull, by an Ordinance of the 22d of July, so his Son Sir Thomas had got together an Army of about 25 Troops of Horse, and 2000 Foot and Dragoons, which he quartered in and about Beverly.
Whereupon the Earl of Newcastle (about this time dignified with the Title of a Marquis) advanced towards those Parts with an Army of 15000 Horse and Foot, and Sir Thomas forced to abandon the Town of Beverly to him; and on the Second of September the Marquis came up to Hull, and began his Works against it. The Siege was managed with much Bravery and Resolution both by the Affailants and Defendants. On the 14th of September the Lord Fairfax caused the Banks to be cut, whereby the Waters much annoyed the Besiegers in their Works. On the 16th a great part of the North Block-house, belonging to the Town, was blown up by the Carelessness of a Cannoneer, who with his light Match went to fetch Carnages, where were nine or ten Hand-Granadoes that took fire, rent the House, flew him and four more, but ten Barrels of Powder that were in the next Room were not touch'd.
September 26 the Lord Willoughby and Colonel Cromwell came to Hull, to consult with the Lord Fairfax, but made no Stay; and the same Day Sir Thomas Fairfax crossed Humber with 20 Troops of Horse, to join with Cromwell's Forces in Lincolnshire.
On Monday October the 9th the Besiegers made a sierce Assault on the Fort call'd the West-Jetty, and an Half-moon near it, but did not become Masters of either of them. On the 11th of October Command was given in the Town that all Men should be in Arms at seven a-clock in the morning, without Beat of Drum; and Order was given to the Guards on the North side of the Town to flash Powder, as if they were lighting many hundred Matches, that so the Besiegers might expect the Attack on that side. But at Nine a-clock 1500 Townsmen, Soldiers, and Seamen from on board the Parliament's Ships in the Road, and four Troops of Horse, sallied out towards the West; the Foot were divided into three Squadrons; one small Party charged the Besiegers in the Front of their last Work by the Gallows; the second, led by Sir John Meldrum, on their Left Flank; the third from the West-Jetty charg'd their high Works on the Bank of Humber; they were received very gallantly, and yet in a quarter of an Hour beat the Besiegers out of their first Work, and followed them to the next, which, after a sharp Dispute, they also gain'd; but the Besiegers being reinforc'd with a fresh Body, advancing with speed from their Leaguer, which was a quarter of a Mile off, beat back the Hull Men in disorder, and charging upon their Rear, recover'd all their Works; the Town-Horse all this time facing a great Body of the Marquis's Horse, who stood a Mile off, not daring to advance because of the Town-Ordnance.
This Retreat much troubled the Lord Fairfax and Sir John Meldrum, who used all Endeavours to rally their Men, and forgot no Arguments to encourage them, so that they quickly got them into order and a Resolution to charge again, which they perform'd so desperately, that they once more made themselves Masters of the several Forts, and turning the Besiegers own Guns upon them, gave them five Shots in their Rear. The Guns they took were, a Demi-cannon, in weight 5790l. and Shot 36l. Bullet (of which Size there was another on the North side of the Town, and these two were commonly call'd, The Queen's Pocket Pistols, and Gog and Magog) a Demi-culverin, four small Drakes in one Carriage, a Sacre-cut, two large Brass Drakes, three Barrels and an half of Powder, and many Bullets, which they carried towards the Town, but remain'd in the Works till they were drawn near the Walls, and then retreated; whereupon the Besiegers advanced to their Works, and from thence into the Field, charging upon the Rear of the Townsmen: And now began a sharp Fight between them, which lasted for three Hours without Intermission, and with great Courage on either side; above an hundred Pieces of Cannon were shot from the Walls and the Fort-Royal, and the Town-Muskets plac'd from the Jetty, the Half-moon, and the Banks; yet the Besiegers came up within Pistol shot of the Jetty, and lined a Bank with 100 Musketeers, against whom a Party falling out, sorced them to run in such Disorder, that they left most of their Muskets behind them; upon which Loss the Besiegers betook them to their Works, and the Fight ceased. That Night the Marquis drew off the rest of his Guns and his Men, and broke up the Leaguer, which the Town finding next morning, they went forth and demolish'd their Works; and the same Day was observ'd in the Town, by the Lord Fairfax's Order, a publick Thanksgiving.
On the same Day that this eminent Salley was at Hull viz. Wednesday the 11th of October, part of the Marquis of Newcastle's Forces, which he had left in Lincolshire, were routed near Horn-castle by the Earl of Manchester, who having drawn his Forces from about Lynn, advanced that way, and quartering in the Towns round about Bullenbrook-Castle; Major Knight, on Monday October the 9th, summoned the Castle in the Earl of Manchester's Name, but was answer'd, That his Bug-words should not make them quit the Place; and on Tuesday they of the Castle kill'd one or two of his Men. That Afternoon Manchester himself came to Kirby within a Mile of Bullenbrook, and there the Lord Willoughby, and Colonel Cromwell, met him, and Sir Thomas Fairfax lay at Horn-castle, about five Miles off.
The King's Forces being advertize'd of Manchester's coming, had drawn out all their Horse and Dragoons from their several Garrisons, at Lincoln, Newark, and Gainsborough, with a Resolution to find him out and fight with him; the like did Manchester; and accordingly on Tuesday they beat up some of his Quarters, and several Skirmishes happen'd between them. The next morning being Wednesday, October the 11th, Manchester gave order for his whole Force of Horse and Foot to be drawn up to Bullenbrook-Hill, as the only convenient Ground to fight in. The King's Forces also that morning drew their whole Body of Horse and Dragoons into the Field, being 74 Colours of Horse, and 21 Colours of Dragoons. Manchester had not above half so many Colours of Horse and Dragoons, but as many Men, for his Troops were fuller: It was late before the Foot could be drawn up. Manchester's Horse and Dragoons went on in several Bodies, singing of Psalms. Quartermaster-General Vermuden, with five Troops, had the Forlorn-Hope, and Colonel Cromwel the Van, seconded by Sir Tho. Fairfax. The Royalists Word was, Newcastle; that of the Parliaments Party, Truth and Peace. The Dragoons gave the first Charge, and then the Horse fell in: Colonel Cromwel charge'd with great Resolution immediately after the Dragoons of the other side had given him their first Volly; yet within half Pistol Shot they saluted him with a second Charge. His Horse was killed, and fell down upon him; and as he rose, he was knockt down again by the Gentleman that Charg'd him which was supposed to be Sir Ingram Hopton: But he got up, and recovered a poor Horse in a Soldier's hand, and so mounted again. The Van of the Royalists Horse, being driven back upon their own Body that was to second them, pat them into Disorder; and Manchester's Troops taking that Advantage, charging all in with them, put them to the Run, leaving their Dragoons (which were now on foot) behind them. And so being totally routed, they had the Pursuit, and did Execution upon them for five Miles together. The Earl of Manchester's Foot hastened their March, to come up to the Engagement; but the Horse had done the Work before they came; the number kill'd, being computed to be about 1000 of the Royal Party; and on his side there were very few slain, and none of Note. But what Influence it had on the King's Affairs, may appear by the following Letter, written on that Occasion from Sir William Widdrington (afterwards Lord Widdrington) a principal Commander in this Action, to the Marquis of Newcastle, and intercepted.
May it please your Excellency?
I Thought fit to give your Lordship an Account of our Business yesterday, how bad soever, as speedily as I could. We had hut three Divisions charged, two Divisions being. of Sir William Savill's the third of my Lord Ething's and sir John Henderson's joyned, being eight Troops. The third Division, being of the left Wing, put the Enemy to Disorder: But Savill's Regiment totally running, disordered and so put to Rout our whole Army. We have in a manner totally lost our Foot and Dragoons that were there, being near 800 Horse, extremely dispersed, but no great number cut off. Sir John Henderson intends to assign them Quarters betwixt Gainsborough and Newark, some on Lincolnshire side, and some on Nottingham side for the better calling the Troops together; but of the Strength of which we cannot give your Lordship any certain Account: But you shall not fail daily to hear of our Strength, all Officers having Order to return a daily Account of their Numbers. I have written to Hastings, for his and the Belvoir Troops, which he hath now called to him, but with little Expectation of any Assistance from him. Sir John Henderson hath written to Sir Edward Nicholas, and General Reven, and I have written to my Lord Jermin, to let them know, That without the King be pleased to send a considerable number of Horse into Huntingtonshire, to divert their staying in those Parts, or otherwise to come in the Rear of them, in case they continue in these Parts, that your Lordship will be much streightned for the Preservation of Yorkshire. If your Lordship shall quit the Siege of Hull upon this unfortunate Action I presume your Lordship will think it fit to fortifie the Church, and some part of Beverly, that so a considerable Garrison may be less as near them as may be. Their Horse are very good, and extraordinarily armed; and may be reported to be betwixt 50 and 60 Troops, being very strong. I do not know the number of their Foot; but we believe them to be about 1500, or betwixt that and 2000. Their Foot was as come up to their Horse; and the Ground they had chosen would not admit of above three Divisions of Horse to charge at once. They are at present at Liberty to dispose of their Forces what way they please, either to Hull or Derby. I can but submit it to your Lordships Consideration, and remain.
The Town of Lynn Regis, advantageously situated on an Arm of the Sea, had for a good while fortified itself, on pretence of Neutrality, and only for their own Defence; but afterwards shewed themselves wholly for the King: Wherefore the Earl of Manchester, being made the Parliaments Major-General of the Associated Counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, &c. resolved to reduce it, and in order thereunto seized the Town of Old Lynn, and there Planted Ordnance, which much annoyed them in the other Town. And two Approaches were made, one by the Cawsway that leads to the South, the other to the East-Gate. The Besieged made a brisk Sally, and at once fired two Houses in Gauwood, and intended to have destroyed the whole Town, that the Enemy might not have Quarters there. But that Party were beaten in, and the rest of the Houses preserved. The Besiegers summoned in Pioneers from all the Neighbouring parts, and by degrees brought their Approaches within half Musquet Shot; and had begun from a Battery on an Hill, near to that end of the Town next the Sea, and resolved upon storming the Town both by Land and Water, having provided many Boats and Ladders for that purpose: But then received a Letter from the Town, intimating their Willingness to Capitulate. And so a Treaty was agreed on to be had, by eight Persons of a side, Those for the Earl of Manchester were Sir John Pagrave, Colonel Russel, Colonel Walton, Mr. Philip Calthrop, Mr. John Pickering, Mr. Gregory Gosset, Mr. Jhon Spilman, and Mr. William Good. For the Town, Sir Hommon L'Estrange, Sir Richard Hovill, Mr. Clinch Mr. Dereham, Mr. Pallet, their Recorder, Mr. Hudson, the Mayor Elect, Mr. Leek, and Mr. Kirby. Between whom, after a long Debate, it was agreed to this effect,
- I. That the Town with the Ordnance, Arms and Ammunition, be delivered to the Earl, and he to enter the Town.
- II. That the Gentlemen Strangers in the Town shall have Liberty to depart, with every Man a Horse, Sword, and Pistols.
- III. That the Townsmen shall enjoy all Rights and Privileges appertaining to them, with free Training, so far as may consist with Law.
- IV. All Prisoners on both sides to be set at Liberty.
- V. That the Desires of the Town, touching certain of their Ships taken by the Parliament's Frigats, shall be represented by the Earl to the Parliament and the Earl of Warwick.
- VI. That neither the Persons nor Estates of any Inhabitants or Strangers, now residing in Lynn, shall be hereafter molested for any thing past, or done by them since the Earl of Manchester's coming into these parts.
- VII. That for preventing of Plundering, the Town shall raise and pay Ten Shillings a Man to all private Soldiers under the Earl's Command, and a Fortnights Pay to the Officers.
- Lastly, That sir Hammon L'Estrange, Sir Richard Hovill, Captain Clinch, Mr. Recorder, Mr. Dereham, and Mr. Leek, remain as Hostages, until Conditions be performed.
And so the same Night part of the Earl's Forces took Possession of the Town; and the next Morning his Lordship made his Entry, and sent 500 Men to Hull, and soon after drew the rest of his Forces into Lincolnshire, as hath already been mentioned, leaving Colonel Walton Governour of Lynn.
Forasmuch as the Earl of Manchester, in his Articles of Agreement with the Town of Kings Lynn, remitted their offence, in reference to himself and his Army, while he lay before the Town; but touched upon no private Injuries done by the Malignants to the well-affected: It is this day ordered by the Lords and Commons, That such Persons as did take any of the Goods of the well-affected, by themselves, or such as they appointed, or did any Damage to their Houses or Mills, or any other ways, shall make Restitution to all such well-affected Persons as have been damnisied, according to the Greatness of their Losses. And that Colonel Walton Government of King's Lynn, Mr. Percival, and Mr. Toll, Members of the House of Commons shall examine what Damage hath been done to the well-affected, and appoint such as have done them Injury to make them Reparation accordingly, And if any of them shall refuse to make such Reparation, That the said Governour, Mr. Percival and Mr. Toll, shall have Power to sequester so much of the Estates of such Malignants, as will make them Reparation, and Assign it to those that have been damnisied.
Prince Rupert, with a very considerable Army, said to be about 20 thousand Horse and Foot, cam before Bristol, and sunimoned that City: But being refused, laid Siege thereunto; and on Monday gave a fierce Assault, and so continuing their Attacks very briskly, the Governor as stoutly defended it, until Cononel Washington at last, on Wednesday the 26th, gained the Out-works, and made a Breach into the Town, which Captain Langrige with his Troop was to have secured; but failing, then Colonel Fiennes, the Governour, submitted to a Parley, and agreed to surrender the City on the following Articles.
- I. That the Governour, with all the Officers both of Horse and Foot, should march out with their full Arms, Horses, Bag and Gaggage, the Common Foot Soldiers, without their Arms, and the Troopers, with their Horses and Swords; And have a Convey for 20 Miles.
- II. That such of the Parliaments Friends as were in the City, should have free Liberty, with their Wives, Goods, and Families, Horses, Bag and Gaggage, to depart the Town with the Governour and Forces there.
- III. That all the Inhabitants of the City should be secured from Plunderings, and all other Violence, and the Charters and Liberties of the City preserved.
Great Complaints were made, That these Articles were not observed by the Royal Party. And Colonel Fiennes, the Governour, though he came up, and made a large Report on the third of August to the House of Commons, touching this Affair, was afterwards, on the Instigation and Prosecution of William Prynn and Clement Walker, called before a Council of War, for this tamely yielding up so important a Garrison; and was thereupon, on the 28th of December following, condemned to dye, but afterwards Reprieved, and escaped with his Life; but quitted his Military Employment.
The Marquis of Hartford, Prince Maurice, and Sir Ralph Hopton, being joyned, had their Head Quarters at Wells. And Sir William Waller being at Bath sent out Major Dorvet to beat up one of their Quarters, where Sir James Hamilton's Regiment of Horse lay, whom they dispersed, and took Lieutenant-Colonel Carr, Major Blunt, two Captains, four Cornets, 97 Troopers, 140 Horses, and 60 Case of Pistols. This provok'd His Majesties Forces, so that the next day being the third of July, they advanced in a Body towards Waller; and being come within two Miles of Fourd-hill, the said Major Dower was commanded forth with 300 Horse and Foot, to secure the Pass at Fourd-bridge; but he was beat off, 10 of his Men kill'd, and two Hammer-pieces taken. On the 4th Waller having drawn his Forces out of Bath, lay all night on Landsdown; and on the fifth of July Captain Butler under the Command of Sir Arthur Haslerig, and Major Dowet with 200 Horse, seconded with 200 more, led by Colonel Carr, gave a warm Charge; but were so gallantly received, that they were forced to Retreat apace, though yet they kept in Order, till they were relieved by Colonel Burghill; between whom the Fight was variously maintained for two Hours: And then the Parliament's Foot growing weary, a Supply was sent, which consisting of fresh new-raised Soldiers, presently gave Ground; and Colonel Burghill was shot through his Right Arm. The King's Party Charg'd up very fiercely, and drove the Parliamentarians from their Ground, which yet proved to their Advantage; for now both Armies being in the Plain, and Waller exceeding them in Numbers of Horse, as much as they did him in Foot, had the better Opportunity of Fighting. And now the Charges grew exceeding hit on both sides; and continued so for many hours, till Night parted them, each side pretending to the Honour of a Victory. Waller returned back to Bath; and the King's Party was slain that brave Cornish Gentleman, Sir Bsvil Greenvill, Lieutenant Colonel Ward, and Major Lower. On Waller's side, Major Strawham, a Scotchman,(whogave a remarkable Charge to the King's Forces in Cornwal) One Lieutenant, and Two Cornets: But the Numbers of Common Soldiers lost on either side, are very differently and uncertainly related.
Waller having refresh'd his Men Two Days in Bath, on Friday the seventh of July march'd towards Marshfield: But the King's Forces removed thence, and bent towards the Devizes, a Town in Wiltshire; and by the way divers Skirmishes happened. Prince Maurice and the Marquis of Hertford, with most of their Horse, went to Oxford; but Sir Ralph Hopton and the Foot continuing in the Davizes, Waller besieged it, and upon Tuesday July 11, made a brisk Assault, but found it as well defended. Yet in the Afternoon a Parley and Cessation for Two Hours was desired; but not consenting to Waller's Terms, both sides again fell to their Arms; and on Thursday Night Waller had resolved to make a General Assault. But in the mean time comes the Lord Wilmot and the Earl of Carnavan, with 2000 Horse, or upwards, and were advanced within two or three Miles of the Devizes, before Waller had Notice of them: Who thereupon suddenly drew up, with out Drum or Trumpet, to Roundway-Down; where his Horse, rashly led on by Sir Arthur Haslerig, leaving the Foot, Gallop'd up the Hill, and Charg'd the King's Forces very disadvantageously, and so were presently put to a Disorderly Retreat. Yet with the help of their Reserve, they Rallied, and stood a second Charge; but then were totally Routed. Waller's Foot made a better Resistance; but Sir Ralph Hopton's Forces out of the Town falling upon them, as well as the Lord Wilmost's Horse, and their own Cavalry having abandon'd them, they were also in a little time intirely defeated, and flung down their Arms, and fled. The King's Forces took Four Pieces of Ordnance, abundance of Arms, and many Prisoners. Sir William Waller, Sir Arthur Haslerig, (who was wounded) Colonel Popham, Colonel Strode, and other Commanders, escaped to Bristol. And within few days Sir William Waller repaired to London; where, notwithstanding this Disaster, he was highly Caress'd, and Endeavours set on foot to Raise him another Army.
The Town of Pool in Dorsetshire being in the Parliaments Hands, the Earl of Craford, who Quarter'd not far off with some of the Kings Forces, by the Mediation of one Captain Phillips, held Intelligence with Captain Francis Sydenham, one of the Captains of the Garrison at Pool, touching admitting them into the Town; which Sydenham pretended to be willing to do, provided the might have his Pardon, and the Losses made good which he had sustained in the Parliaments Service; but privately communicated the Intrigue to Mr. Bingham the Governor. at last the Earl of Craford wrote a Letter to Sydenham, under his Hand and Seal, assuring him of such Pardon and Satisfaction as he desired, and as an earnest, sent him 40l. by one Mr. Mellege a Minister. Then they proceeded to the manner how the matter should be managed, and agreed thus, That such a Night, when Sydenham should be Captain of the Watch, and his Men on the Guard, the Earl with some Troops should in the dead of the Night approach the Town, and the Gate should be left open, and the Earl coming should cause au Horn to be blown, (as Captain Sydenham used to do for want of a Trumpet, when he went abroad) that so the Town, and the Frigat lying right against the Gate might not suspect them; and so they entring the Town, Sydenham, as flying for Safety, and crying out, That he was Betray'd, should presently with his Men get to the said Parliaments Ship, and seize her. The Earl linked the Method well, and sent him 100l. more, and promised him a Major place in the King's Army, and the Ship for his Pains. At the time appointed the Earl, with all his Horse, being 8 Troops, and two Regiments of Foot, under Colonel Ashley and Colonel Grissith, making about 500, advanced to the Town, and most of them entered the Gate. But to receive them, just before the Gate, there was raised an Half-Moon. Guns planted, and Chains drawn up, and Soldiers placed, who suddenly fired upon them, kill'd many, and the rest flung down their Arms and fled, the Earl himself difficulty escaping; and if the Guns had not been planted too high above the Ground where they were, most of them had been cut off: There were taken 50 Horses, above 200 Arms, divers Persons left dead upon the place, and about 20 taken Prisoners.
The Earl of Stamford being gone into the West, Colonel Edward Massey, whom he had left at Glocester, was chosen Governor of that City, which after the Surrender of Bristol, was the next place of Note attempted by the Kings Forces; For on August the 10th, His Majesty having march'd from Oxford to Bristol, came back and faced Glocester with 6000 Horseand Foot in Tredworth-Field, about a quarter of a Mile off the Town; and about 2000 Horse more faced it in Walham, with in Cannon Shot at Random of their Works, the rest of His Majesties Forces being not then come up. Towards the Afternoon His Majesty sent a Message by Two Heralds at Arms, whereof the one being Sommerset Herald, Read the Message at the Tolzey, as followeth.
Out of our Tender Compassion to Our City of Glocester, and that it may not receive prejudice by Our Army, which We cannot prevent if We be compelled to Assault it, We are Personally come before it, to Require the same, and are Graciously Pleased to let all the Inhabitant thereof, and all other Persons without that City, as well Soldiers as others, know, That if they shall immediately submit themselves, and deliver this Our City to Us, We are contented freely and absolutely to Pardon every one of them without Exception; And do assure them in the Word of a King, That they nor any of them shall receive the least Damage or Prejudice by Our Army in their Persons or Estates; But that We will Appoint such a Governor, and a moderate Garrison to Reside there, as shall be both for the Ease and Security of that City, and the whole County. But if they shall Neglect this proffer of Grace and Favour, and compel Us by the Power of Our Arms to Reduce that place, (which by the help of God we doubt not, but we shall be easily and shortly able to do) they must thank themselves for all the Calamities and Miseries that must befall them. To this Message we expect a clear and Positive Answer within Two hours after the Publishing hereof: And by these presents do give leave to any Persons safely to repair to, and return from us, whom that City shall desire to Imploy unto us in that business: And do require all the Officers and Soldiers of our Army, quietly to suffer them to pass accordingly.
We the Inhabitants, Magistrates, Officers and Soldiers within this Garrison of Glocester, unto His Majesties Gracious Message, return his humble Answer; That We do keep this City according to our Oath and Allegiance, to and for the use of His Majesty and his Royal Posterity: And do accordingly conceive ourselves wholly bound to Obey the Commands of His Majesty, signified by both Houses of Parliament; and are resolved, by Gods help to keep this City accordingly.
- Constance Ferrer, Major.
- John Brewster.
- William Lugge.
- M. Singleton.
- Tho. Hill.
- Tho. Pury.
- Edward Massy.
- C. Ferrer.
- Humphry Matthews.
- Isaac Dobson.
- Edward Gray.
- Thomas Blainey.
- Robert Backhouse, &c.
This answer was by Serjeant Major Pudsey. and a Citizen, presented to the King, who received it without expression of Choler or Indignation, seeming only to wonder at their great Confidence, and from what hope of Relief it should proceed, using these words before the Messengers, Waller is Extinct, and Essex cannot come. And indeed their whole Strength of Soldiers, Horse, Foot, and Dragoons, together with the Trained Bands, did not consist of above 1400; Forty, or at the most, Fifty Barrels of Powder, was all their Store, and a mean and Slender Artillery; the Works of a vast compass, and not fully perfected.
Immediately after this Answer returned to His Majesty, the Town set their Suburbs on Fire; and with their Cannon from the Pen upon the West-Gate, discharging upon the Body of Horse in Walham, did some Execution, and obliged them to retire. The King's Army immediately began their Intrenchments; and the Women and Maids in the Town wrought all that Afternoon in the little Mead, fetching in Turf for repairing the Works in the face of the King's Horse: The Besieged, through want of Men for Guarding the City itself, were foc'd to quit their Out-Guard of the Wine-Tard, and Two Sconces they had formerly made at each corner of the Isle of Alney, for securing thereof, and of the River Severn: And the King's Forces having cut off the Pipes that conveyed Water from Robinhood's-Hill to the City-Conduits, and diverted the Water that drove their Corn-Mills, they were forced to be content with Pump and Severn-Water, and to grind all their Corn with Horse-Mills. Sir William Vavasor lay with his Welch Forces on the West side, intending to join with others that came from Worcester, and had drawn themselves together on the North-West side; On the South side General Ruthen, Earl of Forth, placed his Leaguer within a Quarter of a Mile from the Town, but sheltered from their Shot by a rising ground that lay between: On the Eastside Sir Jacob Ashly was Quartered with a strong Brigade; but in one of the first Skirmishes Sir Jacob himself was Wounded, being Shot in the Arm, and at the same time six of his Men killed by Cannon-shot from the East-Gate. The King's Commanders being many of them Gentlemen of great Skill and Experience, made their Approaches, and placed their Batteries with as much Advantage as was possible. Nor were the Besieged behind-hand in Courage or Dexterity, as appeared not only in their Defences, but frequent Sallies, which kept the King's Forces waking, by continual Alarms to waste and weary them.
Saturday, Aug. 12. In the Forenoon Captain-Lieutenant Harcus sallid at thro' a Door made for that purpose in a Brick-House adjoining to the Town-Wall, on the South-east part, and making a Bridge of Ladders over the More, fell suddenly into the Besiegers Trenches in Gawdy-Green, beat them out, took some Prisoners and Arms, with several of their Tools, and retreated without loss of any, only two wounded. In the Afternoon Captain Gray with 150 Musqueers fallied over the Works upon the Worcester Forces Quarters at Kingsholm, marched up to their Main-Guard and burnt it, kill'd Captain Rumney, and 8 or 9 common Soldiers, took 5 Prisoners, and some Arms, and came back without losing a Man. The Besiegers planted two great Culverins of between 15 and 16 Pound Bullet at the East side, and therewith battered the Town-Wall, and also shot several Granadoes into the Town, but did no Execution.
On Sunday the Besiegers planted three Pieces of Ordnance on their Battery at Gawdy-Green of 15, 18, and 23l. Bullet-weight, and thence made many Shots then, and the Day following; but as fast as any Breaches were made, they were made up again with Wooll-Sacks and Cannon-Baskets.
On Tuesday the 15th James Harcus, Captain-Lieutenant to the Earl of Stanford, was slain in the Fryars-Orchard, as he was looking what Execution the Grando had done that he threw into the Besiegers Trenches.
On Wednesday, Aug. 16. the King went to Oxford, and on the 18th returned to the Leaguer. Captain Crisp with 150 Musqueteers fallied at the North Port, and maintain'd an exceeding hot Skirmish for above half an Hour, the Cannon and Muskets on both sides playing very furiously.
On Thursday divers Granadoes were shot into the Town, and some fell upon Houses, and one in the open Street near the South Gate, but a Woman coming by with a Pail of Water, threw the Water thereon, and so extinguish'd the Fusee thereof, that it did not break, but was taken up whole, and weighed 60l. weight.
On Friday 18. The Besiegers having planted four Ordnance against the Acum-Gate and Sconces adjoining, a Party of about 400 commanded by Major Pudsey and Captain Gray, assisted by Captain Faulkner and Captain Massy, fallied forth of the North Gate, being led on by one Weaver, a stout Fellow of Captain Pury the younger's Company as their Guide, and having sent Lieutenant Pincock with about fifty Musketeers over the Works, to give a divertive Alarm, by advancing up towards the Cannon, they in the mean time got behind their Cannon and Breast-works, fell upon their main Guard, killed several officers and Soldiers, and two Cannoneers, took a Lieutenant Prisoner, nailed their Cannon, and so retreated, having two Men kill'd, and four taken Prisoners.
Saturday 19 the Besiegers, besides their three Pieces of Ordnance at Gawdy-Green, having now planted three more on the East side of the Fryar Orchard, near Rignal-Stile, within less than Pistol-shot of the Town-Wall, and two more in another Battery near the East-Gate, began a most furious Battery upon both sides of the Corner of the wall next Rignal-Stile, making above 150 great Shot thereupon, and also shot several Granadoes into the Town.
On Sunday the 20th one Hatton a Cannoneer of the Town deserted them, and went off to the Royal Party. And on Monday two Parties fallied forth, but were beaten back with Loss. On Tuesday and Wednesday they made Sallies only to amuse the Enemy, but presently retreated without any Engagement.
On Thursday the 24th, upon a Letter sent into the Town, that Mr. Bell of Sanahurst, and Mr. Hill of Teuxbury, both Lawyers, had something of Importance to communicate, they were admitted with in the Draw-Bridge at the North-Gate; their Business was to represent to the Town the great Strength that was against them, the Impossibility of Relief, the Miseries the Country endured by reason of their Obstinacy, and therefore to persuade them to yield whilst good Terms might be had; but all their Rhetorick prevailed nothing. The Besiegers made several Shots this day with two Piercs of Ordnance newly planted at Lanthony; one Bullet of 20 l. weight came thro' a Chamber of the Crown-Inn, carried a Bolster before it into the Window, and there slept in it. Now there happen'd some Rain, which much annoy'd the Besiegers in their Trenches; also this Night the Besieged discovered a Fire upon Wain-loads-Hill, which gave them Encouragement, because they had appointed a Person, whom they had formerly sent out, if he heard of any Relief coming, to signify it by making a Fire there.
Friday, Aug. 25. the Besiegers, besides many Granadoes and great Stones from their Mortar-pieces, shot above 20 fiery red-hot Iron Bullets, some 18, some 22 l. weight, which in the Night appeared flying in the Air like shootin Stars. On Saturday and Sunday the Besiegers wrought hard in filling up the More with Earth and Faggots. And on Monday and Tuesday the Townsmen conceiving a Minesunk under the East-Gate, were busy in countermining, and had notice by two Intelligencers from Warwick of Relief a coming.
Wednesday and Tursday the Besieged turned out their Cattle to graze in the little Mead, guarded by some Musketeers, and taking them in again at night; the Besiegers offered to come to take them away, but were repulsed.
On Friday, Sept. 1. a Sergeant, and one John Barnwood, and four Musketeers, crept forth of an Hole made in the Dungeon at the East-Gate, and came very softly to the mouth f the Besiegers Mine there, and Barnwood taking aside the Board that cover'd it, look'd in upon them a pretty while, and then fired, and cast in a Grando amongst them, the four Musketeers playing upon them as they ran out of it, and so retreated without Harm.
On Saturday both sides were very active, the Besiegers playing hard upon the Wall and the South-Gate, and the Town sending abundance of Musket-shot and Granadoes into their Trenches; and finding that for all the Springs the Mine went on at the East-Gate, renewed their Countermine there.
On Sunday, Sept. 3. the People being at Church in the Town, were inform'd that the Besiegers had planted store of Cannon-Baskets at the East-Gate, within less than half Musket-shot, and 'twas believed intended a Battery there upon the springing of their Mine, where upon the Minister dismist the Congregation without a Sermon; and they fell to lining the Houses over the East-Gate, and making a strong Breastwork cross the East-Gate-Street. The King's Forces, by the Directions of Dr. Chillingworth, had provided certain Engines, after the manner of the Roman Testudines cum Pluteis, wherewith they intended to Assault the City between the South and West Gates; They ran upon Cart-Wheels, with a Blind of Planks Musquet-proof, and holes for four Musqueteers to play out of, placed upon the Axle-tree to defend the Musqueteers and those that thrust it forwards, and carrying a Bridge before it; the Wheels were to fall into the Ditch, and the end of the Bridge to rest upon the Towns Breast-works, so making several compleat Bridges to enter the City. To prevent which, the Besieged intended to have made another Ditch out of their Works, so that the Wheels falling therein, the Bridge would have fallen too short of their Breast-works into their wet More, and so frustrated that Design.
On Monday Night the Besieged discerned two Fires on Wayn-load-Hill, which they answered with Lights from the College-Tower: and on Tuesday the Fifth of September, which was appointed by the Besieged for a publick Fast to be kept by such as might be spared from Labour, they perceived the King's Forces removing their Carriages from Lanthony up Tredworth Field, and their Horse and Foot marching after; and afterwards their Rear-Guard firing their Hutts, and the Siege to be Raised, which had now lasted Twenty fix days; and being so remarkable, I have ventured to set down the most considerable Passages there of by way of Journal. But now must look back into the Reasons of Raising the Siege, and Essex's march which occasion's it.
You have heard how Reading was Surrendered April the 27th to the Parliament, but that Town being infected, caused a great Mortality amongst their Soldiers, who were also discontented, as well because they were not suffered to plunder it, as because they had not the twelve Shillings a Man which was promised them in lieu thereof; Nor indeed could they get their usual Pay, for the Parliament at the time were put to it for want of Money; upon which Discontents, great Numbers daily deserted their Colours; and at the same time, the Parliaments Forces in other Farts, as Waller, & c. were generally worsted; but it was much desired by the City of London, that Essex should advance towards Oxford, which though somewhat against his own Judgment, he comply'd with so far, as to march to Thame in Oxfordshire in the Month of June, where by the means of very unseasonable Weather, Sickness increasing in his Army; he therefore judging the Design upon Oxford impracticable, marched to Great Brickhill; from whence he sent the following Letter to the House of Commons.
I Would have given you the true Relation of the Skirmish on Sunday last between some of the Horse and Enemy near Buckingham, but Sir Phillip Stapleton, and Colonel Goodwin being then upon the place, I refer the Relation thereof unto them; Since when being informed, that King had sent more Forces to Buckingham to maintain that place, and bring these parts into Contribution, where the Enemy stay'd until the Army came within two Miles of them, and then made hast away towards Banbury, notwithstanding they had persuaded the People that they would not quit the Place till they had beaten me out of the Country. I then Understanding that they were fled, held it not fit to go to the Town with my Army, but sent Colonel Middleton with some Horse to clear that Town and Coast, which they did; and then advised where to Quarter with most Conveniency for our Army, and most ready for the Enemy. The Queens Forces being like to join with them very suddenly; And that our Army may the better serve the Parliament and City, and Counties adjacent, and be more safely supplied with Money from London, and lie most conveniently to join the Forces with the Lord Gray in Northamtonshire; I was advised to march to Great Brickhill, as the most fit place for all Purposes, the Enemies chief Strength being in Horse; And this Army neither recruited, with Horse, Arms, nor Saddles, it is impossible to keep the Counties from being plundred, nor to Fight with them but when and where they lift; we being forced, when we move, to march with the whole Army, which can be but slowly, so that the Counties must suffer much wrong, and the Crys, of poor People are infinite. If it were thought fit to send to His Majesty to have Peace, with the settling of Religion, the Laws, and Liberties of the Subject, and to bring unto just Tryal those chief Delinquents that have brought all this Mischief to both Kingdoms; And (as my Lord of Bristol spake once in Parliament) how we may be decured to have these Things performed hereafter; or else, if His Majesty shall please to absent himself, there may be a day set down to give a Period to all these unhappy Distractions by a Battel, which when, and where they shall chuse, that may be thought any way indifferent, I shall be ready to perform that Duty I owe you; and the Propositions to be agreed upon between His Majesty and the Parliament, may be sent to such an indifferent place, that both Armies may be drawn near the one to the other; that if Peace be not concluded, it may be ended by the Sword; No Officers of the Army to be of the Committee, nor no Intercourse to be between them,
The Commons upon the Receipt of this Letter had some debate immediately thereupon, and imparted the same to the Lords; and next Day considered it further, and came to this Result, That by His Majesties late Proclamation (fn. 1), They are cast out of His Protection as a Parliament, and thereby made uncapable to Treat (until that Proclamation be Recalled) with His Majesty as a Parliament; And that by their late Vow and Covenant, they had Bound themselves never to lay down Arms, so long as the Papists, now in open War against them, shall by force be protected from the Justice of the Parliament; and thereupon committed their Generals Letter to have an Answer returned to Satisfie him therein; and that they would Recruit his Troops according to his Desire.
Afterwards he Retreated nearer London, and Quartered at Kingston upon Thames, and places adjacent. In the mean time he had several Consulations with the two Houses, who were diligent to Recruit his Army; and on the 18th of August, ordered 2000 Men to be pressed for that purpose, besides such as came in Voluntiers; And being resolved to relieve Glocester, the following Order was set forth on the 21st of August, 1643.
Whereas the Committee for the Militia in the City of London, by Virtue of an Ordinance of both Houses of Parliament, dated the 17th Day of this Instant Month of August, have Power to Command the shutting up ad Shops within the Lines of Communication, to the End the Inhabitants thereof may the better fit themselves for the Defence of the said City, and parts adjacent; And forasmuch as the said Committee have been moved, as well by a Committee of Lords and Commons in Parliament, as from his Excellency the Earl of Essex, to send forth of this City some speedy Aid for the relieving of the City of Glocester, now in great Distress, by reason of the Enemies Army, wherewith they are Besieged; And the said Committee conceiving, that the City of London, and parts adjacent, cannot be long in Safety if that City be lost; They have there upon resolved forthwith to send out a Force, both of Horse and Foot, for the Relief of the said City of Glocester; And for the better furtherance of that Service, the said Committee of the Militia, do hereby Require all Persons, Inhabiting within the Lines of Communication, immediately to shut up Shops, and to continue them so shut up, until Glocester be relieved, or till farther Order shall be given by both Houses of Parliament, or this Committee, and to apply themselves to the furthering of this so necessary a Service. And the Officers of the Regiments of Trained-Bands, and Auxiliary Forces, which by Lot are appointed to go in this Expedition, are required to return to the said Committee as well the Names of such Persons of the said Regiments as shall neither march with the rest, nor appoint other Sufficient Men to go in their room, and of such shall in any fort hinder this Expedition, to the end such Course may be taken with them as this Discovery of their ill Affection to the Safety of this City and Parts adjacent deserveth; as also the Names of such Voluntiers, not listed in the said Regiments, as shall go in this Expedition, to the end they may receive the like Pay which the rest do, and be also taken notice of as Persons well affected to the City and Parliament.
The 24th of August the Earl of Essex made a general Muster of his Forces on Hounslow-heath, and many Lords and Commoners were present, the Army appearing 10000 strong, after which he removed his Quarter to Colebrook; besides which, the Forces following were by Lot drawn out of London, to join with his Excellency for the same Service of Glocester, viz. two Regiments of the Trained-Bands, three Regiments of Auxiliaries, a Regiment of Horse, with eleven Pieces of Cannon, and three Drakes.
Upon Intelligence of this Advance, Prince Rupert with the greatest part of the King's Horse drew off from before Glocester, to oppose their March, but the King with the Gross of his Army continued the Siege. About Bicester 400 of the King's faced a part of the Parliament's Army, and skirmish'd with them, but oppressed with Numbers were forced to retire; and scarce a Day passed in the whole March but some of the King's Troops fell foul of some part or other of Essex's Army, who therefore were forced to march very orderly and circumspectly.
On the first of September Colonel Mainwaring's Brigade (consisting of the City Trained-Bands and Auxiliaries) came up, and joined with Essex at the general Rendevouz on Brackley-heath. On the 4th of September, near Stow the Old, a smart Skirmish happen'd with Prince Rupert, who attack'd them with about 4000 Horse, and still appeared before the Parliament's Army, as they march'd on, for many Miles together. On the 5th of September, Essex advanced to Presbury-Hills, drew up his whole Army in view of the City of Glocester, and soon after discovered the Huts in the King's Camp on fire, they having deserted the Siege. The General himself march'd to Cheltenham, but the King's Forces often skirmish'd with him, and beat up his Quarters. On the 8th of September he march'd with his whole Army to Glosester, and was joyfully received.
Having lain two Nights at Glocester, and furnish'd that City with Necessaries, he march'd to Teuxbury, and lay there five Days, that in the mean time Glocester might get in Provisions; he also drew part of his Army towards Upton, and made a Bridge over Severn, near Teuxbury, as if he would have march'd for Worsester, so that the King's Forces had there Eye that way, when on a sudden Essex being advertized of a Body of theirs at Cirencester, that had laid in great store of Provision for their Army, he being in great want of Victuals, made a long March, and fell upon them about One a-clock in the Morning, surprized two Regiments, and took 40 Loads of Provision, fix Standards, 300 common Soldiers, and 400 Horses, the said Forces being designed for Kent, to raise an Army there for the King, and Sir Nicholas Crispe to command them.
From thence Essex march'd to Cricklade and Swinden, and the Van and Body of his Army being almost over Auburn-Chace, a gallant Body of the King's Horse fell upon the Rear-Guard, and routed them, forcing them in disorder to retire to the main Body, where they were again drawn up in order; but the King's Horse once more advancing, put their Enemies the second time in confusion, till Sir William Stapleton coming in with fresh Forces put a stop to their Career, and much Gallantry was shewn, and many kill'd on either side, till Night gave a Period to their Disputes, wherein on the King's Party was slain the Marquis de Vienville, and on the Parliament's Captain Middleton and Captain Hacket, and Colonel Sheffield lost a Standard. That Night Essex quartered at Hungerford.
On Tuesday the 19th of September, Essex march'd from Hungerford towards Newbury, and being come within two Miles of that Town his Majesty's Forces shew'd themselves upon a Hill, whose whole Army, having prevented Essex, were already got into Possession of Newbury Town. Next Morning by break of Day Essex gave Orders for his Men to march to Biggs-hill, near Newbury, as the only convenient place for them to gain, that they might with better Security force their Passage; but of this Hill the King's Forces had possessed themselves whereupon to remove them, Essex marching himself at the head of his own Regiment, Colonel Barclay's and Colonel Holburn's Brigades charg'd upon them so fiercely, as he beat them off, and kept the Hill all the Day, tho' hotly charged both by Horse and Foot of the King's Party. Sir Philip Stapleton, with Essex's Guard and Regiment of Horse, seconded by Colonel Dalbeir's Regiment, were charged by a Party of the King's Horse, whom they so well received (giving no Fire till joined close with them) that they wholly routed them, and pursued them with great Execution near to the place where their whole Body of Horse stood, whence some fresh Regiments advanced again upon Sir Philip, but with the same Success; in the mean time the other Regiments, Ramsey's, Harvey's, and Goodwin's, were come to him, when the King's Horse with their whole Body charged upon them bravely, and were as well received; Sir Philip Stapleton being charged both in Front and Flank, and both Parties all mix'd together, and many slain on either side in that Confusion, Stapleton's Men were at last forced towards the Lanes-end, where they first came in, which being near their Foot, the Royalists were oblig'd to disengage themselves as fast as they could, for those that entred with the Enemy into that Lane were generally cut off, and three Colours of Horse taken. The Left Wing of the Parliament's Horse, and the Right Wing of the King's, could not come to any Engagement, but in small Parties, by reason of the Hedges.
Whilst these Actions passed between the Horse, the Foot were not idle. Major General Skippon having order'd the Lord Roberts's Brigade and his own, Sir William Springer's, Colonel Manwaring's, and the Red and Blue Auxiliary Regiments, to be a Guard to the Artillery, and to be near the General, looking from the before-mention'd Biggshill towards Newbury, perceived a great Strength of his Majesty's, both Horse and Foot, in divers great Bodies, advancing directly towards the way the Train was of necessity to march; therefore to prevent their falling upon it, or upon the Rear of those of his Party, that were engaged on the Hill, the Lord Roberts's Brigade, with four small Pieces, were placed just where the said Forces of the King's were advancing, and check'd their March, and made them retire, the Lord Roberts possessing the Ground which they first came up unto. Colonel Manwaring's Regiment was plac'd on the Right-hand, between the Hill and Roberts's Brigade, but after a while was commanded away by the General, to relieve his own Regiment, and Colonel Barclay's and Colonel Holburn's Brigades, which had been four Hours upon very hot Service; but this Regiment were no sooner thus brought on but they were over-charg'd, and forc'd to retreat, and lose that Ground which the foremention'd Forces had gotten; which Colonel Holburn perceivings he with his own and Barclay's Brigades, and the General's Regiment, again advanc'd, beat back the King's Forces, regain'd the Ground, and maintain'd it all the Day afterwards.
The Fight all along the Valley, more than half a Mile in length, was continued as long as in any other part of the Army, which was till Ten a-clock at Night, about which time the Royalists gave a good round Salvo upon Colonel Barclay's and Colonel Holburn's Posts, till Major-General Skippon espied an Advantage to pour in 8 or 9 Demi-culverin Shot upon them; then he rally'd the two Trained-Band Regiments into one Body, and desired Major Boteler to draw the Musketeers of his Regiment on the Right-hand, before the two Demi-culverins that were placed at the end of the Lane, on the top of the Hill, and the Red Auxiliaries on the Left of these Pieces; whilst this was doing two Pieces which belong'd to the Major General's Regiment, and one Drake of Sir William Brook's were by the General's Regiment, under the Command of Major Boteler, with the Assistance of 200 Musketeers, recovered; and the Royalists drew away from their Pikes (which with their Colours kept (landing, with many great Bodies of Horse to guard them) 5 or 600 Musketeers, besides Dragoons, to encompass the Parliamentarians on the Right-hand amongst the Hedges, but they were beat off by 300 Musketeers of the Forlorn Hope, who were going to the Relief of Barclay's and Holburn's Soldiers. By this time Night grew on, when the King's Forces, both Horse and Foot, stood in good order on the farther side of the Green; and Essex did expect to have had a second Engagement the next day, but in the night the King's Forces retreated; and Essex next Morning march'd quietly over the Ground where the Battel had been fought, towards Readings, where he arrived with the whole Army on Friday, September 22.
But by the way, at the entrance of a Village call'd Theale, part of the King's Army, consisting of 800 Musketeers, and most of their Horse, fell upon Essex's Rear-Guard, and put them to the Rout, so that they ran over and disorder'd their Foot, and much Mischief was done, till Colonel Middleton drawing up the Foot in order, charged the Royalists, and made them retreat.
In this Battel there were slain on his Majesty's side three of the Nobility, viz. the Earl of Carnarvan, the Lord Spencer, newly created Earl of Sunderland, and the Lord Viscount Faulkland, his Majesty's Principal Secretary of State, who in the Morning of the Battel called for a clean Shirt, saying, that if he were slain, they should not find his Body in foul Linnen; some of his Friends dissuaded him from venturing himself, as having no Call to it, being no Military Officer; but he reply'd, that he was weary of the Times, and foresaw much Misery to his own Country, and did believe he should be out of it before Night.
On the Parliament's part were slain Colonel Tucker, and the Lieutenant-Colonel of Essex's Regiment, one Captain of Horse, and about 500 common Soldiers; the Loss on the King's side was far greater, both in Number and the Quality of the Persons.
In a Relation of this Battel printed at Oxford, 1643, it is affirmed, that the King's Army spent fourscore Barrels of Powder that Day, which was twenty more than served their Turn at Edgehill. The Fight continued from 7 a-clock in the Morning till 7 or 8 at Night, and both Parties shewed the height of Courage and Resolution. His Majesty after this Battel drew off his Army to Oxford, where he arrived September 23.
Resolved, &c. that Colonel Massey have 1000l. beslow'd upon him, as a Reward and Acknowledgment of his Service, whereof 500l. to be paid in present, and that it be recommended to my Lord-General to prefer him to same Place of Honour and Profit; and that the Committee for Advances of Monies take care that this 1000l. be paid with all convenient Speed. That the Arrears of the Garrison of Glocester shall be forthwith paid, and that the Officers and Soldiers of that Garrison shall have a Month's Pay beslow'd upon them, as a Reward of their Service.
Some time after the raising of this Siege of Glocester, a Design was set on foot to gain that City another way; in order to which one Edward Stanford Esq; a Lieutenant-Colonel in the King's Army, having formerly been very intimate with Robert Backhouse, a Captain of Horse in Glocester, sent the following Letter to him on the 19th of November, 1643.
It is not unknown to you that once I loved you, and therefore I send this to advise you, whilst it is in your Power to make use of it; and take my Word, I am confident as yet you may not only have your Pardon, but raise yourself a greater Fortune than the Condition of those you serve are able to afford you. This you may gain by the Delivery—you may guess my meaning of what Place, which is not hard for you to do. You know the old Saying, Fallere fallen tem non est fraus: This is the Advice of him, that when you shall desist the Cause, will ever be
This Letter was sent by a good Friend of Backhouse's, who told him if he would undertake the Business he might have 50001. Reward; but Backhouse imparted it to the Governour, and by Consent wrote back a complying Answer, and desired a Settlement of Correspondence, which was done, and many Letters pass'd between Stanford and him, and Projects debated for the Method of bringing the King's Forces into the City; and the Design being somewhat ripen'd, for Backhouse's greater assurance, my Lord Digby wrote him the following Letter from Oxford.
You have so far declared your Desires to serve his Majesty, unto my very good Friend Mr. Stanford, that I think it fit you should now receive some more authentick Assurance of his Majesty's gracious Acceptance thereof, than perhaps you will think his bare Engagement to be; therefore I do here solemnly engage my Word unto you, both as a Minister of State, and as a Gentleman, that if you shall perform faithfully what you promise there, you shall punctually receive immediately after such a Pardon as yourself shall desire, and the Sum of 2000l. As for the 300l. which you desire in present, such a Confidence I will have in your Word, that as soon as ever I shall have received your Answer to this under your Hand, it shall be forthwith paid into what Place soever you shall appoint, or to what Person. As for the particular ways of effecting our Design, those you propose are very rational, but the Choice and Disposition of that must be between you and those who are to execute it, with whom, if it were possible, you should procure a Meeting at some unsuspected Place. I do propose to you your choice of several Men, and whom of them you shall like best, and think fittest by reason of the Place where his Command is, to him alone, and no others, the Business shall be imparted, whether Sir William Vavasour Commander in chief of the Forces now in Glocestershire, or Colonel Mynne Commander of a Brigade of the English come out of Ireland, or Colonel Washington, who is at Evesham, or lastly, whether the Governour of Berkly-Castle; as soon as you shall send me an Answer, you shall receive Satisfaction from him, who hopes you will so behave yourself as to make me
Captain Backhouse returned his Lordship an Answer, and chose Sir William Vavasour to be the Man for the Work, and between them two afterwards several Letters pass'd; and on the 8th of January he met Stanford in Corse-Lane, and consulted the Business, and Stanford then paid him 200l. and promised to discharge him of a Bond of 50l. he owed to one Font a Papist. On the 15th of February it was agreed between them the King's Forces should advance to the West-Gate, and Backhouse should there let them in, who that Evening sent them the Word, which was Bristol; but as soon as this Message was sent, the Governour Colonel Massey call'd a Council of War, and acquainted them with the whole Plot, and order'd both the Soldiers and Citizens to be in Arms, and four Men were planted under Overs-bridge (over which the King's Forces were to come) that upon shooting off the first Gun they should cut a Cable-Rope, which being done, the Bridge would have fallen in, and so their Retreat being intercepted, they must all have been kill'd or taken; but Backhouse's Letter coming late, who' they did advance with their whole Body of Horse and Foot, yet when they came to Lassingto-Hill, within a Mile of the Town (it was fair day) whereby having lost their Time by their own Slowness of march, they durst not come on, but instantly retreated to Newent, and so Glocester expected them in vain. Backhouse endeavour'd to draw them on again, but in few Days they had notice how he had discovered the Business that Night, and so desisted from any further Correspondence with him.
Serjeant-Major-General Skippon with about 1000 Foot, a Party of Horse, and four Pieces of Artillery, march'd from Newport-Pagnel Decemb. 21. to Grafton-Regis, where the King's Forces had a strong Garrison in an House of the Lady Crainss, and the Church, and after three Days Siege Sir John Digby the Governor desired a Parley, and it was agreed, to surrender the House, and all within it Prisoners, together with all Arms, Horses, Standards, Colours, and Provisions whatsoever; that all Women and Children, and such others as had not been in Arms, should immediately be set at Liberty.
- Sir John Digby,
- Major Brookband, who having formerly deserted the Parliaments Service, was tried for the same by a Council of War, condemned, and shot to Death.
- Captain Clark,
- Captain Longfield,
- Captain Butler,
- Eighty Troopers with their Arms, an hundred Foot, three Ministers, and several Gentlemen that came thither Voluntiers.
About the middle of August, 1643, a Party of the King's Horse taking up their Quarters at Plimstoke, and other Villages near to Plimouth, and placing constant Guards, laid such a Blockade upon that Town, that no sorts of Provisions could be got into it from any part of the Country, which continued so about six Weeks, without any considerable Action on either side; in which time it was discovered, that Sir Alexander Carew, Governour of the Place, called the Island there, held some Correspondence with the King's Forces, and had a Design to yield up the same to them, which would have necessitated the Surrender of the Town; which his Soldiers no sooner perceived, but they seized him, and he was sent up to London, committed to the Tower, and afterwards beheaded, as in its proper place we shall relate.
Sept. 17 Colonel James Wardlace, appointed by the two Houses to be Commander in chief in that Town, together with Colonel Gould, and about 600 Soldiers, took shipping at Portsmouth, and arrived at Plimouth the last of that Month; whose first Exploit was a Surprize of the Royalists Guards at Howe, where were taken one Captain Slowley, and an Ensign, and 52 common Soldiers, two Colours, and three Barrels of Powder.
On the 6th of Octob. Dartmouth was surrendred to Prince Maurice, who soon after began to march with his whole Army towards Plimouth; but in the mean time those of the Town made a Sally upon the Guards at Knockers-Hole, about two Miles from their Works, and took some Prisoners; but following the Pursuit too far, were intercepted by a Party of the Besiegers from Roborrow-Downd, and most of them taken; but Major Searle charged thro' and got home.
The first considerable Attempt the Besiegers made was Octob. 21 on the Fort called Mount-Stanford, and with great Gallantry attack'd it, but after brisk Service on either side were repulsed; yet on the 4th of November following they storm'd it again, and with continual Batteries and Approaches having wearied out and bankrupted them in the Fort of Ammunition, gain'd the same upon Articles; to march out with Colours flying, Match lighted, Bullet in Mouth, one Demicul-verin from the Breast-work, and Exchange of Prisoners.
I A.B. in the Presence of Almighty God, do vow and protest, that I will, to the utmost of my Power, by God's Assistance, faithfully maintain and defend the Towns of Plimouth and Stonehouse, the Fort and Island, with all the Outworks and Fortifications to the same belonging, against all Forces nozv raised against the said Towns of Plimouth and Stonehouse, the Fort and Island, or any part thereof, or that shall be raised by any Power or Authority whatsoever without the Consent and Authority of both Houses of Parliament; neither will I by any way or means whatsoever contrive or consent to the giving up of the Towns and Fortifications aforesaid, or any Parcel of them, into the Hands of any Person or Persons, whatsoever, without the Consent of both Houses of Parliament, or of such as are authoriz'd thereunto by them; neither will I, by God's Grace, raise nor consent to the raising of any Force or Tumult, nor will I by any way or means give or yield to the giving any Advice, Counsel or Intelligence, to the Prejudice of the said Towns and Fortifications, either in whole or in part, but will with all possible speed faithfully discover to the Mayor of Plimouth, and to the Commander in chief there whatsoever Design I shall know or hear of hurtful thereunto; neither have I accepted any Pardon or Protection, nor will I accept any Protection from the Enemy; and this Vow and Protestation I make without any Equivocation and mental Reservation whatsoever, believing that I cannot be absolved from this my Vow and Protestation, and wishing no Blessing from God on myself or my Posterity if I do not truly and sincerely perform the same: So help me God.
It is this Day ordered by the Council of War, that this Vow and Protestation be openly published in the Assemblies by the Ministers of this Town to-morrow, being the Fifth of November, 1643, and that it may be presented particularly to all Officers and Soldiers, Inhabitants and Strangers of the Towns and Garrisons of Plimouth and Stonehouse; and that especial Notice be taken of all such as shall refuse to take the said Vow and Protestation.
To the Mayor and Governour of the Town of Plimouth.
That you may see our hearty Desires of a just Peace, we do summon you in His Majesty's Name to surrender the Town, Fort, and Island of Plimouth, with the Warlike Provisions thereunto belonging, into our Hands for his Majesty's Use; and we do hereby assure you, by the Power derived to us from His Majesty, upon the Performance hereof of a general Pardon for what is past, and engage ourselves in our Honour to secure your Persons and Estates from all Violence and Plunder. We have now quitted ourselves on our Parts, and let the Blood that shall be split in the obtaining of these just Demands (if denied by you) be your Guilt.
- John Digby,
- Thomas Basser,
- Peter Killigrew,
- John Wagstaff,
- Jonathan Trelawny
- R. Prideuaux
- John Arundel,
- Thomas Monk,
- William Arundel,
- John Downing,
- Thomas Stukely.
On the third of December the King's Forces surpriz'd the Town's Guard at Lazy-Point, and in it three Pieces of Ordnance; to retrieve which 150 Horse and 300 Musketeers advanced next Morning at break of Day from the Town, but were beat back, and Captain Wansey slain, and the whole Party put to an absolute Rout; yet fresh Forces coming forth the Besiegers were forced to an hasty Retreat, and their Rear-Guard of Horse, being about 100, forc'd into the Mud between Lypson-work and Lare-Point, where most of them were either taken or drown'd; but in this Action divers Officers of the Town were kill'd, taken, or wounded.
On Christmas-day in the Morning the Besiegers quitted their Leaguer, but afterwards at a distance continued a Blockade. Those of Plimouth in this Sige took notice, as an especial Providence, that after the Town had been a considerable time environ'd, and no fresh Provision could be had, whereby the Poor were much streightned, there came a vast Multitude of Pilchards into the Harbour, within the Barbican (not known before) which the People with ease took up in Baskets, and thereby not only relieved themselves, but got such abundance, as being preserved and salted, yielded them store of Money.
Part of the English Army that had served in Ireland, upon the Cessation made with the Rebels there, Sept. 15, 1643, (of which at large hereafter in its proper place) were brought over to serve the King in England, and landed at Mostyn in Flintshire in Nov. 1643. Their first Attempt was on Hawarden-Castle, to which they sent a verbal Summons by a Trumpet, and those in the Castle, for an Answer, return'd a Paper containing these Words:
We are heartily sorry that you have made such an unhappy Exchange of Enemies, to leave Irish to fall upon English, and Papists to fall upon Protestants; we had hoped the Blood of that noble Gentleman Sir John Har-court, and the many Thousands of Protestants who have fallen by the Fury of those bloody Monsters of Ireland, could not so soon have been forgotten. What Course the Court of England runs, how destructive to the Protestants, and favourable to the Papists, you cannot but know (with in) by sad Experience; and therefore we desire (before you pass further) your Thoughts may make a Pause, left you find that God of the Protestants against you, whom you have hitherto found miraculously for you. We fear the Loss of our Religion more than the Loss of our dearest Blood, do not therefore, we beseech you, desire us to betray it and ourselves. We hope your second Thoughts may take off the Edge of your former Resolutions; however we are resolved to make good our Trust, and put our Lives into the Hands of that God, who can, and we hope will, secure them more than our Walls or Weapons.
It is not for to hear you preach that I am sent here, but in his Majesty's Name to demand the Castle for his Majesty's Use: As your Allegiance binds you to be true to him, and not to inveigle those innocent Souls that are within you, so I desire your Resolution, if you will deliver the Castle or no?
We have cause to suspect your Disaffection to Preaching, in regard we find you thus employed; if there be innocent Souls here, God will require their Blood of them that shed it. We can keep our Allegiance, and the Castle too, and therefore you may take your Answer, as it was in English plain enough before; we can say no more but God's Will be done.
On the 22d of November the Body of the Forces from Ireland being come up, another Summons was sent in from Sir Michael Ernley and Major-General Richard Gibson; and two Days after that, the Lord Capel having join'd the Besiegers with his Troops, he also summoned it; both which received like Answers as the first.
I Presume you very well know, or have heard of my Condition and Disposition, and that I neither give nor take Quarter: I am now with my Firelocks (who never yet neglected Opportunity to correct Rebels) ready to use you as I have done the Irish, but loth I am to spill my Countrymens Blood; wherefore by these I advise you to your Fealty and Obedience towards his Majesty, and shew yourselves faithful Subjects, by delivering the Castle into my Hands for his Majesty's Use, in so doing you shall be received into Mercy, &c. otherwise if you put me to the least. Trouble or Loss of Blood to force you, expect no Quarter for Man, Woman, or Child. I hear you have some of our late Irish Army in your Company, they very well know me, and that my Firelocks use not to parley. Be not unadvised, but think of your Liberty, for I vow all Hopes of Relief are taken from you, and our Intents are not to starve you, but to batter and storm you, and then hang you all, and fallow the rest of that Rebel Crew. I am now no Bread and Cheese Rogue; but as ever, a Loyalist, and will ever be whilst I can write or name
After a Fortnights Siege, and much Ink, but little Blood spilt, the Castle being in want of Provisions, was surrendred to Sir Michael Ernley on Conditions to march out with half Arms, and two Colours of three, one flying, and the other furl'd, and to have a Convoy to Wem or Nantwych.
After this Success, the Royalists being reinforced with more Regimeats new landed, came before Beeston-Castle, and soon got Possession thereof (for which the Governour was afterwards tryed and executed for a Coward) and so became Masters of all that part of the Country adjoining to Shropshire, and afterwards took fresh Quarters on the rest of Cheshire bordering on Staffordshire.
To oppose them, Sir William Brereton with some Lancashire Forces drew up to Sandbach, but not daring to engage, fell down to Middle-wych, where Sir John (lately created Lord) Byron, Commander in chief of the Forces from Ireland fell upon Colonel Ashton, routed him, and cut off above one hundred of his Men, which caused North-wych to be quitted unto them; and Crew-House, after a stout Resistance, was forced to Surrender: As also did Dedington-House without a Shot; And Acton Church after some small Opposition, so that there was no Garrison near, that held out for the Parliament but Nantwych; which Town the Lord Byron, about the Beginning of January Besieged with a great Force, and Summoned them once, and a second time, but they persisted in denial to yield it up. Captain Sandford also sent them this frightful Letter.
To the Officers, Soldiers, and Gentlemen in Namptwyche, these;
Your Drum can inform you, Acton Church is no more a Prison, but now free for honest Men to do their Devotions therein; Wherefore be persuaded from your Incredulity, and Resolve God will not forsake his Anointed. Let not your Zeal in a bad Cause dazle your Eyes any longer, but wipe away your vain Conceits, that have too to long led you into blind Errors. Loth I am to undertake the Trouble of persuading you into Obedience, because your Erroneous Opinions do most violently oppose Reason amongst you; But however, if you love your Town, accept of Quarter; and if you regard your Lives, work your Safeties by yielding your Town to the Lord Byron, for his Majesty's Use. You now see my Battery is fixt, from whence Fire shall Eternally visit you, to the terrour of the Old, and Females, and Consumption of your Thatch'd Houses; Believe me Gentlemen! I have laid by my former delays, and am now resolved to Batter, Burn, Storm, and destroy you. Do not wonder that I write unto you, having Officers in Chief above me, 'tis only to advise you, because I have some Friends amongst you, for whose Safety I wish you to accept of my Lord Byron's Conditions; He is Gracious, and will Charitably consider of you. Accept of this as a Summons, that you forthwith Surrender the Town; and by that Testimony of your Fealty to His Majesty, you may obtain Favour. My Firelocks you know have done strange Feats both by day and night; and hourly we will not fail in our private Visits of you. You have not as yet received mine Alarms, wherefore expect suddenly to hear from my Battery and Approaches before your Welsh Row.
Let these Resolve your Jealousies concerning our Religion. I Vow, by the Faith of a Christian, I knew not one Papist in our Army; And as I am a Gentleman, we are no Irish, but true-born English, and real Protestants also Born and Bred. Pray mistake us not, but receive m into your fair Esteem. I know we intend Loyalty to His Majesty, and will be no other but Faithful in His Service: This Gentlemen, believe from
On the 18th of January the Lord Byron made a sudden and violent Storm upon five several places of the Town at once, but was beaten off with many of his Men kill'd, amongst whom was this Captain Sandford, Lieutenant-Colonel Bolton, and divers others of Note.
In the mean time, Sir Thomas Fairfax advanced that way to raise the Siege, and came to Manchester the 12th of January, whence after some days stay to join other Troops, he marched forwards, and had a sharp Encounter with the Lord Byron; the Particulars whereof are thus related in a Letter from Sir Thomas Fairfax (the Original whereof I nave by me of his own Hand Writing) to General Essex.
May it please your Excellency,
I Desire your Pardon, That I have not given your Excellency an Account before this, of the great Mercy God hath shewed, in giving us a happy Victory over the Irish Army, to a total Ruine of their Foot, and Purchase of their chief Commanders, Upon the 21th of January I marched from Manchester towards Nantwych, to relieve that Town, with 2500 Foot and 28 Troops of Horse. The Enemies Forces were above 3000 Foot, and 1800 Horse. The first Encounter we had, was with a Party of theirs upon the Forest of Delamoer, where about Thirty were taken Prisoners. About fix Miles farther, they maintained a Pass against us, with about 200 Men: I caused some Foot and Dragoons to he drawn out, to force it; which by God's Assistance they did in half an hours space, and they took a Major and some Prisoners, Having advanced two Miles farther, we found a good Body of them planted about Action-Church, a Mile from Nantwych; We drew up within Cannon shot, which sometimes played upon us, but without hurt, God be thanked. We then understood, That the Lord Byron, who had besieged the Town on both sides of the River, was prevented, by overflowing of the Water, from joining with that part at Acton-Church; but heard he was taking a Compals to get over the River, to join with it. Weresolved to fall upon that Party at the Church, before he should get up to it; but staying to bring up our Rear and Carriages, we gave him time to obtain that he had sought for. Then we resolved to make way with Pyoneers through the Hedges, and so to march to the Town, to relieve it; and by it to add some more Forces to ourselves, to enable us better to fight with them: But being a little advanced in our March, they told me the Enemy was close upon the Pear. So having about two Regiments, being Colonel Holland's and Colonel Booth's, I marched not far before we cannot to be engaged with the greatest part of their Army. The other part presently after assaulted our Front: There Sir William Brewerton and Colonel Ashton did very good Service; and so did Colonel Lambert and Major Copley, with the Horse. They were once in great danger, but that they being next to the Town, were assisted by Forces which came to their Succour in due time. We in the other Wing were in As great Distress, but that the Horse commanded by Sir William Fairfax did expose themselves to great Danger, to encourage the Foot, though capable of little Service in though narrow Lanes: Yet it pleased God, after two hours of hot Fighting, they were forced by both Wings to retreat to the Church; where they were caught, as in a Trap. A Lift of what we took, I have here sent your Excellency. That the Lord of Mosts hath done great things for us; to whose Name alone be ascribed all Glory: That nothing in the worthless Creature may any ways darken that which immediately appears herein of the Creator. Hoping skill he will go along with us to prosper in this way, and make me, though unworthy, more capable to serve him in it, and so to observe your Excellencies Commands, as it may appear how much I am,
- Major-General Gibson.
- Sir Michael Ernly.
- Sir Richard Fleetwood.
- Colonel George Monk.
- Colonel Warren.
- Sir Francis Butler, Lieutenant-Colonel.
- Lieutenant-Colonel Gibbs.
- Major Hammond.
- 14 Captains.
- 20 Lieutenants.
- 26 Ensigns.
- 2 Cornets.
- 2 Quartermasters.
- Sir Ralph Done.
- Mr. Sherlock, Chaplain to a Regiment.
- 41 Serjeants.
- 40 Drums
- 4 Canoneers.
- 22 Colours.
- 1500 Common Soldiers.
- 6 Ordnance; whereof 5 Brass.
- 20 Carriages, and divers Wagons
- 120 Women, that followed the Camp of whom many had long Knives, with which they were said to have done Mischief.
The Fight was reported, by those that were in it, to have been as sharp for the time, as any that had happen'd before in those unhappy Wars. Of the King's Party there were computed to be about 200 slain: Their Horse generally escaped, but few of their Foot, (save what were taken Prisoners.) The Parliament's side owned not above 50 of theirs slain. Amongst other things, there were taken the Lord Byron's Commission, and several Privy-Seals to Gentlemen of Lancashire for the Loan of Monies, &c.
Colonel Monk (with Colonel Warren) was afterwards sent up to London, and committed to the Tower; where having passed some time in Restraint, he took up Arms under the Parliament, and (after many Revolutions) proved the famous Instrument of King Charles the Second's happy Restauration.
The Town of Pembrook flood out for the Parliament, where Colonel Rowland Laugham was Governour, but had not above 200 Foot and 50 Horse; and the Earl of Carbery, His Majesty's Lieutenant for those parts, had the Command of all the rest of the Country, and placed several Garrisons round about, as at Tenbigh and Haverford Towns, Carew and Roach Castles, and other places; whereby he had in a manner blockt them up. His Lordship also sent for two Ships to Bristol, with Ordnance and other Provisions, to fortifie Milford-haven, and thereby not only secure a convenient Landing-place from Ireland, but interrupt any Forces from coming by Sea to the Relief of Pembrook, and hinder the Parliaments Shipping of the Advantage of that Harbour. But before this could be done, the Parliaments Fleet, in all ten Sail, under Captain Swanley in the Leopard, arrived on the 23d of January at the said Haven: To whom Colonel Laugham sends for Relief; which Swanley readily promises: And withal writes a Letter, dated the 25th of January, to the Gentlemen of Pembrook, inviting them to join with him; declaring, That such as would not, should expect no Favour from him, but be lookt upon as Enemies to God and their Country. Upon his Arrival, the two before-mentioned Bristol Ships got into a Creek of the Harbour, called Prickfoill, or The Pill; and for their Defence, Sir Henry Vaughan, Serjeant-Major-General of the three Counties, of Pembrook, Caermarthn, and Cardigan, erected a strong Fort, wherein he Planted divers great Guns, and amongst the rest, those that should have gone to fortifie the Haven.
Swanley landing at Pembrook two hundred Seamen, with store of Powder, Shot, Match, &c. and some small Pieces of Cannon; the Governour, with about 300 Foot and 50 Horse, went forth on the 30th of January, and took Stack-pool house, belonging to Mr. Lett, a private Gentleman, and Garrison'd for the King. Some days after, he marched to Tressloin, another Garrison'd House, which they also took, (but not without smart Service) and in it 40 Horse, with their Arms and Furniture, and 150 Foot with their Arms. Encouraged by this Success, they resolved to go over to Rouse-side, and attempt the before-mentioned Fort at The Pill. In order to which, all the Boats belonging to the Fleet were sent up near Pembrook-ferry, and on the two and twentieth of February in the Night, the Forces were carried over, and landed without Opposition. And next Morning Swanley ordered his Ships to lie as near as they could to the Fort, and batter it on the East and West sides, whil'st the Land Forces attackt it; which they did so Vigorously, that those within demanded Quarter. There was taken Mr. John Barlov, Master of the Ordnance, and five Captains; 18 Pieces of Ordnance, fix Field-Carriages, and 300 common Soldiers with their Arms. And now the two Bristol Ships fell into their Hands by consequence, wherein were 12 Pieces of Ordance, and fix Barrels of Powder.
Tidings of this Loss being brought to Sir Henry Vaughan, who lay with 2 or 300 Horse and Foot at Haverford-West, he ordered a strict watch to be kept, for giving notice if the Enemy should approach thither. Now it happened one Wheeler a Grasier having a great Drove of Cattel feeding on the Hills, they happened in the Evening to make towards the Town, and being discovered by the Centinels, they gave the Alarm that the Roundheads were coming, whereupon Sir Henry and his Party immediately quitted the Town, leaving behind ten Pieces of Ordance, and store of Provisions, and three or four Barrels of Powder thrown into the River, and went Caermarthen, Colonel Laugharn being still at the Pill, but next day took Possession of Haverford.
On the 7th of March he proceded to attack Tenbigh, where Commissary Gwyn was Governour, and made a resolute Defence, but after three Days Battery a great part of the Town being beaten down, it was taken by Storm, but not many kill'd, the Governour and Colone, David Gwyn the High-Sheriff of the County, and about 300 Soldiers made Prisoners, and their Arms taken, and several Pieces of Ordnance; and on the tenth of March Carew-Castle was summoned, and surrendred on honourable Terns, and so the whole County of Pembrook fell under the Command of the Parliament.
Against Sunday the third of March there went forth a Summons to all the Clergymen, Chuchwardens, and other Officers of the County of Leicester, to repair to the Town of Leicester, and take the Covenant, and many came accordingly. Notice being given of this to Colonel Hastings at Asbby-de-la-zouch, he with four Troops from Beaver, Whorton-house, and another Garrison, scowred about the Country as far as Dinton and Littleworth, and took near 100 of the Clergymen and others and carried them Prisoners to Hinckley; which the Parliaments Forces at Leicester being advertiz'd of, sent out a Party, who marching very silently, fell upon them about 8 a-clock at Night in their Quarter undiscover'd, and not only routed them, and rescu'd all the Prisoners, but also in their stead took 50 of Colonel Hastings's Party Prisoners, 150 Horses, and some Arms and Ammunition.
The Town of Newark upon Trent in Nottinghamshire being a very considerable Pass, and apt to command most of that County, and a great part of Lincolnshire, was first made a Garrison by the Earl of Newcastle, about December, 1642, when he and his Army came to Pontfract; and her Majesty in her March from York to Oxford made her Residence there for some time.
The Humble Remonstrance of His Majesties Commissioners for the Counties of Lincoln and Nottingham, now Resident within the Garrison of Newark, concerning the Estate and Condition of those two Counties.
We do in all Humility and Gratitude, acknowledge Tour Majesties Royal Interpretation and Acceptance of our Loyalty, and Care for the preservation of this Garrison for Your Majesties Use and Service, expressed in Your Majesties most Gracious Letters of the 17th of this January Instant, which we consess to be in Discharge of our Duties, and shall ever be most ready to make good with our Lives and Fortunes: And by the same Letters, we see of what great Import unto the Peace of the whole Kingdom Your Majesty holds the Fortification and Conservation of this Town, expressed and apprehended in so deep a Sense, that we are not able to add any thing more, than to admire Your Majesties Foresight at this Distance, and Your great Judgment of how dangerous a Consecquence it will be if this Town (which God defend) should fall into the Mercy and Power of the Rebels.
Now in Respect the very Being and Substance of this Garrison, depends (next under God) upon the present Abilities and Safeties of these Your Majesties two exhansted Counties of Lincoln and Nottingham, we beg Your Majesties leave to make this our humble Remonstrance of the state of each County, and to represent our Condition to Your Majesties most Excellent Judgment.
All that County (except the little Garrison of Belvoir) is now in the possession of the Rebels, where they hold Lincoln, Gainsborough, Brigg, Tatshall, and Boling-brook Castes, and that Seditions Town of Boston, as Garrisons well Fortified, and are now Fortifying Sir Robert Carr's House at Sleeford, (of no small Annoyance to that part of the Country) and have raised, and are able to draw together out of these Garrisons above 5000 arm'd Foot, besides Twenty Troops of Horse.
Sir John Meldrum hath this last Week forced Sir John Maney, and his Horses, out of the Isle of Axholme in this County, and they are now Fortifying the same (as we are informed) which makes them likewise Masters of the Level, close up to Hatfield and Hull, and in all the parts of Lindsey in the County of Lincoln; besides what other Forces they have Communicable with these in the East-Riding of Yorkshire.
These late Achievements of Gainsborough, and the Isle, making way to the Rebels to pass and repass at their Pleasure into Nottingham and Yorkshire, have moved his Excellency the Lord Marquis of Newcastle to Engarrison Doncaster now in Fortifying, and to Command Sir Charles Lucas, with his own Regiment, and the Lincolnshire Horse, in all about 1400, to Quarter thereabouts for securing that Fortification, which is like to be a work of time, and so to Procrastinate Sir Charles Lucas his coming into these Parts, (whom we hoped to have been sent by Your Majesty for our immediate Assistance) to the apparent hazard of this Garrison, and these two Counties, by suffering the Rebels, for want of force to expel them, to enjoy Lincolnshire as in quiet Possession; And we cannot but expect, that the whole Confluence of Manchester's and Cromwell's Forces, and what can be raised from the Associated Counties, will be poured down more upon us, if not otherwise diverted by other Forces from Your Majesty.
Within few days after the Rebels took Lincoln, they plundred all the Gentry, Your Majesties Loyal Subjects, and whose Estates in the County of Lincoln lie near this Garrison, and who first appeared here for Your Majesties Service, drove, carried away, and Sold all their Goods; and have in like manner plundred the Goods of many other Gentlemen in the parts of Lindsey, to the value of many Thousand Pounds, and have made their Lands Stockless and Waste; And have ever since been absolute Masters of that County; and do Assess and Levy great Weekly Taxes in Money, besides Men and Horse, and besides their new imposed Excise, and the 5th and 20th parts of all Mens Estates; to the great advance of their Rebellion and Impoverishment of all Your Majesties Subjects, and still like to be more for want of Forces to resist; insomuch as little will be left, when your Majesties Forces shall come into whose Parts.
That Night when Manchester and the Rebels sate down and Besiged Lincoln, all the Lincolnshire Horse were Commanded from Lincoln, and drawn thence into Nottinghamshire, where they have lived ever since upon free Billet and Quarter: And through these, and the many former Charges and Burdens of the like Nature upon this county, they are so Disabled and Eaten up, that they cannot contribute any further Assistance to the support of this Garrison.
Notwithstanding all which, there hath been expended my Moneys borrowed upon Bonds by the Gentlemen of both Counties; And by Assessment upon the two Counties for maintaining of Your Majesties Forces, and of this and other Garrisons in both these Counties, several Sums from the first beginning of this unnatural War by the Rebels, amounting to at least Two Hundred Thousand Pounds in the Total.
When we respect upon the late Intelligence, That the Scots have now actually Invaded this Kingdom, and an Intimation to us, that this may farther necessitate the drawing away some part of these present Forces; And Sir Charles Lucas with his Forces being now called away Northward, so destitutes this Frontier Garrison thus Inviron'd with the Enemies Garrisons, and these of Leicester, Nottingham, and Derby, (having in them about 3000 Horse and Foot) of all help and succour (saving what is within the Walls) to be drawn into the Field, that how we shall be able to oppose the Fury, Malice, and Multitudes of the Rebels, (if Besiged, which we daily bear of and expect) and how Moneys or Provisions can be bad for present Maintenance and Subsistence, the Premises duly considered, we do most humbly submit to Your Princely Wisdom, beseeching Your Majesty to take us into Your timely Consideration, and to afford us a speedy Assistance.
- J. Cobham.
- John Digby Vicecom.
- Edw. Hussy.
- Robert Markham.
- William Thorold.
- Charles Hussey.
- Ger. Nevile.
- Antho. Eyre.
- Roger Cooper.
- Tho. Holder.
- Hugh Cartwright.
- Robert Tredwey.
- John Burrell.
- Edmund Thorold.
- Tho. Harrington.
- Chr. Beresforde.
About the beginning of March 1643/4; (The Earl of Newcastle having enough to do to attend the Scots Army then advanced into England;) The Lord Willoughby of Parham, and Sir John Meldram, with about 5000 Horse and Foot, came up against Newark; and first Colonel King's Regiment marched to the Countess of Exeters House, and after a very smart Conflict, gained it. Then they began to make their approaches, and the Town (whereof Sir Richard Byron was Governor) made several brisk Sallies; and one Day, as part of Sir Michael Hubbard's Regiment were marching off the Guard towards their Quarters at Balderton, 100 Horse came forth, and finding them with Lighted Matches, fell upon them, and took their Colours, and carried about 200 of them Prisoners into the Town.
Prince Rupert being at West-Chester, on Tuesday, March the 12th, received His Majesties Commands to march with all speed to the Relief of Newark. Whereupon his Highness next Morning hasted to Shrewsbury, speeding away Major Legg, his General of the Ordance before, to chuse out so many Commanded Musketeers of the English, late come out of Ireland, as might well be spared out of the Garrison, (which were 1000 Mesketeers of Colonel Broughton's and Colonel Tiller's Regiments, with 120 of Colonel Sir Fulk Hunkes) all which being sent down the Severn, met the Prince at Bridgnorth on Friday the 15th of March. And of Horse his Highness took along his own Troop and Regiment, with 150 of Major-General Sir John Hurries, and three Field-Pieces. Next day at Wolverhampton they were recruited by 100 Horse and 200 Foot of Colonel Levison's.
Meldrum hearing that Major-General George Porter was got into Leicestershire with 4 Regiments of Horse and 1000 Foot of my Lord of Newcastle's Men, and intended to join with my Lord of Loughborough, who with some Forces was advancing that way, sent out a Party under Sir John Hartopp to secure the Pass and Bridge over the Sore, a Mile from Loughborough, and prevent the aforesaid Conjunction; but these not performing that Service so well as was expected, and the Lord Gray's Horse leaving Hartopp, and going to Leicester, Major Porter and my Lord Loughborough on Tuesday March the 19th joined the Prince, making a Body of about 7000, and were all quartered that Night in a Close by Bingham, about 8 Miles from Newark. Upon notice of whose Advance Sir John Meldrum (for the Lord Willoughby at this time was rid to Gainsborough) was moved by Sir Michael Hubbard and others in the Council of War to retreat to Lincoln, but he resolved to draw all his foot into the Countess of Exeter's House, and send his Horse over Muscome-Bridge to bring in Provisions. The Prince advanced his Van of Horse upon the Spur, and left the rest to keep along with the Foot, the Cannon, and the Ordnance. Meldrum's Horse drew up on Beacon-Hill, but upon the Prince's Approach, having no Orders to fight beyond the reach of their Ordnance, quitted that Hill, and drew up with the Foot near the Spittle. The Prince thus ordered his Forces: himself and his own Troop of Lifeguard undertook to attack that Body on the Left-hand, appointing my Lod Loughborough's Troop to second him, and Colonel Charles Gerard's Troop for a Reserve. The Prince's Regiment was cast into five Divisions, 2 Troops in each: In the first and Right-hand of all were Captain Gardiner and Captain Richardson, next Captain Cobb and Captain Martin, then my Lord Grandison and Sir Tho. Dallison; after them the Troops of Sir Lewis Dives, and my Lord Dillon, and Major Legg's, and Lieutenant-Colonel O-Neale's Troops next unto the Life-guard. This Regiment was seconded by Major-General Porter's Regiment. The Prince's Field Word was King and Queen, Meldrum's Religion. The Fight began about nine a-clock. On Meldrum's part Colonel Rocester led on the Left Division of Horse, wherein were the two Captain Lilburn's, Captain Bethel, Captian Hunt, &c. who fiercely charged Prince Rupert's Right Wing, and routed and drove them up to their Reserve, the Prince himself being shrewdly beset, and a Trooper was just ready to lay hold on his Collar, when his Hand was almost chop'd off by Sir William Neale. But Meldrum's Right Wing of Horse ran away, and would have pressed in upon their Foot, had they not stool upon their Guard; yet Colonel Rocester made an orderly Retreat, and according to Sir John Meldrum's Order, drew all the Horse, except 500, over a Bridge of Boats into the Island; by which time Prince Rupert's Foot, under the Command of Colonel Tellier, being come up, advanced with some Horse to recover that Boat-Bridge from the Enemy, but that being too well guarded by Colonel King's, and two or three Yorkshire Companies, they were forced to retreat with Loss.
Before this, Sir Richard Byron, the Governour of Newark, had sent a Party both of Horse and Foot out of the Town, who much incommoded Meldrum's Forces; and besides, that Night three Companies of Colonel King's, and 3 Nottingham Companies (unknown to Sir John) quitted the Fort where they lay, passed over Muscome-Bridge, brake up the Bridge, and so secured themselves. The same Night it was resolved by Meldrum at a Council of War to retreat over Muscome-Bridge, not imagining that their Guard had served them that Trick; which being at last perceived, Meldrum finding himself beset, sent a Trumpet to the Prince for a Parley. His Highness appointed Sir Richard Crane Captain of his Life-guards, with Sir William Neale Scout-master General; and Sir John Meldrum sent two of his Colonels, viz. Sir Michael Hubbard and Sir John Palgrave, who being met agreed as followeth.
Articles agreed upon the 22d of March by Sir Richard Crane and Sir William Neale Knights, on the part of his Highness Prince Rupert, and Sir Michael Hubbard and Sir John Palgrave on the part of Sir John Meldrum, as followeth:
- I. That all Match, Bullet, Powder, Cannon, and all other Fire-Arms belonging to the Artillery be delivered.
- II. That all Soldiers march away with their Swords by their sides, and Colours and Drums.
- III. That all Officers march out without Molestation, with their Arms, and Horses for themselves and Servants, and Bag and Baggage, Money, and whatsoever else doth truly belong to themselves.
- IV. That all Troopers and Dragooners march away with their Swords, Horse, and Colours.
- V. That his Highness send a Convoy to protect them from any Injury two Miles from his utmost Quarters towards Lincoln.
Accordingly Meldrum and his Forces marched out, but complained that, contrary to the Articles, they were spoiled of their Colours, Swords, Pikes, &c. which the King's Party excused, by alledging that they attempted to carry away more than was conditioned, and that some of theirs had been so used before at Lincoln, and especially that the same was against the Prince's Mind, who slashed several of his Soldiers for the same, and sent back some Colours they had taken.
The Parliament lost here about 3000 Muskets, a great Quantity of Pistols, eleven Brass Pieces, and two Mortar pieces. His Highness appointed a Thanksgiving to be kept for this Success on the Sunday following.